Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.

Cetakan Jun 2010 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.



Cetakan Jun 2010 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia


KANDUNGAN MUKA SURAT National Education Philosophy Teachers Education Philosophy Preface Learning Guide Introduction Allocation of Topics Learning Topics Topic 1 : Primary Science Teaching 1.2 Use and handle science apparatus 2.3 Draw diagrams and apparatus accurately 2.4 Handling specimens correctly and carefully 2.1 Types and units of measurements 2.6 Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely.5 Clean science apparatus correctly 2.1 Why should we teach science in primary schools? i i v vi viii ix x 1 Topic 2 : Acquiring manipulative skills 2. 25 x .

5 Experimenting Biblography Panel of Module Writers Module Icons 49 107 147 149 152 ii .1 Observing 3.2 Defining operationally 4.3 Communicating 3.2 Classifying 3.1 Identifying and controlling variables 4.4 Formulating and testing hypothesis 4.4 Predicting 3.Topic 3 : Basic Science Process Skills 3.6 Space-time relationship 3.7 Inferring Topic 4 : Integrated Science Process Skills 4.3 Interpreting data 4.5 Measuring and using numbers 3.


LEARNING GUIDE This module has been prepared to assist you in organising your own learning so that you may learn more effectively. You may be returning to study after many years from formal education or you may possibly be unfamiliar with a self-directed learning mode. It gives you an opportunity to manage your own learning and to manage the way in which you use your resources and time. Self-directed learning requires that you make decisions about your own learning. You must recognise your own pattern and style of learning. It might be useful if you were to set your own personal study goals and standard of achievement. In this way you will be able to proceed through the course quite easily. Asking for help when you need it, ought to be viewed as creating new opportunities for learning rather than as a sign of weakness. The module is written in topics. How long you take to go through a topic clearly depends on your own learning style and your personal study goals. There are tasks set within a topic to help you recall what you have learnt or to make you think about what you have read. You should bear in mind that the process of learning that you go through is as important as any assignment you hand in or any task that you have completed. So, instead of racing through the task and the reading, do take time to reflect on them. Create a portfolio and keep all the written answers to the tasks in the module in it. The portfolio should be updated from time to time with reading materials or resources that show your efforts in completing the given tasks in the module. You will find that icons have been used to capture your attention so that at a glance you will know what you have to do. An explanation of what the icons mean is shown in the appendix.

There will be an examination at the end of the course. The date and time will be made known to you when you sign up for the course.


Here are some useful tips to get you going. 1. Find a quiet study corner so that you may settle down with your study materials to study. Do the same when you are in the library. 2. Set a time every day to begin and to end your study. Once you have committed to a set time, keep to it! When you have finished your module, continue to read the recommended books or other resource materials. 3. Spend as much time as you possibly can on each task without compromising your study goal. 4. Take time to revise and review what you have read. 5. Start a portfolio to document what you have read and done. 6. Find a friend who could help you study.


our science curriculum and the inquiry and discovery approach.INTRODUCTION This module is prepared to complement the face-to-face teaching of the course unit SCE 3106 Working and Thinking Scientifically for the Primary School Teachers Graduate Programme. Happy studying! viii . you will acquire knowledge and skills as stated in the learning outcomes. you will be well informed of issues related to science curriculum and implementation. tasks and exercises to assess your mastery of the knowledge. It consists of five topics that explore the following topics: Topic 1: Primary Science Teaching Topic 2: Acquiring Manipulative Skills Topic 3: Basic Science Process Skills Topic 4: Integrated Science Process Skills For each topic. This module contains reflective questions. you are encouraged to refer to other sources of information for further understanding. Besides studying the materials in this module on your own. It is hoped that through this module. It is written as a learning module to guide you in your studies based on the self-managed learning concept.

(Allocation of topics by face-to-face interaction and module based on the course pro forma) Bil. Title/Topic Face-toFace Interaction (hour) 2 Module (hour) 1 Total Hour 3 1 Primary Science Teaching  Why should we teach science in primary schools? Acquiring manipulative skills:  Types and units of measurements  Use and handle science apparatus  Draw diagrams and apparatus accurately Acquiring manipulative skills:  Handling specimens correctly and carefully  Clean science apparatus correctly  Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely The Basic Science Process Skills:  Observing The Basic Science Process Skills:  Classifying The Basic Science Process Skills:  Communicating The Basic Science Process Skills  Measuring and using numbers The Basic Science Process Skills  Space-time relationship 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 4 2 1 3 5 2 1 3 6 2 1 3 7 2 1 3 8 2 1 3 x .ALLOCATION OF TOPICS User Guide The content of this module will replace one credit which is equivalent to fifteen hours face-to-face interaction. The table below will clarify the allocation of topics for face-to-face interaction or learning by module.

Bil. Title/Topic Face-toFace Interaction (hour) 2 Module (hour) 1 Total Hour 3 9 The Basic Science Process Skills:  Predicting The Basic Science Process Skills  Inferring Integrated Science Process Skills  Identifying and controlling variables Integrated Science Process Skills  Defining operationally Integrated Science Process Skills  Interpreting Data Integrated Science Process Skills  Formulating and testing hypothesis Integrated Science Process Skill  Experimenting Total 10 2 1 3 11 2 1 3 12 2 1 3 13 2 1 3 14 2 1 3 15 2 1 3 30 15 45 x .

SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TOPIC 1 Primary Science Teaching SYNOPSIS This topic discusses about the teaching of science in primary schools. List down the components that are emphasized in the teaching of science curriculum in primary schools. Explain the aims of teaching science in primary schools. It explains the aims of science teaching and emphasizes the components in primary science curriculum. LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic teachers will able to : 1. 2. TOPIC’S FRAMEWORK PRIMARY SCIENCE TEACHING AIMS OF SCIENCE TEACHING EMPHASIS IN PRIMARY SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY PROFESIO NALS IN SCIENCE SCIENCE CONCEPTS SCIENTIFIC AND THINKING SKILLS SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLES VALUES 1 .

Our primary science curriculum is developed in line with this vision. to identify questions and to draw evidence-based conclusions in order to understand and helps to make decisions about natural world and the changes made to it through human activities. Scientific literacy will help the population to: i. The challenge is also to establish a society that is not only acts as consumer of technology but also as a contributor to the scientific and technological civilization of the future as well. Malaysian primary science curriculum aims to develop pupils‘ interest and creativity through everyday experiences and investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific and thinking skills as well as the inculcation of scientific attitudes and 2 . Scientific literacy is the capacity to use scientific knowledge. develop effective solutions to problems foster intelligent respect for nature avoid being prey to dogmatists assess use of new technologies. iv.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY CONTENTS 1. a society that is innovative and forward-looking. To produce competent professionals in the various scientific disciplines. ii.0 WHY SHOULD WE TEACH SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS? The two main general goals of science education in primary schools are: i. Embodied in Vision 2020 is the challenge to establish a scientific and progressive society. iii. To inculcate scientific literacy so that people can make sensible decisions about science related issues that affect their lives. ii.

leading to the construction of their own knowledge. ‖The emphasis of the Malaysian primary science curriculum are learning through experience relevant to pupils‟ daily lives. ‖ (Yeoh P. 3 . These skills. reflecting on what they have done and what it means – allowing them to create new theories or ideas about how the world works. Through using the process skills pupils learn science in a manner similar to the way scientists conduct their investigations. and ways of thinking are important to many areas of learning throughout life. applying scientific principles and inculating scientific attitudes and noble values. o Meaningful learning takes place when pupils are using process skills to explore the environment and to acquire and interpret information. recording/representing their work.C. & Gan C. 2003 p22) Science exploration for children is science inquiry – exploring materials/events.M. attitudes. In primary schools. investigating. pupils are learning scientific skills because: o They are the methods used by scientists in investigating and constructing answers to questions about the natural world.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY noble values. developing scientific and thinking skills. The Primary Science curriculum is designed to stimulate pupils‘ curiosity and develop their interest as well as enable pupils to learn more about themselves and the world around them through pupil-centered activities. o They are not only useful in science learning but are also applicable across disciplines and experiences and thus. This will provide the pupils with experiences to build their interest in science and opportunities to acquire scientific and thinking skills. asking questions.

2003 p 33) Teaching scientific skills should be integrated into the science content. Give the benefits of scientific literacy to the world population Tutorial 1 By referring to the article ―Higher Order Thinking‖ discuss how we implement HOTS in Primary Science teaching. At level one. the basic process skills will continue to be reinforced and developed further while integrated process skills are introduced. al. Give an example of a misconception that portrays each myth. pupils are expected to learn basic process skills. Unlike scientific knowledge. The science process skills need to be taught explicitly at the initial stage and reinforced through further practice. Tutorial 2 Discuss how ―Ten Myths of Science‖ opens up your minds about the misconceptions that you might have. o Scientific theories and principles may be modified or replaced when found to be inconsistent with new evidence. The skills should be introduced in progression to match the stages of cognitive development in pupils.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY useful in making personal decisions and in solving problems. (Wan Yoke Kum et. Whereas for level two pupils. process skills do not become obsolete. 4 .

(2004) Teaching primary science constructively (2nd ed.). Skamp. Australia: Thomson Learning.).Melbourne. 5 . presentation. K. (Ed.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Find the 5-E instructional Model and prepare a ppt.

all essentially held to be in contrast to rote learning. Such behaviours and knowledge as asking investigable questions. thinking of ways to test ideas etc. Terms such as the ‗Thinking Curriculum‘ are used to describe a school focus on deeper level ideas. designing investigations or measurement procedures. Higher level thinking is also associated with investigative practices in science. reflects. in science tasks. critically evaluating evidence. and in curriculum and innovation change projects. evaluates…. Schemes such Bloom‘s taxonomy have been used to order knowledge forms in a hierarchy. The key idea embodied in this Component is that real learning is an active process that involves students being challenged. imagination. These are given below. and with problem solving. superficial thinking etc. 2004 There is a lot of focus currently on the notion of higher order thinking. It is linked with a number of important ideas that appear in the science education research literature. flexibility all aim at developing in students a capacity to think through ideas and apply them to a range of contexts. 1. with information at the bottom (Bloom called it ‗knowledge‘ but the term tends to have a wider meaning these days). analysis. to think ‗outside the square‘ and to think critically. Also associated with higher level thinking are dimensions of creativity. and 6 . March 28. The ‗three tiered intellect‘ uses similar terms. focusing on engaging students in meaningful learning. with higher order thinking being associated with words such as interprets.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Tutorial 1 Higher order thinking Russell Tytler. then higher levels such as application. The first two SIS Components of effective teaching and learning are closely related to higher level thinking. Emphasising. with links to the science education literature. synthesis and evaluation. particularly in relation to the Middle Years concerns. such things as creativity. are all part of what we would hope an engaged and resourceful student to be doing. Encouraging students to actively engage with ideas and evidence Component 1 is a key characteristic of effective teaching and learning. or divergent thinking. learning of facts. then comprehension. Higher order thinking is used as a term to describe a number of related ideas. analyses.

The Monash University Extended PD materials. implying that science teaching and learning must be based on students actively exploring and investigating and questioning. must be given a measure of control over the ideas that are discussed. minds-on‘ science. The Middle Years concern with student engagement with ideas and with schooling is also linked to this Component. It focuses clearly on ideas.. in its pure form. Engagement is a prior condition for both. The Component should not be thought about. however. The Component combines two ideas — that learning involves activity and engagement. It is the ‗minds-on‘ part that is referred to by this Component. A related phrase often used in primary science education is ‗hands-on. rather than accepting received wisdom and practicing its application. the role of the teacher. 2001) found that the key determinant of a rich learning environment was the amount of high 7 . and under-represented the critical role of the teacher in structuring and responding to student experiences. It is hard. This does not in any way diminish. simply in terms of motivation or a willingness to join in. Maximising student-student interaction — A video study of mathematics and science teachers (Clark. and that scientific processes fundamentally involve argument from evidence. and this Component asks that teachers take some risks in acknowledging that students. but to maintain a high standard of challenge and attention to evidence based on scientific traditions.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY challenging each other. now embedded within the SISPD program. or student centredness — The idea that students‘ ideas be treated with respect is well established in research on students‘ conceptions and research on learning in science. searching mind. Related ideas in the science education literature: Sharing intellectual control. emphasised this control aspect. One cannot expect students to be engaged with a pre-packaged program entirely dictated by teachers‘ understandings. to separate these notions. implied somehow that students could learn science simply by undertaking appropriate practical investigations. If anything it makes teachers‘ roles more complex and difficult. The underlying logic of this Component is consistent with constructivist insights into learning.S. Student autonomy. and responsibility for learning — These ideas emphasise both the active and intentional nature of learning and the purpose of schooling in promoting autonomous adults. Inquiry based learning — This is a term much in vogue in the U. however. This is different to ‗discovery learning‘ which. if they are to learn. in a practising science classroom situation. in asking them to encourage students to express their ideas. A predominant image projected by this Component is thus one of the active.

Challenging students to develop meaningful understandings Component 2 raises the questions „what does it mean to understand something in science‟. is also linked with this idea. Evidence is handled in science in particular ways (eg. control variables. or understandings that would be revisited in different situations to enrich and challenge. principles of sampling. that can interfere with learning. measurement principles. 8 . is thus relevant to this Component. set up tables. The teachers who were originally interviewed to develop the Components talked of deeper level understandings. deal with measurement error etc. and „what is meaningful?‘ Neither are straightforward questions. Social constructivism. measurement and analysis. These are sometimes called ‗skills‘. The conceptual change literature. which emphasises probes of understanding. and gaining understanding should be viewed often as a shift in perspective rather than something implanted over nothing. Science as it is practised in the community is characterized by argument based on evidence. but teaching for an understanding of the way evidence is used would imply that students need to learn to make decisions about design. or analysis. or variable control. or socio cultural theory. 2. and challenge activities. since ‗engagement with ideas and evidence‘ can be interpreted as a communal enterprise. Argumentation — there is growing interest in idea that the ability to frame and respond to argument is an important focus for science education. Related ideas in the science education literature: Student conceptions — The research into student conceptions shows clearly that students come to any science topic with prior ideas that will often contradict the science version of understanding. Lesson and topic structure becomes important for the development of understanding. Science processes and concepts of evidence — The teaching of science processes has a long history in science education. These may be taught explicitly. This could be taken as one of the critical features of engagement with ideas. Open ended investigations form an important end of the practical work spectrum.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY quality student – student dialogue. Learning. The teaching and learning focus associated with this would include being taught how to do things like sample biological data. but in fact there is a good deal of knowledge associated with things like experimental design. Community of learners — This idea of a class or group as a community dedicated to particular forms of learning sits comfortably with Component 1. or measurement procedures) and learning how this occurs in a more formal way is a part of this first Component.

and examples to support two components dealing with higher order thinking are given below. We call this PCK. and control over learning. Ideas such as the ‗three story intellect‘ attempt a similar hierarchy. or low and higher order thinking. 9 . The other form of knowledge needed is that of how students learn particular concepts – the difficulties they experience and the different ways they may interpret the science idea. or to generate a variety of related ideas. 3. Students are challenged to extend their understandings Students engage with conceptually challenging content such that they develop higher order understandings of key ideas and processes. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) — In order to support students in developing understandings.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Metacognition — The work of the PEEL project has important links to this Component. Deeper or wider? — A commitment to looking below the surface is one way of describing this Component. Bloom‘s taxonomy identified higher order thinking as associated with the application and evaluation of ideas. The ability to use an idea in interpreting the world is a critical part of understanding. Another aspect of meaningful understandings is the insight that ideas are tools to be applied rather than concepts to be arrived at. These ideas underlie the ‗thinking curriculum‘ focus of some of the Middle Years projects. not so they can ‗tell‘. If students are to establish deeper level understandings they need to be helped to develop good learning habits. and to monitor the adequacy of their own understandings. The ability to think divergently or laterally is part of what a ‗meaningful understanding‘ is. Divergent thinking — Part of what a ‗meaningful understanding‘ should be involves the ability to use it to solve unexpected problems. it is essential for teachers to be knowledgeable themselves (content knowledge). focusing on student learning strategies. but so they can listen and challenge. Improving Middle Years Mathematics and Science: Components relevant to Higher Order thinking Recently (in early 2004) we have been engaged in developing a set of Components of effective teaching and learning in mathematics and science. Higher order thinking — Many writers have made the distinction between shallow and deep.

evaluate and create 10 . application. • Students are provided with questions or challenges as the impetus for learning and encouraging and supporting students to construct their own responses to such questions • Open-ended problems or tasks are set that require divergent responses and provide the opportunity for solutions of differing kinds to be developed.3 The teacher clearly signals high expectations for each student This Component is demonstrated when: • Students are challenged to reflect on their response to tasks • Open questions are asked that call for interpretive responses • The teacher poses questions and hypothetical situations to move students beyond superficial approaches • Students are asked to represent their understandings in a variety of ways • Including frequent open ended problems and explorations • The teacher provides experiences and poses questions that challenge students‘ understandings. and encourages them to apply ideas to unfamiliar situations • Stimulus materials are provided that challenge students‘ ideas and encourage discussion and ongoing exploration • Historical case studies are used to explore how major science ideas developed • Higher order tasks involving the generation. • The teacher sets learning challenges that require students to analyse. a textbook. a newspaper. by the teacher using Bloom‘s taxonomy in planning. question and reflect on key ideas 3.2 Tasks challenge students to explore. • Students are encouraged to examine critically and even challenge information provided by the teacher.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3.1 Subject matter is conceptually complex and intriguing. are well represented. for example. etc. analysis and synthesis of ideas. but accessible 3.

arising out of observations. with surprising outcomes. • Students are encouraged to make decisions in practical investigations concerning hypotheses to be explored. and how it is to be learnt. or experience. • Science concepts are treated as ‗things to be learnt‘. but without follow up of ideas in subsequent lessons. emphasising formal definitions. evaluation etc.1 Students are explicitly supported to engage with the processes of open-ended investigation and problem solving This Component is demonstrated when: • The teacher plans to strategically build opportunities for students to develop hypotheses in practical work. • Classroom work is constrained or recipe like. • Class activities which are fun. This component is NOT demonstrated when: 11 . or framing of the ideas behind the activities. and to extend and question interpretations • The teacher encourages students to raise questions in class. without room for discussion or debate of purpose or methods • Lesson plans contain too much material to allow sustained discussions in response to student questions • Activities focus on having fun without a real focus on conceptual understandings 5. experimental design. • There is a presumption that it is the teacher‘s role to control what is to be learnt. The Component is NOT demonstrated when: • Investigations or projects run without significant class discussion of the underlying science. measurement and recording techniques.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY • The teacher uses higher order thinking tools when planning activities to allow for multiple entry points and to develop higher order thinking skills such as synthesis. Students are encouraged to mathematical and scientific thinkers see themselves as 5. analysis and interpretation.

without room for discussion and debate of purpose. and encouraging investigations to resolve questions • The teacher shares intellectual control with students • The learning program includes frequent open ended investigations or short-term open explorations • The teacher encourages discussion of evidence. The sub-component is NOT demonstrated when: ß There is a strong focus on ensuring content coverage. technique. amount of soil. including disconfirming evidence such as anomalies in experimental work.2 Students engage in mathematical/scientific reasoning and argumentation This sub-component is demonstrated when: • Stimulus materials are provided that challenge students‘ ideas and encouraging discussion. in observations. with attention paid to controlling for water. as distinct from understanding 12 . methods. in text book explanations. loam and clay soil is tested. but without training in appropriate experimental techniques and with no group commitment to the ideas being tested. but without discussing the purpose or the reasons why they might differ. • A class experiment focuses on control of variables (fair testing) without a clear conceptual proposition. and ongoing exploration • Time is allowed for discussions to arise naturally and be followed in class.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY • Students are given a choice of investigations to carry out. analysis. or in public reports of science • The teacher provides students with questions or challenges as the impetus for learning and encourages and supports students to construct their own responses to such questions • Students are encouraged to challenge or support or amplify others‘ contributions. the permeability of sand. speculation. For instance. • Practical work is recipe-like. 5.

to emphasise the power of science insights. A science topic on disease focuses on the history of our understanding of the bacterial nature of infection. ß Intellectual control is firmly maintained by the teacher. the difference between observation and inference. and the way evidence is used to test and verify theories in science. ß Planning is flexible enough so that student ideas and questions can be genuinely followed up. using a template that required presentation of data in two formats. as distinct from understanding. Examples to illustrate the Component: ß The history of science ideas is strongly represented. with not much whole-class or small. to come up with suggestions about what controls should be in place. Pairs of students designed. or structure and function. ß Class discussion is dominated by the teacher‘s voice. they then examined crickets and came up with a class list of questions about cricket behaviour.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ß Lesson plans are strictly followed. They look at the suggested mechanism for cross-pollination. They discussed how you 13 . Eg. Julie‘s Year 4 class raised the question about how long a ballpoint pen would last. using observations of a classroom pet rat. carried out and reported on a chosen discussion. The focus in the discussion continually referred back to the adaptive purpose of particular behaviours. ß Students work mainly individually. Following discussions about the survival implications of behaviour. Yvonne ran an animal behaviour unit for her Year 1 class. They learnt the technique of time sampling of animal position and behaviour using birds in a cage. and one. then two rats in an enclosure. ß There is a strong focus on ensuring content coverage. with a particular response in mind. and study genetic techniques. ß Attention is paid to the processes of hypothesis generation and experimental design Eg. ß Teacher questions are mainly closed. and an evaluation of the generality of the findings. Eg. Eg. with too much material to be covered to allow divergent discussions in response to student questions or comments. They discussed. perhaps by further investigation. Year 10 students studying genetics investigate recent claims there has been cross-breeding of genetically modified soy into local crops.

or of bicycle helmets. Students are challenged using ‗what would happen if. Eg. or take place in ‗hypotheticals‘. Eg. or the ideas underlying such issues. measuring the length of line with appropriate controls. ß Anomalous results from experiments are discussed openly in the class. creative thinking Eg.. the question of genetically modified food captures student interest and leads to a debate informed by independent research using the web. whereby students‘ questions are discussed and refined to form the basis of investigations forming the core of the unit. then arranged a comparative investigation with different brands. ß Current issues are discussed in class. A class uses de Bono‘s thinking hats technique to fully explore the greenhouse effect. Methods of responding to a contemporary outbreak of foot and mouth are discussed and debated. then led a discussion in which they discussed the surprise results to come up with some possible reasons and an evaluation of the adequacy of the controls they had put in place. Students are asked to use their science understandings to design a system. or technological device. or method of analysing the movement of a netball player. is debated in the context of public policy. Eg. which encourage students to raise questions about evidence. Craig‘s Year 8 class found an experiment culturing bacteria gave anomalous results.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY would find out. Eg. evidence related to the wearing of seat belts. Eg. Eg. The nutritional value of children‘s lunches is discussed. Eg. using newspaper analyses.‘ questions (If gravity on earth was stronger. In a unit on road safety. Before handing the cultures back to groups he displayed them. such as an automated plant nursery. using evidence from a resource book on dietary principles. • Open-ended tasks are set that encourage divergent. A unit is planned using the ‗interactive approach‘. if we could clone dinosaurs…). Eg. During a genetics unit. 14 .

the myths that scientists are objective. Scholar Joseph Campbell (1968) has proposed that the similarity among many folk myths worldwide is due to a subconscious link between all peoples. This comparison is unfortunate for two reasons. Misconceptions about science are most likely due to the lack of philosophy of science content in teacher education programs. science textbook writers are among the most egregious purveyors of myth and inaccuracy. As Steven Jay Gould points out in The Case of the Creeping Fox Terrier Clone (1988). The fox terrier mentioned in the title refers to the classic comparison used to express the size of the dawn horse. fables. In fact. myths can be entertaining and even educational since they help people make sense of the world. McComas 1996 This article addresses and attempts to refute several of the most widespread and enduring misconceptions held by students regarding the enterprise of science. no one bothered to check its validity or utility. spread and persistence. when fact and fiction blur. the failure of such programs to provide and require authentic science experiences for preservice teachers and the generally shallow treatment of the nature of science in the precollege textbooks to which teachers might turn for guidance. myths lose their entertainment value and serve only to block full understanding. one author after another simply repeated the inept comparison and continued a tradition that has made many science texts virtual clones of each other on this and countless other points. Myths are typically defined as traditional views. The paper ends with a plea that instruction in and opportunities to experience the nature of science are vital in preservice and inservice teacher education programs to help unseat the myths of science. Through time. Not only was this horse ancestor much bigger than a fox terrier. and that science is not a creative endeavor. The ten myths discussed include the common notions that theories become laws. but the fox terrier breed of dog is virtually unknown to American students. the article includes discussion of other incorrect ideas such as the view that evidence leads to sure knowledge. 15 . that science and its methods provide absolute proof. legends or stories. Such is the case with the myths of science. However. Finally. and that there is a commonlyapplied scientific method. but no such link can explain the myths of science. the explanatory role of myths most likely accounts for their development. As such. W. In addition. that experiments are the sole route to scientific knowledge and that scientific conclusions are continually reviewed conclude this presentation. the tiny precursor to the modem horse.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Tutorial 2 TEN MYTHS OF SCIENCE: REEXAMINING WHAT WE THINK WE KNOW. The major criticism leveled by Gould is that once this comparison took hold. that hypotheses are best characterized as educated guesses...

and I frame no hypothesis .SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY In an attempt to provide a more realistic view of science and point out issues on which science teachers should focus. 1994. Newton described the relationship of mass and distance to gravitational attraction between objects with such precision that we can use the law of gravity to plan spaceflights. there is no well." The president's misstatement is the essence of this myth. Laws are generalizations. years of science teaching and the review of countless texts has substantiated the validity of the inventory presented here. president showed his misunderstanding of science by saying that he was not troubled by the idea of evolution because it was "just a theory. Newton states" . 1953). I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena. or most teachers for that matter. nor is the list meant to be the definitive catolog." " . . and act according to the laws which we have explained . Cole (1986) and Rothman (1992) have suggested additional misconceptions worthy of consideration. 127). astronaut Bill Anders responded to the question of who was flying the spacecraft by saying." (Chaikin. but with clear confirmation and consensus lacking. he refrained from speculating publically about its cause. A former U. Some physicists suggest that gravity waves are the correct explanation for the law of gravity.S. and many would say more interesting. Newton addressed the distinction between law and theory with respect to gravity. Many believe that scientific ideas pass through the hypothesis and theory stages and finally mature as laws. . . but one simply does not become the other-no matter how much empirical evidence is amassed. Although he had discovered the law of gravity. . . Campbell. Myth 1: Hypotheses become theories which become laws This myth deals with the general belief that with increased evidence there is a developmental sequence through which scientific ideas pass on their way to final acceptance. hold all of these views to be true. it is enough that gravity does really exist. that an idea is not worthy of consideration until "lawness" has been bestowed upon it. 1720/1946. Of course there is a relationship between laws and theories. His response was understood by all to mean that the capsule was simply following the basic laws of physics described by Isaac Newton years centuries earlier. yet incorrect ideas about the nature of science. "I think that Issac Newton is doing most of the driving fight now. There is no implication that all students. The problem created by the false hierarchical nature inherent in this myth is that theories and laws are very different kinds of knowledge." (Newton. In Principial. 1979. most feel that the theory of gravity still eludes science. principles or patterns in nature and theories are the explanations of those generalizations (Rhodes & Schaible. During the Apollo 8 mission. p. accepted theory of gravity. . For instance. this article presents and discusses 10 widely-held. . 1989. . 547). The more thorny. p. Interestingly. 16 . At this point. Homer & Rubba. issue with respect to gravity is the explanation for why the law operates as it does. However.

Sonleitner (1989) suggested that tentative or trial laws be called generalizing hypotheses with provisional theories referred to as explanatory hypotheses. If a hypothesis is always an educated guess as students typically assert. Newton used the term hypothesis to represent an immature theory. a) define the problem. Gjertsen. The term hypothesis has at least three definitions. Philosophers of science who have studied scientists at work have shown that no research method is applied universally (Carey. The standardized style makes it appear that scientists follow a standard research plan. but under no circumstances do theories become laws. This myth has been part of the folklore of school science ever since its proposal by statistician Karl Pearson (1937). With evidence. should be abandoned. Medawar (1990) reacted to the common style exhibited by research papers by calling the scientific paper a fraud since the final journal report rarely outlines the actual way in which the problem was investigated. Another approach would be to abandon the word hypothesis altogether in favor of terms such as speculative law or speculative theory.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Myth 2: A hypothesis is an educated guess The definition of the term hypothesis has taken on an almost mantralike life of its own in science classes. Gibbs & Lawson. it is impossible to tell. and f) draw conclusions. when Newton said that he framed no hypothesis as to the cause of gravity he was saying that he had no speculation about an explanation of why the law of gravity operates as it does. Chalmers. d) make observations. that without a clear view of the context in which the term is used. 1992. The notion of a single scientific method is so pervasive it seems certain that many students must be disappointed when they discover that scientists do not have a framed 17 . 1990. or at least used with caution. The steps listed for the scientific method vary from text to text but usually include. b) gather background information. Finally. predictions. 1989). perhaps they should simply be called what they are. when students are asked to propose a hypothesis during a laboratory experience. For instance. In this case. "an educated guess about what?" The best answer for this question must be. Some texts conclude their list of the steps of the scientific method by listing communication of results as the final ingredient. the question remains. Myth 3: A general and universal scientific method exists The notion that a common series of steps is followed by all research scientists must be among the most pervasive myths of science given the appearance of such a list in the introductory chapters of many precollege science texts. As a solution to the hypothesis problem. and for that reason. the term now means a prediction. c) form a hypothesis. As for those hypotheses that are really forecasts. One of the reasons for the widespread belief in a general scientific method may be the way in which results are presented for publication in research journals. 1994. e) test the hypothesis. generalizing hypotheses may become laws and speculative theories become theories.

there is still the issue of how scientists make the final leap from the mass of evidence to the conclusion. The method of induction he suggested is the principal way in which humans traditionally have produced generalizations that permit predictions. even a preponderance of evidence does not guarantee the production of valid knowledge because of what is called the problem of induction. prior knowledge and perseverance. Induction was first formalized by Frances Bacon in the 17th century. the law is supported. Scientists formulate laws and theories that are supposed to hold true in all places and for all time but the problem of induction makes such a guarantee impossible. Deduction is useful in checking the validity of a law. In reality. creativity. we can evaluate the law by predicting that the next swan found will also be white. This is the problem of induction. only by making all relevant observations throughout all time. including scientists. past. could one say that a final valid conclusion had been made. Close inspection will reveal that scientists approach and solve problems with imagination. The nature of induction itself is another interesting aspect associated with this myth. What then is the problem with induction? It is both impossible to make all observations pertaining to a given situation and illogical to secure all relevant facts for all time. but not proved as will be seen in the discussion of another science myth. the accumulated evidence will simply result in the production of a new law or theory in a procedural or mechanical fashion.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY copy of the steps of the scientific method posted high above each laboratory workbench. The proposal of a new law begins through induction as facts are heaped upon other relevant facts. The final creative leap from 18 . collect and interpret empirical evidence through the process called induction. However. of course. In his book. but in science the problem is significant. On a personal level. this is one myth that may eventually be displaced since many newer texts are abandoning or augmenting the list in favor of discussions of methods of science. if we postulate that all swans are white. Myth 4: Evidence accumulated carefully will result in sure knowledge All investigators. These. Locating even a single black swan will cause the law to be called into question. Useful as this technique is. For example. there is no such method. This is a technique by which individual pieces of evidence are collected and examined until a law is discovered or a theory is invented. If it is. Novum Organum (1620/ 1952). The issue is far more complex – and interesting --than that. are the same methods used by all problem-solvers. If we set aside the problem of induction momentarily. Bacon advised that facts be assimilated without bias to reach a conclusion. this problem is of little consequence. The lesson to be learned is that science is no different from other human endeavors when puzzles are investigated. Fortunately. present and future. In an idealized view of induction.

but there is no logical or procedural method by which the pattern is suggested. However. Only the creativity of the individual scientist permits the discovery of laws and the invention of theories. analyzed and examined. The problem of induction argues against proof in science. but there is another element of this myth worth exploring. This idea has been addressed by Homer and Rubba (1978) and Lopnshinsky (1993). this proposed law of nature. the collection and interpretation of individual facts providing the raw materials for laws and theories. The teacher discusses what will happen in the laboratory. In actuality. for instance. Some observers may perceive a pattern in these data and propose a law in response. With a theory. The majority of laboratory exercises. at least we know that the notion is untrue. Myth 6: Science is procedural more than creative We accept that no single guaranteed method of science can account for the success of science. are verification activities. However. many common science teaching orientations and methods serve to work against the creative element in science. the manual provides step-bystep directions. and arrive at the generalization that "all swans are white.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY evidence to scientific knowledge is the focus of another myth of science. the only truly conclusive knowledge produced by science results when a notion is falsified. If there truly was a single scientific method. or at least result in modifications of. and the student is expected to arrive at a particular answer. What this means is that no matter what scientific idea is considered. " However. but such a portrayal must seem dry. once evidence begins to accumulate. but realize that induction. This awareness brings with it a paradox. the issue is much the same. a hallmark of scientific knowledge is that it is subject to revision when new information is presented. One could search the world and see only white swans. is at the foundation of most scientific endeavors. the discovery of one black swan has the potential to overturn. two individuals with the same expertise could review the same facts and reach identical conclusions. If induction itself is not a guaranteed method for arriving at conclusions. but will never prove those laws and theories to be true. Unfortunately. There is no guarantee of this because the range and nature of creativity is a personal attribute. how do scientists develop useful laws and theories? Induction makes use of individual facts that are collected. 19 . Myth 5: Science and its methods provide absolute proof The general success of the scientific endeavor suggests that its products must be valid. Accumulated evidence can provide support. Consider the example of the white swans discussed earlier. whether scientists routinely try to falsify their notions and how much contrary evidence it takes for a scientist's mind to change are issues worth exploring. validation and substantiation for a law or theory. Not only is this approach the antithesis of the way in which science actually operates. Tentativeness is one of the points that differentiates science from other forms of knowledge.

Lehman. They're Not Dumb. Hundreds of years ago thoughtful theologians and scientists carved out their spheres of influence and have since coexisted with little acrimony. They are careful in the analysis of evidence and in the procedures applied to arrive at conclusions. but contributions from both the philosophy 20 . For instance. the law of gravity states that more massive objects exert a stronger gravitational attraction than do objects with less mass when distance is held constant. there is no scientific method by which such a belief could be shown to be false. These famous scientists responded resoundingly to support such a statement. With this admission. This is a scientific law because it could be falsified if newlydiscovered objects operate differently with respect to gravitational attraction. aesthetic. ethical. they must remain silent if those issues are outside the realm of scientific inquiry. Popper believed that only those ideas that are potentially falsifiable are scientific ideas. They're Different (1990) Shiela Tobias argues that many capable and clever students reject science as a career because they are not given an opportunity to see it as an exciting and creative pursuit. Of course. Myth 8. and limitations of these two important world views. Since this special creation view is impossible to falsify. Myth 7: Science and its methods can answer all questions. but as a group. In her book. after all they were experts in the realm of science (Klayman. Scientists are particularly objective Scientists are no different in their level of objectivity than are other professionals. During a recent creation science trial for instance. it is not science at all and the term creation science is an oxymoron. Later. Today. The moral in Tobias' thesis is that science itself may be impoverished when students who feel a need for a creative outlet eliminate it as a potential career because of the way it is taught. Slocombe. In contrast. Creation science is a religious belief and as such. only those who fail to understand the distinction between science and religion confuse the rules. social and metaphysical questions. 1986). Science cannot answer the moral and ethical questions engendered by the matter of abortion. the core idea among creationists is that species were place on earth fully-formed by some supernatural entity. It should now be clear that some questions simply must not be asked of scientists. roles. those interested in citing expert opinion in the abortion debate asked scientists to issue a statement regarding their feelings on this issue. few participated. Obviously. scientists as individuals have personal opinions about many issues. does not require that it be falsifiable. Science simply cannot address moral. it may seem that this myth is valid.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY clinical and uninteresting to many students. Philosophers of science have found it useful to refer to the work of Karl Popper (1968) and his principle of falsifiability to provide an operational definition of science. & Kaufman. Nobel laureates were asked to sign a statement about the nature of science to provide some guidance to the court. Wisely.

SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY of science and psychology reveal that there are at least three major reasons that make complete objectivity impossible. There is one major problem with the idea of conjecture and refutation. students are asked to perform activities. not as a description of what scientists do. Related to the issue of theory-based observations is the allegiance to the paradigm. but because of the prior knowledge possessed by the individual. There is an expectation that the conclusions formed will be both self-evident and uniform. for instance. In earlier discussions of induction. In other words. From a philosophical perspective the idea is sound. It is impossible to collect and interpret facts without any bias. In other words. This does not happen in science nor does it occur in the science classroom. Certain facts either were not seen at all or were deemed unimportant based on the scientists's prior knowledge. This lesson has clear implications for science teaching. will provide the best support available. but there are no indications that scientists actively practice programs to search for disconfirming evidence. make observations and then form conclusions. hold a myriad of preconceptions and biases about the way the world operates. but the absence of disproof is considered support. teachers anticipate that the data will lead all pupils to the same conclusion. in his groundbreaking analysis of the history of science. like all observers. It may seem like a strange way of thinking about verification. Teachers typically provide learning experiences for students without considering their prior knowledge. Although the paradigm 21 . shared by those working in a given discipline. This research tradition. 1986). Not only does individual creativity play a role. Many philosophers of science support Popper's (1963) view that science can advance only through a string of what he called conjectures and refutations. Scientists. shows that scientists work within a research tradition called a paradigm. provides clues to the questions worth investigating. dictates what evidence is admissible and prescribes the tests and techniques that are reasonable. demonstrated through an active program of refutation. Popper suggests that the absence of contrary evidence. affect everyone's ability to make observations. not because of fraud or deceit. Thomas Kuhn (1970). but the issue of personal theory-laden observation further complicates the situation. Popper seems to have proposed it as a recommendation for scientists. There have been countless cases in the history of science in which scientists have failed to include particular observations in their final analyses of phenomena. This occurs. we postulated that two individuals reviewing the same data would not be expected to reach the same conclusions. These notions. In the laboratory. a psychological notion (Hodson. Another aspect of the inability of scientists to be objective is found in theory-laden observation. This could only happen if each student had the same exact prior conceptions and made and evaluate observations using identical schemes. held in the subconscious. scientists should propose laws and theories as conjectures and then actively work to disprove or refute those ideas.

Scientists were not ready to embrace a notion so contrary to the traditional teachings of their discipline. Charles Darwin punctuated his career with an investigatory regime more similar to qualitative techniques used in the social sciences than the experimental techniques 22 . In fact. true experimentation is not possible because of the inability to control variables. Copernicus and Kepler changed our view of the solar system using observational evidence derived from lengthy and detailed observations frequently contributed by other scientists. but neither performed experiments. Anything that confines the research endeavor necessarily limits objectivity. warm-bloodedness in dinosaurs. students are encouraged to associate science with experimentation. Virtually all hands-on experiences that students have in science class is called experiments even if it would be more accurate to refer to these exercises as technical procedures.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY provides direction to the research it may also stifle or limit investigation. explorations or activities. It would be unwise to conclude a discussion of scientific paradigms on a negative note. 1986). the germtheory of disease. While there is no conscious desire on the part of scientists to limit discussion. the idea of moving continents. but is not the sole route to knowledge. True experiments involve carefully orchestrated procedures along with control and test groups usually with the goal of establishing a cause and effect relationship. Many note-worthy scientists have used non-experimental techniques to advance knowledge. was vigorously rejected. in a number of science disciplines. might have occurred decades earlier had it not been for the strength of the paradigm. Of course. Although the examples provided do show the contrary aspects associated with paradigm-fixity. it is likely that some new ideas in science are rejected because of the paradigm issue. called a revolution by Kuhn. Continental drift was finally accepted in the 1960s with the proposal of a mechanism or theory to explain how continental plates move (Hallam. When research reports are submitted for publication they are reviewed by other members of the discipline. Ideas from outside the paradigm are liable to be eliminated from consideration as crackpot or poor science and thus do not appear in print. and continental drift. This fundamental change in the earth sciences. for example. Myth 9: Experiments are the principle route to scientific knowledge Throughout their school science careers. Kuhn would argue that the blinders created by allegiance to the paradigm help keep scientists on track. When first proposed early in this century by Alfred Wegener. Examples of scientific ideas that were originally rejected because they fell outside the accepted paradigm include the suncentered solar system. His review of the history of science demonstrates that paradigms are responsible for far more successes in science than delays. 1975 and Menard. Many fundamental discoveries in astronomy are based on extensive observations rather than experiments. true experimentation is a useful tool in science.

While this is understandable given the space limitations in scientific journals. With the pressures of academic tenure. in fact. analysis. The conclusion that students will likely draw from this request is that professional scientists are also constantly reviewing each other's experiments to check up on each other. 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council. Darwin recorded his extensive observations in notebooks annotated by speculations and thoughts about those observations. Unfortunately. students are frequently told to present their methods section so clearly that others could repeat the activity. The result of the lack of oversight has recently put science itself under suspicion. There must be increased opportunity for both preservice and inservice 23 . Scientific knowledge is gained in a variety of ways including observation. and the pressure to produce new information rather than reproduce others' work dramatically increases the chance that errors will go unnoticed. Myth 10: All work in science is reviewed to keep the process honest. Frequently. misconceptions and idealizations inherent in the myths about the nature of the scientific enterprise. Conclusions If. In reality. free of the legends. An interesting corollary to this myth is that scientists rarely report valid. speculation. students and many of their teachers hold these myths to be true.both positive and negative – can the discipline progress. Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS. 1994) project both strongly suggest that school science must give students an opportunity to experience science authentically. but negative results.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY commonly associated with the natural sciences. even without fraud. he was aware that observation without speculation or prior understanding was both ineffective and impossible. the enormous amount of original scientific research published. we have strong support for a renewed focus on science itself rather than just its facts and principles in science teaching and science teacher education. Only when those working in a particular scientific discipline have access to all of the information regarding a phenomenon -. personal competition and funding. Although Darwin supported the inductive method proposed by Bacon. For his most revolutionary discoveries. it is not surprising that instances of outright scientific fraud do occur. When completing laboratory reports. The techniques advanced by Darwin have been widely used by scientists Goodall and Nossey in their primate studies. the number of findings from one scientist checked by others is vanishingly small. while such a check and balance system would be useful. most scientists are simply too busy and research funds too limited for this type of review. the failure to report what did not work is a problem. the final step in the traditional scientific method is that researchers communicate their results so that others may learn from and evaluate their research. However. library investigation and experimentation. This is one of the central messages in both of the new science education projects.

Only by clearing away the mist of half-truths and revealing science in its full light. Note: William McComas' address is School of EducationWPH 1001E. will learners become enamored of the true pageant of science and be able fairly to judge its processes and products.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY teachers to learn about and apply the real rules of the game of science accompanied by careful review of textbooks to remove the "creeping fox terriers" that have helped provide an inaccurate view of the nature of science. CA 90089-0031. with knowledge of both its strengths and limitations. Los Angeles. University of Southern California. 24 .

25 . ii. There are psychomotor skills that enable students to master : i. iv. Explain manipulative skills in scientific investigations that include: a. Storing science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely. Cleaning science apparatus correctly f. v.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TOPIC 2 ACQUIRING MANIPULATIVE SKILLS SYNOPSIS This topic enables teachers to acquire manipulative skills in scientific investigations. LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic teachers will able to : 1. Explain manipulative skills as psychomotor processes which are developed through scientific investigation 2. vi. Drawing diagrams and apparatus accurately d. Handling specimens correctly and carefully e. Types and units of measurements Use and handle science apparatus Draw diagrams and apparatus accurately Handling specimens correctly and carefully Clean science apparatus correctly Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely. Using and handling science apparatus c. Types and units of measurements b. iii.

scientific and thinking skills are utilised. In inquiry and problem solving processes.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TOPIC’S FRAMEWORK MANIPULATIVE SKILLS Types and units of measurements Use and handle science apparatus Draw diagrams and apparatus accurately Handling specimens correctly and carefully Clean science apparatus correctly Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely. Figure 2 :Content Overview CONTENTS 2. 26 .0 MANIPULATIVE SKILLS Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. Scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative skills.

Drawing diagrams and apparatus accurately d. scientist can get reliable result. and accidentally eat substances which are poisonous. avoid by specimens which are sharp. Using and handling science apparatus c. It‘s also can avoid accidents and wastages. make a concept map of the importance of mastering the manipulative skills for our pupils. By mastering the manipulative skills. not be bitten by small animals.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY What are Manipulative skills? Manipulate means to control or use something in a skilful way. Steps that need to be taken include care when using breakable apparatus. 1. Find out how to use the apparatus above correctly When using manipulative skills. They involve the development of hand-eye coordination and an ability to handle objects with skill and dexterity. So manipulative skills are psychomotor skills that enable us to carry out the practical works. Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills that enable students to: a. not pointing hot and boiling substances towards others. Example: A student uses a pair of tweezers and a hand magnifier to examine the inside of a flowering plant. Handling specimens correctly and carefully e. Using a suitable graphic organizer. Draw and name the apparatus that are usually used for primary science teaching 2. Practicing responsibility towards the safety of self and others as a good and noble attitude. pupils need to take care of their safety as well as that of their friends. Cleaning science apparatus correctly f. Storing science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely. 27 . Types and units of measurements b.

2.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. or any device which exhibits periodic motion. The smallest division on a meter rule is 0. Collect information from several sources about Vernier Caliper and Micrometer Screw Gauge. A meter rule can therefore measure length accurately up to 0. Analogue stopwatch Digital stopwatch 28 . and the depth of a hole. 2. hourglass.1 cm only.1. A vernier caliper micrometer screw gauge and are common tools used in laboratories and industries to accurately determine the fraction part of the least count division. we can use ruler or measuring tapes.1 MEASURING LENGTH To measure lengths. Describe how the diameter of a ping-pong ball can be measured using the meter rule and a pair set squires. The vernier is convenient when measuring the length of an object. 1.1 cm. Describe the correct way how to read the scale on a ruler to avoid parallax error.1 TYPE AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 2. the inner diameter (ID) of a pipe.2 MEASURING TIME Time can be measure using apparatus like watch. the outer diameter (OD) of a round or cylindrical object.1.

the amount of space occupied. The digital stopwatch is more accurate than the analogue as it can measure time in intervals of 0.3 second.1 seconds. As the stopwatch is a sensitive instrument. syringe. and are not used for accurate measurement. graduated cylinder.2 to 0. The digital stopwatch and analogue stopwatch. Think of an experiment to estimate the reaction time of an individual. Pipette. 2. volumetric flask. is usually measured with beaker. The graduations on a beaker and a conical flask are only approximate.01 seconds while the latter can only measure time in intervals of 0. Chemist use the units litres and millilitres. 29 . conical flask.1.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY STOPWATCH Stopwatches are used to measure short intervals of time.3 MEASURING VOLUME Volume. The typical reaction time of an individual is around 0. There are two types of stopwatches. burette and pipette. burette and volumetric flask are used for accurate measurement. abbreviated l and ml. This is due to the fact that the reaction time in starting and stopping the stopwatch varies from person to person. two or three reading may need to be taken and the average time computed.

1.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Describe how to use pipette in an acid-base titration correctly. The mercury in the bulb is expands when heated.4 MEASURING TEMPERATURE THERMOMETER The mercury thermometer is a thermometer commonly used in the science laboratory. The expansion of the mercury pushes the thread of mercury up the capillary tube. Discuss the correct way how to use a mercury thermometer. Is it acid or base we put in the pipette in this titration? Why? 2. 2. The round glass stem acts as a magnifying glass enabling the temperature to be read easily. The bulb is made of thin glass so that heat can be conducted quickly to the mercury. What are the similarities and differences between a mercury thermometer and a clinical thermometer? 30 . 1.

1. A triple beam balance compares a known mass to an unknown mass it is unaffected by gravity. We often use a triplebalance beam to measure mass. the The first beam reads the mass from zero to 10 grams. Unlike a spring scale which really measures weight. There are also many other types of balances. The middle beam reads in 100 gram increments and the far beam reads in 10 gram increments. A triple-beam balance gets its name because it has three beams that allow you to move known masses along the beam.5 MEASURING MASS Mass is the amount of matter an object has. By using all three of the beams. Here is a picture of a triple beam balance. 31 . You probably have used one in school.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. Scientists need balances that can measure very small amounts of mass. you can find the mass of your object.

If the current to be measured is larger than the full-scale deflection of the meter selected. To avoid damaging the ammeter. an ammeter can be used. it It is therefore important to always start with the highest range when you use an ammeter. Most of ammeters are twin-scale ammeter. 32 . Ammeters are sensitive instruments. excessive current will flow through the meter and damage 3. It is important to connect meters the correct way round to prevent them from being damaged when the pointer tries to move in the wrong direction. 1. 2. If the meter has several ranges. Ammeters must have a range that is suitable for the current to be measured.6 MEASURING ELECTRIC CURRENT/VOLTAGE AMMETER To measure the size of an electric current. The negative ammeter‘s terminal should be connected to the nearest negative terminal on the battery or power supply. 4.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2.1. The ammeter must be connected in series to the circuit. The positive ammeter‘s terminal should be connected to the nearest positive terminal on the battery or power supply. use the range that will show reading around the middle of the scale. The maximum reading of a scale is called full-scale deflection. the following precautions need to be observed.

ensure that the pointer is at zero position. 33 . Same precautions for ammeter apply to voltmeter. Discuss what it can measure and how to use it. VOLTMETER The potential difference across two point in a circuit can be measured by a voltmeter. The volt meter must be connected in parallel to the component across which the potential difference is being measured. A multimeter is a multi-functional electrical meter. The pointer can be easily moved to zero position by adjusting the zero adjustment screw below the pointer. The current must flow into the positive terminal and flow out of the negative terminal.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 5. Before using an ammeter.

2. use compound lenses and light to magnify objects. 2. The lenses bend or refract the light.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2.  Add chemicals to water. 2.  Use different spatulas for different chemicals  Limit the amount of each chemical used in the laboratory.2 USING AND HANDLING CHEMICALS  Never heat flammable solvents with open flame.  Avoid spillages and wash hands immediately with soap and water if contact occurs. 34 .  Electrical apparatus connected to the mains should not be touched by wet hands.  Unwanted solvents must be returned to solvent store or properly disposed-of without delay.this microscope allows for binocular (two eyes) viewing of larger specimens.  Make sure the circuits are not overloaded.1 Microscopes Light Microscope . which makes the object beneath them appear closer.  Connections should be made correctly.  Do not use metal articles or wear metal jewellery when working with electrical equipment. never the reverse.2.2.2 USE AND HANDLE SCIENCE APPARATUS 2.3 USING AND HANDLING OF ELECTRICAL APPATARUS/EQUIPMENT  Make sure that all electrical cords are in good condition.the models found in most schools. Stereoscope . Discuss general procedures how to use and handle microscope.

3 DRAW DIAGRAMS AND APPARATUS ACCURATELY Here are some tips how to draw a specimen. Use ruler to draw lines. Sketch a large & simple diagram 5. Use a sharp pencil. Do not shade or colour the drawing. Access the internet to gather information on the Virtual lab. 1. Labels to identify parts of object 9. 2. Use stippling to indicate a darker area 7. Do not cross label lines 8. Give your drawing a title Draw and name the apparatus that are usually used for primary science teaching. Draw only what you see 4. Use unlined paper and plenty of space 2. 3. How is it different from the normal science room? 35 . Draw using correct scales 6.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY  Take precautions to prevent spills on electrical equipment or electrical outlets.

Prepare an aquarium with fish and a lizard in a tank. Hygiene and safety when handling living specimens must be given extra attention. So they need specialised housing and regular care. Water the second and third cotton wool spread with the same amount of water for five days.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. Wet the second cotton wool spread with five spoonful of water and the third with 20 spoonful or water 4.g. 2. Prepare three spreads of cotton wool layer on separate tiles. 3. Extra care must be given when living specimens come with characteristics that may be harmful to children (e. Activity 1: Green Bean Seeds 1. Make sure students wash their hand thoroughly with soap and water after handling living specimens. a) What are the common features of these animals? b) What characteristics are different? 36 . Observe these animals. Remind students never to taste or put anything in their mouth. If possible build up an outdoor study area. 5.4 HANDLING SPECIMENS CORRECTLY AND CAREFULLY Living thing brought to the classroom must be kept for short period or permenant lodging. Activity 2: Fish and Lizard 1. Leave the first cotton wool spread dry. 3. Observe the seedlings plant growing and record the height and number of leaves everyday. plant parts that may cause irritation). insects that may bite or sting. You need to take safety precaution while handling the specimen. 2. Identify and compare the features of these two animals. cactus with sharp thorns. Place five green bean seeds on each cotton wool spread.

let the glassware stand or hang on drying boards or racks.  Any spillage or accidents must be recorded although there is no injury. video.  For drying.  Insects and small animals should be placed in a safe cage or aquarium.  Wounds must be completely covered before work.  Consider using films. rinse with water and then dry them up.  Glassware and microscope slides can be sterilized and reused.  Plant          Do the observation in the field Return the specimens to the field Don‘t throw the specimens into the dustbin Do not handle poisonous plants  Animal Observe life insect in closed petri dishes Release the insect in nature after the activity  To ensure safety Before starting work.  Injury by studied animals should be treated with antiseptic and further treatment should be taken. 37 .  After using any instruments make sure clean them before storing.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY HANDLING OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS  All hand to mouth operations should be avoided.5 CLEAN SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS CORRECTLY  Clean glassware using cleansing detergent. cover all wounds Hands must be thoroughly washed with soap at least If bitten treat the wound with antiseptic 2. and computer simulations in place of dissection activities.

com www.  Acids and corrosives should be stored in a non-metal and vented cabinet Write short notes on the handling.  Do not place hazardous materials in unstable containers or in an apparatus that is not properly secured.  Store all active chemicals in dark container.  Poisons should be kept locked in www.  Substances should be stored at the correct temperature.biologycorner.sciencekit.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2.6 STORE SCIENCE APPARATUS AND LABORATORY SUBSTANCES CORRECTLY AND SAFELY  Large equipment and larger chemical containers should be stored on lower shelves 38 .wikihow. cleaning and storing of science apparatus. www.ehow.

Exercises and tutorial questions given here will help you to evaluate how good are you in these basic science process skills and can enhance your understanding as well. You also will be provided with activities that you can try with your pupils to develop all these skills. Demonstrate competence in designing approaches that support children in developing their science procedural skills and understandings 39 . LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic teachers will able to : 1. Develop a critical appreciation of the basic science process skills and its practice in the teaching of science in primary schools.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TOPIC 3 BASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS SYNOPSIS In this topic you will be introduced to seven basic science process skills. 2.

SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TOPIC’S FRAMEWORK Basic Process Skills Observing Classifying Communicating Predicting Measuring and Using Numbers Using space-time relationships Inferring Figure 3 : Content Overview CONTENTS 3. Observing is the fundamental science process skill that need all our five senses to characterize the object. identify changes. On the other hand we can say that observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five 40 . But actually it is more than that.1 OBSERVING What is observing? Do you really know what observing is? Most of us understand that observing involves our eyes to see and understand things around us. similarities and differences in order to understand world around us.

they might describe the color of an object but not its size or shape. 41 . seeing is presented as a passive approach whereas at the other end of the spectrum. Good productive observations are detailed and accurate written or drawn descriptions. If we go more detail by telling the mass and the length of the fruit for example 200 g and 30 cm. This type of observation is called qualitative observation.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY senses. When we want to know about a fruit. students. Quantitative observations give more precise information than our senses alone. expects the students to pay attention to details. taste and smell. You also will touch and smell the fruits to determine whether the fruit ripe or not. Observation in science. Some time we also shake and listen the sound produced to test how good is the texture. Here we use all our senses to learn about the fruit. especially younger children. looking and observation should be made very clear. Not surprisingly. At one end of the spectrum. The distinction between seeing. you will use your eyes to see the shape and the colour of the fruit. The reason that observations must be so full of detail is that only then students can increase their understanding of the concepts being studied. hearing. touch. observing is an active approach. If a student is describing what he or she can see. and students need to be prompted to produce these elaborate descriptions. need help in order to make good observations. How can we guide our students to make a better more detailed description?  Ask the students to focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied and identify the characteristics. sight. the observation is called quantitative observation because it involves a number or the quantity. Then you will test whether the fruit sweet or not by tasting it using your tongue.

SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY  Let them give initial qualitative observation. For example. during. before. or yellow. As a conclusion we can say that observation is made when.  If something is changing.  When we measure some property. green. and after appearances in their observations. the leaves are clustered in groups of five or mass of one leaf is five grams. Then prompting them to elaborate by questioning them or giving them the tools that can be used to aid them making some more qualitative and quantitative observation. A measurement statement contains two parts.  Try to use so-called referents. classifying. and a name for the unit to tell us how much of what. students should include. inferring. we often describe colors using referents. a number to tell us how much or how many. We might say blue as sky. If possible. For example. and predicting 42 . we compare the property to a defined referent called a unit. references to items that all persons are already familiar with to describe the observation clearer. or yellow as lemon to describe particular shades of blue. The use of the number makes a measurement a quantitative observation.  Using all the senses to get the information  Using tools or instruments to make precise observation  Identify the similarities and differences to make comparison  Identify the special attributes of the objects and its environment  Realizing changes in environment  Identify the arrangement about object or phenomena The ability to make good observations is also essential to the development of the other science process skills: communicating. measuring. students should be encouraged to name what is being observed. green as grass.

Observe a piece of cream crackers biscuit. Result Observations Using sight senses Using taste senses Using smell senses Using touch senses Using hearing senses Which of your observations are quantitative observation? rethink and try to make some. Write your observation in the table below. ________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Activity 2: Materials 1. Distll water Procedures: 1. Make the observation on a peanut. Immerse the biscuit into distill water. 43 . Peanut Procedures: 1. 2. If none. Cream crackers biscuit 2. 2.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Try these activities to develop your observing skills Activity 1 Material: 1.

rethink and try to make some.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Result Observations Using sight senses Before immerse in water During immerse in water After immerse in water Using taste senses Using smell senses Using touch senses Using hearing senses Which of your observations are quantitative observation? If none. Write your observation in the table below. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 44 .

Congratulation! You have done your work diligently. Tutorial 1 1. In groups. What is the importance of observation? 3. carry out the Candle Activity. Read the article on ―Working Scientifically‖ and prepare a concept map. Why do we need to observe? 2. Discuss and present your answers Tutorial 2 2. observing based on Primary Science Specification. 45 .SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1. Plan three activies of Science Process Skill. Have a short rest and then continue to the another basic science process skil. Read the article ―Elephant Observations‖ and answer the questions.

Qualitative Observations Before burning ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ During burning ____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ After burning _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Quantitative Observations Observations Before Burning After Burning 46 . Anchor the candle in a ball of modeling clay.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Tutorial 1 CANDLE ACTIVITY Materials:   Candle Lighter Make qualitative and quantitative measurements of a small candle both before and after it has burned for two minutes.

“An elephant is like a snake.” Another man touched the trunk and said. Each blind man touched the elephant and made his observations. “An elephant is like a fan. “An elephant is like a spear.” 47 . They made their way to the site where the elephant was being kept. The observations are listed below. One man touched the elephant‟s side and said. All of them had heard of elephants. but they had never ―seen‖ one. six blind men lived together.” Another man touched a leg and said.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY How does the two types of observations differ from one another? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Which one is more appropriate for use with scientific observations? Why? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Tutorial 2 ELEPHANT OBSERVATIONS Long time ago in a distant land.” Another man touched a tusk and said. “ An elephant is like a wall. they all wanted an encounter with this beast. When they heard that an elephant and his trainer would be visiting their village.

Why is this a good idea? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ In the space below. _______________________________________________________  How might the blind men improve their inferences? ________________________________________________________  One of the characteristics of science is that scientists communicate their ideas. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 48 . results. observation. and inferences with each other.”  Did the blind men make appropriate inferences? Explain. Qualitative Observations ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Quantitative Observations ________________________________________________________ Did the activities above help you to make better observations? Explain. write a sentence or two explaining what you have learned. “An elephant is like a rope.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY The last man touched the tail and said.

SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY How does telling stories can make teaching more fun to primary students? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 49 .

Key concepts of working scientifically The activities in this topic are designed to explore the following key concepts: • ‘Working scientifically’ involves particular forms of reasoning with evidence that is different in detail from reasoning in other areas. where the relationship between an effect and a variable is and analysing and interpreting data. • There is no one ‘scientific method’. including understanding the sorts of questions that are the province of science. with other potentially confounding variables controlled (i.e. An example would be the exploration of the 50 .vic.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Working scientifically Introduction ‘Working scientifically’ involves the processes of science. An example of the forms of knowledge associated with working scientifically can be found in the Victorian Curriculum and Standards Framework (CSF) for science.html>.edu. kept the same). the design of experiments. reasoning and arguing with scientific evidence. but many ways in which scientists plan to establish ideas and generate evidence to explore and support these ideas. • An oft-cited example of scientific method is the controlled experiment. Detailed discussion of working scientifically in primary schools can be found in Keith Skamp’s Teaching primary science constructively (Thomson Learning 2004). which can be found on the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website <http://www.vcaa.

including the purpose and techniques of focused observation. Students’ alternative conceptions of working scientifically Research into students’ ideas about this topic has identified the following non-scientific conceptions: • Students will not immediately see the task of an investigation as exploring ideas or looking for patterns. the need for repeat measurements and skills in devising measurement processes. • Working scientifically involves a number of ‘concepts of evidence’. different experimental designs and associated principles (e. keeping the weight and swing size the same but varying the length and timing of the swing. in studying ecological systems. What is common to all these areas. this type of control is not possible. in many cases theories must be established by looking at existing ecosystems with many variables. for many branches of science. the recognition of a scientific question that can be investigated. and reporting. understanding ‘sample size’ in making observations in the field).g. but will treat an investigation simply as ‘establishing what is’ without thought for considering alternative interpretations. however. For instance. In geology and astronomy the idea of controlling and repeating observations is very different. 51 . ways of recording data (these can vary considerably) and representing data for analysis. is the collection of evidence to support or argue against claims.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY effect of the length of a pendulum on its period of swing. However. and reasoning with evidence that attempts to isolate clear causes for phenomena.

• It has been amply demonstrated that.g. the need for repeat measurements and the concept of uncertainty in measurement. planning experiments and arguing from evidence. • Students will not understand many of the concepts relating to measurement—for instance. the reading of a scale. Their questions need to be worked with and clarified to become amenable to scientific investigation. even very young children are capable of distinguishing between observations and inferences. • Depending on their knowledge and experience. • Students can understand the need to control variables in simple situations (to make the test ‘fair’). the calibration of instruments. They need to be supported in making defensible measurements. and the use of a table as a design organiser to help plan a series of measurements. they have difficulty in cases of interacting variables (e. with appropriate support. 52 . • Students will not understand the power of laying out data in tables and graphs. of asking investigable questions. However.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Students have problems recognising what is an investigable question and will propose questions such as ‘What is electricity?’ as the basis for investigation. or the separate effect of light and moisture in determining where slaters prefer to live). the recording of comparison measurements using consistent processes. finding out the separate effects of weight and length on a pendulum swing. students may have trouble arguing clearly from evidence. such as the need to use the same amount of each type of sugar when comparing the solubility of sugars.

that these investigations. Although consumer science does not fall easily into any major curriculum topic categories. however. because they mostly involve comparisons on the basis of criteria.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Consumer science ‘Consumer science’ refers to activities in the classroom whereby students use scientific processes to make judgments about consumer products. Things to consider when completing activities The activities in this topic give examples of some 53 . It should be noted. it is an important and fun vehicle for teaching students about some of the science processes such as fair testing. measuring and recording. do not illustrate the more difficult nature of working scientifically that deals with the exploration of conceptual ideas. Skills and understandings of consumer science The activities in this topic are designed to develop the following skills and understandings of this topic: • how to formulate useful. It provides a vehicle for learning about the nature of scientific investigation. investigable questions • the importance of measuring accurately • why it is necessary to ensure that all tests are fair and repeatable • the purpose of planning and designing investigations • how to design valid experiments with appropriate variable control • how to design measurement procedures • how to represent data for analysis and reporting.

In judging different products.) is appropriate. Ensure there is a low demand for manipulation skills. etc. the things that need to be considered (summarising the discussion above) are: • what criteria are relevant for the evaluation • what weighting should be given to the various criteria • whether the test is fair • whether the results are reproducible • whether the method of comparison (scale. are based on reports of Deakin University students teaching consumer science activities to groups of students in schools. Criteria and procedures need to be decided by the teacher.g. 54 . Year 2 Students can define criteria. but have little understanding of a fair test. Examples of appropriate tests include comparing the sweetness of cereals. e. Development of students’ testing capabilities The following descriptions of students’ capabilities at different year levels. and the type of activity appropriate for each. Prep/Year 1 It is most appropriate to structure tests and scaffold children’s experimenting. rather than measurements. addition of scores. so they may cheat to make sure their chosen sample ‘wins’. using simple tests and comparisons. the amount of salt or oil in chips or the amount of bubble in detergents.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY types of products suitable for early and middle years consumer science testing.

a timekeeper and someone to hand out each item. You might want to collect the information and collate it on the board. Developing measurement procedures. especially the problems associated in keeping things ‘fair’. Have the students work in groups. They can hold a reasoned discussion on the factors affecting the performance of different products. and ways of exploring these further. Year 4 Depending on the content area. should be encouraged. students should now be able to design experiments and plan measurements with minimal input from the teacher. Designing experiments and controlling variables. Activities Exploring consumer science Key ideas: Articulating and refining questions. Years 5 and above The comparison of products by discussion of weighting of criteria is increasingly possible.SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Year 3 Students are beginning to appreciate the notion of a fair test. Constructing and interpreting data representations. Some discussion of the problems with testing. a reporter. Each group should have a scoresheet and a recorder. 55 . Make sure all the students take it in turns to taste the items. Students are able to set out tables and deal with different orders on different criteria. They can define criteria and conduct given tests with fairness and appreciate how differences in results can arise. You will need: • • • • • • a variety of brands of potato chips brown paper squares brown paper bags rolling pins breadboards jars of water. A C T I V I T Y: P O TAT O C H I P S Teaching note: This activity can be used for all levels but will need to be adapted accordingly.

accordingly) 56 .SCE 3106 WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY a) Test for salt content Taste directly—have ONE student taste each brand of chip to determine and give their opinion of which is the saltiest. It might be a good idea to blindfold the student so they do not see the brand they are tasting and select their favourite (or least favourite.

Have a clean glass of water on hand. How much oil appears on the brown paper? Measure the spot using a ruler. Alternatively taste the salted water and each chip water. taking a sip of fresh water in between tastes. Have one student act as the taste-tester (only one student at a time should test the chips!). Alternatively. place a chip on top of a pile of brown paper pieces. Add a pinch of salt to another 40 mL of water. How is the manufacturer trying to sell the chips? What colours are used in the packaging? What is the salt or fat content according to the nutrition label? Is there a trinket included in the pack? Is this important to the group? How easy are the bags to open? Rate what the students think of each and keep score. crunch. Which is saltier? b) Test for oil content by rubbing between sheets of brown paper Place a chip between two sheets of brown paper on the breadboard. Roll over it using the rolling pin. How many thicknesses of paper did the oil penetrate? Hold the oil patch over some print or up to the light. texture)? d) Testing the packaging Examine the packaging that the chips come in. How translucent is the patch? Repeat the experiment for the other brands of chips.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Dissolve in water and taste (what will you control?)—crush a chip of each brand (making sure you keep the samples the same size) and put the crumbs of each chip into separate containers with about 40 mL of water. c) Taste test Place a sample of each brand of chip into a paper bag. and then crush it by rolling over it with the rolling pin. flavour. Which brand of chips is considered to be best according to its packaging? Why? 57 . What could they test for (e. It might be a good idea to get them to have a sip of clean water between each taste.g. Get the student to taste each brand of chip from the unmarked bags.

ping-pong. e. You will need: • a range of types of balls. carpet. Compare cereals for sugar. squash. e. Which chips would you recommend A C T I V I T Y: CEREAL Teaching note: This activity is similar to the chip experiment above and so the same guidance should be offered. 58 . plastic • a range of different surfaces. carbohydrate content.g. golf.g. grass • a metre rule. concrete. tennis. fat.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Rank the criteria in order of importance. A C T I V I T Y: TESTING BALLS Teaching note: This activity is suitable for all levels depending on the comparisons made. although you should test for sugar content instead of salt! You will need: • a variety of cereal packages. The experiments outlined above for potato chips can be carried out for cereals. Look at the packet nutrition guide. rubber.

1994) can be used as a guideline to classify items or information correctly. income and so on. To classify these items we can follow the following steps: 1. Classifying can be defined as a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristics for a purpose. When do we need to classify? We classify when there are many items or information which are not organized. Identify the general characteristics of the items. Beside that. Your employer classifies you according the work you do and the government classifies you by sex.2 CLASSIFYING What is classifying? Whether we realise or not. 3. We need to identify similarities and differences while identifying characteristics. Identify other characteristics. The indicators are:  Identify similarities and differences  Group objects based on common characteristics  Explain methods of classification in simple terms  Other criteria may be used to group objects  Objects may be grouped in various ways 59 . age. we always classify things in our daily life. 2. This is an important step towards a better understanding of the different objects and events in the world. Indicators For Classifying constructed by Malaysia Curriculum Development Centre (PPK. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 until there is only one item in each group. So we also can say that classifying is a process of grouping objects or events according to similarities or differences. We classify books in the library according to the subject and keep the science apparatus in the store room according to the type of the apparatus. Sort out items of the same characteristic into their respective groups.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3.

or different breakfast cereals can be serial ordered according to number of calories per serving. animals can be classified into two groups: those with backbones and those without backbones. Objects in one group must have all of the required properties. a set of objects is simply divided into two subsets. Example: HUMAN MAN OR HUMAN MALAY CHINESE INDIAN EUROPEAN WOMAN  Multilevel system: A multi-stage classification is constructed by performing consecutive binary classifications on a set of objects and then 60 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY There are 3 types of classification  Series system: This is the simplest method of classification. This is usually done on the basis of whether each object has or does not have a particular property. A binary classification can also be carried out using more than one property at once. For example. Objects are placed into rank order based on some property. otherwise they will belong to the other group. Example:  Binary system: In this system. students can be serial ordered according to height. For example.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY on each of the ensuing subsets. 2. The familiar classifications of the animal and plant kingdoms are examples of multi-stage classifications. binary system and multilevel system. Materials: 1. 61 . The result is a classification system consisting of layers or stages. Observe the coins and characterised them. A useful activity for younger children could be to create a multi-stage classification of some local animals using physical and/or behavioral similarities and differences. A multi-stage classification is complete when each of the objects in the original set has been separated into a category by itself. Classify the coins by using serial system. A bag of coins with different value Procedures 1. Example: HUMAN SHAPE MAN 2 DIMENSIONAL 3 DIMENSIONAL WOMAN CIRCLE TRIANGLE RECTANGLE CUBOID CUBE CONE SPHERE CYLINDER You can add some more shapes according to their characteristics and you can extent this classification as well to become more layers if possible. Try these activities to develop your classifying skills Activity 1.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Result 1. Binary system 3. Multilevel system 62 . Serial system 2.

Classify the nuts by using serial system. Binary system 3. Observe the nuts and characterised them. binary system and multilevel system. different number size and different shapes Procedures 1. Serial system 2.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Activity 2 Materials: 1. A set of assorted nuts with different colour. Answer 1. 2. Multilevel system 63 .

Plan three classifying activies based on Primary Science Specification. 64 . discuss what other things in our lives that need classification? Congratulation! You have done your work. Divide the buttons into two groups in the boxes below the large box at the top. 5. From your experience. Carry out the ―Classifying Button Activity‖. Group the buttons from each box into the two boxes below each box. Place the eight buttons in the box at the top of the chart on the next page. Trace around the buttons and color them. Trace around the buttons and color them. 4. Tutorial CLASSIFYING BUTTONS Materials:  8 different types of buttons Methods: 1. write the property you used to sort the buttons. In the boxes. 3.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1 What is the importance of classifying? 2. 2.

list the topics that you think are important to do classification? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  What are the ways in which things can be classified? ________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 65 . In the boxes. Write the property you used to sort the buttons. Place one button in each of the boxes at the attachment sheet. 7. write the properties of each button. Trace around each button and color it. 8. Trace around the buttons and color them. Answer the following questions:  By going through the primary science curriculum specifications.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 6.




Communicating is the skill to pass on information or ideas to other people orally or in writing. Students have to communicate in order to share their observations with someone else. The communication must be clear and effective if the other person to understand the information. Effective communication is clear, precise and unambiguous and uses skills that need to developed and practiced.

What is communicating? Communicating is a process of receiving, spreading and sharing of information and ideas. You are communicating

when you are: 1. Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings. 2. Recording information from investigations. 3. Drawing and making notes. 4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols. 5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information. 6. Posting questions clearly. 7. Using references. 8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment. The idea to communicate using descriptive word for which both people share a common understanding.There is three steps that shows you are communicating when: 1. Record information obtained from various resources. 2. Translate the information into other forms such as charts, graphs and tables. 3. Spread the information through various means and ways. We can communicate effectively if we: 1. Describe only what we observe (see, smell, hear and taste) rather than what you infer about the object or events. 2. Make your description brief by using precise language.



3. Communicate information accurately using many qualitive observations as the situation may call for. 4. Consider the point of view and past experience of the person with whom you are communicating. 5. Provide a means for getting feedback from the person with you are communicating in order to determine the effectiveness of your communication. 6. Construct an alternative description if necessary. Talking while doing science activities, making entries in journals,recording and organizing data, comparing results and sharing findings are all activities that help children develop effective ways to communicate. Learning to use communication tools helps children to be able to make good decisions about how to communicate observations and ideas.










Science educators are agree

that learning science process skills means

‗learning how to learn‘. Children learn through critical thinking and by using information creatively. So why do we need to communicate? skill will help us: 1. To spread ideas or information. 67 Communicating


2. To share ideas or information.

When science process skills was introduced primary science, Curriculum Development Centre give guidelines for teachers to detect whether their pupils has mastered ther skills.They give the indicators for every skills. Indicators for Communicating skill are : 1. Speak, listen or write to explain ideas or meaning to friends. 2. Record information from studies. 3. Draw and make notes. 4. Use symbols and explain what they mean 5. State questions clearly 6. Use reference material 7. Write reports of experiments so that others can repeat the experiments (CDC, 1994) ACTIVITY 1

Year five students from SK Sri Rusa are doing an investigation on the content of potassium in different types of drinking water. Below is their findings:

Brand X has 25 mmol , Brand W has 23 mmol, Brand K has 46 mmol, Brand T has 53 mmol, brand Y has 15 mmol and Brand G has 20mmol











communication tools.


Which of the following science process skills is used by her ? (A) Observing (B) Predicting (C) Classifying (D) Communicating 69 . 1. Siti used a concept map as a tool to present her understanding about working scientifically. She put her observation in the table below: Ice mass( gram) Melting time (min) 45 2 57 3 63 5 77 8 85 10 Draw a graph based on the data from the table above. Discuss the answer with your lecturer during face-to face interaction.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 2 Raudhah is investigating different size of ice and time taken to melt. Answer the question below.

(a) Give one suitable problem statement (research question) for this experiment. Syamil wanted to find out if the colour of food would affect whether a primary school student would select it for breakfast.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. and yellow. Responding variable. green. (e) State one way to improve this experiment. (i) (ii) (iii) Constant variable. (b) State the variables involved in this experiment. Manipulated variable. (c) Suggest one hypotesis which can be tested in this experiment. He put food colouring into four identical bowls of mashed potatoes. Each child chose a scoop of potatoes of the colour of their choice. Syamil did this experiment on 50 primary school student. The colours were red. blue. 70 . (d) Suggest one way to display the experimental results quantitatively.

Select a topic from this course and prepare a concept map 2. Tutorial 2 1. 71 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Tutorial 1 Select one ―Communication tool‖ and demonstrate it to your peers. Present your concept map to your peers Gather information to compare how people communicate at present and in the past according to chronological order. 3. Discuss how your concept map can facilitate / simplify learning.

is predicting new data based on and within a trend or pattern of previously observed data and b) Extrapolation . Predicting is the process using past observations or data along with other kinds of scientific knowledge to forecast event or relationships. Classification is employed when we identified similarities or differences to impart order to objects and events.4 PREDICTING An important skill in science is predicting. ― What‘s going to happen?‖. ―Is there a way you could find that out?‖. It can be classified into: a) Interpolation . It is simply a guess. ―Why do you think that happened?‖. Here are some examples of predictions:   I see it is raining and the sun is coming out. It should be followed by a written or oral explanation to clarify ideas and reveal any misconceptions or missing information. We make sense of the world around us by observing things happen and then interpreting and explaining them. It is forming an idea of an expected result on what will occur based upon present knowledge and understanding. A statement not based on observation is not a prediction. Often we use these to predict occurrences that might happen in the future. inferring. If I release both balls at the same time. Remember that inferences are explanations or interpretations of observations and that inferences are supported by observations. When we think we can explain why things work the way they predicting new data outside or beyond the range of previously observed data. observations and inferences. Order in our environment permits us to recognize patterns and to predict the patterns what future observations will be. they will hit the ground at the same time. A prediction is an educated guess as to what will happen. There could be a rainbow.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. 72 . Predicting is closely related to observing. and classifying. You can help by asking. Prediction is based on careful observation and inferences made about relationships between observed events. We often detect patterns in what we observe.

However.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Notice that each of the sample predictions is written in future tense. Able to differentiate between prediction and guessing. Each prediction statement is based on observations and patterns that have developed from past observations. 2.examine our observations. 3. we may reject it and re. it must meet a threefold test:  can explain what has already been observed  can predict what has not yet been observed  can be tested by further observation and modified as required by new data You are predicting when you are…. New observations lead to new inferences and new predictions. Therefore. for a theory to be accepted in science. when new observations do not support our original prediction. Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events. Testing our predictions leads to making more observations that either support or do not support original predictions. 1. we have even greater confidence in our prediction. our map of the process skill of predicting looks more like this: PREDICTING OBSERVING INFERRING As new data (observations) are collected. theories (inferences) are proposed to explain what has been observed and to predict what has not yet been observed. How we explain and how we interpret what we observe affect how we predict. Able to determine the outcomes from an action. When new observations are consistent with our predicted pattern of observations. 73 . In fact.

Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict. Record the number of drops in the space marked * in the table below. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences. 1994) Activity 1 Learn Predicting – Drops of Water Material  Coins – 5 sen. Predict the number of drops the other coins will probably hold. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand. (CDC. 10 sen. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction. 50 sen. A 20 sen coin can hold *drops of water. Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections. Do this carefully until water starts to flow off the surface of the coin. Compare the 20 sen coin with the other coins in terms of size and shape. 6. 2. 74 . Counts the number of drops. and RM 1  Dropper  Beaker of water Method: 1. 8. Use the dropper to drip drops of water on a 20 sen coin. 5.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 4. 7.

what do you think caused the difference? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 75 . Test your predictions by dropping water on each coin. 5.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Coin Number of drops 5 sen 10 sen 20 sen 50 sen RM 1 Prediction Actual * 3. What factors did you consider when making the predictions? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4. If the number of drops of water you predicted differ from the actual number.

minute) 76 . The following data sheet shows the time the sun rises and sets every sixth day in a region in the northern hemisphere (30(N).m.m. 6:23 6:28 6:33 6:38 6:42 6:47 6:51 6:54 6:56 6:57 6:57 6:56 Sunset p. 5:05 5:02 5:00 5:00 5:00 5:01 5:03 5:06 5:10 5:15 5:20 5:25 Daylight necessary *Only a few calculations are (hour. Date Month-Day 11-13 11-19 11-25 12-01 12-07 12-13 12-19 12-25 12-31 1-06 1-12 1-18 Sunrise a.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Activity 2 Practice Predicting – The Shortest Day Material  Data sheet (below) concerning time of sunrise and sunset  Graph paper Method 1.

Calculate the lengths of the shortest day by taking into account the length of the day several days before and several days after the date of the shortest day. you can put one of these graphs over the other. From the graphs. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4. From the two graphs. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 77 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. obtain the dates when the sun sets the earliest and when it rises the latest. and record your findings in the column marked * in the table given. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 3. Draw and label a graph for each time of sunrise and time of sunset. respectively. Remember. Explain how you make your prediction. predict the date of the shortest day.

Try and practice all the suggestions that was discussed above.‖ ―The rumbling is caused by the volcano.‖ ―One person is heavier than the other.‖ ―They are going to get job with good pay.‖ ―It‘s going to erupt!‖ b) ―The two girls are wearing robes and mortarboard.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Get a textbook. He recorded his results in a column graph.‖ c) ―The left-hand end of the seesaw is lower than the right-hand end. Do you think it has help you to remember better? 1) Which of these statements is an observation. the right-hand end will fall. and measured how high it bounced each time.‖ ―They have just attended their graduation day.‖ ―If the person on the left-hand end gets off.‖ 2) Harith has dropped a ball from two different heights. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bounce Height (cm) 50 100 Drop height (cm) 78 . an inference or a prediction? a) ―I can feel the earth rumbling.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY a) Predict how high the ball will bounce if he drops it from 75 cm onto the same surface? b) Predict the bounce height for a drop height of 200 cm Access the internet to gather information about the differences between inference and prediction. List down the differences. 79 .

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Which is more accurate? A meter ruler. 4. Standard tools – established tools such as rulers. Students make quantitative observations by comparing standard or non-standard units. rulers etc. Apparatus such as thermometers . They will be able to describe relationships between objects by using graphs. spoon. 1. measuring tapes. Which tool do you think gives the most accurate reading? You are measuring and using numbers when you are…. liter etc. inches.clocks.etc. Specify the instrument to be used. for example the diameter of a test tube. a vernier caliper or a micrometer screw gauge? 3. diagrams and tables. charts.5 MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS Measuring and using numbers are processes of observing quantitatively using standard or standardized measuring tools as the reference units. We need to measure and use numbers to obtain more accurate measurements such as our body mass index. are used to make the measuring. How do we measure and use numbers? 1. 2. Measuring involves making quantitative observations by comparing against certain standard units like centimeter .. 80 . measuring cylinders (Tools which are used established or accepted universally) STANDARDISED TOOLS – tools which can be used for measuring an object quantitatively using unit which is not established / accepted universally such as cup. Compare the readings from each tool. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.. Identify the measurement required. gram .

81 . Use scales and explain ratios. Use numbers to record a phenomenon. 5. Use numbers to record a measurement. 4.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. 6. 3. Able to count and compare quantity of items in the same groups. Able to recognise the pattern from a table of numbers.

. Use tools correctly. ………………… ……………… ………………… ………… …………………… 9. ……………………… 82 . 8. Compare objects using numbers. ………………. Record units correctly.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 7.

. area and volume with relevant units.0 m2 = __ cm2 4.01 s = __ ms or the National Institute of Standards at www. 1. 1. 1.bipm. 83 .0 m3 = __ cm3 (cubic meters to cubic centimeters) Visit the Bureau at www. 1.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 10. distance.NIST.0 mm = __ m 2. Convert and use standard units. Compare time.

……………………………………. 3. Body Part Estimated order 1=shortest 10= longest Thumb Hand Measurement Actual order 1=shortest 10= longest 2. ACTIVITY 2 1. Use the metric tape measure to measure your body parts and write the actual measurement in centimeters. The list of physical quantities : 1. Estimate the length of each parts of your body by putting them in order from shortest to longest. ……………………………………. 5. ……………………………………. …………………………………….SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 1 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured. 84 . 4. ……………………………………. 2.

Select an appropriate measuring tool to measure the area of a soccer field. IV. II and III only.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Use the actual measurements to order your body parts from shortest to longest. I. I. How close was the estimated order to the actual order? ___________________________________________________________ 5. Compare your estimates with your measurements. Design a model of a science lab using recycle materials. Conduct the correct technique when measuring liquid using a graduated cylinder. II. Construct a plan of a classroom representing the actual distance. III and IV only. II and IV only. Which of the following activities can help to enhance the skill of measuring and using numbers? I. using 1 for the shortest and 10 for the longest. I. III. III and IV only. II. 4. What surprised you? 1. (A) (B) (C) (D) 85 . II.

She used tomato seeds. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ (b) What is the appropriate tool to measure the length of the seeds ? __________________________________________________________ (c) Name the unit used for the measurement in (b). The results of her investigation are recorded in Table 3 below. Khadijah is investigating the effect of water on the growth of tomato seeds. Time (day) Length (cm) 1 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 4 Table 3 (a) List four basic science process skills involved in the investigation. wet cotton and a beaker.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2. ___________________________________________________________ 86 .

Discuss and identify how numbers affect your life. Compare imperial units to the metric system. 87 . how could she does it in order to get the same results? TUTORIAL 1 List down the types of measurement and the units used for each type. TUTORIAL 2 Carry out the ―Mixing Water‖ activity. Discuss how understanding of measurements enables you to make better and more informed decisions in your daily life.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY (d) If Khadijah does not want to present the data using a table. Read the article ―Did You Know (Facts on Numbers)‖.

the can opener was invented 48 years after the can. 29028 feet).. 33480 feet) is taller than the worlds highest mountain Mt.. that . a very thirsty camel can drink 35 gallons (135 liter)water in 6 minutes one record holding camel drank over 50 gallons (200 liter) in one day that sound travels five times faster underwater than it does through the air? the chinese wall is 3969 miles (6350 Km) long.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Did you know. Nepal (8848 meter. that the undersea mountain Mauna Kea. 88 . Hawaii measured from the ocean floor (10205 meter. Everest.

026. it is impossible to lick your own elbow. watch your feet over 70% of people who read this try to lick their elbow 89 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY . a cockroach can survive 9 days without head winds in a tornado can reach speeds of 200 mph (320 km/h) light travels through space at 186000 miles per second(300000 km per second) so at the average distance from earth to the sun of 93. a kangaroo can jump up to 29 feet (9 meter) far and up to 10 feet (3 meter) high.724 miles it takes the light about 500 seconds (or 8 minutes and 20 seconds) to get here 211 g sugar or 36 g salt can be dissolved in 100 g water (at 77 degree F or 25 degree C) ants do not sleep that a hippopotamus weights 3000 to 4500 kg (6600 to 9900 lbs) .


volume. Using space and time relationships involves the ability to discern and describe directions. motion and speed. looking at the phases of the moon. You have mastered this skill when you are able to:  Describe location with reference to time  Describe change of direction with reference to time  Describe change in shape with reference to time  Describe change in size with reference to time  Arrange events chronologically  Ascertain change by referring to rate of change  Ascertain position of an object and describe its position in space  Describe the change of an object seen from a different position  Describe the relationship between distance of a moving object and time (CDC. Other parameters are location.5 USING SPACE AND TIME RELATIONSHIPS Space and time are two very basic concepts in physical science. size. weight and mass.  It helps us arrange events in its chronological sequence. This skill can be developed by paying attention to the sequence and position in which the events takes place. spatial arrangements. For example. 1994) 91 . observing the physical changes of ice cubes etc. symmetry and rate of change. Why do we need to master this skill?  It makes us realise that changes occur in relation to time.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. direction. It involves identify shape and movement according to time. This skill can describe the changes in parameter with time.

How fast can you roll it? How slow can you roll it? Activity 2 How long does it take you to count from 1 to 25. Highest daily temperature recorded each day for a week is shown on the data table. C. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 8°C 7°C 0°C 15°C 23°C 21°C 19°C Which of the following statements is correct? A. B. Monday showed the lowest temperature. The highest temperature was recorded on Thursday.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Activity 1 Roll a ball across the floor to a wall. It snowed all day on Friday. D. counting as fast as you can? 1. 92 . The temperature was higher on Wednesday than on Saturday.

40 cm = 73 seconds a) Suggest a suitable device to measure the time required for 20 oscillations. 93 . Anas carried out an investigation using a pendulum P. string P Below are the times taken. 20 cm = 36 seconds. b) Name the science process skill involved when Anas recorded the time taken during the investigation. 30 cm = 55 seconds. He recorded the time required for the pendulum to make 20 oscillations with different lengths of strings. 10 cm = 18 seconds.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2.

Plan a suitable activity from the list. Carry out the planned activity. List down topics from the curriculum specification that represents spacetime relationship 2. 3. people used shadow to tell time Materials:    Chalk A4 paper Plasticine 94 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1. Plan and do ―The Sun Clock Activity‖ MAKING A SUN CLOCK Before there were clocks.

construct a graph that represents the time versus the length of the shadow. From the graph. Mark the shadow of the pencil every hour until you get at least 8 readings.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Method: 1. From your results. When was the shadow became longer than the pencil? 95 . 3. What time did the shadow disappear? 2. answer the following: 1. 2. Place your chalk stand up in the middle of the paper using plasticine.

As teachers we often make inferences about why our students behave as they do. p 69.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Learning itself is an inference made from observed changes in learned behaviour. an inference is an explanation or interpretation of the observation. Much of our behaviour is based on the inferences we make about events. Scientists formulate hypotheses based on the inferences they make regarding investigations. 96 . While an observation is an experience perceived through one or more of the senses. Courtesy of Learning and Assessing Science Process Skills.7 INFERRING We appreciate our environment better when we are able to interpret and explain things happening around us. We learn to recognize patterns and expect these patterns to reoccur under same conditions. This process is often conditioned by our past experiences. 1995. To infer means to construct a link between what is observed directly and what is already known from past experience. New experiences only make sense to us when we are able to link them to understandings we already have.

it is helpful to follow these steps:  Make as many observations about the object or event as possible. When inferring.     ―From what I observed I infer that ……… ― ―The evidence suggests that ……. An inference is NOT a guess since a guess is an opinion formed from little or no evidence. This is your inference to the observations of the flash of light and the loud noise.  Recall from your experiences as much relevant information about the object or event as you can and integrate that information with what you observed. Almost immediately after the flash.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY INFERRING What is already known by past experiences? What is directly observed through the senses? For example. It is based on past experience with lighting and thunder and includes the knowledge that time interval between the flash and the sound is a measure of how far away the lightning struck. may have happened‖ ―A possible explanation for what I see is that … ― ―From what I observed I conclude that …‖ 97 . you hear a loud crashing noise.  State each inference in such a way that clearly distinguishes it from other kinds of statements. You then say that lighting has struck something not very far away. it is raining and you see a bright light flash outside the window.

The following are some observations and inferences statements that someone else made about the coin (Table 1). additional information may cause you to modify or even reject inferences that you once thought to be useful.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Often. At other times. after having drawn inferences from a set of observations. Table 1: Observations and Inferences Statements About A Coin 98 . They may sometimes reinforce your inferences. Observations This coin is the colour of copper Inferences I infer it is made of copper This coin has the date 1994 marked on The coin probably was made in 1994 it This coin has raised letters on it and I infer the coin was made by machine they are clear and uniform in size When I drop the coin on the table it I infer the coin is solid rather than makes a ―clinking‖ sound hollow The coin has a green substance on Perhaps the coin sat in water and one side become corroded The coin has one long deep scratch on Maybe someone deliberately gouged one side the coin with a sharp instrument Courtesy of Learning and Assessing Science Process Skills. New observations lead to adjusting patterns of experience to accommodate the new information. 1995. however. new information becomes available that may cause you to rethink your original inferences. p 73.

5. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations. 4. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY You can also make inferences about events. 1. strip 1 followed by strip 2 and then strip 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences. 2. The dots around the prints in strip 2 shows that the shoes have left deep prints. 99 . 1994) Activity 1 Practice Making Inference . These interpretations of observations are inferences.. You are making inferences when you are …. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions. 3. so you will first be making careful observations and then interpreting or explaining those observations.Footprints The diagram below shows three strips of footprints one after another. i. The series of footprints is seen on a beach. Every inference must be based on an observation.e. (CDC.

2.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1. You can make more than one inference in each case. 3. write your observations on each strip of prints and record your inferences. Based on the diagram. OBSERVATION Strip 1 INFERENCE Strip 2 Strip 3 100 .

Do you feel your inferences are better? Why? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 101 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Compare your list of inferences with those of your friends.

For each line draw the shape that follows in the box on the right. Does your experience help you to make the decision? ___________________________________________________________ 102 . How do you arrive at the answer for the shape that follows? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Activitiy 2 Observe the diagrams below. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Questions 1.

7. Underline inference statements with a red pen. (To help you think more logically about the picture. p) That is evidence that rabbits have been there. o) The cabbages that were growing in my garden are gone and there are droppings on the ground. Do you think it has help you to remember better? 1) Below are some examples of observation statements and inferences statements.) 103 . Based on the observations you have made. Try and practice all the suggestions that was discussed above. write down your inferences. l) Perhaps no one fed the fish m) Maybe it has become contaminated n) My drinking water smells like rotten eggs. b) I infer that the office is not used often c) Someone may have spilled a toxic substance there d) There is a spot in my front yard where grass does not grow. h) The pages in this book are yellow i) Through the window I see the flag waving j) It must be windy out k) The fish are floating on top of the tank. it has been divided into three frames. a) The brass knob on that door is not bright and shiny. f) It can be inferred that the chip has starch in it. 2) Observe these tracks in the snow in Figure 3. g) Maybe either the book is old or that the paper was dyed yellow to give it an old appearance.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Get a textbook. e) I see that iodine turns purple when I put it on a potato chip.

Copyright 1984 by Houghton Mifflin Company. TUTORIAL Further reading on INFERRING EXERCISESways of making inferences and prepare a summary 104 . Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Courtesy of INVESTIGATING THE EARTH. Fourth Edition by American Geological Institute. Comment on their answers. All rights reserved. Figure 3.7: Tracks in The Snow Carry out the ―Inferring Exercises‖ and discuss the answers in class Present a situation to your peers and let them make their inferences.


INFERRING EXERCISES Read the following observations. Then make inferences that explain each observation. Remember, there may be more than one logical explanation. Observation 1: You observe that the sky at noon is darkening. Your inference:___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Observation 2: You principal interrupts class and call a student from the room. Your inference:___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Observation 3: All middle school students are bringing lunch from home. Your inference:___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Observation 4: A former rock-and-roll band member has poor hearing. Your inference:___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Observation 5: You leave a movie theater and see that the street is wet. Your inference:____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Observation 6: During a handshake, you feel that the palm of the individual‘s hand is rough and hard. Your inference:____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________



Observation 7: The classroom lights are off. Your inference:____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Observation 8: A siren is heard going past the school. Your inference:____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________





SYNOPSIS Now that you have mastered the basic science process skills, you are now ready to learn the skills that lead to experimenting or conducting investigations. identifying interpreting and data, The integrated science process defining testing skills include


variables, and

operationally, and



experimenting. Learning these skills empowers you to answer many questions as you already have the tools to interpret what you observe and are able to design investigations to test your own ideas.

LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic teachers will able to : 1. Identify the variables of an investigation 2. Classify variables as manipulated or responding 3. State how variables are operationally defined in an investigation when given a description of the investigation 4. Construct operational definition for variables 5. Organise data that have been collected to simplify interpretation 6. Draw conclusions from the the data 7. Identify hypotheses from a given lists of statements 8. Explain why variables are important in the process of hypothesizing 9. Write a hypothesis using two variables 10. Define (or select a definition for) a hypothesis 11. Compare and contrast a hypothesis with a research question 12. Define a scientific investigation as either a survey or an experiment 13. Write an experiment report



and / or relationships that can change or be changed in an event or system. conditions.1 IDENTIFYING AND CONTROLLING VARIABLES By studying simple actions and reactions. In order to learn about scientific investigation. Variables: Time to run a kilometre Number of training Statement 2: The higher the temperature of water. you first need to learn the skill associated with identifying and manipulating variables.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY CONTENTS 4. Variables: Temperature of water Time needed for an egg to cook 109 . A variable is something that can vary or change. such as how raisins act in a baking soda solution. Variables are factors. The scientific approach to understanding such events is a process that breaks complex events into parts can be studied and understood. the faster an egg will cook. These parts of an event or system are called variables. or so small (like the movement of a Euglena). Sometimes they are so large (like the explosion of a volcano). What are the variables in the following statements? Statement 1: The time an athlete takes to run a kilometer depends on the number of training a person gets. But actions and reactions in the natural world are often complex. you have learned that observing and inferring are the basis of science. or so distant (like the birth of a star). or so spread over time (like the movement of a glacier) that it is impossible for the human mind to understand them in their entirety.

axis and the responding variable is always plotted on the Y . aspects that can influence results of an experiments. In the above statements:   Amount of exercise Time to cook the egg This is also known as dependent variable. Examples:   Type of exercise Size of the egg Independent variable is another name for manipulated variable. There are 3 types of variables. In the above statements:   Time to run a kilometer Temperature of water This is also known as independent. Dependent variable is watched by the experimenter and will respond to the manipulated or independent variable if there is a relationship. 2.e. Manipulated Variable (MV): Factor or condition that is manipulated or changed to test its effect on the experiment. 1. Responding Variables (RV): The experiment result that responds or reacts to a factor or condition changed.axis. The investigation is to find the effect of one variable on another. When we plot information on a graph the manipulated variable always is plotted on the X . and conduct the experiment by manipulating only one variable while keeping the other variables constant.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Controlling variable is identifying all variables i. It is independently selected by the experimenter to be manipulated. 3. Constant Variable (CV): Variables that are controlled or kept constant. 110 .

Paper clips are added before the test flight.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 1 The number of nails picked up by an electromagnet will be increased if more batteries are put in the circuit. Design a simple experiment for this activity. What would the variables be? 111 . Suppose an investigation was carried out on the problem above. As each paper clips are added. What would the variables be? ACTIVITY 2 A student wants to test how the mass of a paper aeroplane affects the distance it will fly. the plane is thrown to determine how far it will fly.

Discuss your experimental results in class. and connecting wires. a switch. a rheostat. a cell holder. 2. 3 batteries. (a) Students in a science class carried out an investigation in which a flashlight was pointed at a screen. (d) More bushels of potatoes will be produced if more fertilizer is used on the soil . Will the number of foxes has any effect on the rabbit population? (c) The score on the final test depends on the number of subordinate skills attained.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1. with your peers. (b) The Forestry Department has been counting the number of foxes in Pahang state. a voltmeter (0 – 5 V). Do the ―Identifying and Controlling Variable Activity‖. You are given a constantan wire. State three variables in the investigation. 112 . Conduct an experiment to investigate the effect of length on the resistance of a conductor. an ammeter (0 -1 A). 1. For each of the following statements or descriptions identify the manipulated variable (MV) and responding variable (RV). Carry out ―Helicopter Happening‖ experiment and compare your results 2. They wished to find out if the distance from the light to the screen had any effect on the size of the illuminated area.


Examine the textbooks for year 1 - 6 and list down alternative terms for variables that are currently used.


Materials: (for each group of four)       4 sugar cubes Coarse sugar 4 beakers paper towels or sponges 2 spoons of different sizes, Stopwatches

Methods: 1. Each should be given 4 sugar cubes, 4 beakers, and 2 spoons. 2. Pour 100 ml of tap water into each beaker simultaneously. 3. Dissolve each cube of sugar in the beakers. In one beaker there will be a cube and water, one will have a cube, spoon (for stirring), and water, another will have coarse sugar and water, and the last will have coarse sugar, spoon (for stirring), and water. 4. Students predict which container will have the fastest rate of dissolving by using stop watch. 5. Talk about predictions (it's okay to have wrong predictions--happens all the time), graph the results of the experiments.



Are there different results? Were all the methods of experimentation the same? Explain. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Brainstorm a number of manipulated/independent variables that could have had an effect upon the results of your experiment (the rate of dissolution). Put suggestions on a chart.

Independent Variable Prediction spoon size amount of water placement of spoon old vs. new cubes different solvents . . . . .

Exp. Notes . . . . .

Observation . . . . .

You may find some discrepancies in the above experiment. How would you suggest to make the experiment a better one? Discuss. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________



TUTORIAL 2 Helicopter Happening Materials:     Scissors Ruler Worksheet Helicopter pattern on next page

Method: 1. Carefully cut out the pattern for the rotating object and follow the assembly directions. 2. Test the device to find how it works. Record your observations and inferences ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

What are some possible variables that could affect how it flies? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________


SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Rotating Object for “Helicopter Happening” 116 .

The number of jumping jacks a person could do before tiring. Thus an operational definition tells what operation is performed and observed and how it is measured. The distance a person could run without stopping.2 DEFINING OPERATIONALLY The method or procedure used to measure a variable is called an operational definition. Operational definition should be explicit enough that another investigator could carry out the measurement without any further information from the investigator.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 4. The variable ―endurance of a person‖ could be defined operationally many different ways. temperature-thermometer. you do not need to define it operationally.     The number of hours a person could stay awake. Example: ―investigation to test the effects of vitamin E on the endurance of a person‖. If you can measure a variable directly using standard systems of measurement. Eg: depth-ruler. Different investigators may use different operationally definition for the same variable. time-stopwatch. Defining operationally involves finding equivalent ways of measuring something indirectly that cannot be conveniently measured directly. Eg. pendulum activitymeasure period in terms of number of swings per 15 seconds because time of one swing could not be measured conveniently. 117 .

and in April there were twenty. in March there fifteen. During each of these four months. in February there were ten. a record of the number of people hospitalized because of accidents was measured. In January.  Identify the MV and RV Manipulated Variable: Safety advertising Responding Variable: Automobile Accidents  How was each variable operationally defined? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 118 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 1: A study was done to determine if safety advertising had any effect on automobile accidents. Different numbers of billboards were put up in Bukit Mertajam over a period of four months to see if the number of people hospitalized because of auto accidents was affected. five billboards carried safety messages.

Teacher trainee rode bikes for different numbers of kilometers and then their pulse rate was measured. Following the exercise the pulse rate was immediately measured by counting the pulse for one minute. a second group rode 20 km. Manipulated Variable: Amount of exercise Responding Variable: Pulse rate  How was each variable operationally defined? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . a third group rode 30 km and a fourth group rode 40 km. One group rode 10 km.  Identify the MV and RV.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 2: A study was done to determine the effect that exercise has on pulse rate.

What is the operational definition of the slope of the land? (A) mass of the eroded soil (B) depth of the ditch cut by the water (C) mass of water used in the stream table (D) height to which the end of the stream table was raised 2. Examine the textbooks for year 1 . 120 . a litre of water was poured in at one end of the stream table. the depth of the ditch cut by the water was measured. Tutorial 1 Exercises on operational definitions. The end of the stream table was raised to four different heights (a stream table is a plastic box containing sand). Tutorial 2 Discuss on operational definition exercises.6 and list down some examples of operational definitions. After the water had run over the soil.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 1. Describe at least 3 ways where the amount of evaporation could be operationally defined. An investigation is carried out to see how the initial temperature of a liquid affects the amount of water evaporated. At each height. A study was conducted to see the amount of erosion was affected by the slope of the land.

A teacher is interested in investigating the effect of homework on test results.‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. What is an operational definition of the variable ―pizza topping preference?‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 121 . Give two operational definitions of the variable ―window posters.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TUTORIAL 1 DEFINING VARIABLES OPERATIONALLY 1. A student wants to measure which pizza toppings her friends prefer. A shopkeeper wants to find out if window posters affect sales. What are the two operational definitions for the variable ―homework?‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.

The variable ―trash problem‖ could be defined in the following ways. The method used to measure a variable is called an operational definition. let‘s look at an example. that method must be reported to other scientists. Any scientist can read an operational definition and easily understand or perform the same measurement. The variables ‖health of students‖ could be defined in the following ways. examples below shoe operational definitions of variables. so they can also test the investigation results. 122 . Before you begin. The Examples One A student wants to test the effects of vitamin C on the health of students in her class.    The number of colds experienced during a month The number of days absent due to sickness in a month The number of people with coughs in a month Example Two A student wants to test the effect of ―don‘t Litter‖ posters on the trash problem at his school.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY What is an Operational Definition? One of the most important operational decisions a scientist must make is to determine how measurement of the variable will be made.    The number of candy wrappers on the playground The number of bags of trash collected The number of aluminium cans in the courtyard Your task is to think of operational definitions that might be used to measure variables in several situations. An operational definition indicates the way a measurement will be performed. Once a scientist has decided on a method.

Operational Definition of the variable ―magnet strength‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. 1. Operational Definition of the variable ―germination‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 123 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY A student wants to measure the absorbency of paper towels. He wants to measure the strength of his favourite magnet. The student must create an operational definition for measuring the absorbency of paper towels. The Pour: Measure the amount of water that collects after 25 ml of water has been poured through a crumpled paper towel. A student is interested in magnets. so absorbency is the variable. The Lift: Measure the height that water reaches after the end of a folded towel has been inserted in water for 15 minutes. A student is interested in investigating the germination (sprouting) of seeds. Think of operational definitions that might be used to measure variables in the following situations. He develops three possible operational definitions.    The Dunk: Measure the amount of water that remains after a crumpled paper towel has been placed in 25 ml of water for five minutes.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Operational definition of the variable ―study‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Operational definition of the variable ―science grade‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 124 . A student wants to measure which soft drink her classmates prefer. Operational definition of the variable ―interesting reading books about science‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5. A student wants to find out if study affects science grades. A student wants to find out how interested her classmates are in reading books about science. Operational definition of the variable ―soft drink preference‖ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 4. a hypothesis is based on some previous observation such as noticing that in November many trees undergo color changes in their leaves and the average daily temperatures are dropping. You are testing variables. you will perform a test of how two variables might be related. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. That is.3 FORMULATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESIS A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. 1994) • • • • • Suggest an explanation that is in line with proof Suggest an explanation that is in line with science principles or concepts Use previous knowledge to come up with an explanation Be aware that there is more than one way to explain a happening or event Be aware that the explanation is only a suggestion When Are Hypotheses Used? The key word is testable. When do you construct hypothesis? • • Before any investigation or experiment is conducted The hypothesis provides guidance to an investigation about what data to collect 125 . For example. It is just an exercise or demonstration of what is already known. Hypotheses are predictions about the relationship between variables Indicators for Making Hypotheses (CDC. Many hypotheses have been proposed and tested. A hypotheses should not be confused with a theory. Usually. the theory of evolution applies to all living things and is based on wide range of observations. This is when you are doing a real experiment. there are many things about evolution that are not fully understood such as gaps in the fossil record. However. Are these two events connected? How? Any laboratory procedure you follow without a hypothesis is really not an experiment.

How Are Hypotheses Written? 1." could be a conclusion." we are making a prediction. One way to prevent making such easy mistakes is to formalize the form of the hypothesis. if we say "Trees will change color when it gets cold. they may not have even been hypotheses at all. their form is not particularly useful. . Salt in soil may affect plant growth. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. 6. Instructional Implication: • • statement of relationship that might exist between two variables—If . 2. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable. If these statements had not been written carefully.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Formulating Hypotheses? . However. Using the word may does not suggest how you would go about proving it.". "Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer. All of these are examples of hypothesis because they use the tentative word "may. 5. 4. Temperature may cause leaves to change color. then formal scientific experiments contain a hypothesis & control variable(s) Problem 1: What factors determine the rate at which an object falls through air? Possible variables: a) volume of object b) surface area of object c) length of fall d) weight of object 126 . For example. Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light.stating the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. Chocolate may cause pimples. . Or if we write. 3.

Cut one end of one of the straw to form a point and blow into this end of the straw to produce a sound. the lower the temperature inside the house Activity 1 1.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Construct hypothesis: a) If the volume of an object increases. then the faster it will fall d) If the weight an object has. the higher the temperature inside the house c) The steeper the roof. Question: How does the length of the straw affect the pitch of the sound produced? 127 . the higher the temperature inside the house b) The nearer the house is to the equator. then the rate at which it falls through air decreases c) If the longer(or farther) an object falls through air. then the rate at which it falls through air decreases b) If the surface area of object increases. then the faster it will fall through air. Problem 2: Why is it warmer in house then another? Possible variables: a) outside temperature b) location of house c) slope of roof d) number openings to the outside Construct hypothesis: a) The higher outside temperature. Observe the pitch of the sound produced(high or low) 2. the higher the temperature inside the house d) The more openings to the outside.

Why doesn‟t an animal breathe at the same rate all the time? a) Variable 1:…………………………………………………… Hypothesis 1:…………………………………………………. State a hypoyhesis for each variable listed. 4. Hypothesis 2:…………………………………………………. and observe the pitch of the sound produced. Arrange your six straws in order from the highest to the lowest pitch and tape the straws in the box below. Then cut one end of each straw.. Highest Λ V Lowest 5. Trim the five remaining straws to different lengths. 128 . Did your investigation prove your hypothesis? ………………………………………………………………………………… ACTIVITY 2 For each of the following problem list three variables which could effect the responding variable. b) Variable 2:…………………………………………………….SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Your hypothesis(guess): ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3. blow into this end.

(C) The amount of water affects the growth of a plant. a rheostat. You are given a constantan wire. What could be her hypothesis? (A) The plant makes its own food. Hypothesis 3:………………………………………………… Sariah wants to find the answer to the problem.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY c) Variable 3:…………………………………………………….. an ammeter (0 -1 A). (b) State one hypothesis that can be made for this investigation …………………………………………………………………… 129 . (B) After a few weeks the plant becomes taller. a switch. Conduct an experiment to investigate the effect of length on the resistance of a conductor. ―What affects the rate at which a plant grows?‖ 1. a cell holder. ………………………………………………………………. and connecting wires. (D) The growth of plant can be measured by counting the number of leave 2. (a) State three variables in the investigation ………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………….. 3 batteries.. a voltmeter (0 – 5 V).

J.. Journal of Research in science Teaching. Science Process Skills:Assessing hands-on student performance.S.K.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY What is the trend of change on the length of constantan wire during the investigation? ………………………………………………………………….43-69.(1992).L. The role of children‟s journals in elementary school science activities..38(1). 130 .D. www.. Choose five experiments from the curriculum specification. construct a hypothesis for each experiment. CA:Addison Wesley Publishing Company Ostlund.& Britisch.(2001). Menlo Park.accessexcellence.

This comes from the hypothesis you devise.4 INTERPRETING DATA In the investigation you may have collected some qualitative data then you have to explain the data patterns or relationships based on information gathered. 131 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 4. You may do the investigation mentally. chart or histogram. Why this skill is important? • • • To get as many as possible the information from graph. table dan figure To get the relation among the variables To make conclusion. Sample data tables with computer -generated graphs or data and calculators are very useful aids to constructing graph. One of the best ways to organize data from interpretation is to put the data in visual form such as graph. visualizing what will happen and deciding what kinds of information you will need to have to tell why it happened. How will you organize your investigation so you can interpret the result? This skill is used when: • • • • • Make a conclusion from the collected data Identify the pattern from the collected data State the relation from the collected data Make a statement from the collected data State the conclusion is supported by the data. The first step in interpreting data is to decide what data you want together.

ft...... vii.....Ft(price/sq... Which brand costs the most per towel?...................................................................... Paper Towels Paper towel brands Price per Towels Squ roll per roll are feet per roll Waja Kelisa Viva Wira Kancil Saga Rusa 92 cent 83 cent 96 cent 77cent 74 cent 71cent 67cent 50 90 88 70 124 115 100 102 110 110 40 71 73 73 88 79 74 72 75 77 Cost per Cost per towel(price sq.............. Why?................ Which brand costs the least per towel?...... iv...............per / towels) roll) Kembara 76cent Myvi Tiara 59 cent 76 cent i........ iii............... vi......... v............... Which brand is the best buy?............... Which brand costs the most per square foot?.....SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Activity 1 1................ Calculate the cost per towel of each of the brands Calculate the cost per square foot of each brand of paper towels. September 2009........................ ii........... Which brand costs the least per square foot?.. 132 .... Look at the following table of information from Consumer Reports.......................................

.... How high is the highest active volcanoe?................................... iii......................... ii............... How high is the lowest active volcanoe?.............SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY ACTIVITY 2 Read the table below and answer the questions about the information........ 133 .......... Name(Year activity) Colima(1986) of latest Location Height(in meter) Mexico Alaska Alaska Washington Aleutan Islands Alaska Aleutan Islands Mexico Aleutan Islands Alaska Aleutan Islands Aleutan Islands Aleutan Islands Alaska 4268 3108 3075 2950 2861 2507 2504 2225 2036 1832 1740 1303 1303 1054 Redoubt(1966) Iliamna(1978) Mount St Helen(1986) Shissaldin(1981) Veniaminof(1884) Pavlof(1984) El Chicon(1983) Makushin(1980) Trident(1963) Great sitkan(1974) Akutan(1980) Kiska(1969) Sequam(1977) i... What is the difference in height between the highest and lowest volcano?.

.... The result of an experiment is shown in Table 1.. (C) The length of the shadow decreases constantly....... 1........................... (D) The length of stick increases with the length of shadow.......SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY iv......... 134 .... Length of stick (cm) 10 20 30 40 50 Length of shadow (cm) 5 12 22 29 40 Table 1 Which of the following is correct? (A) The length is measured in meter. v.. What is the least recent date of volcanic activity?.. How many years passed between the most recent activity and the least recent activity?........... (B) The length of the stick decreases..................... What is the most recent date of volcanic activity? ..... vi...

3) Draw a graph to represent your data. 2) Identify independent and dependent variables from the collected data. internet on any topic. Do you find any ingredients that you do not recognize? Do you think processed foods are good alternative in our lives? Explain. magazines. identify each food label and by using a table categorize the ingredients. Tutorial 2 1) Find any data from newspaper. Butterfly Stages Egg to larvae Larvae to pupa Pupa to adult Time taken (days) 10 21 21 Mosquito Time taken (days) 3 10 2 Tutorial 1 (1) (2) Find some food wrappers to class Carefully. 135 . The table below shows time taken in days for butterfly and mosquito to develop from one stage to another. Give your interpretation from data given.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 2.

S. Menlo Park.(1992)..& Britisch. CA:Addison Wesley Publishing Company Shepardson.P. The role of children‟s journals in elementary school science activities.K. Science Process Skills:Assessing hands-on student performance.(2001).D.L.J. Journal of Research in science 136 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Ostlund.

we ask a question on how a variable may affect another variable. An experiment may start as a question. In an experiment. We may consider the following steps to answer this question:         Identifying variables Formulating hypothesis Identifying factors to be held constant Making operational definitions Designing investigation Conducting repeated trails Collecting data Interpreting data Natural phenomena are complex and usually involve many factors or variables. Hypothesis is written to predict how one variable can affect another variable. A true experiment involves hypothesis testing and variable control. Ideally an experiment is carried out to find out an answer or solution to a question or problem. Experimenting is the scientific process in which we investigate the effect of changing one variable on the change in a different variable In experimenting. In order to study these natural events systematically.5 EXPERIMENTING One way how we can conduct investigation is by doing experiment. A method of investigation in devised to test the hypothesis. we put together both the basic and integrated science process skills.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 4. Thoughtful 137 . we break down these events by different variables so that we can look at how one variable affects another variable. Operational definitions for the variables are determined and experiment is conducted.

1 thumbtack. a small plate. a container of ice cubes. 138 . e) Making operational definitions: To measure sense of touch.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY observations and data are recorded. Finally inferences. The small hole must be big enough for the toothpicks to pass through. time taken to insert 15 pieces of toothpick through a small hole into a container is compared before and after our hand is dipped in ice water for 30 seconds f) Designing investigation: What do I need? 5 toothpicks. Tables and graphs can be used to communicate these results. conclusions and recommendations can be made. 1 stopwatch What do I do? i) Break a toothpick into three small pieces. ACTIVITY 1 1. Do this for all the 5 toothpicks ii) Use a thumbtack to make a small hole on the lid of the plastic container. a plastic container with lid. Icy Finger a) Problem statement:How does cold environment affect our sense of touch? b) Identifying variables to be manipulated: Warm hand and cold hand Results to be measured: Time taken to complete the task with hand before and after being immersed in ice water c) Identifying factors to be held constant: Number of toothpicks to be inserted into a container through a small hole d) Formulating hypothesis: Time taken to insert all 15 toothpicks into a container through a small hole is longer after the hand is immersed as compared to time taken for similar activity before hand is immersed in cold water.

Hypothesis is accepted. How much time do you take to finish all the toothpicks? g) Conducting repeated trials: Carry out the experiment at least three times to find average time taken h) Collecting data Time taken (seconds) 1st trial Hand not 2nd trial 3rd trial Average dipped in ice water Hand dipped in ice water i) Analyse and interpreting data: The average time taken to complete the task:  before hand is dipped in ice water is _____ seconds  after hand is dipped in ice water is _____ seconds When the hand is cold. That is why it is harder to pick up the toothpicks. j) Make a conclusion that answer the problem statement. How long do you take to finish inserting all the 15 broken toothpicks? iv) Now dip the same hand into a container of ice for 30 seconds. Dry your hand. which dulls the sense of touch. there will be less blood flow to the skin. The skin becomes less sensitive. Time taken to insert all 15 toothpicks into a container through a small hole is longer after the hand is immersed as 139 .SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY iii) Start the stopwatch as you begin to pick up small toothpicks from the plate and insert into the plastic container through the small hall. pick up the broken toothpicks and insert them into the plastic container in the same manner.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY compared to time taken for similar activity before hand is immersed in cold water. ACTIVITY 2 Best Facial Wipe a) Problem statement: Which brand of facial wipe is the best? b) Identifying variables to be manipulated and results to be measured/observed c) Identifying factors to be held constant d) Formulating hypothesis: Smart guess that relates manipulated variable with responding variable. 140 . g) Conducting repeated trials: Carry out the experiment at least three times to find average reading h) Collecting data: Use a table to record data i) Analyse and interpreting data: Communicate results in table/chart/figure and attempt to explain the results obtained j) Make a conclusion that answer the problem statement. Figure may be included to give better illustration. e) Making operational definitions: How do you define ‗best‘ facial wipe? f) Designing investigation: List down the steps to run the experiment.

b. Read Skamp (2004).SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY a. Identify a problem which you would investigate.3 pg 83 141 . Appendix 2. Here are some examples:      What affects the rate at which a person breathes? What affects how far a rubber band will fly? Can a plant get too much fertilizer? Is there a relationship between the size of seed and its germination time? How waterproof are paints? Do ―The Pendulum Experiment‖ Discussion on the Pendulum Experiment results Read ―Guide to Science Experiments‖ and plan your own investigation. List down the basic and integrated science process skills. Design an experiment to find the answer to the question.

(2001). Tytler. Fiel. Martin.). www. T. Volume 1. Teaching Science www. Iowa: Kendall / Hunt Publishing Company. Ramsey J.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Skamp.). (2004).edu/cleanva/images/sec6. J. Process (2000) The Science of Toys and Tricks.. A. R.. Constructing Early Childhood 142 . Melbourne.surfnetkids.html www.processskills.htm www. Funk.E..J.pdf www. Melbourne: Deakin University. Australia: Thomson Learning. (2004) Teaching primary science constructively (2nd ed. Learning and Assessing SCIENCE Process Skills (3rd edition). Activities Book. R.L.. Science Experiments you can eat. Pedagogy of Science. K. USA: Good Apple.pdfgeni. (1995).M. (1995). Sprague C.Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Ramig. H.. New York: Thompson Learning Poh Swee Hiang. (2005). J. J. Melbourne: Deakin University. Klindworth. Bailer. Bhd. (Ed. D.

When set in motion. You have heard about Galileo and Foucault. variable. wire. What variables might affect its swing? List them below. whose pendulum experiments made important contributions to science. The frequency of a pendulum is the time it takes to make a complete cycle (from starting point back to starting point). or rope. Visualize a pendulum. You will need at least three experiments – one for each This will require you to write a hypothesis for each experiment.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY TUTORIAL Pendulum Experiment Materials:         String Ring stand Washers (or any object that can be used to vary mass) Meter stick Second hand Worksheet (on next page) Experiment report model Experiment report A pendulum is an object connected to a fixed point by a string. 143 . Variable 1 _____________________________________________________ Variable 2 _____________________________________________________ Variable 3 _____________________________________________________ Design a series of experiments that will test how each of the variables listed above might affect a pendulum‘s swing or frequency. Controlling all variables not being tested is extremely important in this series of experiments. a pendulum swings back and forth.

Choose a manipulated variable and a responding variable. Decide whether you will perform an experiment or a survey. Discuss your plan with your lecturer online and get the approval. Make sure the topic offers the potential for experimentation. and skills.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY Your Own Investigation Here is an opportunity to apply all the science process skills you have learned. Conduct a library research and write a review of the literature about your topic. You can get the information by giving a questionnaire and conduct a survey to answer those questions. Ask a question about a physical or biological event or relationship. List the potential variables. 4. 7. 5. activities. 6. 144 . 2. The best topics can arise from your hobbies. Operationally define the variables so they can be measured. Consumer testing is a good area for first-time projects. Complete the survey plan. 3. A literature review summarizes information about your topic into a report. Write a hypothesis that provide an exact focus for the survey. Your task 1. interests. Write a specific research question.

SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY 8. 10. Don‘t forget to record qualitative data whenever necessary. Make recommendations. Interpret the data. For example. Write conclusions. Prepare a final report using the survey report. Keep an open mind. Compile the results. Don‘t be too general. 11. Surveyor bias. Inaccurate measurement. your interpretation must refer to only that variety of radish seed. Quantitative data should be recorded in data tables and you may want to include graphs to help with interpretation. Remember to control all variables except the manipulated and responding variables. Gather materials. Remember. inferences. caplet. Design the survey to collect data that will answer the research question and hypotheses. or capsule – are preferred by most students? 145 . and discussion. if you test only one type of radish seed. held accountable for all critical information and techniques. Population selection bias. You will be Common Problems in conducting survey      Low sample size Lack of control of everything but the manipulated and responding variables. 12. Suggestions For Your Topic  Which pill design – tablet. 9. more data is better than less data.

or microwave heat sources? How does colour affect the choice of drinks for students? Experiment Plan and Approval Investigation Topic Manipulated Variable Responding Variable Research Question Hypothesis Data Collection Plan How will you control all variables except the manipulated and responding variable? What special equipment will you need? Lecturer‘s Approval 146 . electric.SCE 3106 : WORKING AND THINKING SCIENTIFICALLY    Which bottle designs are most childproof or tamperproof? Which heats liquids faster – gas.

Funk. Activities Book.& Britisch. Sprague C. Bailer.(2001). (2001). Pedagogy of Science. 8. T. Melbourne: Deakin University. The role of children’s journals in elementary school science activities. CA:Addison Wesley Publishing Company 10.E. 5.D. (2004). Science Experiments you can eat. Poh Swee Hiang. 3. J.L.G (2006). Esler. J. Tytler. Ramsey J. Teaching Elementary Science (8th editon). R.(1992). Klindworth. H. Fiel. Martin. New York:Thompson Learning 9. Iowa: Kendall / Hunt Publishing Company.. Esler M. Ostlund. (2005).). Ramig.. (1995). A.P.W. K. P. (Ed. Constructing Early Childhood Science. Australia: Thomson Learning. (2004) Teaching primary science constructively (2nd ed. Shepardson. New York 7. Bhd. P. Rezba..D. R.Thomson Learning : Belmonte 2..Kuala Lumpur Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Pearson Addison Wesley New York 6. Teaching Science Process Skills.J. R Walker J (2006).BIBLIOGRAFI 1.K. Hewitt .S.. Melbourne: Deakin University. Volume 1. Hewitt .K. Resnick. 11. Menlo Park. Conceptual Physics (10th edition).J. 13. Fundamentals of Physics 7th Edition. J. Pearson Addison Wesley .L. Science Process Skills:Assessing hands-on student performance. USA: Good Apple.K. Practicing Physics. (1995). (2001).M. (2000) The Science of Toys and Tricks. J. Learning and Assessing SCIENCE Process Skills (3rd edition). Skamp.G (2006). Melbourne. Willey: New York 4.. Journal of Research in science 12. Albany.). 148 .. Halliday . D. Conceptual Physics (10th edition).

html 21. Foreman J (2005) Teaching science in the primary classroom: A practical guide.stevespanglerscience. www. 26. www. www. Pearson : Singapore html 18. 28. Bak H. A.pdf H. Hewlett 24.ehow.learner.html 19.K (2003) Teaching Primary 22. www.wikihow.pdfgeni. Goh N.K. Ward.html Paul Chapman Publishing :London 15. http://www.ccm!tutorcenter 17.longwood. www. Roden 148 .htm 23. www. Yap pdf. www. www. Toh K.C.

PANEL PENULIS MODUL PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (SAINS PENDIDIKAN RENDAH) NAMA ROHANA BT MAHADZIR Pensyarah IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun hanamahadzir@gmail. Ed (Psikometrik) USM 1997 B. MOR Pensyarah Kanan IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun KELAYAKAN M. Ed(Pendidikan Sains). Sc (Kep. Sc(Psikologi Pendidikan).) (Kimia) UPM 1987 USM 7 tahun sebagai guru 14 tahun sebagai pensyarah MARIAM M. USM M. Ed(Psikometrik dan Pengujian Pendidikan). USM (2004) B. RODO Ketua Jabatan Sains IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun mr_mptb@yahoo.Sc Ed (Hons). ISMAIL Pensyarah Kanan IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun emwaiai@yahoo. USA(1983) Sijil Perguruan Lepasan Ijazah (1984) 12 tahun sebagai guru 13 tahun sebagai pensyarah ZAKIAH M.Sc (Pengurusan) UUM 2000 B. Sc (Hons) (Kimia) UKM 1981 Diploma Pendidikan UKM 1981 11 Tahun sebagai guru 18 Tahun sebagai pensyarah MOHD YAZIZ B. UPM B. Sains Dengan Pendidikan (Kimia/Matematik) UPM 1977 16 Tahun sebagai guru 16 Tahun sebagai pensyarah 149 .A. Iowa State University.(Chemistry).

net.Psychology).com KELAYAKAN M Ed (Biology) UPSI 2007 B Sc (Biotechnology) UPM 1990 Dip Ed (Mathematics & Science) Ph D (USM) 2010 M Sc (USM) 1998 B Sc & Ed (Hons) (UTM) 1986 21 tahun sebagai guru 3 tahun sebagai pensyarah DR ZAINAL ABIDIN B. Ed (Curriculum studies).1992 12 tahun sebagai guru 3 tahun sebagai guru kanan sains 3 tahun sebagai pensyarah DR KHOR KWAN HOOI Pensyarah IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun M.USM B.NAMA HAIRIAH Ph D (Biologi) USM 2008 M Sc (Biologi) USM 1995 B Sc (Hons) (Hortikultur) UPM 1990 Dip Ed (Mathematics & Science) 1996 1 tahun sebagai guru 14 tahun sebagai pensyarah SAIDI B.Ed (Physics. SAMSUDIN Pensyarah IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun cyd99@yahoo. HJ. MUNIP Pensyarah IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun hairiahmunip@yahoo. ABDul HAMID Pensyarah IPG Kampus Tuanku Bainun zaa693@yahoo.USM 13 tahun sebagai guru 11 tahun sebagai pensyarah 149 .

com KELAYAKAN B.Ed.Sc.NAMA CHIN CHEE KEONG chinck78@hotmail. (Hons) USM 2002 8 tahun sebagai guru 6 bulan sebagai pensyarah 149 .


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