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Jagannath Sardar (2008TTZ8165)
Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology Delhi New Delhi-16 September 20, 2008
Page no. 1. Introduction 2. Properties of Sound Waves 2.1 Reflection 2.2 Refraction 2.3 Interference 2.4 Diffraction 2.5 Doppler Effect 2.6 Intensity 3. Ultrasonic transducers 4. Loudness (dB) or the Sound Intensity Level (SIL) of a wave 5. Parameters of Sound Wave 5.1 Wavelength 5.2 Frequency 5.3 Amplitude 5.4 Speed 6. Equation of Progressive Wave 6.1 Damping of Vibration 6.2 Energy Dissipation by damping force 7. Conclusion 8. References 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 12 14 15 16
A sound wave can be defined as the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water, or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound. The vibration can be described as some object that causes disturbs the particles in the surrounding medium; those particles disturb those next to them, and so on. Sound travels through the air (gas), water (liquid) or brick (solid), in fig. 1 shows as a pressurized longitudinal wave. In a longitudinal wave the particle displacement is parallel to the direction of wave propagation. And transverse wave the particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
The compressing and expanding of the air produces differences in air pressure. The pressure differences in the air move away from the drum surface like ripples in a pond, creating a sound wave. This is how the drum produces a sound that we can hear. To generate sound, it is necessary to have a vibrating source, such as the tuning fork shown here. When the source vibrates, it displaces adjacent particles and molecules in the medium, causing them to vibrate back and forth as well. Their vibrations cause more distant particles to vibrate, and so on. The audible sound that we hear is made up of tiny vibrations of air molecules, which are transmitted to our ears. This transmission of vibrations[Fig. 2],
starting from the source and continuing from one molecule to the next, is how sound travels through a medium. It should be noted that air cannot sustain any form of shear stress so sound can only be transmitted as a longitudinal wave.
Fig. 2. Sound wave Propagation
2. Properties of Sound Wave:
Sound wave has properties like Reflection, Refraction, Interference and Diffraction.
2.1 Reflection: Reflection of sound waves off of surfaces can lead to one of two phenomenons - an echo or a reverberation. In fig. 3 shows reverberation often occurs in a small room with height, width, and length dimensions of approximately 17 meters or less.
Fig. 3. Reflection of Sound wave 2.2 Refraction:
Refraction of waves involves a change in the direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another. In fig. 4 shows Refraction, or bending of the path of the waves, is accompanied by a change in speed and wavelength of the waves.
Fig. 4. Refraction of Sound wave
2.3 Interference: Two traveling waves which exist in the same medium will interfere with each other. If their amplitudes add, the interference is said to be constructive interference[Fig. 5] and subtraction is called destructive interference. Two waves (with the same amplitude, frequency, and wavelength) are traveling in the same direction on a string. Using the principle of superposition, the resulting string displacement may be written as:
Fig. 5. Interference
2.4 Diffraction: Diffraction[Fig. 6]: the bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves beyond small openings. Diffraction  involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around a barrier in their path.
Fig. 6. Diffraction 2.5 Doppler Effect: The Doppler effect[Fig. 7] is a phenomenon observed whenever the source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The Doppler effect can be described as the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for the observer and the source are approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency when the observer and the source is receding.
Fig. 7. Doppler effect
2.6 Intensity: I as the rate at which energy E flows through a unit area A perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.
Power(P) Energy(E) = Area(a) Area ⋅ time(a.t )
Intensity is proportional to square of wave amplitude (remember energy in oscillator is square of velocity and square of displacement).
3. Ultrasonic transducers:
A transducer is a device that transforms one form of energy into another, for example, a microphone (sound to electric) or loudspeaker (electric to sound). In this experiment the transducer is a "piezoelectric" crystal which converts electrical oscillations into mechanical vibrations that make sound. The piezoelectric material contracts (or expands) a small amount when a voltage is applied across the crystal. The crystal has a natural resonance frequency, like a bell, at which it will vibrate when struck. If the frequency of the voltage applied to the piezoelectric crystal is the same as its natural frequency, the crystal will settle into steady large amplitude oscillations that produce high intensity sound waves. The oscillating frequency of the transducers you will use is near 40 kHz which is beyond what can be heard by the human ear (about 20 kHz). In medical ultrasound the vibrating sources are "piezoelectric elements in an ultrasonic transducer. The elements vibrate in response to applied electrical signals. The vibrating motion of the transducer elements cause particles in adjacent tissues to vibrate, and the ultrasonic vibrations travel through the tissue. If the source vibrates continuously, a continuous sound is produced. In most cases in ultrasound, the source vibrates briefly, producing a pulse of sound, which travels through the tissue. After echoes are picked up, another pulse is sent, and so on.
When a person speaks, vibrations of the vocal cords produce sound waves. Sound waves usually travel faster through solids than through liquids or gases. Since they require a medium to travel through, sound waves will not travel through a vacuum.
4. Loudness (dB) or the Sound Intensity Level (SIL) of a wave:
The decibel (dB) is used to measure sound level, but it is also widely used in electronics, signals and communication. Fig. 8 Shows the dB is a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio. The ratio may be power, sound pressure, voltage or intensity or several other things.
β = 10 log( )
The loudness of a sound, often referred to as the intensity, is dependent upon the amplitude of the wave.
I= P a
Fig. 8. Logarithmic unit As amplitude increases, loudness increases. The intensity of a sound is expressed in units called decibels. The intensity of a sound is related to the pressure on the eardrum. A sound of 120 decibels is intense enough to cause pain in the ear. The softest sound that can be heard is 0 decibels, while normal talking is about 65 decibels. The pitch of a sound refers to its highness or lowness. The pitch of a sound depends on frequency. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. The pitch of a sound changes when the sound or the listener moves. When you listen to a siren on an approaching vehicle, 8
the pitch of the sound appears to increase as the vehicle approaches (pitch decreases for vehicle going away). However, the pitch of the sound does not change. Instead, the number of vibrations that reach your ear is changed when the source of the sound moves. Therefore, the pitch appears to be higher or lower depending on whether the sound is moving toward or away from you. This rise and fall of pitch due to relative motion between the observer and the source of the sound is called the doppler effect. The phon is a unit that is related to dB by the psychophysically measured frequency response of the ear. At 1 kHz, readings in phons and dB are, by definition, the same. The sone is derived from psychophysical measurements which involved volunteers adjusting sounds until they judge them to be twice as loud. This allows one to relate perceived loudness to phons. A sone is defined to be equal to 40 phons.
5. Parameters of Sound Wave:
Sound waves are characterized by the generic properties of waves, which are frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude, intensity, speed, and direction (sometimes speed and direction are combined as a velocity vector, or wavelength and direction are combined as a wave vector).
The transmitting and receiving transducer stands fit over, and can slide along, a meter stick. With both transducers fixed in position, the two sinusoidal traces on the scope are steady. What happens to the scope trace from the receiving transducer when you move the receiving transducer away from the transmitting transducer? Measure the wavelength by slowly shifting the receiving transducer a known distance away from the transmitter while noting on the oscilloscope screen by how many complete cycles of relative phase the wave pattern shifts. Don't choose just one cycle, but as many cycles as can conveniently be measured along the meter stick. Use the measured period of ultrasonic oscillations from Part 1 and the wavelength from Part 2 to compute the speed of sound through air. The oscillation period measured with the scope sweep calibration is more accurate than the frequency readings on the signal 9
generator. Compare your computed value with the standard value of 344 m/s for dry air at 20 C temperatures.
Frequency is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. The hertz (symbol: Hz) is a measure of frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per second. It is the basic unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI), and is used worldwide in both general-purpose and scientific contexts. Hertz can be used to measure any periodic event. When the loudness of a sound wave changes, so does the amount of compression in airwave that is traveling through it, which in turn can be defined as amplitude.
Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable, with each oscillation, within an oscillating system. For instance, sound waves are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis then the amplitude may be measured as the vertical distance between points on the curve. Peak-to-peak amplitude is to measure it between peak and trough. Displacement Amplitude:
∆P0 A = ............. (1.1) ωρc
Peak-to-peak amplitudes can be measured by meters with appropriate circuitry, or by viewing the waveform on an oscilloscope, or by an accelerometer
The speed of sound depends on the medium through which the waves are passing, and is often quoted as a fundamental property of the material. In general, the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the medium to its density.
Speed of the Sound
The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or "pressure waves", are generated by vibrating structures; these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures. Sound = vibrations of matter (sound and other longitudinal waves require particle of matter to travel through). The closer the molecules are together the louder the sound. Speed of sound in air at 0° C = 331 m/s or about 1100 ft/s (speed varies with temperature, as temperature increases the speed increases). For every degree above 0° C multiply by 0.6 / t example: 35° C = 331 m/s + (0.6 • 35° C) = 352 m/s
6. Equation of Progressive Wave:
The simplest type of wave is the one in which the particles of the medium are set into simple harmonic vibrations as the wave passes through it. The wave is then called a simple harmonic wave.
Where A is the amplitude, ω is the angular frequency of the wave. Consider a particle P at a distance x from the particle O on its right. Let the wave travel with a velocity v from left to right. Since it takes some time for the disturbance to reach P, its displacement can be written as
Where φ is the phase difference between the particles two Positions. We know that a path difference of φ corresponds to a phase difference of 2φ radians. Hence a path difference of x corresponds to a phase difference of
Substituting equation (1.5) in equation (1.4) We get,
Similarly, for a particle at a distance x to the left of 0, the equation for the displacement is given by
Then we can write the general equation of the progressive wave as
Y = a sin 2
(Ct ± x)
Where, a = Amplitude t = 1/n (frequency) λ = wave length
6.1 Damping of Vibration:
The vibration hampered from within and without and of gradually diminishing amplitude are called resisted or damped vibration When the oscillator has damping, the oscillator loses energy during each cycle, and both the position and velocity decrease in amplitude as time proceeds. In Fig. 9, graphs of position versus time and velocity versus time display an amplitude envelope which decreases exponentially.
It can be assumed that the frictional force is proportional to the velocity of the vibration, and, in fact, this assumption approximates very closely to actual conditions. In such cases we speak of viscous damping[6, 17].
x -α -αe-αt
Fig. 9. Damping propagation of Sound Waves The proportionality factor is known as the damping constant (r) The equation of motion for a damped free vibration is thus: m d 2x dx +r + kx = 0 2 dt dt
Where x = Ceλt r = retarding force per unit velocity k = displacement per unit force From the equation we can fine out general equation as mλ2 + rλ + k = 0 And we can find out of the values of λ i.e. λ =
r r2 k + ( 2 − ) 2m 4m m
6.2 Energy Dissipation by damping force:
This will supply to the system just as much energy per vibration as there is lost in vibration energy as given by the equation[7,18], the amplitude is being maintained at a constant value of x0 We know
x = −ω0 x0 sin ω0t
∆E = ∫ k r dx ≈ − rx ω0 ∫ sin ω0t.d (cos ω0t )
2 0 0 0 2π
≈ rx ω0 ∫ sin 2 ω0t.d (ω0t )
2 0 0
1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 2 ≈ rx0 ω0 ⎨− sin 2ω0t + ω0t ⎬ 2 ⎩ 4 ⎭0
2 ≈ πrω0 x0
Acoustics is defined as the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles – compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. A simple sound wave may be described in terms of variables like: Amplitude, Frequency, Wavelength, Period and Intensity. Amplitude refers to the difference between maxima and minima pressure. Frequency of a wave is measured as the number of complete back-and-forth vibrations of a particle of the medium per unit of time. A commonly used unit for frequency (f) is the Hertz (abbreviated Hz). The wavelength (λ) of a wave is the distance which a disturbance travels along the medium in one complete wave cycle. Since a wave repeats its pattern once every wave cycle, the wavelength is sometimes referred to as the length of the repeating patterns. The term ‘period’ can be defined as the time required for the completion of one cycle of wave motion. The intensity of a sound wave is defined as the average rate at which sound energy is transmitted through a unit area.
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