SALMON~ GEORGE

A ~re~e on the ~TtCt~y~~c ~cowe~ry o/' three c~weyt~oyts

Hodges and Smith

A TREATÎSE
OttTtttt

s

&

ANALYTICGEOMETRY OP
THREE DIMENSIONS.

BT GEORGE SAMÎON, D.D., PBLMW AttD tMOR OP TtttNtTYOOLLEOB, ttOBHtr.

~Hx: & 00., GBAFTON STRBBT, BODGBS, SMITH, BOOKSNI.MRS TO THE TrNIVJEKSnT. 1862.

CAMBRIDGE: t)H)tttB DY Vt!.].tt)t ttZTCt*)~ <HB)t)t <TZX!tT.

PREFACE.

IN writing a preface, what 1 am most tempted to do is to enumerate and account for the omissions of this treatise; if it were not that the size to which the volume has swelled, renders it needless for me to apologize for not having made it larger. It may be right however to mention that the chapters of this work were written and sent to press at intervals as 1 found leisure, and that the earlier part of the book has been in type more than a year. This will explain why no use has been made of some recent works and memoirs. In particular, 1 must express my regret that Hesse's "Lectures on the Analytic Geometry of Space" came too late to be of service to me. In treating of the less modem parts of the Science, 1 have usually had Leroy's and Gregory'a Treatises before me. The parts of this work which correspond to the contents of theirs are, the Theory of Surfaces of the Second Order, pp. 1–88 of the Curvature of Sur&ces, pp. 197–883 of what 1 have called the Non-Projective Properties of Curves of Double Curvaturo, pp. 859–377 and of Families

iv

PMFACE.

of Sttr&cett, pp. 813–338. Junior readers will probably nnd ail the information they require, if to the course here marked out they add part of the Theory of Confbcat Surfaces, pp. 139–138, and the General Theory of Surfaces, Chap. x. 1 have to acknowledge with thanks the Mnd readiness with which asauttance was afforded me by any of my friends whose help 1 claimed. Those to whom 1 am most indebted are Dr. Hart and the Meaars. Roberts; but 1 have recelved occasional assistance from Measrs. Townsend, Williamson, and Gray, to the latter of whom 1 owe the list of Errata which follows the Table of Contents. 1 have to thank the Board of Trinity College, for their liberality in contributing to the expansé of publication. Tamnt CM.MM, Dcaux, j~y, 186~

CONTENTS.
--0--

CHAPTER I.
THE rOtNT.
MM

MethodofCo.ordinatea. PMpett!jMofPto)Mt]OM Co-otdinateaof pointeutting in a given ratio the distance betweentwo pointa Co-otdmxteeofcentre of<Het)'ahed)'oa Diatancebetween two pointa (tectangtdaiCo-Otdtnatet) Direetiom'coainetofaMne AïM of a Sgm'e in tenna of MM*of ita pMJeot!oM .y Angle between twoUneoin terms of their dheetien.cottMt PcrpetMMcalMdithmceof&point&onntHnB .8 Diteetiaa-cetineBaftheperpetidieulmtothephmeoftwoUnett T)t*!ffU'0!HfATM!tMCo-OMtMA'rM .9 DMtancebètweentwop«mta(oNiqaeCe-<ttdiMtee) DegreeofanequttiomuntdtettdbytnHufonMtion CHAPTERn. ntTEBKtETATION BQBATMNS. OF of a singleequation of a eytttm of two ot three équation* Meantng Btery plane sectionof a Bui&co of the «t~ degree fa a eorve of the dej~ee Every right lino meeMa surface of the xO'degree in t potnt* Order of carre in epacedeNned Three ouï&oeaof degreesM, a, p, iaterMet fn moppointe CyHaOiettmt&Mtdenned CHAPTERUI. TKE PLANB. BveryeqMtionof thé arat degreetcpte<en«tp!me and Equation of a plane in terme of its direction.cosuMN petpMMticutm trom oy~in < AxgtebetweentwoptMtef) Conditionthat two ptoneemay be MutatUy perpendioular Equation of plane in terme of mtetcepts made on axes

1 8 < a a f r 8 8 9 9 1t U

t2 tt 14 14 t< 16

ta ïa ty r t]r 7 r

QctDtnM~iftn Co-o&Dnt~TBt .ItK EqnntiotNofttrightUneinehtde&mcconBtantt Condttiontbtttwotinetmayinto'sect Diïeetion'eotinetofttIinewhoseequ&tioMaTegiven froma given point on a given plane Equationa of peïpendieuJM: Direetion'eotine~of the bMeotontof angle betweentwo Une* the Angtebetweentwoline* ConditioMthat&Itnemay!ieinagiTenptane Number of eondttioMthat a tiae may Me a given surface in Infereace as to the existence of right tine* on mr&eet of the second and fhMdegreee Equation of plane dnwn throngh a given line petpendiealar to a gtven p!Me EqMtionofptaneparaMtotwogivenUne~ Equatiom and length of shortest d!tt<meebetweentwo given lines PaOtZnTIBBOrTETittBBDRA Relation connecting the mutual distances of four points in a plane VohnneefatetrahBdroninteonaofittedges Relation conaecting mutual distancer offour pointa on a aphere Radta*ofepherecitettmm[iMngatetrahedtom distance between two opposite sidet ShoMeM Angteofindinatiomoftwcoppoeiteaidee CHATTER IV. repfeMntt a conc whose vertes livery hontogemeoua istheorigin M 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 M 24 M 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 M 30 8t S~ 33 3! 84 81 St 84 86 86 37 86 38 39 40 .vi COXTENT8.21 Volume of tetrahedron in terms ofco-ordiMtee of ita vertiees Volume of tetrahedton. KtOMM'tIMOFWADBIC9Ht GEt<E!tAt. NumbefofeonditiontneeeMaTytodeteHnineaqMdtic Re<MttoftMm!&mnationtopMaUdaxM EqattiamoftangentphmettMtypoint :Equation of polar plane..23 Anluu'!nonicMLtioof~bUfpI&nes 'i'H)!Rt9KTt. the eoMttom of whose faeeaaïe given Equation of tnt&cee pttMingthrough intersectionof given sur&ce~ The equation of any plane can be expreMed in terms of those of four givenplanes. y. MM EquMionofptMMthtonghthteepoinM ïntNpMtationofteKneintMiequation o Value of detentttnmt who*e eonttitaentt OM thé dtMcthm*eo<ineBf thKefighttinet Length ofpetpendtcuiM froma given point on a givenplane Co'ordiMtesofintOteotionofthteephmet Conditionthat four planesmay meet in a point . Conetdt&ned–tMtgentcone of ïfocm ofhmmonic nM!MU)radii through a point equation in z.

6: St M M <9 .'nCN QUAMUCS.M HJPe1'boloids one and two sheets of Axymptottoconet .v!i MM DtMtiminantoftqMdrïe 4t 4t Co-ordinttteoofcentte 4: CondithmtthMaq<MdttetMyh&ve<mh'nnityefMntKe.M Cauchysproot that its roote amreal BMpMidB . MM'ACES. on tmy line M andoamypitno Loeaft of inteifMethm of tangent pitmet at exttemMet of eo~ngate dumeteK 66 Quadratie which detMmimeaengthe of axes of a central section l 66 when the qmtdnc is ~t~enby the general equation 6? CtMtILAtt BMtONa S 68 TonnofequatiomofeoMycUcmtt&eea .69 Two ciMalat ~eotioMof opposite ayttenMlie on the eatnetpheM M HImMUcsdenned ?! Circulor MotioMof paraboloida fil COMENTS. derived by jfoMMmBfhtI'" . of eoefMents wMeh are uMittted by KetNit~tm ttMMfbtma* RmctMm tion DiMrMnattngeaMc .. M EqMttonK&n'edtotmot 68 Lengthofaonnal 62 8um of aquatea of reciptoeth of thcee coojugate dimieteM la coattMt LoeuB intetMction ofthree tangent planet whieh eut at right angles of 63 Sam of squares of three eoajugate diameteraia <oMtMtt 64 64 PMaUelopipedoonatantwhose odget are oonjugate diMMtett Ataoanm of squares of ptojectiono of coi~ugMe diametea.65 1 y<a-aboM)ïft ActtMireductionofeqMtienofapamboMd CHAPTER VI. 48 BqattthMtofcUmnetMiphme 44 Con)ugatedta<neteta < 46 AqTMKb'iohMthMeptinc!paldtMMtTalptana& 46 tormation of equatioumptesent!ng the three principal phn« Beotaa~!e< under segmenta of intotcetimg ehor(t< propordunal te the 4~ Kctm~e«mde)'theMgmenttofapt)trotpM<metehotdt EquatioM of tangent p]«ne and eone. Otf CLAMITICA.47 method 4C C<~tiMthattplMM'Mytouch<he6M'fMe CeNditionthtttttMMiMytonchtheMt&oe < CHAPTER V.. OENTBAt. &c.

BaOF 1.diieetcixpMpetty6f9mrfa<)M The tangent cone.93 Conditionthat two quadriesmay touch ..94 The point of contact of two Mt&ces whichtouch is a double point on theirinteMMtien 8tationarycon«n!tdenned Three quadrics having a eommon eurve cm be dMertbed to touch a given plane.t00 Foealconice Analysisof spodesof focal conioafO'eachMndofqnatMc T'oeaUmeBottKxme toeal !inet perpendicular<oeircnlar sections ofreciprocaleone The aeeRontofrceiprocalconeabyany plane NfepoiarKeipioeala t07 ToealeoniMofpaTaboloida . and two to touch a giveuMne .9? Casewhere two quadnM hâve double contaot . isa right cône Quadn<Mtoochinga)ongaphnp''urve 89 89 90 90 91 99 M M 98 98 99 101 102 104 106 t06 109 HO . METBOD8F ABMDGE)) 0 NOTATION. tJMt RECMMMtABGBItMATOM M Twolines of oppositetyttMMnuMtinteraeet .97 SimilarqnadriM Gtometneal tohttton of ptoNemt of eircular MtMont Foct TwoHndaoffoci . tend right angleaat the centre .74 NotwottMtoft'hesatMtyetcmintersect Distinction bet~eendevetopabteamdthewMtt&M& A right line whose motion is Mgaiated by <~t* conditions geMMteea surface Surface gcnerated by aline meeting thKcditeetorMneo Itight Uneson hyperbolle paraboloid Four gencrators ofona system eut anygeneratorof the other in a eonttMt anh&nnoniertttio Surface generated by lines joming cotreapondingpointa on two homogtttphicailydMdedtinM .80 Conditionsfor aui&ce<of tevohtUon ExAMTI.96 Thé pointa of contactwith a given plane of three coneycUeaut&ceosub.84 73 76 M 77 ?9 80 82 CRAPTER Ttl.viit CONTENTS.001 .whosevertex is a focua. RedprocalofacnrfeinspMe OtMlfLt!ng'pttneof&CNrMde8n9d Degreeofthereetpmcalefaquadtic eurve Equation of system of quadricahaving a eomaMMt A)l quaddeBthrough seven points pM$through an eighth Locm of centres of quadtict through eight point*ot touching eight planes Four cones pfes through the intersection oftwo qa<~d~~<!< .107 B'ocMand.

136 LoenBofpote of&xedpTanewithMgaTdto a system ofeonfoeals Axes of tancent cone are the thrcenonnehthtonghita vertes Transformationof equation of tangent eone to the three normaleas axes otco-otd!nates confoctt!surfacesare confocal Ittt ConeschremMcrtMn~ The focal lines of these cône))are the geneMton of the hyperboloid ItS thronghthe\ettex Bectptoc<~ofeottfbea!tMeeoneyeUc which it tonchee Tangent plane*through any I!ne to the two confoeals 1M tttenmtuaUyperptndteuItt Two con&teah seen from any potnt appear to eut at right angles Nonnah to tangent planea through a giron KM generate a hyperbolie .ordtnates 118 119 Twoq<M~Me)KMYa)'iAotto<tp)ntcfq<MtdHM with Bqufttlo&repreaenting the facosof the tetrahedron Mlf-cet~jugitte 119 regard to two qmtdncs 1M Equation of developableoiroumscribingtwoquadriee Conditionthat a line ahould meetintettection of two quadrica 121 Equation of developable generated by tangents to intenection of two tM quadrics ..141 paraboloid t91 18S 131 136 137 139 113 144 .112 Properties of invarianta of a «yMem two quadrio PMte'a ptopetty ofephetet c!ttnnMCttbing teU-conjugatetetrahedton a 113 113 3 Beme'6prope)tyofTe)rtice<oftwoBeM-eonjugatotetrahedTa Chasles' ptcpetty of Bnea jointe ecmeaponding vetUcea of two eo!~ngatetetmhedrtt . B FoeatconteitheHmiteofoon&teatMAect tSO Threc con6xa!: through a point all real and of dH&tent<pec!eB eut Two confooa!* at right angles Axes of centralsection in-terms of axes of confoea!<thKmgh extremlty oftOt~ugatediMneter ~DcoMtantatongtheinteMMtionoftwoconfoeab .118 tM AaatoguMtoPMtal'tTheoMm Equation of sphore ohcumtenMng a tetithedron. ix MM .. CONMCAL PRFJtCtN. n? aeep.COSTENM.< Unes in whieh the developablemeetseither surface t28 RBCIpmoOAiSfNJ'ACEB 1M 124 Reciprocal of a qaadtio when a Mt&eeof revolution t24 ReciprocalofanJedMirfaceisaintedtnrfaceoftheMmeaegtM 129 l'roperty of umbi1!car foci obtainedby rociprocatiOD CHAPTER VIH.111 Propertlesof theif sections Two qnadïiea envelopedby the tamathird imteKeetin plane conrM 111 Fennof equation referred to a eeH'-conjugatotetrahedMn. (for iMt~bed epheM.lM) Equation oftHpherefntetrithedtfJco. Il l of .

161 CoMtfnûtîonibrptMcdp~centFM'ofcutv<tttM'9 Ml 8at&Mof<!entK<t:tt:eqaatMtnhow&and ÏtsMet!oM~ptinciptlphmea . CONBS ND6PKEBO-CONICS.ÏM 1M CmtYM'MttOBQu&DMCt tN) B<dRofe<ttvatttfeof<HMnnalandof<tnobMqae<ee<ien 1M HneofoarMtutede&Md .htoo)M 177 Ofi<ghteoMtgtventhMeedgea. 1M I~eM<)f!&tMK<<~ihtMmat)MNypMpen<UeM!<))'tangentltM< 1M Ccneipo!t4mgpoin<aene<m&«!ab 1M ItMy'ttheoremMtothedittaneeoftwoMchpointt ~McM't analogue to the phme theotem that the eam of foed dittOMee i«!OMtMtt 1M Locusof pointaofeontMt of pNMtUetp!<mM to~eMnga <ettM«ifeM&caIa 1M C<m&<~Mein~bed!nte<mtm<mdeTet()p<tNe . A SphetMM-OtdiMttM .x CONTENTS.1M 1M B<}Mti<mofitBieciptoc<d CHAPTERIX.H7 .proportional 179 topMduetofNMeofaDg!MtmMts:wttheyd!ethmet 176 ~a~onof~h<MintctU)ediaatetrahe<tMn 1M Eqmth)toftt4j.~pti~h7pet~M~~paMMie]Min<B 1M Co~~tet<mgen<< 1M TtttgeMptaM<ttapaMMiepoimtiaa<h)ab!etm~tntpIane 186 DeaMepcimtBcnatKMtMe AppBattionofJoMhimsthfd'tmetM .M8 M8 GiveathMecon})<gatedtmMttMoftqQ<d~eteandi)M<aM5 149 LoeMof~ftieMofrightconeBeavdophtgtMT&ce. MM ChtfUet'methedof obt~niBj.M'thteetangentphtnM CHAFTERX.IM 169 CyeUc<t~ofspheM-<!<miea<malo(~u<teMy)npto<e)! 8amcî<bct)lditt«mcaK!OMt<tnt . ORNEBALBEOBT T OP8UBMOM.eqMthmof tangent coae 146 Intmeept on a bifocal thetd between tangent plane and pt«tM phna Httca~hcentM .170 HTZ Fooatanddireettitpropertyefttphero-ccttiea Di&teMe ofeqtMtMe ofaxM of centMlsection of a qM(Mo.179 NtmbMoftemMingenentlequttNMt Seothmof eat&ee by tangent plane bas point of contact &<t<( doaNe 180 point 181 AtM&ceineenetitthmMptetangentphmee 1M t Idexional taDgenta de1Ined 1M TheM]ettih. .

tKUmK'fentiratateofMinnalMCtion 198 199 Ect!et'9<otmnta Mem~iet'etheotem .19! 1M Fo~qM~oofapMttMtepainttttMM HettttmoftmatfMe . Di. their !nteMee&)n.199 190 B'<M-m<ttt<mofequttic&ofttmgente<metoamt&tce o Numbet of !a&<x!oMl r double taagonte which con be drawn throngh .if a line ofcMrra216 tareonone.a'v*taKM a cuBp!dttle<)ge<m<nr&ce ofnorma1e .1M M< Nu!nbetofet&tioMïytan~e!ttpl<mMwMehptMthMOghtpoint Evetyt~ht!ineon&t<tï&cetoaehe<&eHMdMt . PtMBMt~ rMMMM Diïecti<m-oft<mgMttoaeuTve ThtOfyofdeTebpftNeaMpt'~aed ~4 XM ï~ . I.pl<meofMDeofeatv<tm'e .pheMBh&tettttioaMyeontMt .199 Cc&f~TonBMS~MACM 1M B.0 Uneeoîearvatmfe 211 .CONTENTS.areeq~MlaaA<)ppe~te . xi M<H< Nttmhe)! f double tangent !!ntt which can be OHtwnthïMtjjha point on o <mot6Me .. 8M.2M AgM(tetlclineofcarMtuMnta))tbeptme CHAPTER XL CCMESANDDEVELMABLM.M ThehdMfeîentMeq'Mtton :lt I~e<)<)teaM<ttaMofe!ltp<i<M .isMontheothtt LoemofcentKaalon~a line ot e).M? 917 r PtepertteBoteutfiMeotcentrett OeodMieUneade&Mtd.M Detemination of monneit which meet a contecuNve noKMl 209 BetttMd'tthe~otem-vaMre .MtnainantoftHŒttMe.S!8 !M Ktl~ofenrMtaMtepl)methm)tt[eet<HMt<mtNtgbwithtmgeatp!<ne Lenetefe theorem of variation of anglebetween tangent plane and oseM222 lattttj.20~ B)~M]~Mgd~M~N]~~Ù~~M M6 CondttiOM&rannmMlio HmetotspheriBalMtrv&tare .Ml ÏM Twot.i!07 208 NmmbeTofumbUt<aonttMttMe<t<')tth<M'<k)[ St&tiot~eont~~ptieecontMtattwûpotnte .t4 Dnpin'e theorem Ift~o Mï&ces eut at right angles.S!M ~<daetofpttMipalï!t<m«tanypo!nt Mit I~ctMO<'po!n<twheM]ra<N.191 any point 1M DegMeofïeeiptoe~MïtMe.

SinguMtiM of a doubleeatve connectedwith those of ita comptementMy 269 SEC. Nott. Ct. IV.48 Mt Singi)Mtte«tfearveofintetMetion<~t'!MMtfiKM .270 271 Reot!~ingdeve!opaMe 27)! Bect:f}'int.xu COXTENTS.AM)KC*T!ON t OPCcttTtt 240 Mt Lo<iUtofvettexofquadtice<met)u<Mgh<mofMven pointa A twittedenbieeanbedMcribedthM~htix points M PmjettienofatwhtettwMchMttdeaMepoint .Ma CaspidaîedgeoftdeyelepaMe MS Stationarypointtandplanea 2S4 Caytey't eqnaticm connecting tingaMRee of a curve m tpaea Developablegenetatedby tangent* i<ofoamedegreeM teciptotat deve!op. n.296 able 8BC.274 274 BveryOMrehaaaninBnityofewtutet 27< TheMaregcodettMontnepotardeveIopaMe 276 RadMteotaphM'ethumgh~arcoMeenttve pointa Co-ordinateaofitocentM . MM 228 Equation ofepttnewhoMtqnMicnMntaiMOMpanMMte)' ChameMtiMiM . CcnYEtMtteBDexScMfAcat 278 279 DimistentMieqatttianotogeodeme Une joining Mtremttiea of indennitety ntM and equal geodedea cntt .M9 .279 thematnghtmgio) .PMJMTtM PROfBtTtMor CmtTM i M9 Mt Ï))jM!tio)t-co!iaei<fnonB<tlpltme Mt Equation ofetcuMagptme :M Theheux 26S Equation ofoMmiatingptMeofinteHeetionoftwoMrfMM Conditionthat four point*may lie in a ptane !M6 Radi<MofabMt<t<«mdot<)phenoalentvtttnre M9 267 ExptemioM&rangteofeontact Radiusofeurvataieofintenteet!onoftwoMriaeeB M9 269 Expression for angle of torsion Otodatingfighteene .Z76 Hietoryoftheotyofnon-ptanecnrvet 277 Bao.tnrfaoe la surfaceof centfM et original developable Z72 Angle betweentwoMeccMiTeraduofeM'Yatttrc CaspHaledge ofpehtTderetopaMe i< loca) ot centres of aphettcat cmrvatore . 'nMtT<MS9iaat<peeiet.MO Number f apparent doublepoint* ofintemeetion o Caoeofent&ceBwMehtonch Mt EqnMioat cMmeetht~ BhignMt!eB of earMa which together make up interaectioa of two sur6acee M2 268 Tarodiatinct familiesof quartics !tS7 Fonr quartias offécond &milytht<Mt~d([htpointt Commoncarre on three aarfaoea equil~tent to how many pointa ef 268 intersection.243 244 PMpertieeoftwiMMicuMca. ï.

354 .328 OrbyUneewhiBtnM9ta<b:ed<mie .Ml Value ofthe coMtott thé same for aUgeode~Mthrough an umbUto 284 M6 Mt.301 IjBetotgteMeetsIope 802 GMM'ttheoryofcntv&ttMeofs'ja'BMM 804 MeMateofcurwtutauMttetedby deformation To~cnrMtuMofgMdetiotritngteenanymïf'Mie .338 TaMMMt&<!M ?9 MStKntMequzthmofehaMetetiMhM on Di&rentM equation 0~6~ BnMDSmtPACM . X)U MM .310 CHAPTERXYÏ.MO RttMutofgeod~iceurvttmt pD constant for a geodeeteon <tqu<(dric .288 te aattMtenetonaaftt M9 !?< EUiptMCO-<M<UMte< M2 AteaofitatfftceofeNp~oM 292 SeeondiMegTtlof equation of geodeaia 292 lengthofegeodMie !93 GeodMiopotMeo-MdhMtee M6 Dj'.COXTEKT8.346 3« NtttoteefoontaetalangtmygenetatM 3M Donble eittvet geneMNyexitt on mttd tW&ees 3!0 8tcr&eeegener<ttedby<tIinetBït!ng<mthjee&xedditeetCM .980 Di&ren<i<leq'MttoMof)mted<m&<it< 331 TheMryofenyetope)t 333 DetcnBt~Mtïoti f arMiNry ûinctiûM o M8 pmtifddi&MntMeqnathmcfdeMhtptNex 338 'BtetrPM-HeMtm .RebeMs'BexpteMiom 800 UmbUic~tgeodMiMdonotKtninonthetMd~ee lànes of level 800 . Rabota'dedaotioMfKtmtMttheotem 2M IA)uviUe'attMM&rmati<moftquatt<xtpD'= constant ChMiet*ptoo& of this theorem . FAMmOM SCBrACBS.Hmt'BptoofofMr.351 NotmtttstdongagenttatorgcneretepaMMoid Linos of striction .916 CoMÎdtdMT&ces 318 820 Sttt&uiMofte~&ticn 3M Oidetcf<tMM9BtM~Mtimof&&mi!yimMlvb!g~<Nn<)tiMM 326 Sta&eMgeneMtedbyUnetpta'aUOttot~edphme . OP 813 Eqwttt«MinYolting<t~ngt~<)rMttMyfttno6en .916 CyBnMctl MU'&eM CoaicatMt&CM . M.

3M SohSCi'sMheme&trthetwenty-MvealitLea ]&). Degree ofeen~en that three Mx&eea may have a eMmaon tangent line Mt atthdtintetMctton <M Degteeofeemdttionth~twotnn~MmaytMeh .ebttw<e&ttatgentpltM<fndM<)iueveot<~ Cbm~tm~kmfottM)~tphtne&tanyp<)iBt Li)tM<tteatwt<)M<)fw<tT9MN&tM .MB SM&cepaMtMtoempMM. GBtEML THEOttT OP SMtFACEa. R~t!ca<~th<<a~ephnet)totheHM<iM)L ToI«teuMexoftpItme 'Btete~tMth~MHM~n B~~tHnoKmotMct Nwntbet~tdptetMtf~ntphmM .Mf AptHetmr&eeB 3M ï'<datTec!pMealûftp<!cM.n:doTtHepoimts Sylvetter'scanonieat~iam&teqwattMiofcnMe CMtMpo<td~p<~at<entheHeMian. Bq'M&mofwMMMt&ee IteeeotIeMbyptimipalptMtet .?6 CHAPTERXIV. CHATTER Xïn.39~ EqMtt!en<)fMt6!MMwMchdetet)mhMStwMtty~te~enUn~e MM 388 Ma MO M2 !M 368 389 Wt 9M ~7 S!9 8H 8!)2 M Mt 886 388 M7 890 390 S9t 3M 394 <<? CHAPTERXV.xiv CONTENTS. . SUBFACBf DSBIVEDMOMQCADMCS.370 The<~<~dedv~p<!Mmt&ce< Ih'opattlmofin'MKemt&eet 37S L~of<mMtaK<<fnr&eeot<i!aMt<)!ty MMtmep~TepsMctttqMtdtie PtoNemof&idhtt!MeM~'Mpeda!aM6nt!c~Wtththat ofan~BgpttmNel Mt&eee .ttptfdalofteciptM<d DëgTeeofMdpfoeatofwtYefmr&ce 36!! Cteomet<le«t investigationof planes wMch touch aïong eifch's Eqa<tttontneNiptieeo-<H'aMMttM R<~tM~onfimaBg!. O SUttrACES PTHIM MMHLEB. CaMeehtfnnftdoubleMneB CnMe<)h<ni.volut!<mnftixHneo!nepMe Condition th~t ave Mnmshoatdbe met by a eemmnnttaMveKOl AzàtytiBofeptciMofeaMM hv~ntttmdco~no-tanttofeaMea t~m~M~M~M~~&M~~ Ttve&nMtMnentalin~tiamM .

Ot4erofjeve)cp<tHeenvetoptngaMr&te<'lone<tghMmeaM6 OfdevdcptNegeMMtedbyaMnemeetia~tiM~vencm'VM CoN'ttetOttnnNWtTKtt~BFACM Lo<'Mofpo!atsofoenttM!tofdoab!e!nae~oMlt«nge&<< Andeftttptetangento Centttctcf~bmteBwithsat&eef) .CONTENTS.<M Nnm1)M~~p~tm~~p)<mettotMT&ee Ea~~mntMpkthtMOttttegreeoftM~pMeal AM~~m~dM~~NM~&M~~M~N~ Appt!cath)nt6t<t!td<na[&eM APPENDIX.atnMAtM . Onth''rTf!e'-«f))y<tenmofeqnt).409 LMM<~po!nttof<~taet<~dou1~tange~pI<me< TtCMMatBRtM'Mcju.<i<NM) XV MM 404 <M M* «? <M *M <t? ~t <M . OnQMatemi<M)B Omt)'tp!eo)ftho)~)!mlttyst<tM 0&CtebMh'BMdcatat!<moî)MtfMeS.?6 W «* <M .

IMt line. J99. last lino. trammose y'e and t~. 263. be 47. 80. Se =*ftf {ftf (ft + &c. rtad 2A' 2a' 6 ofnote. xi.~f278.M.Ma<<~B. P Md If meets the quartic. .<we<<whBn." f~ tmt line but two.2).~)-CC.M«d\ f«~ 61. t6. 3:6." read "commonconjug<te." mean tangent planes to U and Y at the point. a &etor 2y =<f<'{f"' (3f< + &e. «Mtt< CM < <t~' jHt'.iC. t99.yM<<:80. C 8. for e' <WKf tV. «ad "ptxne. for "meets the quaddee. 210. tti. 9. t<R.j~X)t(«-!)(tt-. · 4. M. <'««<double edg<e. 267. < 112. 9t.J%f C. ~t'OMOtSt. M. The determinant at mot of page onght to be bordered horizontally and TerticaUv with . Ftgû LtM S. for <y. 2. Une 7 &o)m hottom.M. t3.a<ter2<<HM<l. Note. for dmtbte points." 17. 4. atO. e~«' D. X M. for etghth &xed point.t«x<!70. 4. D." t4. third group. for "princtpfd. 2t0.M<t<i'<t(<t-t)(n-).fM<<aM. Mi.ERRATA.Afi<. 269. and 249. 202.. M). if. feo<< drawn. 4. by 189./M'a-~Ma<<<<.tw<t~ ~C. B. far ~d. SM. distant. 216. 209." fw<< distinct. SM. 266. rend A. C. 6. <<tMf< M*'t'. C. for plane of. the thecum hwre aoenbed to JecoM.~MO. 19! 10. JV. had been previoM!y puT)' 148. *Mtt eight Cxed pointa.~4m. MO. e. 9.~f drawn. Ut&<!t[ Chasles. 201. In the values for 2g and 2i)'. is omttted. M4. 6. 8.. M4.

we abouldhave the point We have eeen aîready how a change in the aigu of a or b affects thé position of the point C. the nrat two equationawould determine the point C. THEPOINT. then those in the other d!rect!on mnst be conmderedas negative.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY OFTHREE DIMENSIONS. The agn of e will determine on which side of the plane XOY the line PC is to be meaaured. by referring it to two co-ordmate axes 0~ 0 Y drawnin the plane. and then and taking on drawing throngh that point a parallel to it a length jPC=c. and aho iknew the ? and y co-ordmatea of the point C. Thaa. measured parallel to the line OZ. if weweregiven the threeeqt]at!ona<B=<t.<!=:c. Then if we tmew the dMtamce f the point P from the plane o XOY. it ia cnatomary to B . To determine the position of any point P in space. 1. Thus. CHAPTERI. if wa concelvethe plane Jï'<?y to be horizontal. we have only to add t& onr appamtna a third axis OZ not in the plane (sse SgnM next page). it is obvious that thé position of P would be completelydetermined. WE dave seen already how tho position of a point 0 in a plane !s detennined. If it be settled that lines on one aide of the plane are to be considorodaa positive.y!=t. whare~C parallel to OZ meets the plane.

BnA through . It M obv!oa9 that every point on the plane haa ita<!=0. M. jMcïeepect~ety. OJE~ OF=e. The angles between the axes may be any whatever. <?y are at right angles to eaeh other. thé ~MMsjcor.erespecttvely. the length OD'=ot.Ï. We proceed now to state the aame more BymmetncaUy. TheMthMeatBM d~nmineaboihreecooïdinatej!&MM<.2 THE pOINT. ~~ <!=c may be found by thé Mlowy ing aymmetncd eomttmetion:meM~o~on the axia of !?. and the Une OZ pMpendicntar tothephnejroy. NowNBeettiBplamth&tJ~=!C!JB''=o. 2. namely.P=at. which. PB=CP=~. PB parallelto the <udaof~ to meet the plane «fc. OZmeeting in a point 0.Car apparatoaeYMkntty consista of ~ee co'ordim&te axes 0~. we may say that the poat!on of any point P NtmMmK~~mMg~mïh~MeM~~m~M. consider aa poaitive the a of every point <!&!<? plane. wMohwesha!! eaU the planes aw. Again. and through D draw the plane PBCD paraUel to the planey< meaMtteon the axisof yt OjE'=&. r<M. We have stated the method of representing a point in space.~&dwm parallel to the axis of to meet the plane ye. The three axesare caUedthe axe8ofa!. as in Plane Geometry. mnee O.y.and PO drawn parallel to the axis ofeto meet the plane a~.OY. in the manner which seemed most aunpie for readers a!ready acquainted with Plane Analytic Geometry. but the axes are said to be reetangnisr when the lines O. !9 ca]M the origin. the point given by thé equations!c='<x. that in wMchcaae the e of every point &e&Mom<Mtbe ooanted it as negaëve.

and which we theroforo collect here. In what followawe shall be almost exclusively concernedwith orthogonat protections. dic<thtM &U on thé planes &om My point let The angle between two HnM which do not Intemeet.THEPMNT. tt h <M)-aMeto e]qn'e«t whether we mean the acnte or the obtMe angle whieh withontambi~ty they make with euh other. VMh OZ. whose constntcëonis Mqa!re(L 8. 81&. The angle between two planes h meaeared by the angle between the po-penNeutaM drawn in each plane to theh line of intmaeet!on at any point of it. When we fpeak of the angle made by any line OF with the axes. 8 Fdraw the p!ane A1C!F paraUelto n: meamre on thé axis of < M'*== and through F draw the plane F~JÏF pataBd c. But if we apoke of the angle between J*~ and C'C. we ahould draw the paraitet PQ' in the opposite direction. and ahould wïah to expteM the obtuse angle made by the «htea with each other. (See C~MMs. When therefore we <peak of the angle between two Knee (&timttMee PP. and thereforewhen we speatcaimplyof prq}ect!oaa. proof of some ofthem aiready.unlesa the contrary tBatated. we ahan always mean thé angle between OP and the jp«M<MM direetton of the axes. though we have gtven the p. When we apeak of thé angle between two lines. we ahan tmdeMhmdth&t theM !!neaaMmeMmMdint!M<MMe<<Mt&MnJPto~and from C to < and that the parallel PQ h mea<UKdin the Mme diteethm. h) meMMedby the angle between paMUebto both dtawn through any po!nt. E. are called the ~o~tc~M of the point P on Aethtee co-ordimate planes. The points C. The angle a !ine makes wMt a plane is meamred by the angle which the Une makes with its orthogonal projection on that plane. There are somepMpertteaof orthogonal which pro}ectMMM we shali o~en have occaaïonto employ. CC'in the n~ne. are to be onderstood to mean orthogonal projectiona. OZ. OY.) 3'~e <Mt~ of & oy<~oK<t!jM~!e(&<a o/'ot~Me )'~< ?? on <!<t~laM M equal to tbe ?« tMt~KM? by <&!COSMte p of the a~!6* ?&«!& makes<0~ thep&tKe. and when the axes are are its o~<~M)o< rectangdar they projections. D. to «y: thé intemectionof thé three planes ao drawn ia the point P. B2 . next page). The angle then between theae lines le aonte. It may aho be meMMed by the angle between the perpen.

2. ï%e projection on any t plane of any <M'eaM another M F&MM ~MO?<? tlte <M'~t)Mt~ area mM&tpKM? Meco8ineo~ by de angle SettceeK j)&tKM. p.) that when two Sgorea are Ntdt that the ordinates correspoudingto equal ahscissc have to each other a constant ratio. BntP~=. Completethe rectangle by drawingPQ parallel to CC'.) p. p. 29S.P~jP' ts right.PC" be drawn perpetMHcNhufthé plane ~<?r. D.4 THEPOtNT. and PQ will aiao be equal to CC'. ance they are the intercepte made by two parallel ptanes on twoparallel right !mea.F are the projectionsofthe point P on the three axes.JRP'coeF'P~. Thus. For if ordinatesof both figuresbo drawn perpendicularto the intersection of the two planes.D'. and FQ=~P'CMF'~<?. by thé last article. JE. S.M)* are equal. Throngh P dtaw P~ parallei to OZto meet the planejP'C'. to and CC' is the orthogonal projectîom of the line PP on that plane. if the axes be rectangalar. then the areas of the figures haveto each other the sameratio. The projectionof a point on any ??) is the point where the line is met hy a plane drawnthrough the point perpendicnhr to the Une. Let PP he the given line. and amee it is perpendicular to this phne. T~e ~O~CfMK 0 ~tt<e right ?? ~XMt<M!0«5ef line of M eg<M~0 Me ~< ?? )Mt~~M~ Me C<M<<M<&e < <M~& &e<tMOt<i~%M<t. then. the (See C~t<M. Bat~and .the angle. But it was proved (<XM)MN. 4. Let PC. every ordinate of the projection M equal to the corresponding ordin&teof the original figure multipliedby the cosine of the angle betweenthe planes. . in figure. and DD' ite projection on OJF. . 81S.

if theM be any number of points P.JP". The tmes J~ in the BgaK there given.a:). JP*. Let the projections of the three points be jy. We shaB have constant occasionto make use of the followingparticular caseof the preceding. DU' is still the a!gebr<nc sum of Z)D' and 2yD". It may be otherwise seen that the projection of F'JP" is in the latter case to be taken with a negative sign from thé consideration that in this case the length of the projection !a found by m~tiplying P'P" by the cosineof an obtuseangle (sec note. DD" is evidently the oam ofJDJ~ and 2yD". of J92)' and .TUB MMNT. p. for the corresponding theorem in Plane Analytic Geometry. D". Ha~ing estabHshedthose principlesconcerning projeetions which we shall constantly have occasion to employ. p. and CP(=~). jFF". p. the projection of PP" on any line is equal to thé Munof the projectiom of PP'. C) P (seefigure.P". 6 6. If D" lie between D <md DD" Mthe <?~eace D'. 2) and the projection of OP must be equal to the mm of the projections of OD (. on <&t< For consider the points 0. ratio m n the The <!<W'<?M«t<!M point f?«)~M~' <%e Mt of <i5e are <M!<<Mtce 6e<tMeawo points a:'y' <c"y"e"} t The proof !e preciedy the same M that given at CMMM. then if 1Ylie between D MtdD". the pro~M of PP" on any line <e<K equal to the <MM <~ pM~ec<«MM &e on of ~<!<&fM<2/'PP'<!M<fJP'F".P". In general. f. the co-o~MM<M any point P 4e jpM~c~ on any line. 8). 5..=. D. P"F" 7. D 8. .D'. P". <7(=y). now represent the oKtmates drawn from the two points to any one of thé co-ordinateplanes. If <j5e~ any three points P. &c. bnt since the direction from 2)' to D" M the opposite of that from D to D'. we tetam now to thé more immediate snbjectof this chapter. Me<M)M the three jM~eetMMM Mequal <o ~w~c~MM the of o/' radius C6C<M* ??.

<M~ <&e~ww~tMtj~M<~<~<~MM~w~~&e~&~ ratio m + M <0J&:J<~ <!0-0)~MOf<M ~MWt ~['M. &. we get the Mme Ttdne as before. Ex.ofthendddte point of the KM joining them is t?* The other co-MdiMtM are found in t&e nxmaer. If we consHerthe ratio m M as mdetennîmate. The ImMJmmng middk pointa of opposite edgM of tettahedron The lis of two ma middle pointe are" Th«'softtmMehmiddiepo:nt<Me* a a meet iwa point meetia~petnt.J[M~<t~~&M<Mt<MM:M. Throu~h this came point wiN pMs thé line joining eaeh vertex to the centre of gravity of thé oppoaite ttimgle. and their eymmetry ahowa that thm is aho a point on thé Une joining the other middle pointe. we have the p.6 THEFMNT. of section. Nidthea. This ia proved as in Plane Analytic Geometry (see C~KMw. If we conmder M. n as indetermimate. co-ordinates of any point m the plane determined by the three points. 6). For thé of one of the<e y'+x"+x"' centrea of vi mdifthelinejoiah~tMetotheoppceite centteaofgKtvityh– vertex be eut in the ratio of3 J. . we have the eo~o-dMMttea<!Ky of point in the Unejoining the two given points.

S!noe then 0<7'=*p mt'y} the j~nmotta for tKmsfbnning from rectangular to these polar co-ordinates are <=p amycoe~. but in one point of ~iew there would be an advantege in aang inatead the oomplementary an~tes. <c<=tpcoat{. Thensincethe co-ordinates a:. The <g~MM of the <XM<t Omy ~&MM of ~MM ~MM~W~M<~<M~~MMCmt~M< ~iMMN. are the projections of the radias vector on the three axes.TKE POINT.eet on a cfoon lhepMptBdiMdattotheptaneof~. j3. 4) makes with a fixed plane perpendicular line OX m that plane. and thé angles made by < and p with this Une are thé cotnptementft of Aande. p. y. e'=p cosy. the angles wMeh the line makea with the eo-ordinate planes. we have y=~coa~ e–pcoBy. be the angles which a line maket with the planes ~e.ahMe<hepM)eet!omtofya])d thh Une ~aaiith. This appeara flom thé corresponding iiMmahe for oblique Mee whMh 1 have not thought it worth whNe to give in thé text. the angle 'y which followmg polar co-ordmatea–thé the radius vector makes with a Bxed axis OZ.y~nB°~~&~ TheM &)nnu!e are proved by the ptincipte of Att.C'bethe angteewMchthefoit theptaneef~. M e~M~ <C 12. eometunea caîî<6d thé dh-ectMn-coamea the radius veeor) of are connectedby the relation ThepomttonefapomtisalBOBome&neaexpfesttedbythe radius vector. and the angle COJ9 ('= ~) which OC the projection of the radius vector on a to <?J?(eee figure. are ednC"p~n~. 1 have Mlowed the <MM<tt pMe~ee in denoting the position of a line by these angles. 7. since fe'+~K'*==~ the three cosines (which are And. The poaMon of a point M eome&neaexpreseed by ita ta&tB vector ana the angles it makes with three KcttmgotM' axée. as we <haU not have occMian to use them tAerwardt. Let theae angles be a. then thé &tm)))m ofy with thé plane «f < and of with the plane of wh!ch Mo'espomd to thoee in the text. namely. M. y 11. y'='~ siny mn~. If we pto. y. the projection of < must he equal to that of the radius vector. z~n~"pth<t. . Let a.J5. and of makeswith tet~t.

a~ teepecëvely. 00 the ~en tine. andMmemberiog <t'=OP e<M< wehave &o. To Cad the perpendioulardistance&oma point t-y~ to a line the )~M'eagh originwhoM duec~oa-M~ee are <~ 1. J'Q <he pstpendicahr. Et. <t'. c TM: may be denTed from the followingetemeataty theorem on for the amn of the aqaarea of three (tetemNmamta (ZeMOM Art. then (Art. M'a cos~ cos~. &. + CoB. And the mm of the squares of thèse three = eincecos* + cos*~ c<M~'y1. TheMowmg&mnd&îaaIsoMmetimesuMM: ~n'~ = (co9~ coB/ cosy cos/S')'+ (ooa'y co8«' cosacos-y')' + (coaacoBj3* coB~3oae')'. We have proved(Art 10). then it ia plainthat fQ°OF amPOQ.c. 31).. À coa-y. or c<M = ooM casa' + coa~S oos~* cos'ycoBy'. The conditionthat two Enesehonid be at right tmgtea toeachotheris COS<t + 009~3 C08<t' + C06~3'COB'y == C0a</ 0. ??. . 14. and let a perpendicolar to its plane make angles a.& e are the ~rection-coNnea of two Un6e.the nght-hand aide beoomes 1 eoB'C. Of ~t <cntM 0/'<~ <&MC<MK-OMMMN of theae~MtM. Let P be the point <y~. 4) the of projections this MM on thé planes ~e. a + c= 18. Let the area be A. onceby actaal exp&nsMN) For when &. To e~pMMthe CMMM <~ 0~& ~e<MMM ~MM< <«? of OP. <y with the three axes. and aaing tbe value jut obtaimd that for onPOO. but which can atso be venSed at B~&er ~%fe6M!.8 THE MMM.

sm~ cosy=cosct*cos~8"-cosa" coa~ anftin like manner TRANSFORMATION 0F CO-ORDINATES. and a~Y of the required Hne) then we have to find a~S'y &<Mn the three equations From the fimt two equations we can eamiydenv~ by eliminating in turn cose:. Let a' of et"y" be the direetMn~ngIes the given line. Hence. 16. a!"y"s". c are f~ve(? The &rmubBof transformationare (as in Plane Qeemetty) .cos~ cosy This resnit may be alao obtamedas follows: take any two pointaj~ 0. is (Me Cbmcs. ~<M~Mjpe)peK<M[!M&N' p&Me. 26) a!y or p'(coea' cos~cosa" cos~). e'.2b<MMM/byM<0~<tMt~Moa!M <&Mt~X<t<MtC<M~Mt. and therefore the projection on the plane of xy is p'p" sin0 cos'y. 9 l&tMctMH*cMM!M~'<tÏMMjpe)yeH<~MMt!<a'<o <%<&tMW~MMB <HM? ?M!M. to/tMe o-<M'<~M<e< to Medd <??& a: y. But doublethe area of the triangle te ~'p" Bm9.p. as before.one on eachof thetwo given lines. Now double the area of the projection on thé plane of a!y of tho triangle F0<?. or a.T&MMMMtMATtM OF CO-0&NNATES.

K'. a" are the angles made by the old axis of <B with the new axes. to meet thé old plane of a~. <~<<6Nt O~a.M TBAN8FOMtA'FtON <? CO-OBPÏNATE8. then FO=. respectively.CM &tWMt~ Let the angles made by the new axes of z. 7) be equal to thé old projection of the radius vector. the som of the three projections wHI (Art. wo <==J!+ y*+~ hâve. amce «. For let a line drawn through thé point P pataM ? one ofthe axes (for instancee) meet the old plane of fi!ym a point and the new in a point C'.~8". y. Thua we get the three equations By thé help of these relations we can ven~r that when we pMs &om one system of rectangular axes to another. we m<Mthave . M is geometncttîy évident.te. which is the correspondmg co-otdma. je with thé old axes be a. CO* muet be equal to the Mnedmm throagh the now on~n O' parallelto the axis of e.-y.J?C'+ C'<~ But jPC in the old e. 17. Then if we project the new co-ordinateton one of the old axes. and s!aoepan~M planes make equal intercepta on parand right !iaM. ~8'. PC' is the new e. ~+~ When the new axes are tectangaUr.< a". Tb~MtMJ~MM ye<!<<M~«&N' of <M!M <MtO<X~ a to system MeMBM <M~M!. ~9. a'.

Thta M proved.~vt~~Ma~~Mb~wMndM!MWtm~ ofy and of &and a.the axes being oblique. Aa we shall MVMrequire in pMeUee ihe fonnutte for tïMM&tntdn~ from oae let of oblique Mea to another. p.then (Art. 18) Thnswe oMatnthera~nsvector&om&eongmtoamy of pointexpressed in termsof the obliqueco-OK~Datee that point. C h~e the Mme meaning as st note.tmtwe6ha!lnotspend tune <mwhat ie geometHcaUy évident. y.C. as in the note fefened te. It is proved in like manner that the square of the distance betweentwo pomta.MANMOBMATMM)0F CO-ONMWATES. we nnd . onty involve the new co-oj'diB&tM in <&e~'a< àegree. Let A. 11 It would not te dMScaItto denve amdy~caHyeq~ttona Z~&omeqBa~t~~J3. <. ~t */< «"t ~*t oo-erdinate ~~M«t then by ptojectmg on lines petpMM&mlM the old to eo. and !et a. /9. B.. ML~V~mwoùM~MmrM~<mMto&q~~mn~ rM~h~h~X. ?.iB 19.mdmate planes. 8. from the co~detailon thst the expresmons just given for a:.p. we ontygive them in a note. 2%e<i~Me<<My e~M~KBe<!Mea<~ecC-<M~MM<ë<& not a~~reaf by <nMM/M<t<MMt c/'co-o~MXœ. of x and y reapeo~vely. as at <XmM<. ~j be the angles made by the new aM< with the old d.

if we were given thé single equation a:=< we coold determine nothing but the point D. we shoutd !eam that the point P lay Mme in <ote~e the piane PBCD. as at the end of Art. and we shonid know that the point P on lay <MMM'X<M the Imo PC. it being the locus of all points whose a!< and whose y=&. Theae two equations then are considerodaa repreMB~ng that right line. We !s team then that any equation of the form <B='«represents a plane parallel to the plane y~. Again. we may take for a: and y any arbitrary TahMs.s itseIR Similarly for the 0 other axes. 1 that if we were gtvon mercly the two equations a. If we are given a single equation. In pardcular. the two given equations would determine the point C. but its position in that plane would be indeterminate. 21.cy. for the other 0 two co-ordinate planes. y=& represent a right line parallel to the axisof& In particdar. and then the given equation solved &f will determine one or more oorrespondingvalues of a. In general. Proceeding. we can always 6nd on the line PO one or .y==0 repreaent the axis of . oneM* CM!)e~/and any <&Me equationa I. In other worda. IT appesrs from t~e constructionof Art.y=!~ and if the e were le& indeterminate. OT 20. INTERPMn'ATION EQ~ATÏONS. the equation o:=0 denotes thé plane yz ItseM~ Similarly. if we take arbitrarily any point 0 in the plane of . We leam then that any two equations of the form a?=:<t.<=<t.( 12 ) CHAPTER II. the equations ae=0. any single equation betweenthe co-ordinates a Mp~6Mt& Mo~Me /'wme &MtJ/any <MO o <KM!<<~M!eo!M<«t(MM< ~MeeM<Aeat <M'eMa<a line of MOMJM~ either a<r<t~<<M' <&MO<!6 MO~e~OM~. 2. This plane then being the iocns of all points whoseiB=<~ represented analyticaUyby that equation.

Il. we can no longer take thé point 0 <N)~!pX<M the plane of xy. If then wo take for a: any arbitrary value. it is plain that the points P mut abo lie on a line of some Hnd. When three equations are given. we have seen in the first part of this article that the locus of pointa whoseco-ordinatessatisiy either equationseparately. je=~-(a:). it follows hence that any three surfaces have one or more commonpoints of intersection.1NTEKPRETATMN OP EQUATMM. 18). 22. When we are given too equations. straight or curved. And since the pointa 0 which are thé projectionsof these latter points. real or imaginary. though of course they do not necessarilylie aU in any one plane. Consequently. and therefore that the given Since each equation equations represent one or more jpoM<<<. the assemblage of which is thé locus represented by the two equations. are dassed according to thé degrees of thé equations which represent them. lie on a certain line. it is plain that they are samdent to detennine absoluteiy the vatnes of the three unhtown quantities a:. The assemblage then of pointa so found on the lines PO will form a aur&ee which will be thé geometrical representation of the given equation(see CbKtM. like plane curves. by eliminating y and x altematety between them. p. Otherwise thus when two équations are given. Taking the point C anywhere on thia locus. but this point is on limitedto a certain locusrepresentedby the equation y='~ (ic). 13 more points whose co-ordinateswill satMy thé given equation.we cao. Surfaces. if in any equation . we determine as beforeon thé line PC a number of pointsP. M a surface. thé locus of points whose eo-ordinates saua~' both equations is thé assemblage of points eommon to the two surfaces which are represented by the two equations conmdered separately that is to say. j:. Since every point in the plane of «~ bas its <!=0. thé locusis the line of intersection ofthese surfaces. III. y. throw them into thé form ~==~(a:). the given equations will determine con'esponding values for y and In other words. taken separately represents a aor&ce.

v'0!ntheeqaation when in general we get an equation of thé M"*degree to dede. very e term mtMtbe of the third dimensionin someImeM'unit (Mo CMMca.14 ÏNTEKMtMATMN 0F EQUATIONS. For instance. we get the equation of the plane cnrve of section. we get an equation ofthe eecond degree. d~ee of In like manner it ia proved that eM~ ~A< line Mee<a a «t~ace <~tk M"* <~ee Mtn pointe. and denote (see . we make e=0. 28. in tact. 61) a con!c and p. that the degree of the equation of the section cannot be greater than that of the sm&ce. and therefore when we make ~'==0. we !eam that everyy&MM M"* is a e<<nw the M*degree. bqt it appem at nHtt as if it might be less. It M évident.OMtt<w. mMuag terma mnst atlU be regarded aa of three dimenmona. but when we make <=0. But since the original equation wouldhave heen onmeaning if it were not homogeneous. ~cc e~<M<<b!M ?"' a of <Jte and M*~ d~eM Mspecf&e~fepfeMMt ca~ee of <6e For the sar&ces represented by the equationa MM** o~ee.the rep. They will form an equation of the second degree multiplied by a constant. eqnation tho nm général we get termine < If the degree of the equation happened to be lésa than M. and the points where it meeta thé snr&ce ofthe sarSMe. and Binee transformationof co-ordinatesdoea not alter the degree of an Mc<tbtt a Mti~Me <<e of equation. If then we take into acco~ntlines at im6nity. we get the relation between the fBand y co-oîttmateaof the pointa in which the plane a~ meets the Bnr&cerepresentedby the equation that is to say. it would only indioate that some of the n pointe where the !me meets the snt&ce are at innnity. The right Une may be made the axis of a. . a line at imSnhy. aïe&)tmdhymakmg<p='0. we may say that the section of a anr&ee of the M" degree of by the plane of a~ will be <t!tM~< the degree. and it is obviou that the equation of this curvewill be in general of the aame degree as the equation of the surface. C~<n)œ ~MM are daern~edaccording to the number in of points in which they are met by any plane. and aince any plane may be made the plane of xy. the equation M of the third degree. 61).

y) =0. respectively. 16 aM eut by any plane in carvMof the <K*" nd ~"degMea a and these curvea intersectin ma pointa.y)~0wiU be satisSed not only for any point of thia curve in the plane of xy. If an equation only contain two of the variables (<c. 20) the co-ordinate that itrepresentaMp~esparaHeitooneof planes. but a!eofor any other pointhaving the eme <eand y thoagh a diNeKfnt<: that ia to say. 24.~(<c. .namely. 86). If an equation contain only one of the variables x.* The oarve in the plane of~canonlyberepresentedbytMM equations. a <yM«MM< . mmceif we eliminatey and z betweenthe equations. p. But it muet be rememberedthat the eqoation (ic.ve obtain an equation of the MMF*" egree to dotefmmea! (aee ZeMMM JS%'Ae!' on d ~~e~<t. This proves ~00 that three ««~MM of (~ M!<M-MC< in <!M!pjj)CM! M* K°' <MM ye~MC<M)e~.that it may be resolved into n factors of the form a!-a=0.tNTBBMETA'nON 0F EQCAtKHfS. e=0. of <ZMtO<e ~OM:< MMtp This foHowefrom the theory of elimination. Three e~<M<tMM <M~< and 0~M yMpec<A)e~. we know by the theory of equatWM. the letutier might at firstsappOMth&tit representa a curve in the plane of a~.A am-&<!9 t ca!!ett mo~in~arallelo UseMm p generated a rightUne by NM&ee.y)=0. and therefore (Art. and Bothat it &tîaa an exception to the rule that it roquires <«?equationsto repreeent a curve. for any point of the m~MegMMM~hyai~~tRMNM~M~thMcm~~ but remaining parallel to the MM of e.

and M<M ON~~M <t. We commencewith the latter proposition. viz. and tranafbmKttIon any other axes cannot alter thé of this equation (Art.but this equation MtntewhatevetbetheMM. 20) that the plane of xy ia representedby an equation of the nrst degree. and (Art. The length of the projection on the perpendicular of thé radius vector to any point of the plane is of course =p./?) V <e&& oaies. m. . The following method however of expressing the equation of a plane leads to <~e of the &rm8 moat aseM in pract!ce. n ~om the three equations given Art. when we should arrive at an equation of thé nrat degree. In the mst place we have seen (Art. ÏN the discasaon of equations we commenceof course with equationaof the first degree. 9. THEPLANE. 2N. to <=0. 7) thia is equal to the sam of the projections on that Uneofthé three co-ordinates. 19). on 26. Hence weobtam for thé équation of the plane In what MIotn we supposethe MM KetmgotM'.( 16) CHAPTER III. degree We might arrive at the same resntt by forming the equation of the plane determined by threo given points. J~ ~Mf <~ eg<M~Mt a ~&MM. prove that eee~yep<«<&M! <%e e/* ~M<degree<~M*Men<~ and conveKely. and the nrst stop is to a plane. whîch we can do by eliminating ?.that <~ eg~M<Mw a plane M a?M<ty< the of of ~&<d5~Me. jpMyeKc~MMbf Me of the <pA«~J~MM origin =jp.which may be establishedin two or three diNerentways.

Ï~~MJ the angle between twoplanes The angle between the planes is thé eame as the angle between the perpendicnlamon them from the origin. By the last article we have the angles these perpendicnhmmake with . by dMdmg it by a ~=' &etorJ5. and then the signa of the coMneswill determine whether the angles whieh the perpendicular makea with the positive directions of the axes are acate or obtuse. nyequationof the Ëf~tdegree o can be reduced to the form just given. whence. We are to give to the square Mot the sign which will make the perpendicularpositive. 29. +B+ Cy axes whose cosmes are j4. respectivelydivided by the same square root. &)e. B. New. 11. 17 27.THE PLANE.by Hence any equation ~+~+C!:+~='0 nMy be identified with the equation of a p!ane. 18. JBcoe~.the Mes. C== cos'y. C. convefBdy. we hâve in other words. Weare to have ~1=JBcosct. if the coeSoients ~4. the perpendicularon whichfrom the or!gm ==//j'"B'j.Arts. 7b ~M< the <'g<M<Mtt plane M <eMM Me inof a of it ~fcep~a. !cA<e&makes<Mt <N!M.'<T!) and makes angles with the makea anglea tho origin ~(A. C'. is determiaed to be '=~'+J9'+0*). 28.14. c . JS Art. in which case it is manifest from the last artMe that the direction of tho perpendicularon both will be the same. C be proportional to B'. and theBce.

Let the equation be ~a:+JE~+0!+2)=!0. the point where the plane meets the axis of x is at infinity. 30. 20). as at C~Mtco. The intercept BMtdon thé axia of a: by the plane o u&MdbynMtkmgyandzboth'=0. D <7.whenwehave. <X!+D=0. To ~M <~ equation t~e ~«Ke <&<eMMM)e<? by ~~ee pMK<t. and sinee this ia to be satisfiedby the co-ordinatesof eachof the givenpoints. and we see. equationD==0 muât be taken to represent a plane at m&uty.P=!0. B=0. or the plane !a parallel to the axia of x. JS=0. Sobstttntmg in thé !t becomea general equation the values joat foundfor A. for inotance. And MmUarly.~<t+. mnat satisfy the équations .j8&+D=0. If we have ~c=0.Ï8 THE PLANE. 0=0. J~ If in thé general équation any term be wanting. all three axes meet the phne at infinity. that an p. then two axes meet at infinity the given plane which is therefore parallel to the plane of a!y (see aiso Art. if ~=0. $1. If we have both ~1=0.

yMtm«j.. CM«'.JL cosy are the prqectIoM of the tnangle on the co-ordinate phmea (Art. It MtoM then that thé detmmtMtnt above wntten la equal to double the funetion ofihe <MM the &bcye-!nentioned of ephenealtriangle. 19 If we constder y. wc have the condition that four pointa shonM lie in one plane. e in the preceding equation arc cv!dently double the M'oaaof the projectionson thé coord!n&teplanes of the triangle formed by the three pomte. 26} and multiply it by twce ~t.ar on Ita plane from the the < ong!n: or~in other worda. cos~3. having the origin for ita centre. e aa thé co-ordinatesof any fourth point. 0!~tK. eot/9*. and mn~ il thé perpend!en!M' on !t from thé eppMKe ~Mtex. Then Ma denote the aide ~JB". The coeSdents of x. Hence the quantity représenta double the area of the tftemgle&nned by the three pomta moltIpUed by the p~pendiea!. 4). we 6ndthet aixtimeathevolumef dà pyMmM < CM' &o.. and meeting it m a sphetietd triangle .* Ifm fhepteeeding TfthtM wemtMtitttte <e'.N&! M)M< volume the <n<MtyM&ff o~ tc&Me &McM that ~«ï~&. and whosewy<KC the & ji. Ifnow we take the equation (Art. y. <hr y'. 81. timonthé winme this pyramu I?prpm o .wefindthetni% multiplied thedeterminant by Now let us Mppo<e the thtee MdU vectotex eut by a tphere whoae Kdim h uuity. (A being the ma of the triangle formedby thé three points) the equation wHIbecome identied with that of the last article. The same thing C2 . and p the perpend~ulaï <n it from J! six times thé volume ofthe pytamid willbe ~yehKt mn~tj i for ~"<nn<t is double the axea of one &ce of the pytamid.THE PLANE.B'B'JT.dm~i. The absointe term then must be the same in both cases. &e. since coa<[.

&c. y.20 THE PLANE. in other worda.by definition. 5) the projection on that perpendicular of the radius vector to !cy& and therefore(Art. since parallel planes make equal intercepta on parallel ILocs. We can at once express A ttse!f in terma of the co-ordmatce of thé three points by Art. 18~ and muet have 4~4* equal to the eam of thé squares of the coefficientsof x. (Art. that a:y. ?b. It ta MeM to remarkthat when the three Uaee are at f~ht angles to each other the determinant .B. 32. If we draw throngh iey< a plane paraM to the given plane and let fall on the two planes a common perpendicnbu' from the origin./M the lengthof the~e~M<&'<'M&M*<MM point 0 given a: on a givenplane. or. But the length of the perpendicular on the plane through iB'e' M. which is knownto havethe valuein question. 26) iBequal to The tength required is therefore This mppoaes the perpendicular on the plane throngh N. then thé intercept on this line will be equal to the length of the perpendicularrequired. and in the equattoa of the hst artide. and a. wMch expanded h l+2cMaeo~co&e-ec~<t-eMt't-tM*e. to be greater than j).y~' may be ptOfed by forming the square of the same determinant according to the ot<Mnarytaie} when ifwe write tMa" eo«t'" cM~* eo<jS" 00~ <!M' = eoBa.

or 36. by the perpondicular on their plane from the fourth. 33. If the eqoMton of the plane -(were given in thé form ~. 21 thé origin are on opposite stdeâ of the ptanc. j! between the equations of the four planes. will be on the same aLdeof the plane M the ongic. of ~~ee Th!s is oniy to solve three equattona of the 6Mt degree for three Nnknown qnantMes (sec ZMao~ <M1% ~i~~at. For in such a case thé line of intersection of any two would be &Tso parallel to tMs line. This is evidently obtained. 2~ . tt !a reduced to the other form. 27. To~t:<?the co~'f<OM four planes ahouldmeet~M <Aa< a point. and is thereforethe dcterminant (~'<7"P"'). The length of thé pcr- . The value of the co-ordmateswill hecomomËnite !fthe determinant (~(7") vanlehes. as in Art.THËPLANE. If we multiply the area of the triangle formed by three points. by eliminating x. and coald not meet the third plane at any finito distance. ~j&t~ thec<w~M:a<es <i5e q/' <'M<M'<ec<M~: ~&MtM. we obtain three tunes the volume. 24). the length of the perpendicalar would be +< p (a)' coaa y*COB~ coa'y). If they were on the same aide. 34. Art.or This then is the condition that the three planes should be parallel to the same Une. and cMeoer~ when the sign is dMerent./M the po~f~M MM~fM M~OM <w<M.M are <~ <tNy J~M~ytCeM JMMt~. and thé length of thé perpendicular ta It M plain that a!l points for which ~a:'+J5~'+C~'+2) has the aame s!gn M D.c+J~+Ck+JP.

.(aee C~Mt&w. and dividing by thé sqttaM root cf the aorn of the squares of the coûSdente of x. jS'. 81) that square root M double the area of the irtangle formed by the three pointe. represents a aor&ce pasamg' and that through the Une of intersecëon of B' and o~+M'+cN" représenta a surface paastag throngh the points of intersectionof S. and then mtMtttntin~ the formula given abore. and <!tZ+~Jtf+< denotes a plane pammg through the point common to all three. J~ same point if their equations are connected by an identical re!ation The volume ofthe tetmhedronformed four planes. then a~+M" ~S". and the &et<tnin the denominatorexp[M<the ecndMoM (Art. M) that any three of thé be to phne< ahould pM-attet the aMieline. P will pass throngh the So again. (Ait 80) M formed by «abstttntmgin that equation the co-ordmttteaof the ibarth point.22 TKË PLANE. and <~ + Mf+c dénotes a plane parallel to the intersectionof L and Jhr (seeArt 29). (tee in on J~M<MMJB%«' ~M.whose by eqm~MM ara given. It is évidenteu in Plane Geometry. four planes Z. 36) Art. m be foundby forming the co-otdmatesof its angular pemte. The TMnttie. represent any wheM a and b are any constants. y. e. 26) that <!xtimes thé volumele eqcal to where B h the detenamant (~JB'C"JO~Art. But (Art. that if three surfaces. Art. aZ+~~f dénotes a plane passing through any the line of intersection of the amt two. N denote threo planes. 34. and <8' Thus then if Z. As a particular case of the preceding oZ+6b denotes a plane paraBelto Z. pendicahu'oa thé plane whoae equation !s given. Hence s&! timea <~ volumeof the t~a&a&WK M <~<Mt7 the <&<enHMKMt< in gMM<MM ? 86.

it ia easy to see (as at <XMtM. 84). the third by (~j8C"). Nid add then (JEeMOM ~%rXe!' <M Algebra. given any 6m)' planes mterBectmgin a commonpoint. shall UM these g<t<M?! we Accordmgly. Hence obviouoly the equation of the required plane !< <t+ 6 + e2. Art. co-ordmateawhenever by so doing Ottr eqMlioBBcan planar be materially simplified. 270). because the planes meet in a point. Bince this pMMa through each of the three linesjoining the three given points. p. in what &)tlows. 3. 68. it Meaay to obtMnmch an identical relation. Their équations are therefore connectedby the identicalrelation 87. Art.the of equation the ptane.. For multiply thé &rst equation by thé determinant the eecond by. 7) the coefficientsof if. equation of any other plane can be thrown into the form And in general the equation of any sm&oeof the M*" degree can be expresaed-by a homogeneous equation of the M"'degree between Z. Converaety. M) that the point. For the number of terms in the compoteequation of the order between tt~ee variablesM)he same as the namber of termain the A<M)M~e<MO!M t equation of the M'~order betweenfour variables.(~B'"C). Ex. 23 for then any co-ordtMtes whieh satidy the &*st&Ke mast aatlsiy thé fourth. ? + =1. The equatioM of the line BC are evidently '=-1. P not meeting in a Arts.THE P~ANE. and thé fourth by ~'C"). and theintersection phnea ofthe through Ex. y. JM. To find. e vanieh ïdenticaHy. i aad the remaining term M the determinant which vamahes (Art. Œven any four planes Z. 2. P (see OMt~. J~. (~C"'). 1.pMaing through z'e'. . figure. Fiud the equation of the plane pMmngthrough the points ~l~C.

andforming Mabove the equation the planejoMng tbia Uneto the point été. solving for the ratio wt ? from each of the three equations there given. e « e in 38. TheeqaatioM ofthélineBF are~O~+'~t.24 THE KtOHT UNE. 56) depends solety on the conatants < b. 89. 8) of the co-ordinatesof any point on that line. It thua appears that .and then by making ~=0 would in the eqa&tMHM have the equationaof the intersections of the four planes with this plane. We might form independently thé equations of the line joining two points. For we couH by trans~nnfttton of co-ordinatesmake the tMuosveKe 0 plane the plane of icy.c. ~i. we get for thé requiredéquations of the line.MM* lana which M<M'~C< a: right line be met by p M!<M will any plane. d. The equaûona of any two planes taken together will represent their Une of intersection which will include all thé points whoseco-ordinatessatis~ both the equations. Kndtheequation ofthé plane~'J?yinthéMune figure. we get of 1!+ x 1. YM. THE RIGHT LINE. The firat represents thé projection of the lino on the plane of a:~and the secondthat on the plane of y.9. f~eoMAafmottM of the jMaot~ <oj~MMed' &6 constant. and eqnating rMaIts. for taking the values given (Art. (aee C~Ktca. amddoes not alter when by tranaformattonof co-ordinatesL and Jf come to represent dt&a'ent lines. Thèse will bc of the form <tZ+J~ M+J~ cZ+3~ d'C+Jt~ whose anh&nnon!oratio Art. By el!nnnating x and y alternately between the equations we redace them to a form commontyused. Ex. The roader will observe that the ~a<MtMof a right line McMs four <MepeM<&!M< co~aH<S.

84). the two tmea meet in a point.a~~ a!y< angles ct~. four equations by the identicalrelation h the équationcf the planeeontamhtgbothUnes. Two imtersectmg Unes detemune a plane whose equation can eas!ly be found. and the second by any other two ~=0. Whenthe givenlines repreaented byequations theform the condition that they ahould intersect is easily found. 86) that when thé four planes mtemect. and c~+<!F=0 must be identical and muat represent the same plane.TH)S RMHT LINE. If the Ont line be represented by any two equations L!=0. 2~jM the egaa~M<Q~MM~d~WM~A cand MMtJ!K~ 'y Mt'<~ . ~BMttM arc reaMcttvety a?-a! any varlaMo point N~~Ene. and equating it to the value found by solving &om the second and fburth. y- . aud sinco thes~Mc cfM~e(M~rto that distanco e-z'. and that of the secondequationehowsthat it paBsea JR through the line Me of Ex. if this conditionin aatisfted. aad the conditionthat thé Unesahould intersect is thé same as that already given (Art. 25 the equations of the projectionsof thé line are the sameM the of equations of the lines joining the projeotiona two points on the line. But the form of the first equation ahowsthat this plane pMsea through the Une Z. M is otherwise evident. Two right lines in space will in general not intersect. 40. of icye' from The projections on the Mes. For solving for a from the &st and third equations. then if if'~0. each of theae four phnes mnst passthrough that point. we get a-d t-~ m-m' ?-?' the meconnected Again. their equations satisfy an identical relation The equations therefore <tL+&3f=0. the ~o&t< 41. J?==0. For we have seen (Art.

yet on aceount of ita eymmetry between a~y. of lines 1 1 » The required phme pMSMthrough ~yy and !ta perpendieuler la pMpen* dioular to two lines whosedirection-aosines are given} t&Me&re. each divided by the square root ofthe sum of the sqtmtes of thesethree quantities. (Ath 16) the required equation is («! . o ï8 often tMedin pM&renceto the fbnn inArt. Ex. we have only to throwtta equation into the w-té = a-a' when the diiecdon-cosmesof the form 0-d –T– = ~L jLt (~ line will be respectively B. if RectprocaUy.)~) (CM/9CM'/ CM~ COf~) + (y /) (<M'y CM«' cosy cosa) . 4. To Bndtheequation the ptanethtoaghthe twointeKeetmj. yc<Mt&. of Ex. ToSndtbedhreetion-cosiBM ofo!"M«to.wehave a form of writing the equations of the line whicb.1. we f ElimhMtm~ and t <dtem&tely redoce y 1 jBC'-J3'C <M'-C'~ . we deaire to Endthe angles made with the axes by any line. multipliedby thé cosïneof the angle betweenthe I!noand thé axis in question.26 THE BMHT UNE. atthough it indudett two anperSaoaaconstants. C.~y-~B <tndMeQMee<ton-eeMnexn'e where Wb«6 ––s– ––s––< ~t ~C ~t ia thesumof the equarett the threenametatoN. WtMtig the equttttOM the fNam *-L?~o~ thé directton~:OMae< are in M ft t them to the precedingorm.89.

THE BMHT MNE. equidistant from the origin. As we are only ccncemed with d'M'«~o)M is of course it safMent to conaider lines through the origin. 27 tt)b~Ta&!dtheeqaatiMofthetJMMt'Mdag&Maght!Mtwo pMaMUnes The teqnited plane contaiM the line joining the given pMntt. a. ïbj~aJ<Xe e~~M<MMO~~jpetyeM<Kct~~OMa:y< on <Xe~M . hence the equations required are 43.~a'+I~+Ok+. <. The direction-eosines ofthe perpendicular on the plane (Art. . «'-< eodnM of the perpemMeuItu* thé plane Me thoMt~M pMport!on<ttto to TheM may therefore be taken M the eoeCeienh of ar. 0. of tHrection-comnea the given lines. in the tequited équation. wMte the ttbMintB tena detMm!ne<Iby Mbâdtati!~ jey~ for intheeqcttîonie 42. whose equation would therefore be and whose ~rect!on-«Mtneaare thetetENra proportionalto are evidently pMporhonal to the bttt NNoo y'. whose direetien~esinM Me proportional to o:' < y' thé diteetîon. ]? wa take pomts a:y< a:"y"< one on each line. the direction-comnes f the o Macetorare eosa'+cosa". co9<8'+cos~3". oa'/+co8' c Mch divided by the square root of tho aum of the sqmu'eaof theae thrce quauttttes.D. 27) are proportional to ~i. To ~K<?~Ae ~M'ectfM-CMMet the &Meo<M'the <Mt~e of of &<!<M~(<W~K)ett?MMN. B.y. then the middle point of the line johing these pomta M evidently a point on the Msector. <B".

y=!~M+tb that M ~&Mf' ~. and thereforethe direction-cosinesof this bisector are respectivelyproportional to N. To flndthe angle betweenthe ânes 1/ and the == 8-0. 4S. -y". =0. To find <&< CMM&MoKa a line a!==M!J!+a.B.B".) ––r Ana. CoB.4t). and M p (a!C08a+ycoa~+~co8'y–~)==i(a:cosot'+yco8~'+~co8y'). The Msector of thé supplemental angle between thé !met woald bc got by substituting for thé point a:"y"< a point equ!distant from the origin measured in thé opposite dîrectMnj whoseco-ordinatesare .x+J~+Ck+jO. ? ehould &e ot~~er SabatHate . other by «eo linea 44. The equation of the plane bisecting the angle batween two given planes is found precisely as at CMtt~M. and wo have therefore thé Une is parallel to the CûB. The lines are at right angles to each other if y-t-MMK'+KH'=0. To ~t<~ the angle between the plane Ax + Ck + D. 85. Une!! ––r . 3~. y. a!o y"& = <c =' <!M<~ &Me Mt < <! The angle between the line <mdthe plane is the complement of the angle between the line and the perpendicular on the plane. 2b find the angle made with &M& Evidently (Arts.M 28 THE RIONT UNE. 0 9 Ex. 13. . plane. for it !a then perpendîcnlar to a perpendicular on the p!ane. When ~+&M+C~=0. 46.

* 47. . To J&«~the equationof the~&MM dratm througha ~M)Mt to a ~~M~?<!)M. Hence any Mt&ee of the second degree mmt contain an Mntty of right lines. the value of e is mdetermmate and the line M altogether in the plane. In like manner in order to nnd the conditionsthat a right line ahouldlie altogether in any surface. wbile the vaniabingof the numerator expremes that one of the points of the line is in the plane. v!z. Every Mï&ee of the tt)M degree m<Mt ontain a nnite number is of right lines sinee the number of conditions to be MtM&ed equal to the number of duposaMe constante. 29 for <e y in the equ&ttonof tho plane. when and we have aad if both numerator and denominatorvanish. It is plain that the number of conditionsthue resulting is one more than the degree of the onr&ce. wc abouldmbstitnte for a: and m the equation of tbe sur&ce. A surface of hlgher degtee nri!t not neeeMmBycontain any right lime lyhtg altogether in the autËMe. We have j<Ntseen t!Mt the vanishingof the denominatorexpressea the conditionthat the line shouldbo pM~el to the plane. and then equate to zéro the coefficientof <e~ power of <!inthe remMng equation. KMejpe)yeK<~MM&M' Let thé line be given by the equations Since the equatioM of a right Une contain foor constante. aince we hâve only three eondidom to MiMy and bave four constants at ouf c di<poM]. and solve for <.TanE RMHT LINE.a ïi~ht line can be detetnuned whieh eMt MtM~ My &a)' eoNd!t!cna.the point <t6 wherethe Imemoete the plane of a?y.

For it is to containthé given line whose direction-angles are ft'. let the given lines be the intersections of the planea Z. 15) of the d!rect!on-coBmes a perpendicularto the required plane are to proportional COMt' COS~COSy-COS~COS~ C0~8–C08C[CO)~8'.hïttheaeptaajespMsettchthK)agh«neof~eg!ven lines. M.30 THE RMBTUNE. ~3. COSy'COM-COS~COM'. It is evident then that the equations represent parallelplanesmncetheyonJydiSM'byacomt&nt q)Mndty. Hence (Art.whose vamaMage~reœes that the four phmeameet in a point. Then pïoceeding exactty as in Art. J~ P whose équations are given in the most general form.y. . Mtdthe equation of the required This equationdetemunesX ptaneM we can otherwiseeasily détermine the equation of thé required plane. and it M aIso to contain a perpendt"ahu* the ' given plane whosedirection-anglesare a. to y. 36) we obtain the identical relation the right-band mdeof the equation being the determinant. <<!M?MM<<O~K~<<5e~!M<M!t~'a~&M)e<&~MOK e«&ef <c <j5MK~& ~<tMt!M <~ o< First. and since the required plane is a!aoto pasa throïtgh a:y<} ita equation îe 48.

and is therefore equal to thé dISerencebetween their absolute terme. its du'ectMtMOBmea (Art. a plane perpendicular to either of the parallel planes determinedhy Art. 14) is thé angle betweenthé directionsof the given l!nea. the Unesbe given by eq<mii<m8 form Then mncoa perpendicular to the sought plane ia perpendicular to the directionof each of the given lines. ai let ofthe Sec<MMt!y. From the constntctionit is evident that . and 49. and which can be found a follows: Draw through each of the lineB. <&<&MMe <«? KCM-MttM'MC~Mt~ te~tCeM The ehortest dMtance between two Imea is a !mo perpendtcalar to both. It is evident that the perpendiculardistance hem found is ehorter than any other line which can be drawn 6'om any point ofthé one plane to any point ofthe other. and therefore to thé given Unes whtch lie in these planes.and the equationsof the soughtparatlel planes are Thé pefpendicaJardistance between two parallel planes is equal to the differencobetween the perpendicularalet &!1on them 6'omthe ongia. then the intersection of the two planes ao drawn will be perpendieolar to the parallel planes. divided hy the square Mot of the snm of thesqaareBofthecommoncoe&cientsofa' Thuatheperpendiculardistance between the planealast foundis where 6 (seeArt. ïb ~M <~ eg<M<t<MM Me NM~M«M&the <i6o!~a< of ~Mt. 15) are thé same as those given in the last example.TM RKHtT M!fE. 47.by Art. 48.

b. f be the Unes joining thé fourth point D to thèse three. But . Working by Art. whence a. os'y'coatt-cosycosa'. 60. and perpendicularto a plane whose direction-cosinesre proportional to a cM~coa~-tos~coey)co~y'costt-coaycoaa'. Ita magnitude M plainly that determined in the last article. oact'co~–cosacoa~ c we findthat the line sought ts the intersectionof the two planoa of The direction-coMnM the ahortest distance muât plainty be proportionalto cosft'cos~-eûsacot~S'.~8. e be the aides of the triangle fonned by any I~N'ea of them ~jB<~ and let <~e. We add aa an appemdix the preceding chaptemsome to propertiea of tetrahedra which. To ~)d' the M?<t<MM 5«<MeM theNM:MMM JO~ttKyany four a plane. though not obtained by the method of co-ordinates. either withinor withoutthe tnangle ~-BC'. coe~cos~-coa~coBy.M 82 NOTE ON THE PBOPEBT!E80F TETBAEENtA. the line so determined meets both thé given lines. c NOTE ON THE PROPERTIESO? TETBAHEDRA. are worth being set down. c be a)~ coa?'<t+cos*t cot~'y-3 cosacos~ co9')"=l. 47 the equation of a planepammg through a line whese direction-angles are <t.b. Let the angles anbtended at D by then we have coset!=oos(~3±'y).'y. points in Let et. This reiation will be troe whatever be the podtion of D.

aNs in question.< the perpendtcalar on that face 6'om the remaining vertex be and the distancesof the foot of that petpendicuiM from ~1.y. e'. &c. 52. are connected by the relation given in the last article.B. Nowthe quantity multiplying !a 16 times the square of the area of the triangle ~LBC. Tb ea~pMM eo~tme of a t~e M'.we get u . only sabetitatmg for the6)rmuhethere used the coMespondiag fbnnuto for apherical and if fc. But if <~ be the e.and emeep multiplied by this area ia three timeathe volumeof the pyramid.<mdpntting in these values.c edges. we findfor thé required Mhttton 61. of We proceed ptedaely as in Art. where . b. Then a.a.NOTEON THE PROPERTÏES TBTBAHNHtA.f'.y whenct remaming edges <y='<?"+~ e*='e'*+~ y ='+?*.F Is the quantity on the teA-handBideof thé equation in the last artide. represent thé coMMet the six of triangles. d'. Let the aides of the triangle formed by any face ABC ht <&. c. S. 0 be d'. OF 88 Snbsdtntmgthèse values and redudng.~8. ïb ~tJ the ye&t<MMe<<MeH OM! joMM)~ & Me o)~ four pointe omthe <tM~itee a sphere. e'.we get ~e*=<e". wehaveF=-MF'. M.

H &c. dietMtCûetweentwo oppositeaidesof thé tetrahedron is equal b to suc times the volume divided by the product of those sides m~Mpliedby the sineof their angle of inclinationto each other. we httvea=lexpMsmoDa &t and makmg &eM enbstitu~ons.84 NOTE ON THE PROPMTïEa 0F TETNAHBNtA. 20) a determinant wMchahall vanish Ment!caUy. To ~M~the MtdSMM<~ <pAe~ C<fC<MM<!rtMKy of AedSroN. the last example becomes The reader may exercise Mmselfm proving that the shortest. the tommia of 'y. =' . cosa coaa' + cos~ coB~3' cos'y + co8'/ = coaa&.Art.. &c.and wMch (aabstitatmg coe'Ct+cos'KMB'yl. Now from this matrix we ean form (by the method of ZetMM o» JBiyJtef~~e&Mt.) which expandedbas the va!uc wntten above. « <e<Mt63. Smce any sMea of the tetrahedron !a thé chord of the are with Mm!!ar whoBecoMneisa. which may be expressedin tenns of the aides by thé help of thé relation2ad coaC &'+ < °.

For the nine independent constante in the equation last written may be so determined that the surface shall paMthromgh nme givenpoints. z. and sinee Ita signification ie not altered if by divisionwe make one of the coefBeîentsunity. WE degtee shall wnte the general equation cf the second This equation contains t~mtenna. a quadric surface. 64. The equation of a quadrio may abo (see Art. now D2 . or M we ahaUcati it for shortneaft. M And in like manner thé number of conditionsnecessary to determine a sorface of the ?" degree Mone leœ than the number of terme in thé general equation.( 3S) CHAPTER IV. and ihere&N may coincidewith any given quadric. la like manner (eee C~Mtc~ 68) any ordmary x. <PROPERTBES COMMON TO ALL SURFACES OP THE SECOND DEO&EB. tions may be made homogeneous by the introdaction of the Théreaderwill compare aorresponding the diMa<a!on equation ofthe of thé seconddegtee(C~«M. 87) be expressed as a homogeneons fonction of the equations of four given planes a:. Thus if we were givennme points on the aur&ce)by sabstitattng saccess!velythe co~ordmatea each of in the general equation. we obtain nine equations which are snNident to determine the nme unknown quantities a' ") &c.y. «t. it appears that nine conditions are sufficientto determine a surface of the second degree. . H9) and obMtwthé identityof the p methoda pasued and of mamy the reMl<a of obtained. & équap.

y*. m.< y.86 MM'ERTIES OMMON C TOALL 8CKFACES linear unit (wMchwe ehaB call w). by writing a!-t-iB'.+~' y for x. and we ahall &eqMnt!y employ equationswntten in this form for thé saké of greater symmetry in the results. and if they are oblique (seenote. 7) ~4.J3. +y*. Let us consideriSmtthe oaMwhere the origin iaon the sttr&ce (and thereforeJ=0). p. y. 22). 67.. <OBj8. We can transform thé general equation to polar coordm&tes writing !C==~p. ?. cosy respectively.J9.y. and since any point may be taken for origin it proves that everyright as ~MM Mee<t g<«!<Mc two jMMt<t. if thé axes by be rectangular. c. C are eqnal to eosa. in whiehcase one of the roots of the abovequadratieis pc-0. was proved alMady a in (Art.y'='< ~==<% (where. andthe required conditionis there&re~ +~+y(7=0. <?are Bt!U quantities depending oniy on the angles the lino makes with the axe:) when thé equation becomes This being a qoadr&ticgives two valuesfor the length of the radius vector correspondingto any given direction.N) w!U remain unaltered. that thé new absoluteterm willbe F' (where P* ia the reault of eubetituting a)'. The co-ordmateaare trMM6)nnedo any parallel axes t drawn tbrough a point a~'e'.that thenew coeS- 66. . and let us seek the conditionthat the radius vector should tonch the Mrfaco at thé origin. < co-ordiaateB. In this case obviously the second root of the quadratie will aiso vanish.e' for a. <.~4. 16). 6. M. The result of this eubstttation will be that the coefficientsof the highest powersof the variables (a. We shall however for simplicity commencewith . respectively(Art. e mthe given equation).

the 68. Hence we Ie<um that at a given point on a quadric an inof tangent line8can be drawn. B. everyradins vector through the origin drawn in this plane toacheathé sur&ce.when. ûmodon. we have .0F THE SECOND DEOME. ci0 is the equation of the tangent plane at the origin. 06) TMa may he written in a more symmetncat form by tho introit dnctionof the linear unit m. We can find by transformationof co-ordinates équation of the tangent plane at any point . C <ure snbject to no restriction but that already written. and that if the equation of the surfacebe written in the&rmM. that thèse lie all in one Ëntty plane whichis caUedthe tangentplane at that pomt. For when we transformto this point as origin the absoluteterm vanishes.e=0. then «.ey~ on the surface. mmce !anowa homogeneons anAsince a:y< Mto aatta~ the equation of the sar&ce.+M.and the equation of the tangent plane ia (Art. 87 and evidently expresses that the radius vector lies in a certain fixed plane. And since ~t.

Sincathe point of contactneed satis~r no other condition. and thé Une joining the point of contact to thé given point will be a t<mgeatline to the MtËtce. ~M the point of coM<ac< a tangent ?« <w of jp&t<M <&a<Mt <&e tib'ct~Aa ~tMK point iB' tM<OK «M~tce.B. and tance now we wiahto indicate that the former oo-otdinatesare given and the latter sought. 60. The polar plane may be abo defined as the locns of hannonic means of radii passmg through the pole. If ail the points of intersection of the polar plane and the surface be joined to thé given point. The equation last ~mid expresses a relation between the co-ordm&tes any point on the tangent plane. M eymmetnod between i~ and a~y*<and may likewisobe written B9.and the point through which the lines pass ia called its ee)'&a. In &ct let us examine the locus of points of harmonic section of radii p" be the roots of the passing throagh the origin then if .if we take <Hty of the points where the polar plane meets thé surface. In general a aurface generated by right lines which all pass through the same point îs caUeda cone.it will be observed.whenwe find that the point of contact must lie in the plane of which ia called the pdar j!!<MM the given point.. we have only to remove the accents from the former and accentaatethe latter co-ordinates. and a!'y'e'M' of its point of contact. N. we sha!l have all thé lines which can be drawn throngh that point to touch thé surface. aad the assemblage of those lines form what is called the tangent «MM through the given point. A cylinder (aeep. 15) is the limiting case of a cone when thé vertex is innnitelydistant.88 MOPENTIBa COMMON TOALLSURFACES This equation. the tangent plane at that point will paœ throagh the given point.

and p the radius vector of thé bcM. For the locus of harmonie means of «H Kntii passing throngh the point. S6. M). In &ct the coefficientof p (Art. y'. M) vanishea whatever be the directionof /). If in the original equation we had not only J='0. . the polar of that point with regard to the section will be thé intersectionof the plane of sectionwith the polar plane of thé gtvoa point. 61. must include the locus of harmoniemeanaof the radii whichlie in the plane of section. it is evident that if a sectionof a surface be made by a plane passing through any point.0F TBE SECONDMMNE. of the line ji& It ia easy to aoe that the polar Une of the line AB ia the locus of the poles of all planes which can be drawn through the line ~& 62. ~en the equation of the tangent plane found (Art. From this definition of the polar plane. we are to have but this is exactiy the polar plane of the origin. and thé origin is Mndto be a doublepoint onthe surface. and thereforeeuery line drawn tbrough the origin meets the surface in two consécutivepoints. then the polar plane of B will paMthrongh For since the equation of the polar plane is symmetncal with respect to a!y<ai'y~ we get the aamereault whether we eubstitatethe co-ordinateaof the eecondpoint in the equation of the polar plane ofthe first. If the polar plane of any point ~t pass through jB. with respect to the surface.mnceevery term vanishesand no angle plane can be called the tangent plane at thé engin. a' ail !=0 in thé equation written in full (Art. or wice<w< The intersection of the polar planes of Aand of willbe a Une which we ahall call the polar line. r each = 0. N 89 quadratiu cf Art. but atso jp. 68) becomeaillusory. q. M may bosoen by making a.

60) that the polar plane mustcontainthe polar line. We can eaailyfind the condition that the general eqnation of thé seconddegree ahould repreaent a cône. and take the polar limeof the point with regard to that section. and a!so that aN pointa whichlie onthe Mmeline passingthrough the vertex of a cone have the same polar plane. For if such an equation be Mtis&edby any coordinateaa~. co-otdm&tes f every point on the Ime joining a''y'e' to the o This line then lies wholly in the surface whiehmust origin. (where-B ts any oonetamt). When the point a. e'.ye' is not on the surface. For if it does it will be poamMeby transformation of co-ordinatesto .the equationwe have beem diBcaemng last represents the polar of that point.by the JB. it will aiso be MtMËed the co-ordm&tea by that M to My. e. and it ia now proved that the polar plane muet containthe vertex.)!') J!y. Ba' for a! y'. 63. as in &M!t every homogeneous does equation in a:.thel&ttet&nn6hewBth&tthet<mgentpIsne&t&ny point iey~' touchesthe mrface at every point of the line joining aiye' to the vertex. there&Mconaistof a ttatMSûf right linea drawn tbrough tha o!<gia. the equation dénotée a cone whose vertex !a the or!g!n. For it was proved (Art. ~y'. then the plane joining this polar line to the vertex will be thé polar plane required. for the equation will represent the 6ame plane ifwe eabstitute~c'.40 PMPEM'tES COMMUN TOALt SURFACES In thé present caae. Thé equation of thé tangent plane at any point of the cône nowunder considerationmay be written in either of the forma Thé former form (wanting an abaolntotenn) ahews that the tangent plane at every point on thé cône paaseathrongh the ongin.y'. and it appears in like manner that the polar plane of every point paasesthrough the vertex of the cone. To find the polar plane of any point with regard to a cone we need only take any section throagh that point.

Hence (Art.written at jMl tength. Let na return now to the quadratic of Art.c+~+~~O. p. f==0. If however we had p'='0. 64. 60) every JM!!CK the O~Mt Mt<tplane jM~tNe!to t<< ~0&M' plaM <&f<M<y& M&Mec<N~ origin. f. in which d M not supposedto vamah. It !s obviously necesaaïy and mtiBctentthat the coeffident of p in that qaadratM should vamah. g=0.OF THE SECOND DËOBEE. 44). and let us examine the condition that thé radius vector should be b!aectedat thé origin. 41 make the new p. <~vamah. a< the 66. since we should then get for p values equal with opposite signa. then ec<ry tme drawn through the origin would bc btsected and the origin . M whichis the J&cWmMMHttthé given equation (see ZeMMM of on ~~H. The condition required thon is whieh multiplied by p ehews that the ra~ua vector must lie m liM the plane ~. The cû-ordm~teaof the new veftex must therefore (Art M) aatif~r the conditions which. S6.

It !a poMtNe that the nmmemtmNof theae &<MtioMmight vaniah at the eme time with the denominator. If we write the original equation M.42 MOPENTIES COMMONTO AU. ~'=0.v p~t same line. in whicheaae the c<x)tdimttM of the centre would become indeterminate. and thé aut&ea woald have an intaity of Mntres.+<t~+«. . any point en this line wiNbe a contre. q. whiobare of got by erasing <my the vertical MNM. Thus if the three planes U du U all pan th~ough thé d.'=<0. it !a evident that8 is the disariminant ofM.We shall reuerve the MIm diecuMtoaof theseeaM< forthe next chapter. we obtain three equations.'n& If however S'~00 the co-ordm&tes of the centre become infinite and the surface bas no finite centre. The eenditiona that thb should be the caee may be written the notationindicatif that all the four determinanta must "0. JS~tKMfr&~M ~t general one (M)<! <MM centre. For if we eeek by ttMMbut formationof co~ïdtnateato makethé new p. SURFACES wonMbe<!tJIe(tthe<xM~oftheftat&eû.

ve8ee that thé diametral plane is thé polar of thé point at Innnity on a Une drawn in the given direction. In the case vhere the given surface iBa cône. the centre ia thé pole of thé plane at infinity. the new ond therefore (Art. the equation of thé diametral plane may be written divide itbyJB. If a!y<' be any point on the radins vector drawn through the origin parallel to the given direction. therefore the polar of the . If we trams&trmthe equation to any point on the locm M r must &MI the condition (Art. In like manner. 6&)thé equation of the ~+gB+)'C==0. 60) is d=0. for if the origin be the centre tta potar plane (Art. it is evident that the plane which bisectschorde paraiM to any !iae drawn through the vertex ie the same as the polar plane of any pomt in that line. 48 66. 272). ~NM~C~~JM~M œ CCP = a to a givm «~tceM ~e <= = C.p. that la to eay.andthenmakeJBinnmte. 64) origin. ~i &ct it was proved that ail points on the l!ne have the same polar plane.r-..OF THE SECONDDEONEE.through the centre of the surface. -y-. locus is This denotes a plane through thé intersectionof the planes dU dU dU -. It is called the diametral planeconjugate te thé given direction of the chords. 29) repreaentBa plane mtttated at an înnmte diatance. M we might also have inferMd from geometrical oonatdeMtttom (aee C~Mw. which (Art.

It &Uow< the plane. The plane which bisects ohoKta parallel to thé axis ofa: Mfound by making ~'=0. in otherwordt. C!=0 m the equation ofAtt 66. For the locaa of middle points of <tKchorde of the surface parallel to a given !ine muet inelude the locae of the middlepoints ofaU snch ehordswhich are contained in a given phne. Thus we should obtain a system of three conjugatediameters by taking two conjugate diameters of any central section together with thé diameter conjugate to thé plane of that section. =0. and it is otherwMeévident that the plane conjugate to each of two conjugate diametera of a section passes through the other. 0 wiU that btMCt chordeparallel theMth to of if <t 0. 67.44 PMPEBTIES COMMON TO ALL 8PBFACM point at m6n!<yon that line is the eame M the polar pîamo of any other point in it. . it appears &om the commencementof this article n that the co-ordinate planes are parallel to three conjugate diamétral planes.if the original quation e do not containany odd power of But it le otherwise évident hat t thMmastbe the casein order that for anyasaignedvaluesof y and< we mayobtaincqualand opposite valuesof . If we had in the equation ~==0.)'. But this M abo the conditionthat the plane conjugate to the axis of y ahouldbe parallel to the Mas of Hence the plane coKto a ~tMMdirection be parallel to a <eo<M~ given ?«. Three diametral planes are oaid to he conjugate whm each is conjugato to the intersection of the other two.). 0) or. m 0. When ~=0 the axes of . and three diameters are sald to be conjugate when each is conjugateto the plane of thé other two. to be and this will be parallel to the axis of y.c and y are evidently parallel to a pair of conjugatediameters of the section by the plane of ay. jugate thej)&MM to the &e o(M/M$M<e latter <c<?~ parallel to <Xej~MM*. if K=0. Mt!=0.

y. B. and 2?. 66) that a ayetem of three conjugate diameters meets any plane section in points such that each M the pole with respect to the sectionof the line joining the other two. Rence a gMa~nc ~t ~etMMJ~ the three diameters <~ejM'tMCtp<t~ d'M!a!<<r<t!jp&MM. to whichare called the <N:M the surface. 46 When the surface is a cone tt ia evident from what was said (Arts. We of 0 perpendicular shalldiscuesthia equation more fally in thé next chapter. if (Art. û. A diametral plane ia said to be principal if it bo perpondtcular to thé chordeto which it ift conjugate. s be respecttTelyproportionalto ~i. From these eqaatîons which are linear in jB. C. of This gives us the three equations ~M+N+Ck~JSC. C the directioncomnesof a chord.B. The axes being rectangular. 66) that thé corresponding diametral plane is and this will be perpendicnlar to the chord. we can eliminate~1.0F THE 8ECOSD DEGBBE. C.. J9. . 42) thé coefficients a. when we obtain thé déterminant And the three values henoe found for JB being snccesBtvety substituted in thé preceding equationsenable ua to determine the corresponding values of j4. J[a+&!+C~=~ ~n+~+C?=AB. C. we have seen (Art. 62. 68.

& AadthephmeQKwnthmughtheo)'igin. centrebeingorigin. MMi~yo. then the equation ofthe threeprindpal !ame<.we get for thé equation ûfoneof the mfor <* the equations ofoneof &o. or whether we write at once e:=c. Since any plane may be taken for the plane of a:y. It is easy to prove atgehraicaUy.p.la < + 2y+ &t ?. and and the corves are therefore similar.46 MtOPNfnES OMWON TO AM. end aubetituting and mtxHtath~ ht . their productp' !a ==J divided by thé coeindent of p*.(whi<!hhthe to eentfe)pMpendieatM &Je Mne.we must obtain in every casethe same coeiEc!entsfor a! xy. But the section by any pM&Uel lane is found by trtma&rmiDgthe equation p to paraUelaxes through any nev origin.weaBd~=~-CL MuMptyingty~.. p" be the Mota of the quadratio of Art. and consider a radius vector Mt B~&oIt is proved(~<<MMM ~<6f<t.that the locus of centres of parallel sectionsM the diameter conjugate to their plane. Ana mnce the coe&denta of the highest terme are unaltered by sachtransformation. and that then make ~!=0.. But if wo transform to parallel axes. SURFACES If!ntheMweMMteta<R"8. and then making <!==0. 66. in andNdenote d (&<t'+(e«-M')y't(at-H')~2(~-<tO)w+2(~-tm)M~a(<&)~. If we retain the planea ye and <Kc. The MC<M!M a S~M<M! «M of ~yp<M'a!M jp!<M!M ~t&K' <c«MXo<tef.dp. 112)that if U denote thétenMofhigheat egree the equation. Bince Mevident it is the same thing whether we write e+ctor e. In like manner theotherwoprincipal t are2j): 2y < c 0. If p'.* + planes 69. 3~ y &) 0.the section by this plane !s got at once c it by writing )?'=c in the equation of the surface. 70. the p is denoted ythedeterminant b . as M geometncaUyévident. &e. it M anScîent to consider the sectionmade by tt. transform thé plane and a~yparatlel to itseM. which is found by putting <!=0 mthe equation of the sm'&ce.

such as that employed (CbtttM. 47 drawn parallel to the nrst direction. To ~nd' <~ pointe where a given guadric M met the line joining <t00givenJWM!~ a:y<'<e'. P" are thé resulta of aabof stituting the co-ordinatee Aand of B in the givenequation. then (Art. P': P" where !7'.the coenïeientof remauM unchanged. 71. in which the joining line is eut at the point where it meets the quadric. We shall conclude this chapter by shewing how the theorems atready deduced from thé discussion of Unes passing throagh the origin might have been derived by a more general process. we get for the detenninattom ofl m. . 8) the co-ordinatesof that point are proportionalto and if wesnbstîtatethese values in the equation of the sur&ce.0F THE SECOND DMN5E. we find the co-ordinates of the pointa where the quadric is met by the givenline.while the coeBSdentof &K may be seen (by Taylor'6 theorem. sabstttatmg each of them in thé values l+9n &c. namely. and the product is proportional to thé new d.Art 150).any parallel chorda drawn meeting thé snr&tcein pointa then the J! jSB.2M"are to each other in a constant pmdncts ~JB'.a!"y"<M". For aymmetry we use homogeneous equationswith four variables. ratio. a $Ma<&'a<M The coeiBcienis f f and Mt* easily seen to be thé resolts o are of substitatiag in the equation of the surface the co-ordinates of each of the points. Hence if through two given pointe j&. Let us take asour unknown quantity the ratio 1 M.. or otherwise) to be capable of being written in either of the &rm8 Having foundfrom this qnadmtMthe vaines of i' m.

If a/y'i!'a/ be not on the surface.c'y~'M'be on the aut~ce. If . thé co'ordmatea of the latter must Bat!s~ the equation 09. In general if the line joining the two points touch muet hâve equal roots. where . Hence the cone generated by aU theae tangent linea will hâve for ita equation 4PT7'=jP*. and one of the roots of the last qn&dr&tM ~=0. then F''=0. thé quadratic of Art.thequadrat!oofArt.71 and the co-ordinatesof the two points mnst be connected by the relation 4Ï7'P"'='JP*.48 MOPERTtEa CMtMOS '[0 ALL SURFACM 72. and yet the relation F~O be e&tMed.as evidently ought to be the case.' and aince <B'y~"o/' may be <M~point on any tangent line throngh icy~'w' it 6)Uowsthat every such tangent lies in the plane whoae equation haa been juat written. wh!oh correspondato is the point a/y'e'M'. is eut harmonically. which gives values of m. It &Uowathen that thé locas of points of harmonie section of radil drawn through aiV~'a)' ia the polar plane 74. Hence the line joining thé given pointa is cnt by the surface extemally and !ntem<Jly in the same ratio that is to say.equal with opposite signa. 71 takea the form M'P'+ P~7"'=0. 78. theaï)'&ce. thia relation onght to be fulfilledif the other point lie on any of thé tangent lines which can be drawn throngh it. If then the line joining <cy~'«/to a)'y<<a" touch the surface at the former point. If the point fcy~' be Ëxed. ïn order that the second root ahouldako be ~0. we must hâve F='0.

have to eliminate a'. we have (Art. M from these equations. 49 75. 68) from which equations. ?b. aince the detetn~nant bas two symmetticat cm. aud X an mdetennmate multiplier. together with ax + + 'yx + 8<o== we 0. E . i:. y.0F THE SECOND DESNSË. we have (Higher ~l~m./M the coo<&'<MM <Ae~M tKC+~+'y<!+~ that ahould touch the auiface given by the general f~MO~Mt. <. 15)* for example. <a be the co-ordinates of the point of contact. etituents each <t. But solving for a! y. p. is the di&It Mthere proved that the coefficientof rential of A with regard ton on the supposition that the conatituents of the determinant A are aU difforent But it is easy to Me that the true differentialis double this. e. <a. If a).

&c. For the two planes wHch can be drawn throngh a given line to tonoh a quadric. 76. and then form the condition that the equation m X ahouldhave equal roots. reault is found to be If in the condition of the last article ve write a+Xa' for a. will coincide either if the line touches the quadric or if thé surface bas a double point.. &c. . and fbrmmg the condition that the resulting quadratic should have equal roots. and la aiso a qnadratic function of the determinants &c. (opy'). The condition that the surface ahould bc touched by anyline is found by eliminating two of the variables between thé equations of the line and of the quadrie. The resnit contains the coefficientsof the quadric in thé second degree.co PBOPERTUN 0F THE SECOND DEGBEË. the resolt will be the conditionof this article muMpUed by the discriminant. Writing theae (~'). the (<r/)) (<~3').

CLASSIFICATION QUADRIC8. retaining the new origin. the coefficientsp.t~+«''==0.anAthe classificationof the dMerent sar&eee wMch it ia capable of representing. where <? M the result of substituting thé oo-ordinates of the centre in the equation of the aur&ce. we ehould onty have to change all thé ~t~~M the equation. 63). and the equation becomea <!a~+~+M'+2~3m. 78. 65) nol to be =0.( &t)> CHAPTER V. OUB object in this chapter is thé reduction of the general equation of the second degree to thé mmplest form of wh!ch it is 8Mcept!Me. Bemembenng that where A is the discriminantof the equation. 0F 77. we cam next make the ooeSMents of and xy vanish by ohangmg the direction of the axes. made to vanish. Having by transibnnadon to parallel axes made the coeSotents of y. thé Mr&M would repreaent a cône (A)ft. E22 . If it were in negativo.a:+2a. and so reduce the equation to the form D ia of course <1 suppose in what Mowe that J) M poeitiTe. If it were 0. Let ua commenceby supposingthe quantity which we called c (Art. :q~uun. <!to vameh. By trMM&nnmgthe equation to r are parallel axes through the centre.

The diseriminants of <7+JÏ~ and of !7+jBjS' must therefore vanish for the same values of R. 141. we ehoutd &nn a euMetn thé t0f&cient<of whieh would bear ta each other Mtios unalto-ed by tmoatbnM&tioï~ . . t8~ <*+ y 2yz eo!\ 2« eo~~ !):y cos)'.ASMFtCAtrOX OF Qt'ADRICS. Let us suppose that by using thé most general trans<brmation which is of the form which we write for shortness N= & Then if be any constant. we leam that if the equation be transformed from one set of rectangular axes to another. and proceeding exaetty a< m thé text. B. C!M!tcs. we must have !7+~~=!7+R& And if thé Brst Nde be resolvable into factors. M must ako the second. and by thé help of theso relations to obtain the actual valuea of the new . C. t7 that we hâve constants enough at our disposai to effect this reduction. we muet have There M no dNtcnlty in forming thé eotrespondin~equatioMfor for obliqueeo-ordinstM We thonMthen Mbatitute S (<eeArt. It is easy to shew from Art. but thé method we shall follow is the same as that adopted.4. p namely. But the firat discriminant is Equating then the coefficients of thé different powem of to the cofreapondmg coefficients in thé second.52 Ct. to prove that there are certain funetions of the coeScients which remain unaltered when we transform from one rectangular system to another.

Let the cubic bo written in the form which make (~-&)(~-e)-f==0. n eMt vanish. or by subwhen we get fesatte stituting successively~soo. it reduces to and sinee the quantity within the brackets ts a perfect square in virtue of thé relation (ce –&)(<[–<')= the result of aub?*. The above three equations at once enableus to transform the equation M that the new ?. y*) in thé transformed equation. b. The proof of a more general theorem. sinee they determine the coei&ctentaof the cuMc equation whm roots are the new a. xtitutton is CMentMy negative. +. t We may see tbia cither by aetuaUy aolvingthe equation. ehewing that one rcot h jpfatct th<Ht andth<-other leas <han c.t Thcn if we mbstttuto in the given cuMc '=' a. +. .~=-<o. This eubie is then We give here Caacby'a proof that the roots of this equation are aU real. and positive. in which this is mchtded. ~t=~j8. a. the résulta are and negative. The three roots are thé coeStOtents of a~. ~l~a.CLASStFtCATÏON ÛF QUABRtCA 53 79. LeMon XV. Art. the equation bas three real alternately positive l'oots lying within the Hmitsjust assigned.~ct.!idthat the tess root is lesa than either. if wo substitate ~==00. will be found in ZesMM on jBt~~ Algebra. M the reader will easily see ought to be the case. c. m. But if we eabstitute thé result M which in also a perfect square. Since them. ~=–eo. Let~~Sbethev&htesof~d and it is easy to see that the greater of these roots z is greater than either b or c. 68. but This M the same euMo M that found.~=c.

I. amdo the intercept on the axis of < may be the shortest. Thoa the section by any plane <!=.M CLASStHCATMS 0F <)UADMCS.B is -t+~'='l--y) and we shall obviouslyceaseto have any real section when N is greater .c.and is called an ellipaoid. let aU the roota be positive. it Is easyto see that the equation of the aurface may be written in the form As it H arbitrary whieh axis we take for the axis of a:. it is of course afbttriMy wMch shall be the coeNcle&tof a!* or of ance we may call whichever axis we please thé ax!sof.}. and thé equation can be transformedto The suf&cemakes real intercepta oneach of the three axes. The sur&M'!s conaequentlylunited in every direction. Qnttdrics Me ctasai&edaccording to the signa of the roots of thé precodiag cubic. First. and ifthe interceptsbe <t. The equation tranafonnedto polar co-ordinatesis wh!ch (tememhering that cos'a+co~~+coB*'y=l) wrtttenmdtherofthetbrms may be <romwhich it is easy to see that a is the maximum and c the minimumvalue of the radius vector. Every aectionof it is therefore necessarily alsoan ellipse. 80. we sappMe the axes so taken that o the intercept on the axis of x may be the longest.

M 81.according aa it ts the two greater or the two iem coefScteDts hieh are w Theee surfaces are aiso eomet!mM called thé jpw~te equal. enerated by the revolution g of an ellipse round tte axis major or axis minor. aU sectionsby pianes parallel to the plane of a:y are orctes. The surfacetherefore lies altogether within the planes <='t& SunUarty for the other axes. and that putting it =0. it ia a surface of revotution. IL Secondiy. the fnu'face a aphere. and thé oblatespheroid. then a==&). (whieh correspondsto p =oo) we obtain a system of radii wMchscparatethe diameters whichmeet the aurface from those that do not. We may then write the equation in the form where a ia Bupposed greater than b. If ail three coeSdenta be equal.CLASMFtCATÎON 0F QUADNC8. 55 than c. . Thé equation of the eUipHc 0~ M* weaeethatweget a real section z=JBbe!mg-. o~(Me If «=&. and therotbrothat the surface is conttnuoMS. and the surfaceMone of reoolution. Using evidently the polar equation it is evident that the radius vector meets the sar&ce or not according as the right-hand mde of the equation is positive or négative. and where the axis of jî does not meet thé surface in real points. We obtain coxe thus the équation of the <Mymp<o<M Sectionsof the snr&oe parallel to the plane of a~ are ellipses those paraUel to either of the other two principal p!amesare section by thé plane hyperbolas. If two of the coefficientsbe equal (for Inatamce. +~'='t+-t whatever be tho value of R.It iacalled the B~X!r&o&)t<~ ~ee~. let one root of the ouMcbe negative.

and will be a case of thé hyperboloid of one sheet. and ÎII. III. but if it revolve round the conjugate axis it will consist but of one portion. When the &bsolateterm vanishes. 62. let two of tho roots be negative. but that any plane a:*=jS will meet the surface in & real section pro~ded that Jï is outalde these limits. but the Bm&ee will conaist of two separate portions outaide these boundary planes. gtvo the equation of the cone in the&nn The forma atre&dy enumerated exhaust all the varieties of central sur&eea.B is within the Umits ±a. thenbecome wh!ch can be s&tiaRed no real values of the co-ordinates. FormaI. while that parallel to the plane of ta an ellipse It is evident that this will not be real as long as . by V. No portion of the ear&ce will then lie between the planes a!=t<t. Thus if a common hyperbola revolve round its transverse axis the surj&tcegenerated will evidently consist of two separate portions. This surface is called thé . and IV. By considering the surfaces of revolution.B~~Mf of <«? a~ee< It ia of revolution if &=c.56 CLA88ÏFtCATKHt 0F QUADMC8. the sur&ce can evidently be aatMËed no real values of the co-ordinates. IV. the reader can easily form an idea of the distinction between the two kinds of hyperboloida. we hâve the cone as a Iimitmg caee ofthe above. by while form II. . and the equation may be written The sections paraUet to two principal planes are hyperbolas. Thirdly. If the three roots of the cubic be negative.

y. one of its roots. one of the three C must in this case =0. The terma of the quantities d. that ia to aay. and ao reduce the terml of highest degree to thé form J<B'+J~'+Ce*. and so remove the coeSctents of a?.CLA88IFMATMN QUADMC8. Let us proceed now to the case where we have S'=0. as in thia chapter. or whether we fnt. second degree are therefore reducible to the form ~'±J~ This M otherwiso evident from thé c<&tsideradon that o'=0 0 !s thé condttton tbat the tonna of highest dogrcc should bo ~j . In this case we have seen (Art. 6S) that it !s generally impossibleby any change of oripn to make the terms of the Srst degree in the equation to vamah. as in Art. But it is in general quite indifferent whether we commence. by transforming to a new origin. t root. the nmt transformation being impossiblewe muet commence with the latter. 65. And since the absolute tenn of the cnbic of Art. 79Is 8.&ndhetefoKMptMentehypetholold 83. transform to new axes retainmg the same origin. When S~O. 0F 67 this raieof signa equation astwopositive h andonenegative ByDesCMtes'o a ofonetheet.

Let /==0. and the surfaceis catled the Elliptic jR~fa~o~t~ It evidently extends only in one direction. 24) représenta a cylinder wh!eh M eU!ptic or and B have the same or dînèrent hyperbolic. This surface extends indefinitely in both directions. IL If f' be not =0. and the equation takes the form I. but so !s a!ao equally every other point on the axis of e. the equation the origin ia a centre. thé sur&ce would reduce to two interaecting planes. the surface lies altogether on the negative side of the plane ofay. we can by a change of origin make the abaoluteterm vanish. on the positive side. if thé sign of J? be negative. which is called the aie of the cylinder. and whem is negative.thoae parallel to the plane of a:y are ellipses.and the surface is called a ~p~MtO ~N'aMiM~.according M Since the terma of the Srst degree are absent from signa. the sections by planes parallel to that of ay are hyperbolas. m. . smce the section by any plane <!=<:is ~a?'+~'='-2c< and will not be real oniess the right-hand side of thé equation is positive. Art. by tMasforming to a new origin. 42). in whichcase they may obviouslybe akc expressed as thé differenceor Mtm of two squarea. The equation thon doea not contain and therefore (Art. The section by the plane of a~ is a pair of right tincs.58 CLA. make thé coeSc!ents of x andy to vanish. 65 (aee note p. When therefore f' is positive. but not that cf~. The posstMIityof the surfacehaving a lino of centresMindicatedby both numeratorand denominatorvaniahing in the co-ordinates the centre. and reducethe equation to the form Let aa first suppose the sign of B to be pos!t!ve. of If it happened that not only but a!so <f=0. In this case while the secëons by planes parallel to the planes of aw or ys are parabolas. In thM way the equation is reducedto thetbna We can then.aMFMATMM OP QUAMtCth resolvable into two reai or imagmaty retors.

that t8 to say. 59 IV. TheaehMdwork~Mdncingtheeqat~onof&p&ra. )'='3 !a 16.B'= 0. or putting in the actual Y&tme9~==s'=3. 1. 7) –3 2ofthe discriminatingcubic. 68 to find the principal planes answeringto the roota 0.QUADMC8. a fonction of i the coei&ctentswhich is not altered by transformation of coordinates (J~Aef jd~ p. 7.AB8tFICAT!ON <?. 51). 24) repMsentsa cylinderwhosebaee!s a parabola. and -2. f V. whieh îa therefore equal to o the dtBcnmuMnt f the given equation. If . Amdas and B are the two rootaof the dtscnmmtttmgcâble wMch htowD) being do not vanNn. and taking for new co~rdinate planes the plane 9'y+f'<! and a plane perpendicular to it through thé axis of a:. and should have found and the reducedequation M . that te. We have therefore ~=7. The discriminant in this cMe is (p+2g-3)')*. Thas let aa take the p. The calculationof the d!e< cnmmant ia &c!Htatodby obsetvmg that !t is in this case a per&et square (. J?=-8.boloM to the rormA~'+J~'+aJBz=0 M ahortenedby otMervmgthat the discnnmMtnt s an mvMitmt. the equation ia brought to the form wMch(Art. Now the discriminant of Ac'+I~'+2J&! M mmply~BB'. the eqaa~onj~+~~0 0 being resolvable into &ctom would evidently denote a pair of parallel planes.7. M a!ao known. we shouldhave proceededM in Art. exampb Then thé discriminating cnMcis X'-6X'ï4X='0 whose roots are 0. 84. 184).B<~A<)'~%Mh~. but by changmg the axM y and < in their own pkne. /=0. if (<M roota of thé dMcUmmathgcubio the equation takes the form vantsb. If we have a!so ~'=0. Hencewe have ltB*t=16.CÏ.~ If we had not availed ourselvesof the diMrim!nant. Jî= ~=-.

<!could then bo expressedin the form . in terms of thé new coordinates. the discriminant would then vanish. but the reduction could be effected with even greater facility as the term in a'. r had been so taken as to fulfilthe relatton p + 2~ 8r = 0. If m the preceding example the coefficients jp.and thé transformed equation becomes whichfinallytransformedto pandiot axes throngh a new origin gives the samorednced equation as before.wea]'etotake from which we can express x. Sincethe now co-ordinates M~ethe perpendicttittrs thèse on p!anM.60 CLASMFtCATMM! 0F QUADNC8.

86. F FOBMSOP THEIREQUATIONS. To find the <!o?M'<<tOH plane «.B+~y+~-t-S~O 0 that the shouldtouch<~ NM~~MC. ~8. PROPERTÏES QUADNC8 Of DEDUCEDROMSPECtAÏ. The equation of the polar plane of the point a/y'e*(or of the tangent plane. WE proceed now to give aoaie propertisa of central w* x quadUcsderived from the équation + j. cosa+y cos~S+e<MS<y=p. ana comparing it with thé form a. 85.( M) CHAPTER VI. SDMACE8. This will includeproperti~ of the hyperMoub Mweti as of the eMpaotds if we aapposethe signs ofy and of<~tobp mdetennm&te. the preceding equations wo can abo immediatelyget From an expression for thé petpendicalM* terras of thé angles it in makes with the axes. if that point be on the air&ce) is (Art. "nz. .<y whichthe perpendicularmakes with thé axes are given by thé equations as is evident by multiplying thé equation of the tangent plane byp. 82) given by the equation And the angles a. 59) The perpendicular from the origin on the tangent plane ta therefore (Art.+ T= 1. CEt!TBAI.

This follows immediately &omaddmgthe eqoatmna .we have 0=0. SURFACES the length of the normal Squanngandaddingwenndthat tt between iC'yV.62 CEKTRA:. and the last of the three precedingequationsgtvea jB='A Hence the length of the mteKept on the normal between the point of contact and thé plane of a~ M 88.and any point on it aiys is But If a~ be taken as the point where the normal meets thé plm of a:y. The anm of thé squares of the reoprocata of any thiee rectangular diametera N constant.

~c* for <t'. c*. The equation of thé diametral plane conjugate to the diameter drawn to the point icy~' on the surface is It M therefore parallel to the tangent plane at that point. Since any diameter in thé diametral plane is eonjugate to that drawn to the point a:y. ae appeara from adding tbe equations Hence the locua of thé intersection of three tangent pknes which eut at right angles m a sphère aince the aqa&re of ite distance from thé centre of the surface M equal to the oum of the squares of the three perpendieulara and therefore to <+&'+< CONJUGATE DIAMETEM. it is evident that two tines a!* «* wh!ch arc conjugate diameters for any surface + + ==1 are abo conjugate diameters for any aun!!<a'surface .COMPGATE DfAMETERS. 03 89. their du'ectMn-coemes connected are thé relation by Smce the equation of condition hère given is not altered !f we write JE~. it Mmanifeetthat when two diameters are conjugate to eaoh other. is constant. In like manner the som of the squaresof three perpendiculan on tangent planes. 90.mntuaHyat right angles.

The ~xM'a?&!op~eJ M&<Me are three conjugate<e<K~edges <&ame<eM ? <WM<aK< A<M volume. is. that Is to say. 91. . 85) but the value of the last determinant is unity (seenote. are the directionof three Unes mutually at right angles. f. In this method the two lines answer+ + ing to two conjugate diameterB are at right angles to each other. o coa~ where /t) y are the of some line. For if a~'< a!"y"< &c. ia equal to <~+&'+< smce ~t. the relation last written becomes cosX eos\' + coa~ cosjtt' + cos~ coaf' = 0. p. are anch that direction-angles cos*X. by a cosX. 20) hence the volumeofthe parallelopipedis abc. &c. The MtMof the squares o~*? <y~<Mo/' <&feetmjugate e <eM~MMM<e)*< M onstant. FoUowmgthé analogy of methods emptoyed !n the case of comca we may denote the co-ordinates of any point on thé ellipsoid. b coa~. cos*~ coa'f != 1. For the square of thé length of any Bemi-diameter a!+y'*+e" when expMSsedmterma ofX. angles 92.oo8a'==<tcos\ &c. be thé extremities of the diameters the volume ia (Art.64 CONJC&ATK MAMETEHS.. y. And by making ~= 0 we see in particular that any surfaceand its asymptotiocône have commonsystème of conjugatedtametera. for writing coset~a coBX.

and 6 the thé volume of the parallelopipedunder angle it makes with the conjugate ftiametemN'.~i in oblique co-ordinatesis transformed to + %)+*3t â + ~+~ . the plane conjugate to A will be the plane containing B and containing the axis c. hy Art. We anght further prove theae theorems by obtaining.or. taken two by two.& d M<t'c' cos~. Precîsely + sinular reasoning proves the theorem about thé para!Ielop!peds. 98. is constant. p. the relations wh!ch ex!st when the quantity m ohUqaeco-ordinateaîs irans&nned '. The theorema just given may abo w!th eaaebe deduced from the correepomdmg théorèmefor conies. and <~e*are therefore conjugate diameteraof the same sectionas B. For if c' be the semi-diameterto the point of contact. Hence we have ~*+C*+ o'*=~t J?*+ < and emce. and let the plane of &'&' meet the plane of ay in a diameter and let <7be the diameter conjugate to A in the section o' then there&H~<t''+&+c''=~*+C"~c' wehave ~*+C'-<t"+& eince A is in the plane ay. ~L~~eM~M~M~ej~~M~M~~Me~~ J~MM~WM~MeMCM~M~ Let the line make angles a. in rectangolar co--ordinates. 66 If the axes of any central plane sectionbe a' b'. e. then «'atc. c The Smt amd tast equationa give thé properties ahettdy obtained. +J3*=' <~ b'. ~'ywtth the axes.finally. F . 52. For coMtderany three conjugate diameters a'. M a coex cose + oos~tcos~+ o cosf cos'y.CONJUQAM MAMBTERS. then tf B is the diameter Agam. 90. Thèse relationsare foundto be o'&V ~<&c'*(l-coa'cos'cos'<'+2 cosXe&s/t oaf). & c'. but o' coa~ =~.s '~+~+. then the projection on it of the senu-dMmeterterminating in the point a:y<t'is a/ ooset+y' coa~+e' 009~.f. and p the perpendicolar on the parallel tangent plane. conjugate to jl in thé section by that plane. The second expressesthat the snmof the sqnaKtSof the parallelograms formedby three conjugate diameters. as in the note. the theorem 1sproved.

We can readily form the qttadra~o. whose mots are the teetpmcab of the squares of the axes. wMchM constant. 96.&<M~<<eo<Mtt)M<M5s~<tay j)&MM pttMM~ through thecentre. 6" the angleamade them with the perpendicular on the plane. d" be the three dtameters. 2b. emce we are given the sam anAthe product of these quantities. of The equationsof the three tangent planes are 97. Let a. 2~ <MNt the ~Mfea of three of F~< j~M~wMM~~&~&M~ If <~d". then vehave(Arb88) . ~c~M<eMec<MMO)r~Me<a~M ai <~ e!<MM<MMthreeC<M/t<ediameters. sinced' c<MJ'~+~" o8'+<f"* c<M* M conc stant by the last article and <P+ d" + <?"* Art. 91. by 96. 'y be the angles whicha perpendicnlarto the given plane makes withthe axes. /3. the snm of the by + squaresof the threa projectionsis <y Bin'C J" mn'6'+ <F"Mn'O".66 COtWUQATENAMETEM. the intercept by the mr&ce on this perpen~iealar.

«t ~<tMM? o/'M~tcA Describe a sphère with 0~ as radms. For in it OB is equal to the next consécutiveradins (both hemg radii of thé eame aphere) and is therefore a maximum or minimum. The equation of the cone can at once be formed by sohtracting one from the other. ï%~o«~ a ~toettradius OJS of a eeMtfa~ ~!M<& tce cat draw oneeM<«Mt OR shall bean <KEM. and let a tangent plane to thé cone be drawn thmugh the radins 0~.CMMMATE DIAMBTBBS. 98. and the conditionthat it ahoaldtonch tt. ia (Art. and let a cone be drawn having the centre M vertex tmd paernogthrough the inteneottoa of the surface and the sphère. since it is also in the tangent plane to the sphère. 86) F2 . while the tangent Une at R to the section is perpendicnlarto ON. thé equations If then any plane ic coM+y cos~S+zcosy have Mt <udsm ieng-th =~ .t must touch thia cône. a? This equation may be otherwise obtained from the principles expMned in thé next article. then OR will be an axis of the section by that plane. OB îs thereforean axis of the section.

l. In like manner we can fmd the axes af any eectton of & qMJKC given by M equadon of the form <M~+~*+c~+2~+2aMa!+2<!a~a. Imagine that any central section planes through M a cMe with radins r. 69) that all paraM sections afe stmihr <!nrves. and conçoivea concentrio aphere doscnbed with the same radius. M BdBc!entto considersectionsmade by it the centre. that if be the reciprocalof the square ofan MtiB the section by the plane a? cosa+ycos~+<!coa'y. As It bas been a!M&dyproved (Art. The condition that the plane ehonldtouch tMa cone (Art. Then we have just seen that . of thia plane muet touch the cone whMe equation haa just been given. The cone of mtemecdoa of this qnadnc with any Bphete and we see as before. 99.68 CIBCCÏ~B SECTMHfS. 7C) may be written CIRCULAB 8ECTMNS. We proceed to invesëgate whether it !a possible to draw a plane which etutHcnt a given e!pso!d in a circle.

B)e'~l . The two planes are easily constracted by drawing in the plane of <cea Bemi-dmmeter equat to b. Any two snt&ces whosecoeSctents of y*.thia equation must two neceaaanlyKpMSNtt planes.CtBCOtAB fNCFMNS. thé greatest in that section being =&. ThtM ~+~*+<&'=!.the series of ptanespMtJlel to each of which afbrd two dM9MntSystemsof circularsections. again. but in the case of the eUipaoîdthese planes will be onagmMy. if we take y'~ -c* (blbeing less than ~). in the plane of ~<!a seml-diameter~a. and(~+F)~+(J?+~)y*+(C+. dK~r ontyby a constant. but parallel planea do meetit m cirdet. InaRoMes it will bo observedthat wehave only two real central planes of (arcalarsection. But if thé smËMesbave a plane section common. nor. and either of the seau-diametemwhich can be M drawn. is a plane of <arcn!arsection. These two real planes through the centre do not meet the surface. In the case of thé hyperboloidof one aheet(~ ie negative. we get the two real' sections. or e*vanish. 100. wMchcamnottake place anlem thé coefficientof either a! y'. and thé sections through a are those wMch are real In the hyperboloid of two sheets where both &' and o"are negative. The plane section muet therefore pasa throngh one or other of the three axée. and there remaîna whichreprésentatwo planes of c!reularsection passing through theamsofy. In like maaner two planes can be drawn throagh eaoh of the other axes. have the sametaïcalar sections. Then the plane containing the axis of y. Suppoaefor examplewe take f c &. since we evidently cannot draw m the plane of in !eya Mml-diameter=c. 69 a KpMaentB cone having the centre for its vertex and pMmmg through thé intersection of thé quadric and the spheM.e*.the coeCc!entof y vanlahes. the teaat send-dt&mete)' that section t being b.

so must aiso the radius vector of the other.~get wMchrepresentaa sphère. If then in any secëon the radius vector be constant. The Mme shews that any plane eute both in sectionshaving conmderatîon the same axes. The Mme thing appears by throwing the two equationsinto the form fromwMohit appears that the dMerence ef the squares of the M reciprooals constant of the corresponding rad!i vectoresof the two tnu'&ees. a. have the same cirettlar Motions as easily appeam from the fMmnht m thé last article. <!CO lie 101. sectionsof a cone are the same as those of a hyperCircnlar boloidto which it in asymptotic.repreMntsaome plane. the equation of the two planes muet be of the form whereM. The equationsof the two planes of section are paralleteach to one of the planes representedby Now since the equation of two planes agrees with the equation of two parallel planes aa far as temN of the aecond degree are concerned. since the maximum or minimum valne of the radins vector will in eaoh correspond to the same values of 'y. If them we snbtract this from the equation of the sar&oe. .70 CÏRCULAR SECTMN8. ~M~ circular <eC<M!M<~p<Mt~'y<<6)tMM <Xe 0/' < aameaphere. wMch evety point on the aectton mMta!so)!)ttis(y.

in the case of the eUtptio for the equation then becomes pMaMoMt. nowwe draw a series of planes pM~Cd to drculNr sectionsthe <~KmaMM~~lha~pm~dtM~mt~MM~m~ meettheaur&ce in amimjBnttelysmatleu'cte. whoM~es~oandc.ARpMaMeedMmaMe<Mwehave6eeaH!ni!ar. 9$. whose radius ia f.CïttCULAK SECTIONS. It will represent two real ptanea. mala for comca =<~ -<~ applied to thia caM gives as There are accordmgly in the case of the eHIpsoidfour Mal in amMIica the plane of ife. if we take -=lt ~i W= (<~ &*)y*. We are to draw in thé section. aince the same substitution . The co-ordinates of the real nmbilica are eanty round. we can see. SomepMpertteacf these pointa will be mentioned afterwards. 71 If 102.a8emi-<tiamtter=~~to&tdthe Nowthe&)]'<M~rd!nateaoftheextfemltyofita<~B)ag&te. Its point of Mat<M!tMca!Iedam<()M6~M. It is convenientto add in this place how in like manner we are able to determine the circularsectionaof the parabobîd givenby the equation Considenng a c!renlar section through thé origin. that tt muet lie in the BpMrc a And the cone of intersectionof thia sphèrewith the paraboloidis Th!a will represent two planes if one of the tenns vanI~M. and four ima~naty in each of the other principal planes. But in the case of the hyperboHe paraboloid there is no real ctreular section. as in Art. 103.

whieh is a closed snr&oe. Such right lines can only exist on the if hyperboloid of one Bheet. We have seen that when the centtal aectton M au o!I!pseall para!M aectioneare mautar ellipses. the MCtton by any parallel plane ia a mmilar hyperhola. . no part ef whieh. and that by thé tangent plane rednces Itsetf to a pair of right lines parallel to the asymptotes «f the central hyperbola. and the sec~on by a tangent plane N an infinitely amaU ainuhr eUipse.. ïndeed. Thns !f thé equation re&rred to any con}agate diameters be !s (~+M~+<. would make the equation of thé two planes t(te the !mag!nMy ~nn~+(<t'+t')y'==0. it can be proved m générât that no aection of-the hyperboïic parabolold can be a dosed cnrve. In like maaner whenthe central aaction Ma hyperbola. BECTtMNEAR 104. as we )M~BMm~Mq~MïMh~At~wMnMwmJq~~m!~h~ pM~dp~M~~M~<myn~~ËM~MNofMmMmgŒm~ InteMectthem ail. OENBt~TORN. It ia àlao geometncaMyevident that a right !me c<mnotexist either on an ellipsotd.Nmoe we had the equation the right-hand aide of the equation could not vatush for any value of <. nor on a hyperboloid of two sheets.ra11el to the by plane of a:e (~=* ïts equation is <3)) And it is évident that thé value ~9==t' redncea the section to a pair of right lines.) ~chianeeesBM!!y and. weconsider the section made an. for if we take its mtersectîon with any plane e=&z+)My+M. plane pa. the pKgeotîon on thé plme of ahypetbola.72 BBCMUNBAB SENB~tOBa.

Throwing the equationof thé hyperboloid me oheet ef into the form -A -. S represent four planes. agam.BEC'nHNBAB aBNERATOM. which may ba generated as the locua of the eystem of right lines Then it in evident that the plane a-~+~y-X'S todt. ance ît can be written in either ofthe &nM contaîm . 78 10S. we a system of get anothersystem by conaHenngthe mtentûction the plues Whttt has been just aa!d may be st~tedmore generally as &B<Mn): ai If 'y.A ~t -à !!eaon the surface. then the equation tty'~S tepresenta a hyperboloidof one sheet. and by gMag (tMSment values to we get of right lines lying in the surface. while.

ThcS) take the sar&ce a~'=y~ where the line xy lies on the surface. and and represent planes (though the démonstrationwould equally hold if they were &nct!ons of any higher degree). Then using the equation of thé tangent plane . and of course touchesthe surface in no other point. If throngh one of these right lines we draw any o<4ey plane.74 BECNMNBAB ÛBNERATMa. we hâve just seen that it will meet the surface in a new right line. 107. hnt the tangent plane will in general be dînèrent for every point of thé right line. We hâve seen that any tangent plane to the hyperboloid meets the snr&ce in two right Imes intermeting in the point of contact. and this new plane will touch the sar&ce in the point wherethese two lines intetsect. the same ïn (a-~+~y-S) way we see that both tbe lines which dffers in thé absolnte term from the equation of the plane through the nrst Une. the tangent plane to the mn'&ceat any point on a given right Une in the surface will contain the right line. the form (a-~8)+JS'(~y-S) can ever be Hent!cat with tf XMtdX' are <IMiBMmt. Convemely.

c~'+y~=0. ofonesheetbelonpto thélatterc!MS) théconetothetanne! hyperboloid . o=e'. which is impossible. Here every tangent plane meett the mf&ce in two comddent right lines.* Let us remark in the nrst place. that when we are seeking thé surface generated by the motion of a right tine. but thèse asymptotes are evidendy edges of the asymptotio cone to the surface. In &ct. the cone being only of the second degree. Hence every right line which can lie on a hyperboloidis paraUel to someone of the edges of thé asymptoticcone. M above. IfMetyt~teMtingUaeiaiNteneetedbyihettexteomecattTeoae. 104) that the two Unesin wMch the tangent plane cuta a hyperboloid are parallel to thé asymptotes of the parallel central section. a!nce. that the tangent plane at every point of the line ay is a!=:0.y=0. We hâve soen that any tine of the &-stsystemmeets all the linea of the second system.MECTïUNEAB GENERATOM. if they were. And generally. Convemely. if the equation of a surfacebe of the form it !s seen precisety. a parallel plane would eut the asymptotio cone in three edges. The the<ut&MheaNedfK<tM<<!p<tM~. ABtMaM<H<]5Mmtinthee<t9eefthec<)ne. 75 and aeekhg thé tangent at the point<o-0. aince the equations of a right Amt)heegenmted by the motionof a rightHce fil<xt!M <t<M a tw&ee. Mnot. It followsa!so that no three of them can be parallelto the same plane. it iB necessarythat the motionof the right line shouldbe regolated by three conditions. where and eubBtitat!ngth~<a-otd!nate9. The tangent plane then at every point of this right HmeMthe same.the surface may be oonceivedas generated by thé motionof a right line which tdw&ysmeets a certain number of Sxed right lines. and the plane touchéethe sm'&oealong the whole length of the line. Andthispknewm~fu'yM <' vames. we find are what and beoome on . 109.!tmM)Ueda<i~wMr)aee. 108. It vas proved (Art.

7C NKTÏMNBAB OBNNtATOBB. We Me then that it ia a determinate problem to find the surface generated by a right line whieh moves oc ae always to meet tkree mxeA right HDes. will be thé M. y. equation of the locus reqaifed. Or.y'. we may wnte the equation of the line in the form then the three oonditionsgive three relationsbetweenthe constants a~. the position of the line is not detarmiaed.. For a line would be completely determined if it were conattamed to pM8 through a given point and to meet two Sxed lines. weobtain the three necessaryrelationsbetween q. If then the point thron~h whichthe line is to pass. four conditions wotdd abeolatety determine the position of a right line. the reenlting equation in a/. the line is completdy regnhted by the given conditions. And comMningthese three relations with the two equations of the right Une. when thé intersection of these planes would determine the line required. the condition that the moveable right line t~aH meet each of theSxed lines. e') et. and if between thèse we eliminate a. we have nve equations &omwhich we can eliminate the four quantities y. ~9. again.* For expresang. we hâve a determinate aenea of right tine~ the MaemMage of which form a am&ce-lccaa. <5' ie the equation of the required locus. by Art. downthe generaI equationsof a right Une <B Me -t~. but it Meofor !im!ted that the line will always lie on a certain whoMequation can be found aa &Bowa: Write NO'&oe-IoetM. y. CteometnctJty aho we can aee that the motion of m.y~<M+~-t thea the condtûom of the problem establ!ah three relations between the constants M. îtsett moves a!ong a thM 8xed line. !iM mdude four constants. since a!'y' may be any point on the line.jp. 40. M. . aimcewe need only draw phnes throagh the given point and each of the fixed lines. When we are given one conditionleM. -y. Or threeBxed cnrvea any of kind. and the resulting equation in a.

And it occars at once that we onght to take the axes. MeA)t.~ The only question then !s where the origin eu most symmetncaïty be placed. 77 110.BECTtUNEAB OEMtBATOM. And if through the centre of this pattJlebptped we draw lines parallel to thèse edges. we ahaUhave the most symmetricalaxes. one parallel to each of the tbree given right l!net. Let then the equations of thé three paire of planes be Wee<mM do this indeedif the threegiven rightUcMhappened not to be aU pMàUelto thé ttMae plane. TMoeMewK be een~dered:n thé BMtArUete.î08. Let M then sotve the problem tfNggMted the last by article. Suppose now that throngh each of the three right lines we draw planes parallel to the other two. . let us 6mt examine what choiceof axes we must make in order to give the equations of the 6xed right linesthe mmpteat form. which of thé given !mes will be edges. to find the sanace generated by a right line whieh always meets three fixed right Haee. Im order that the work may be ehortened as moch M possible. we get thus thtee paire of pandiet planeaforminga paraUetoptped. It wilt not oecat whenthe locaa h a hyperMdd of one theet. vis.

From the general theory exp!ame(tin Art 105.y. Tho problem might otherwise be Mhed thm: Assume forthe equations of thé moveableline the three conditionsûbtMned by expMMmgthat thm mtemects eaohctfthe&mdtmMM'e thé same equationas befbre. Sabetitu~ng ~ese values in the equations of the tHrd line we find the conditionthat it and the moveableHmeshould interseot. it is pMn that the hyperbolioparaboicMmay abo have right !mea . And etonmttm~ Xand between th!a <mdthe eqtmtioDS the of moveable!me. vîz. The followingin another general solutionof the same problem Let the &'st two tmes be the mtefMcttoaof the planes a. The moveableline.we get for the equation of the locus. S. ~ace it meets the mat two lines. 111. ~9. it Mptesente a central quadrio and ie known ta be a rnled snr&ce. then the equations of the third can be expremedin the form ft'='y~J%. ~'=0y+~. can be expressedby two equations «f the form <t=~9. <y==~.78 mtcnu!n6AaasNBRATOM.

as in Art. and in this respect la the fondamentaldM~Brence between right Art 108). and the snr&ce contaîna the two eyBtemsof right lines The amt equation mews that every line on the surface muet be para!M to one or other of the two jSxed planes t o=* 0. 106. 79 *= lying ahogethef in the aar&ce. any limewinch meete a three for the axis of e. Let it meet the linea . lines on thé paraboloidand on thé hyperboloid (oee It !s proved. that any line of one tystem meete every Une of thé other system. while no two Mnesof the Mme system cammtereect. For the equation (Art.KECnUNZAN MNNtATOM. to &td thé aar&cegenerated by a right Ime wh!ch alwaysmeet8 three Sxed lines wMchare all parallel to the aame plane. and let the axes of x and y be taken parallel to two of the nxed lines.vis. We give now thé mvesttgationof the converse problem. Let the plane to whichaU are parallel be taken for the plane of ay. In t!kc manner we might inveet!gatethe surfacegenerated 6xe<ilinesand ie always parallel by a right Unewhieh meets <tpo to a fixed plane. Theo their equations are wh!ch représenta a hyperbolioparaboloid since the terms of highest degree break: up into two real factors. 88) M mctaded in the general form ecy'sjSS.

104) that a plane M a tangent to a enr&ceof the seconddegree when it meeta it in two Mal or mu~tMry lines. graphtcaUy. v='~ should divide them homoArt. 83) that a paraboloidM met by the plane at in&Mty two real or irmaginarylines. Imteeare divided&MncConversely. JRw ~< ~MMN MM~M~ <0Me ~0!t <<<NK ~Mt to <~eother ~<<eMin a CMM&M< <M~<MWM)M<! Mt<M. We have Mon (Art. and (Art. 'y=~.we musthave (Ci~MM. A hyperbolie paraboloid ia the limit of the hyperboloidof one sheet. and therefore any other Mne which meete the four linea will be divided in a constant anhannonio ratio (Art. amhaaaonio ratio of any four points on one line M equal to that of the cortespomdmg points on the other. M) '= aad if we . when the generator in one of its pOMtiona lie may altogethsr at infinity.~0 BECnUNBAB OENBBATOB6. tancethe tennsof the second whieh taa. then the lines joining cometp<mdin~ pomtB will be gemeratomof a hyperboloid of one aheet.~8. Hence in a paraboloid!aalwaystouched by the plane at m&u<y. 112. hyperboHcparaboloM degree break cp at two real &ctors.if two mon-mt'Bmectmg so that the ~~ttc~~maaonesofpomt~thatmtoaay. Let the two given lines be <t.y. 88). t~en<'D order that any other line ft~A~. & Let any nxed line whieh meets them both bo e<='X'/9. te&M~M!~ For throngh thé four lines amd through any Une whieh meets them aH we can draw four pJaaes.

aUB)?AOZ8 BEVOMJTMN. let the line wHch joins two con'esponding exttemities of the given lines be the axis of <. if thé eai&ce be central. then the co-ordinates of two correspondingpoints are BUttB'AOES MVOLCTNN.if two finite non-intersecting lines be &v!ded. let the axes of a. each into thé same nnmber of equal parts. to the &rm ~)+~ti'~='iÏ< and if thé surface Q . To prove this du'ectty. ConvorMiy. we c<mdraw through any three generators parallels to that plane. and let the plane of xy be half-waybetweenthem. Let the lengths of the given lines be <tand o. By doing this with threads. Of 114. and y be taken parallel to the given lines. In gMeï&ltq~ttcmBho~dïepresont&aurfa~of thia casethe eqa~om can be redoced (eeep. In the case of the hyperbolic paraboloid any three right lines of one system eut all the right lines of the other in a constant ratio. Let it be required to Snd the condMona that the révolution. For mncethe generators are all parallel to the same plane. 0F eliminateX betweenthe equationea <= ia \y=~'a& \'<y =~o. M). the form of this surfaoe can be readity exMMtedto the eye. 81 the MMttt 118. the lines joining correapondtngpoints will be generators of a hyperbolic paraboloid. and all right lines which meet three paraHet planes are cat by them in a constant ratio.

M 82 SUBFACESOF MVOMJTÏON. . of squares(aeeJB~~ ~e&M. In &epMeeBtcaM<htmtheaeIatterth]'eeeqnatt<HMar6 SoMng &r from each of theae equattons we see that the reductionu impossibleantessthe coe&c!entsof the given eqn~ tion be eonnectedby the two retati&as ThM ia to my. Sincehowever the roots of the diecaiminating câble are its discriminant can be expressedM the sum always poNtive. the reciprocal equation MBMhM ident!e<t!ty. 184). We want to <!ndwhether easHy by tt Mposaibleso to transform the equation as to have the three former of whîch are mchtded in thé three latter. It would appeaf then that thé required eondition would be at once obt<uned forming by the conditionthat the diseriminating cnMc ehonMhave eqnat footB. be non-centralto the &nn then or + <r e"e ln oither CMC s when the Mghest tenna are trMM~btmedo as to become the sum of aq~Meaof three rectaagniM'co-ordiatte~ the coefMents of two of thoso aqoMes are eqnal. p.and will not vmieh (the ooeBSclenta the given equation being snpposeAto be real) of nn!eN <MM conditionsare AtMHed wh!ch can be obtainedmore the following proceas.

p. ? vacish. the preceding conditionsbecome 116.SURFACES0F BEVOMTTMN. The paraboHecylinder M the limit of thesnr&oegenerated by the revolution of an eMtpae round its trMmveme axis. 88 If these relatîoMbe MNted and if we subatitute any of thèse common~tdnesfor in the fuBettom thé 0 to and âmmee plane <?'=' représentaa plane perpendicub)* thé axis of revolutionof the surface. Suppose that we have i <mdm bothee0. the surface cannot be of revolutiontmleasa second atso vMuah. and the equation representa either a paraboKocylinder or two parallel ptamee(aee IV. the highest terma in the given equation fbnn a pe!'6Mtsquare. t IntheapecMt~se~epethecommonTalueevamBhwMch have been just found for X. and V. If one of the quantities ?. 69). Thèse are limiting cases of sar&ces of re* volution. 116. m. when that axis passes to infmity. it followsthat t + <M + n =0 representsa planeperpendicularo that axis. Thé precedingtheory might a!so be obtainedfrom the considerationthat in a enr&ce of revolution the ptUHM of proMem Q2 2 .. the axis of revolution in the latter case being any line perpendicularto both planes.

and through thé diameter of the circle perpendicularto the chants. 14. For tanceevery section perpendicalar to the axia of revolution Ma M!'e!e. any eystem of pMMIetchorde of one of theae cirotesia biMctedby the plane p<Mts!ng through the axis of revointion. ]~l. It Mewo that «M~y plane through theaxis of revolutionMa principal plane. We ahall conctude this ohapter by a few exmmples of the application of AJgebraIc G~ometty to thé M<)M<~a<t!w of Loci. a plane whioh ia perpendtoobr to the chotth. and ehooting for the other Met the Unes dhtMMie MMedag the angle between the projections en their plane of the given Unes.ht Unesare eqneL If the equations «f the NM<are written in their general fom the Mttttion of this la obtalned inmMdiatety by the formula of Art. then their eq~ttene me of the &tm . Now the chordswhichare perpendicularto these dtametnd planesare given (tteep. 45) by the equations (<JB)<c+My+<)M!!=0.To&ad~h<M~apeintwhoM<hm~<~tM~<~tw(t given n~n-inteMecting ri{.84 MCt. We may get the tesatt in simple fMm by taking for the Mti< of «te ehottmt between the two Unes. findingthe pruMipaÏplues becomesinde&ute. Ma!+~+(c-jB)a'-0. <M+(&)y+&!==0. 117. Thé problem then wiû not becomeindetennm&te tmlessthèse aU represent thé same plane. for which we have the equationa co!'d!t!on9 which expanded are the aame as the condMone &und ah'eady. whieh when B is one of the roots of the discximinating cubic represent three planesmeeting in oneof the right Imeerequired. MCI.

'yt then the dheethm-eoeinetof thé intMMcHom with the Bxed plane*.ta < given d mtto. 86 ïf thé ehmtMt httMMh<dbeeot<t«tehoato. têt the Cxed Une be the aiis of< and let any portion of the other be Then Mnee any point of the tMctvm~ line de<OM+M. of a plane petpendietthr to the vatiaMe tiae. eos"cM~-e<M~eoto'. eM~e<x«-cM«eMe. f. «M'y cota*-CMecote'. Ex. and the phM <. 3.MnHt!<pMn that the comtaat w!ae MpreMed in terms of < h (Me + a)*+ (<?')! <t')*. will be proporëonal to (Art. remaining perpendicular to eaeh other. 4. aho pttMin~ throagh the origin perpendieattf to thé other two.MM.the heMwouMhtwbeen wMch a of MpMMBtohyperboloid oneaheet. HeMe the equation of the tpqaired Mï&M is whioh MpteMntt a hyperboloid of revolutionof one aheet.&. eot~cote'-ewyeotf. To Snd the Mt&ee of revolutlon generated by < right Une a tmntng r<Mmd &Md Mtit whieh it does not MteKMt. M) eM~eoM-cM~6M&. to Nad thé Mt&Mie (nee<M<~ty a cane) ~enettted by a right line. eoeaeMt-cM~eostt. and thé condition that the<e thoaM be perpendieuIar to each other la . it follows that the ~h~ ofjt'~y'MtheMaae~erety point in Mehtt plane Mctioa. Let the Ahection-angtM of the petpend!eah)m to the &ted planes be MtA let those af the variable line be a.0. «. M)tbMa cMe in a plane pantM to thtt of ay. Et. To &td the !oetM the iaiddtt points of «tt !iNM «f pttaNet te a &te<t plane and tennintted by two aen-inteNeethtgM"< MM the plane <ec0 pm<d to the &<edplane. yt~o~of. Twolines paMiagthteagh thé origin move each in a ihed plane.<} «'. !ty'*(m+M')<tt(< Ex. M !nthé het examp!~poMRet the twolines and eqnidhtmt &mathemJ to thentheeTMttioM~theHawMe ThehxMh then etMtentty right Hne wMehfa the mteKeetion the of the c-_n p!mM 1 <t'*0.2.

mutnaNy at right angtM. Bat the antMMËMmedequation of the taB~ent cone i~. To M the tocm of a point. Two ptaoea matMHy petpendicatM paM Meh through <t &Md Mne! to ~nd the «Ut&ee generated by thett !)M of imtetMetifm. a. aen be drawn to the quadrio ~:+ If the equation weM ttMM&atMdM that theee HnMthoald beemne thé Mes of e<w)tdin<t<eo. If the tme< intetseet.w+~!<!M'y. Ex. and let thé Mtwttt be . 74. 8m1~tote)ne~eqMt))Mt<Mf<)'. ~hea 'm obtain the e<p<ati<tn ttte required locus. Me Art.86 LM. Ex..yt\y'. We have only then to MpreM the condition that this aum of thoald ~<nMt. C. !a which case e o. the !oew teducee to a eone. And we have Men (Art. &e. equation of the tangent eone would take the form the ~t~t JRM + Oty 0. Ttk~t~MMMinE~ï. viih The &n<w!!t). and bau the interMetion of any two eui&M)eaO. ainee these thfM Hne~ <tN edgM of the cone.method may be u<ed in general to Bnd the équation ef thé «me whose ~ertex M ~yz'M'. 'nMnQwMmttoMofthenhaMtM which MpKMntt a hyperboloid of one eheet. 78) that if fhia equation be ttOMtM!Md to any M)d<~will MCttngNht syatem «fMMttheBnmcftheeoeNeienttofz* be constant. whence three tangent lines.

To &ad the equation of the eone whoae vertex is the eemtfe of an elIipsoid and bMe the Mcdon made by the polar ofany point . The !ocMi< thet~bte a quadrio. the equation of the KdpMCtd coae will be the same M that of the reciprocal enrve in plane geometry. t a ~M. 9. H. Let thé cone be JS<* My' + jM* 0. 8. To Cad the cone geneKtted by perpendie~me eMcted at the vertex of a given cone to ita sevemi tangent planes. To <tndthe toem of points <mthe quadrio +s y" aomMbat wMeh inteMeethe monnal t the point . Ex. or the point o~~ Hex on a line pMNBg through o'V)! and meeting thé interaection of the Mt&eee. ïfthe equatlon of the cône be given !n thé form <M'+~'+<!Z'+&~t+S<M!+~!y'-0.y. ~<br<t. and have <hete&<K MtlytomMtato~. and that thé edget of the CMt are petpendieubr to the tw~eat plane to the second. to tion of the required coM. 10. ~i)t . we hâve the commoa valne aro have a C o)'y' ~Mbstitutmgwhich~d)tMtnJ'tJ<< t* o* j~* of diMppeMa. ahould touch the BMt. Te &td the !oca< of the potes of the tangent ptanea of one quadrio with respect to another. Eic.<y~. md we have -y + ~+ y" 0. utith regard to the second quadric. ThepotnteKqaitedM'etheintBteeettonofthemt&M~ththeeone Bx.<iettMe<mditt<!Ogiifea Art. The &<nm the eqn&Hoa ahewsthat the relation hetween the conea ta McqMoca!. and any tangent plane is + the perpendieolM to which through the origin J~it!<+J~'y+JM:"0.t~f. ia 7~7'* ~7°')~' If then we eaU thé eontmon wtne p. the Ex. M. 87 then thé reault of eMmhMt!')g between theae eq<MtttoM will be the eqatt. We haw only to express the condition that the polar of jt-Vif~. It eau eaOly be seon that this is a partioalar case of the blet eMMpb. For the tMie~ ~'Me thé line joiaing o~ F <y)w meete the Mt&Mie are sot &om the Ûntt of theae two eqwt!o!Mt thoM where the Mme Hne meet< the eat&ee are got &om thé Meond:1 and when the eliminsnt of the two eqaattom TanMtet they tMtvea oommon Mot.MC!.

Find the loca* of the -vertex if the three edges which do not paeathMngh it move each in a &[ed plane. [Sir W. A line move< about 80 that three nxed pointa on !t move on Bzed p!anee te ned the locus of any other point on it. each to one of thtee other of Bxed !ine< Bnd the Ioe<M the inteNeetion of the joining planes. 13. and the Unes in whieh it meeta two Kxed planeo are joined by plana each to a hed point. ~O* t OJ3' S~O. and the pointa where it meeta three nxed Hneaare joined by ptamet. Ex. E~ 19. and of aU the vefttceabnt one move in &[ed ptanes! Ond the carve Io<)M the remaining vertex. and all thé other wrdeea on &[ed ptanM. Ex. Ex.OJ') co~~OD.. The four faces of tetrahedron paM each tbrough a &Mdpoint. Ex.M~ Thus thé tceus il eMiIy oeen to be a qu&dtie of which0 i<the centre. Find the locua of the vertex of a tetrahedron. . 16. It redaoes to a cone of thé second degree when the four nxed points lie in one plane. Then if on OD a portion OJP be taken -y. Eacs3B d C s PC me hnown. 16. Ex. Let the line joining any other point D on the sphefe to ~[ meet the aphere agaim ia J')'. AM the aides of a polygon but one paM thtough nited pointa the eïtjenutiM of the &ee aide =ove on mM& lines. ~) and let the three &ted planes be tahen for eo-o'dinate planee meeda~ the Une in pointa B. M. The aides of a polygon in space pass thtough nxed pointa. 17. &ndL the Mr&ce generated by the tine of inteNection of the latter two planes. . ~C':J"C aro ânown. by Art. in terma of the angles it makes with Oxed a. We bave ~D'. C. R. the latter being on the mt&Mt of a sphere. Ex. Ex?B~' p7* pteMin~ then. Ex. A plane pMie< throngh a nMd line.thé locus M at once fo<!ndto be an eUipMH. 18. and OD il given. But ~D ~-iea inveKety as the radius vector of the locus. let the eo~o-dioate*of the IceM point P be a.88 LOCI. ~t and 0 are two &xed pointa. that thé diatance J*~ !B eom)<Mt. The locus M in general a surface of thé third degree having the interBeetion of the three ph~nM for a double point. if the oppoeite face aho pMS thmugh a nxed point and the three other verticea move in &xedplanes. Then it h eaay to see that thé eo-ofdiaatea of are 0. by the équation of the aphere. if the three edge) whieh paMthMttgh thtt vertex eaoh pass through <t&[edpoint. M. A plane pamet throngh a nxed point. 14.tB Ac whoro the ratioe ~J?: PB.Bndthetocmoff. HamUton]. nnd the NM&eegenerated by the &eeaide.

8. of thé <XMMca. appKesequally to spaceof three dimensMM. In particular we !eave it to the reader to show that the whole theory of Beciprocal Polars) as explained in Chap. containing every three consécutive points. it is ptain that to the series of points. polars being taken with respect thé to any quadric. and . and planes. eadi line being a tangent to thé given eurve. In order to show what corresponds to a carve in space we shaU anticipate a little of the theory of ourveeof double cnrvatuK to be explainedhereafter. WE shall in this chapter give an accoant of some of those propertiesof quadricswhiehare most simply derived by méthode analogous to those explained m Chap.&c. XïV. p. &c. arranged according to a certainlaw. If each point be joined to its next consecntîve. 84S. A curve in space may be considered as a series of points in space1. We ahallthus dispense with thé neceasityof giving separate pMo& of a theorem and of its reciprocaL In the methodof ReciprocatPo!ais it will be observedthat a point to corresponds a plane and vice << and that to a lino (jointwo points) correspondsa line (the intersection of two mg planes). The assemblage these lines formea snr&oe) of and a <&M&)p<e sni&ce (seenote. H9. 3~ 84. In order to economize space we eha!t on occasMnaJIy snppMMsnch details as we think ought to présent to no di~5ca!ty an intelligent reader. 7&) Nnce any Une 18 intemectsthe consécutiveline 38. and which are tangent planes to the developablegenerated by its tangents. if we considerthe phnes 128. &c.( 89 ) CHAPTER VII.. we sha!l bave a seriesof planes which are called the OMt«htMty plam of the given carve. we shaUhave a series of lines 12.xv. METHOD8 P ABMDOED O NOTATION. lines. will corresponda series of planes. lines. S. 284. Again. of thé j~ee~Me ûb)!«w. 118. Now when we reciprocate.

21). and thus that thé reciprocalof a sériesof pointsforming a curve in space will be a series of planes touching a developable. and the constantX can be so determined that thé snr&oe ahall paas through any ninth point. each passing through the eight points. Let now F and F represent any two quadrics. the recipïocal p!aneswill all passthrough one point.that ail quadrics which touch eight given planes have a wholeséries of common which envelopes tangent planes determininga 6xed developable the wholeseries of surfacestouching the eight Sxed planes. For if !7and p. then F+XP~ represents a quadric passing throngh eM~y point commonto C~and F. If the curve in space lies all in one plane. 76.aince it may be eeaily deduced. 120. which equation ioat onceproved to be of the seconddegree. .90 MtSTBOM 0F ABMMBD NOTATION. points. as at p. be two qnadrics. the degree of the sm'SMerociproeal to a given one M the Bameas the number of tangent pitmes which can be drawn to the original surface throngh an M'bitrary right !me. Thus the series of points common to two surfacesiorms a cnrve. The reciprocalof a quadric ia a quadric. that bnt two tangent planes can be drawn to the quadric tbrough an arbitrary Mne. It ibUowsthen that all quadrica which pass through eight points have besidesa whole series of commonpoints. !7+\F is the most general équation of the qnadrîo passing throngh eight givenpoints (seeJ3%f P&MM CM<w<. Ï7+XF represents a quadric abo passing throngh the eight points. Since nine points determine a quadrio (Art. 87. The degree of any Bur&cebeing measated by the nnmber of pointem which an arhitrary tine meeta it. the actnal equation of the locua of the polar with respect to the quadrio of the tangent planeato another. The sametheorem is provedby forming.&om Art. Reciprocailythe mies of tangent planes commonto two sar&eestouchesa developablewhich envelopesboth snr&cea. forming a common curve of intersection and reciprocatly. S4). andwill be tangentplanes to ac<MM. and can in this way be made to coinoide with any given quadrio through the eight points. and if X be indeterminateit represents a series of quadrics having a common curve of intersection.

wMchis commonto thé whole systemof sar&ces. We see thus that though it waa proved in thé laat article that eight points in ~MeM~ determinea earve of doubleenrva~ that they ture commonto a system of quadrics. and may in this way be made to coinany cide with any given quadrio thron~h the seven points. passingthrough the eight nxed points will pasa throngh the ninth point. it followsthat there is a point. tt is assmned that the nine or eight points are per&ctly anrestncted in position.* Plan wUt 'nieMader whobasttmMeda%'A<f Ct<twe<. as we bave jnst is determined by the eighth &tedpoint. then an eighth point [or tangent plane] commonto the whole system is determined. amd since ~ete intersect in eight points. W.it is ~MMMe may not. For let F. for the constantsX. 91 It M evident a!so that the problem to describea quadrie ihrottgh nine points may becomeindeterminate. but if these co-ordinttea make !7'=0. 2S-S7. in additionto the seven given. J haveM diCcu! in deve!ep!ag c<a'Mqx)ading forMt&cee f the e theory thanthe number f points o any degree. But C'+~F+~f represents a surface passing throngh all pointa commonto P. each of which paMes thé seven pointa. Arts. thon !7+XF+/tW may represent through <Bty quadric which pâmes through them. f. W be three quadrics. and that the InteMection two quadrica is detennined by eight points. in order to ho able to determinethe surface. When we say thereforethat a quadric is detei'of minedby nine points. this substitutiondoesnot eMbte us to determine 181. For if thé ninth point lie any where on the cmrve which. F~O. For we have jnst seen thtt there is a pM'tieataroaae in whichto be given eight points ie only équivalent to being given seven.MBTaOM 0F ABNMBD NOTAMON. Thus if U and Ybe two quadricathrongh the eight by pointa we déterminethe snr<ace mbatitntingtheco-ordinates of the ninth point in P'+\r'=o. and it is necesMtty we Bhoaldbe given a math that point. Kc<on thia curve. ThMif we <Mgiven one tM< . Given seven points [or tangent p!anes] commonto a series of qnadrics. then ew~ qaadrio seen. sha!l naM through may be so determined that thé Bnr&oe two other pointa.

which is not part of the mtetaecdon of P~"=.P"Ç.92 MNTHOM ABMDOKC OF NOTAttON. the locua of the pole of a SxeA plane is a curve m space of the third f" +\Q" degree. we are given a <e)~ea of pointa &a'ming a carte through which the Mtt&ee must pm<) and if we m ~ttea two leas than the number of points neeeMMyto detenaine the Mt&ee. potMe Let thé polaM oftwo pointa in the line be f+X~. If a system paM through a commoncurve. For eltminating between P+ F' + of we get the f~ytttem determinants which represents & cnrve of the third degree. ïfa<y<tem«fqMdr!MheM If a ey~tem qatfhJM t«Mtibed!o the Mmedevelopeble. necemary to determine a MNf&eeof thé degree. . the locus of the.that fato say. For the interaecdoa of the aar&cea represented by ~=. is a right Jine. centre: of all quadrics inacribed m the aame developable. then iM are given a oertain nombe)' of other pointa [Mmety M many as will make the enth'e number up to <t*jthMtgh whMt the surface mMt aho pMe. then F+X$ is the polar of the Mme point with respect to Ï7+XP. In particular. t~httine.if theyhavee)f.a <Md planeis a )f!ght!iM. 128. 124. If a systemof quadrics pMs tbrough a commoncarve of intersection [or be tnscnbed in a commondevetop~bte].hé polarplaneof any «Mmnon t tangentptme~the tecua &M<t a t pointpM<ethrough Cxed of thé poleof. the of a fixedHue generate a hyperboloidof oneaheet. JP'+X6*. t(eem)ao!teutveef!nteMection.jP' P~"=jP"~ N a curve of the fourth degree. of be 122. then it !a evident that their intersecttonlies on the hyperboloid ~=F'e. but this mdades the right tuM JP~.if theyhave~ghtpoint* that fa to My. For if P and Q be the polar planes of a SxeApoint with regard to Ï7 and V reapectively.ht ia eommen.or tonchmg the eame eight planes.

The veruces of thèse cones are determinedby the intemecdonof the four planes.if a aystem be inscribed in the same developable. polarplane of &Md a quadric. Dr. 3e. HeMe hM derived from tMt theorem a eeMttaetion for the quadrio pM<it)g through nine gi'Ma pointa. OtovM t)tedplane. series of detemHmmts. Vo!. Sea <!<? <~MttM<~ <M<tJC~MM~<tt)tM<M<!<J<M<wa<. TewMend. p. IV. p. For evidently the polar of a Sxed point with regard to and will there!7+A. thé polar ofaBxed point envelopesthé developablewhieh Mthe reciprocalof a carve ofthe third degree.Given<wven Givenseventangentplanesto pointeia a the the quadric.. degree common to ait three. 44. VoL xxiv. p. and therefore that ~M~ theM!te!'<ec<hMt <~«M~Ma ~*<Mo j~Mf co)M< may &cdMcWM. . There are four points whoee polam are the aame with respect to aH qattdnce paasing thtongh a common curve cf !nte)'Be<t!on. VoL tv. 126. it followsthat we have a Mquadraticequation to 6o!veto détermine X. in order that C~+~~may represent a cone.METHOM or ABBÎMED NOTAMON.r+/<~wiU be of theform P+\~+~ fore pass through a nxed po!nt* 126. Mme &ttther <tevelopmenta of the eame problem by Mr. where !s one of the Mots of the Mquadratic just K&ned and they are given as the four pointe common to the to. pcteof< &ced plane a ina pointpaMM tbrough &tedpoint. ? There m therefore only & curve of the third jP'=f"Q'. ?. BectprooaUy. Mt. <~<Kt. Since the discriminantcontams the coefficients the in fourth degree.

41. the Mqnadratic becomes which haa two equàl roots.=0. 127. Im général. it is evident that the ratios of the ooeBMento ~f~MtM~M~~MmX~nUbeu~MM~swMhK~Md~~M pair of quadrics. the point of contact ia a double point on their curve of intefseciioN.M MEMMM0F ABMDQBB OTATION. 298). For any plane drawn through thiaune meets the soj'&ces in two curves whichtoach snch a plane therefore passea throagh two coincident pointa of the eorve of intersection. we Sad the very Mme set of determinants. the intersectionof the tangent planes at that point to the two sur&ces. . Ingeno'a~twostu'&cesof the<tt'*<mdK'*deg]'eesr6spectivdy interaect in a cnrve of the ata" degree for any plane mcets the aotB~oesin two carvea which intersect m ~a points. and subatitating thèse values in thé dMomunamt. and the tamgent plane for thé co-ordinate plane z. TMa may he most easilyproved by taking the origin at the point of contact. namely. Then for both the quadrica we ahall have <=0. N nameLy)the vertices of the four ooneejust re&rMd to. For to expreœ the conditions that should KpMsent the same plane. In like manner there are four planes whoM potes are the aame with respect to a set of qcadncs inscribed in the aarne developable.p. It M to be remarked that when two aarEMes tonch. the Mquadraticm X will have equal roots. y==0. 128. As in the case of C~ce (see Art. if the two quadrica !7 and r touch each other. And at each point of the cnrve of !ntemect!anthere ia a singletangent line. The condition then that two quadrica ahould touch is obtained by forming the discriminant ofthebiqnMb'atMÎn\.

ïigin. that if the equation of a surface be «.p. For there are two directions in the commontangent plane to the surfaces. and «. la identtically0. and the two lines just written are two tnMttvhich meet the sm&ce in three consecutivepoints.viz. 206). Now in the case we are considering.p.METHOM OF ABBtDGB!) NOTATMN. Tftke the tangent plane for the plane of ay. as in plane cafVM.+M. w!Uinclude all the right Mmea whichmeet the surface in two consécutive pointaat the <. 86 But if theaurfacestouch. p. and every saob plane therefore pasaeathrough two com~deat points of the curve of intemectioa. while if M. It will be proved hereafter precisoly as at J3~ Plane C«n)M. we get a surface throagh the carve of intersection. and <~ inctades all the right lines whieh meet the surface in three consecativepoints.there are two tangents at thé double point. in which sar&ce the ongin is a double point. 27.+&c.+«. 28) on the carve of inter- . When theaolines coincide there is a coq) or etationary point (eee J%f~' F&Mte C~t~M.'=0. then epoy plane through the point of contact meetf)them in two curvea whieh touch. And we can ahow that. 129. hy mbtMcting one equation from the other. the mrface haa the origin for a douMe point. thé origin will be on the surface.any plane through either of which meetsthe snr&cesin curvea having three points in common. and let the be equations of the aur&ceB then any plane y=/M! eute the eortacea in curvea whieh oscatate (see C~&a. The point of contact is therefore a double point on this oarve. if The eame may be otherwiseproved thus.

Une joHung the other two with regard to any corno paaaing . real or imaginary. Smoe the condition that a quadric abonld touch a plane ~Art. given Art. The conditionsthen for atationarycontact are roundby forming aho~d have three equal the condition8that the MqMtdrat!o ~a'0. the axes beiag aMumedas above.9C MSTBODS ABNMED 0F NOTA'nON. one to touch a given plane.(Art. 181. It is obviousthat in the former case one can be descnbed through a given point. we have )'=' we shalt see that wKen this condition is fulfilled. and in the latter. The points of contact whieh are thé pointa wherethe tirnesof each pair interaect. Im either case. three roots of the biquadratic becomeequal to 1. it follows that of a syatem of quadrics pMMngthrongh a common curve. is Now if we compare the biqaadratio for X. are (<XMt<M. remembering abo that in the form we are now working with. We ehall caU thé contact in this case stationtuy contact. s!noea tangent plane meets a quadricm two right lines. 104) these right !!neain this case can be only someone of the three paire of right lineswhich can be drawnthrongh the four pointa.that only three quadrios of a aystem having a common curve can be drawn to touch a given plane. The conditionthat this ehouldbe the case. Now. vu! of the Mqnadr&dc. section. It is atso evident geometrically. 130. 76) involvesthe coeme!ent8of the quadrio in thé second degree. 193) each the pôle of the p. three can he drawn to touch a given plane. two can be deacribedto toucha given line. 7~) involves the coefficientsin the third degree. jS and T being the two mYarMmte roots. three can be described through a given point. 127. For thMplane meetathe commoncurve in four points. of syateminscribedin the same developable. that and reciproca1ly.through which the sectionby that plane of every surface of the system must paas. y==0. for the condition that a quadric abouldtouch a right Une (Art.

METaOM ABKtMtED OTATION. for their equation haa been proved (Art. where L and represent the planes of sect!on. 100) to be of the form j8'+\(i). it appears that the common centre !s one of the four vertices of cones of the system. The Kciprocah of a pair of quadrics having double contact will maeestly he a pair of qnadrics having double contact. 132. then the cones having this point for vertex.and having commonabo the two tangents at the points of contact. Henee. and the two planes of intersectionof the one pair will correspond to the verticee of common tangent cones to the other pair.*+y'+~. OP N 97 through the four pomts. and envelopingeach snr&ce. 133. sincethis equationrepresents an innmtely amall sphere. <8'Z~f'=0. Any point on the line Z~tf will have the same polar with H . For take the point where thé mteï~sectionof the two given commontangent planes !a eut by any other commontangent plane. M) if the verticea of one of thé four cones of the Systembe joined to the three points. and the MtM <Xe ~MNM~ three ~OMt<t <!ON<ac< <j)f <othe <ieH<t~ MM<!«t~ are at a~XM. thèse seodona must therefore De identical. For if we draw any plane throngh thé two points of contact and throngh any point of their mtemection. It !s proved in like manner that the earfacesare envelopedby two commoncônes of the second degree. this plane will meet the quadricsm sectionshaYmgthree points common. Moreover. And ince <+~*+<s' repfeaenta a cône. (p. wh!ohin the general case is a carve of double carvatore of théfourth degree. If two quadrics touch in two points. and are there&MIdendca!.breaks ap into two plane oon!cs. have common three tangent planes and two edges. Hence <A~eCMtceKt~M eoKcye~Mt«K~t<M and MM <~«'~tM to &MMA % a given plane. their carve of intersection.any three coqagate dtameters of the imaginary cone a!*+~+<==0 are at right angles to each other. The equations of the quadricswillthen be of the fonn j8'=0. the joining lines are conjugate diametera of this cone. A system of sar&ces having the eame centre and commoncircularsecttonsmay be regarded M a particular case of a system having a commoncurve.

Their eqna~oaa then are of the form ~0.&e polar of~\MfwHl in general he P+~(L'Jf+J'<Af). and therefore are to be consideredas having a commonsectionat iaBnity. It thns appears again that at the two points where LM meets ail thé snr&ceshave the eametangent plane. There are two other points whose polars with regard te all the quadneaare the same.8Mlatquadn<Nbet<mgtothedaasnowunderd!8cassion. It is easy to aee geometncaUy that these two points lie on the polar of thé Une LM with regard to the sor&ce~8(that Mto say. A plane seeëon of a quadrie will be a cirde if it passes through thétwo pointain whieh its plane meets this imaginary cirde at infinity. Jtf–2?. j8+Z~ have for their mutual intemeedontwo plane sectionsmade by 2/. 801). thé polar ofjS. Two quadrica are similar and simi1arlyplaced when thé termsof the second degree are the same in both(see CoM«M. For if P he regard to aU sur&ces of the System ~+~jM. on thé intersection of the commontangent planes at thé pointa where LM meets jS). We may see thus immediatelyof how many solutionsthe problem of nndingthe ciroularsectionsof a quadric is sasoepdHe. Weseethenthattwos~qnadriosmtersectin general in one plane carve. Jtf'-O. For evidently two snr&ces<S' J~M. p. whieh reduces to P when L'~0.98 MBTHOM 0F ABMMN) NOTATION. 1S4. Sphères are aUa!nu!arqaadncs. thé other plane of intemectionbeing at infinity. 186. <8'+&&'=0.which section will of coursebe an imaginarycircle. If there hothree similarquadmct. If two Mï&cea each interttect a third in thé same plane curveand in two other plane curvea they will abo intersect each other again in a plane curve whoeeplane passes through the line of intersectionof thé two latter planes.their three nnite plamesof intersection paasthroughthe same right line. For the section of thé quadrioby the plane at . whichwill be verticee of coneocontaining both the corvée of section. anA that thèse points are the foci of the involutiondetermined by the paire of points where that polar meets jS and where it meeta Z and M.

the équation of the quadric having dcaNe contact with tt. dte chord of contact being the directnx. The planee Z and Jtf m evidently parallel to the planes of oa'calar sectionof the qttadnc since they are planes of its intersectionwith a sphère. A Mr&oeof revoIntMm one wMchhas doaMecontactwitha N sphere infinity. FOCÏ. that the &cas ofa conic may be consideredas an !n&t!te!ysma!! cMe having doaMe contactwith the conic. 216. where these H8 . on the quadrio to the sphère M in a constant ratio to the rectangle itnder the distancesof the same point from two mxed ptames. the chord of contact being then thé correspondmgdirectrix. And it M eMy to xee that these three points determine the directionof the axes of the qnadnc. It M eaey to Me then whyin thiscasethere is but one directicn of real circalar section~ determined by the une joining thé points of contact of the McttNtB inftnityof a qtheM at and of the qaadrio. When Mpresentaa sphère. 9& inSnitymeetathe eeetionof a sphere by the Mme phae in four pointa whiehcan be joined by six right lines. the ptameo pasaing through any one ûf which meet the quadric in a oircle. The sm right lines may be divided into three paire. that the squareof the tangent from any point p. We where~is&epmdoctof mnstdisomaeepMatetyhoweTe)'thé two cases. We hâve seen(<~M!«~. 217) p. 136. the point o~'y is a focneif the equation of the quadrio can be expremed in thé form vs 1 Ma i ve n thé eqa&tioMoftwo planes. In like manner we may deSne a &cnaof a qaadnc as an hoMtdy smaU sphèrehaving double contact with thé quadric.FOCt. ~'=ZAf expremes as at CbM«M. Foraaeqaationofthe&!m<c'+~'+<M'=& b at can be writtenin the form and the latter part represents two ptanes. each pair intereec~Ngin one of the three pomte whoae polars are the same with respect to the sectionof the quadric and ef the sphère. That !a to say.

while they are imaginary when A and B have the eame sign. In the one case the equation !s of thé form <8'a'ZJt~in the other N-Z'+Jtf*. Oar eo-OKtm&te planes have manifestly been so chosen as to . In thé second case the Une LM must be parallel to one of the other axes. 8 thoseof thé foot of y 'y.100 FOCt. when -4 and B have opposite aigma. the equation reduceato (a!–f[)*+(y-~)'==~ or ebe =<P+m* where Mare thé sectionsof Z. by moving round thèse co-ordinate planes could be made to take the fom ~a~i~ And if now the origin were moved to any point in the plane through thé locus perpendicularto the directnx. Lt either caae the sectionof the quadric by a plane through a fbcnaand the correspondingdirectrix will he a conie having thé eame point and Hne for focus and du'ectnx. planes are real amdwheM they are imaginary. Now if the co-ordinate planes <cand y were any two planes mutually at right angles pasaing through ZJ~ the quantity + which Z*± ~f* would. where S Is a point-aphere. whether the equation of a given quadric can be expressed in the form ~==Z*j:Jf*. the directrix. theaesectionscoinaide. and where. For if we take the axes <cand y in any plane through LM and then make <=(). the equation ~'=L'i~f' would take thé form where a. In the nrat case the directrix (the Une LM) is paraNelto that axis of the surfacethrough whichreal planes of dreolar section can be drawn. which représentaa comc having e<j8 &)cusand 1fordirectrix. that is to say. for example. and the equation redncea itaelf to (!B-a)*+(y–/3)*<=?'. ~8are thé x <mA of the &)caB. Let us now examine vhethor a given quadnc neceasarily haa a &cns and whether it bas more than one. But if this plane paas through LM. if the aurfaoehe an ettipMH) the line ZJ)f must be parallel to the mean axm. for This M only thé algebraioal statement of the tact that the section in question Is toucbed by the infiaitely amall circle which is the section of t8. the planes of contact of the focus with the quadrie are real. Thus.be expressed in the form<KC'S&ey +<!y*. heing the chord of contact. M by the plane <0. 187.

~=~S.MCt~ Mt he parallel to thé principal planes of the Mî&ce. and we aov want to 6nd whether by a proper choice of the constante a. 8. we must hâve <t'=~'y. by the help of whieh eqnat!ona eliminating < 8 the formwritten abovebecomss Thus it appeam that the aur&cobe!ag given the conataata Jt and B are determined. is of Sincewe hâve pturposetysaid nothing as to either the signa or the relative magn!tades of the quantitiea L. ~tf. 'y. thé conies being plainly con&caL Any point a'~ on a focal conic being taken for jbcaa. and <Jso that this conic is confocalwith the corresponding principal section of the surface.N. but that the &cna may lie tmywhe~ ond~c~M whieh acoordingly called a~xM?<!OK& the surface. the comespoNdIag airectrix is a perpendîcuiar to the plane of the eomo drawn through the point . the form just written can be made ideattcal with a given equation Firet. in order that the origin may he the centre. B. it follows that there is a focal conîc in «M~of the three principal planes.

o'Aerto mve&tig&te Batoraof their focal in the cooicsand to imd to wMchof the two dirent kindsof focithé pointa on eachbelong. S* ~ from the equationof the focal conic tmdthe eqnat!onsconnectinga'. one a hyperbola. from thé theory of plue confocalcMucs. In It wu pMYed the plane that to jeMag any&MN the e«n'eq)«ndin~ t in ef that diteetiax meetahe ttM&ee a section whioh pointis the fooue. middie. The equation ofthis conicis M appeara by elmuDatmg<t'.JM. Let 118now examine in detail thé dMbrentdassea of eentm~aaï6M!es. Hence. an hyperbola when is the and will become imaginary when N !a the greatest.* The feet of the d!rectnces must evidently lie on that conicwhich is the locus of the poles of the tangents of the ibcatcontewith regard to the corresponding principal sectionof the quadric. with rea~tect the principal ta section of the surface. Now it is p!am that thé equation will repreaent an ellipse whenNis a1gebraica1lythe least of the tbree quantities J&. For this tangent is which is manî&sdythe polar of'/S' with regard to + ~==1. that be of It appearsnow thi<may tttttedasa property anytttaaenormal toa fbtatcotte. The directricea ' themBelveeform a cylinder of which the cornejust written is the base. S*. Ofthe three focal conicatherefbreof a central quadric. 188. Thèse vatneamay be imterpretedgeometdcaByby saying that the foot of the Au'ectnxMthe pole.N. thé I!ne to joining any &<ma the foot of the coïrespondtngdirectrix is normal to the focal conic. .102 MCÏ. ~6'.and one imaginary. of thé tangent to the focal conic at the pomt<t'/8*. one is alwaye an ellipse.y'.

let N be the middleof the three quantities. M Now if be the least of thé three. 139. to the opposite dass in the case and of either hyperboloid. TM~_xr t. and thé denominatorsare a!M positive in the CMC the ellipsoid and hyperboloid of one sheet. aecording M and B have the same or oppoMte t signa. This is equivalent to what appeared (Art. but of the opposite clasam the CMeof the hyperboloidof two aheets. the points on the focal ellipse are foci of the daM whoaeplanes of contact are imaginary in the CMesof thé ellipsoidand of the hyperboloidof one aheet.MCt. the ellipse of thé ellipsoid and thé hyperbola of the hyperboloid being those whose phmes of contact are imaginary. Next. In &ct. MS thé caM of the eUip~H. wMe those of tho othc)' kind do not. both numerators are positive. we have seen that foci belong to thé claas whoM planes of contact are imaginary or are real. Hence. the eqtMtt!ona the <o<it~ of and eïUpae <bcat hyperbolaaM ramectivety The cojesponding eqoationsfor the hyperboloid of one sheet are found by cbanging the sign of < and thosefor the hyperboloidoftwo sheetsby changing the sign both of b' and < Parther. Hence the points of the focal hyperbolabelong to the dMa whose planes of contact are real m the caseof the eHipeoid. if the . but in of the ca~oof the hyperboloidof two sheets one of the denaBdnatom is negative. but that the focal conics of the other twosarfacescontain fooiof opposite kinds. Foeat conieswith real planes of contact intersect the sar&ce. 186) that foci of the other kind can only lie in planes perpendicularto that axis of a quadric through whiehreal planes ofciïco!ar sectioncan he dmwn. and the denommators have the eame sign in the case of the ellipsoid. MMthat ~=–. for exampte. It will be observed then that all thé foci of the hyperboloidof one sheet helong to the otass whose planes of contact are imaginary. then the two namerators have opposite signa. but opposite in the case of either hyperboloid.

to are plainly the asymptotesto the focalhyperbohof the surface. where L and jtfeach pam through the origin. the focus muet lie on the directrix.t04 FOCI. Bat sincethe sarface passes through the intersection of ~8. of in two waya a &<:mof this kind. equation of a earfaoecan be thrown into the form <6''=' + Jf. and thé co-ordmates of a point on the surface make <S''=0. they must aîao make Z. 40). M= 0. thé equation a!'+~'+~=*Z'+Jtf'.they muet a!so make eitherL or J<f=0.and would thereforerepresent a cone (p. The foci on the focal lines are ait of the dass whose planes heBtdeabeing of contact are Intaginary. The focal corneon the other hand. But in tMacasethe MH&cecould only be a cone. which mctades foci of the Srat kind. = 0. if the point S lies on Z. the L plane L intersectsthe surface in an infaitely Nna!Icirde that is to say. For taking the origin at the focus. and if the co-ordinateaof any point onthe Mt&eemake ~'=$. pâmesthroagh thé umbilica.S'=Z3f. . From this property Professor Mac CaHagh called focal conies of thia latter kind focal MMMMMM' conics. but the vertex ItM!<. would contain no terms exceptthose of thé highest degree in the vanaMeft. may abo be a &CNS the . asymptoUc any hyperboloid. that !s to say. ia a tangent at an ombilic. The &callimes of the cône. For if the équation of thé Bar&cecan be thrown into thé form .

186. but may a!so be proved <Hrectiy. 106 other kM. p. are (see Art. ct<XM' Mc<«MM o/*<~t~e~oMt~ (see For the circular sections of the cône Za!*+<~+~e*0. ~MMt a <WM perpendicular to Me CM*are 141. ï~ ~XM~ of eoMe Ex.tly to perpendicular the planes representedby the former. . The co-ordinatesof the foot of the directrix have been proved aeenusatMned. which corresponds to the vertex coBBtdeted as a &cnB. 99) focal tines of thé reciprocal cone and the aorresponding 9 a! !I "i are as we have just seen r–M-+M~=' Ot Z Mtdthe Unes represented by the latter equation are e~den. for the equation of the cone can bo written in any efthethKefbntM The directrix. H. M a part!cnlar case of Art.passes through it The !!ne joining any point on a focal line to the foot of the corMepondmg directrix ia perpenct!cn!ar that focal line. 87). ln like manner.fOCï. the section of a cône by a plane perpendicular to either of ita focal Unes is a con!cof whichthe point in the focal line is a iocns. to This followsas a particular caseof what haebeen already proved for the focalconicain gênerai.

i06

FOCI.

The theoremof thia attide !a a particular oaaeof the Moving more genefat:–?!~ «e~tOM <!<? of Mo~Mo? cotMt <M~ Mt<ty~a~<o<ejpetycap&MeaMpo&!ftW~Mea& «'&M&t~ <&<t<~&MM~M on thecoNMMOM For let the plane cet~c. meet an edge of one cone in a point and the perpendioular tangent plane to the other in the line (?, let 3f be the foot of the perpendicular on the plane from the vertex 0, then it MeœytoMeÛwt&eUMJMfNpM~m~d~to~N~Md if it meet it m iheo Btnccthé triangle FC~ is nght-MgM, the rectangle jR!f.~fN is equal to thé constant0F*. The eurve therefore which is the locus of thé pointeP is the same as that got by letting fall from M perpendictJarson the tangents and taking on eaoh perpendicular a portion inveme!yas its length. When thereforethe sectionof oneconeis a cirde, that oftheotherwiUbeacamcofwhichJtfisa&K!a& Weahalt discuss with more detail the propertiesof comea when we treat of apheïo-conics. 142. The investigation of the fociof the other species of quadrics proceeda in like manner. Thus for thé paraboloids motnded in thé equation 2~. ThN equation can be y + ~c' written in either of the &rms

It thus appeaM that a paraboloidhaa two focal paràbobB, i~Mhn~Mm~~M~a~~eMhM~M~~Mh&eMm~sponding principal section. The jbeae belonga to one or other <f the two kinds aheady dMCNSsed, accoKtmgto thé sign of y ~f In the cMe ofthee!!tpt!op<uKtMoM the&actMn–y–.

MCt.

107

thme&M'ewherebothj&and3fa)'epeMt!ve,!f~bethe gteater, then the foci in the plane <caare of the daas whoee planes of contact are imaginary~whilethoM in thé ptano~e aM of the opposite dose. But aince if we change the sign eltherofZorofJMtteqa<mti<y–-y–renMMnaposMve,we seethat <tKthe foci of the hyperboMoparaboloidbelong to the former daas, a property we have aheady oeem be trae of thé to hyperboloidof onesheet It remainatrae that the line joining any &MaM the foot to of the correspondingdirectrixis monnaï to the &cal cnrve, and that the foot cf the direetrix M the pote with regard to the principal section of the tangent to the focal comc. The feet of the directriceslie on <tpambola and the directrices them" selves generate a pM'aboHc ylinder. c To complete the diacnBmon romaine to notice the foci of it the dMerent kmds of cyHndem,but It M found without the eEghtestdUScaltythat whentho base of the oylinder is an ellipse or hyperbola there are two focal Unes; namely, lines drawn through the foci of the base parallel to the generators of the cylinder, while, if the base of thé cyMnder a parabola, is there ia one focal line paasing in like manner throngh the &cne of thebase. 148. The gcometncalinterpretation of the equation ~~Z~f haebeen aiready given. We team from it thia property of foci whoeeplameaof contact are real, that the <~«tMof <&e 'M(oMee d MM& J<!MM in a <!MM<M!< a M of any point on 0 <p«MM) J~WWt M<M <itejMW&tC< <0 ~~epetyeK~MM&NW ~t~M~MM ~~MM< M~e~M~w~~MN~w~~M~A~MM~M~wM~ Thé jpaa~M ? the planea of circular <ee<<OM. cotre<M~o<Ma~ of foci of the other kind, which ta less aponding property ohvîoua,wu diecoverod Profeseor MacOnHagh. It is, that by on & a'M<C~M «M&OJ~CtM <~aftS&MMeû/'«~jpOM!<<~< a <!MM<tM< <0ita dSM(aMCej~~M <XM~p<M<)~ M)<& <~M~C<H~ ~e&~ <i~&!«ef<S<<<Mce <tM«M<Mt?~<!MtBM ~'tSejp&M~ te~ ~<!&~M&M-<eC<MM. Sappose; in &ct, wc try to express thé distanceof thé point

108

K)CT.

a~V from a d!rectnx parallel to the axis of < and pMsmg <eand y are 'y, the distance being throngh the point who<e mea<ured parallel to a d!reettve plane <fMa:. Then a parallel plane through a!'y.c',viz. <e''='M(ic-a)'), meets the directrix in a point whose a; and 11 of c<mme -y, 8, while ita o ta Me the equation <-<'=<? (-y-a)'). The square of the given by diatanoe required is therefore

where .A and B are both positive and is sapposed greater than .B, the nght-hand side denotes B times the square of the distance of the point on the quadric from the directrix, the distance heing measnred parallel to the plane a~NM; where M and B, given By B ~'es– pat~ag in the values of in Art. 187, it may be eeen that thia ia a plane of clrcular section, but it ia evident geometrtcaHythat this mnst be the case. For consider the section of the qnadric by any plane paraUel to the directive plane, and amce evidently the distances of every point in anch a section are measnredfrom the same point on the directrix, the distance thereforeof every point in the section from tMs fixed point !s in a constant ratio to Its distance from the focus. But when the distancesof a variaMe point from two nxed points have to each other a constant ratio, the locusis a aphere. The sectiontherefore is the intersection of a plane and a sphère that is, a circle. An exception occars when the distance <rom the focus Is to be equal to the distance from the directrix. Sincethe locus of a point equidistant from two nxed points is a plane, it appears as before, that in this case the eectionsparallel to the directive plane are right lines. By re&rnng' to the previous articles it will be seen (soe Art. 142) that the ratio we are of eonmdering !s one of e<toaHty (~~1) only in the CMC the hyperhotic paraboloid, a sar&cewhich the directiveplane could not meet in circular sections, seeing that it bas not got any. Profesaor MacCnllaga caUs the ratio of the focal distance to

Mf!ï.

!(?

that &om the directrix, the modulus of the snr&ce, and the &ct having imaginaryplanes of contact he cath modular foc! 144. It wu observed (Art. 133) that au quadrica of tho form tS–Z~f are envelopedby two cones, and when 8 repreaentfta sphère, these conesmust be of revolution as every cône enveloping a sphère must be. Further, when<S' reduces to a point-sphere,these cones coincide in a single one, having that point for its vertex; and we may t~ere&re in<~rthat the cone envelopinga quadric and having any &)cusfor ita vertex Mone of revolution. This theorem being of importance we give a direct a!gcbraical proof of it. First, it will be observedthat any equation of the form a!'+~s*=(<B+&y+ee)* represents a right cône. For if the axes be tranaformed, remaining rectangclar, but so that the plane denoted by <M)-t-<y+o.: may become one of the co-ordinate planes, the equation of thé cone will become wHch denotes a coue of revolution smce JC*+y+~*='~ï' thé coeincientsof Y*and are equal. But now if we fbnn, by the mte of Art. 74, the cone whose vertex is the origin and circamaeribmg iB'+y'-t.Z'-Jtf, where

ïntheyeM!8aaPM&MorMMCaU~hpaMahedthMmodulMmethcd of genettttion of quadrica. In 1842 pubUshed the supplementary property poMeMedby the non-modulu toc!. Not long a&er M. Amyot indepeudently noticed the aame property, but owmg to hh not being acquainted with fto&MM MMCuttagh'e method of generation M. Amyot Med to obtain the complete theory of the fooi. FtofeMor Mac CaHagh bas pubtiehed a detaSed MCMmtof the focal propertim of quadrics, wMch will be found in the J!~o<o~~ < «e Royal Irish ~M<&My, Vol. n. p. 446. T ]M)t. ownaend aho bas pnMMted a valuable paper (ChtttMa~ and JDaMM JM<!«eM<!<&e< \ol. ni., pp. t, 97, 148) in whieh the properties of J<M~<~< foei, Mmideted M the limite of apheres havia~ double contact with a quadrie, are very MIy inveetigated.

110

METKOM Of ABMMED NOTATÎONT.

whieh we have seen repreeenta a right cone. A few additional properties of foci eaaily dednced from the principles laid down are kft as an exetciee to the reader. Ex. 1. The polar of any direetnx t< the tmgent to the foctd coaic at the CMKtpondhtg &MM. Ex, 2. The polar plane of any point on a dheettix i< pMpendteuhr te theMMJMaiagthatpotnttotheMn'Mpoïtttin~&OtM. Ex. 3. If !me be drawn throngh a &Md point 0 emtt!ngany directrix of a quadric, and meeting the quadrie in the pointa B, then ifJPbethe i< constant Thh is proved M corresponding (be<M, an~FO.tm~JM) t the CMtetponding theorem for plane emies. CbftfM, Ml. p. Et. 4. This remaiM tme if the point 0 move on any other quadrio having the Mme &)ea*.directrix and planes of oiranlar aectien. Ex. 6. If two auch quadrica be eut by any KM paasing thmgh thé eoannoa di)'eetd<, the angles mbtended at the &Mo<t the intercepte by are eq)ML Ex. 6. IfaHMthMagh~diKo~t<mAoMoftheqMdm!t,thech<)td iatefeepted on the other Motendt a e«nst<mt angle at the ibeat.* Having now considered the most renMu'kaUe cam of quadrics mduded in the eqnation j6'-ZJM,f let as pase on to the eqnation jS'-2<*==0, whieh denotes a ani&ce touching <8'all along the section of by the plane L. It M eamiy ahewn from geometncat conaideranons, as at Art. J98, that tvo quadrics cannot touch in three points withont thus touching aU along a The equation of the tangent cane to a surface, plane curve. M a particular case of this equation jS's L*. AIso given p. 48, aa two concentnc <md aunHar quadrica are to be regarded 146.

In this <eet!on an aeconnt hu been given of the relatiom wUeh eaoh fbeM of a quadrio considered sepaKttety heMt to the Mr&oe. In the next ohapter we ahall give an eeconnt of the ptopettiM of those eonies whioh Me the MMmMttge of foci, and of eentbtat Mtiheee. Thete ptopet~eo were aMt etadied in dettdt by M. ChMkt and by PM&MOf MaeCoitagh who about the same time independentty arrived at the ptineijMl of them. M. Chatte~ reaulte will be found in the notes to bis ~p«'ft< J5!«t<ett<pM, paMiehed m t8S7. t Thé eaMwhere 'S'breatM np into two phnet bu been dhtMMd p. 78.

M)BntOD8 ?

ABBÏD&BB NOTATION.

111

enveloping each other, thé plane of contact being at in&tity. Any plane obvioady cata the sor&ces and <8'-L' in two eonieshaving double contact with each other, and if the section of one reduoeto a pomt-<arck,that point mmatplainly be the &cuaof the other. Renee <oA«! ne gtMdWc Nee&p<'< o <tKo~<r e Me &M~M<lane <t<the MMMtC one cute ~e other in a p of <!M!M <eAM& «MMSc <~ j~cMs/ or if one sot&ee be a M o/' sphère every tangent plane to the sphere meetethé other sar&oe in a Mc~onof whichthe point of contact is the &caa. Or theae things may be seen by taking the origin at the <mtbiHond the tangentplane the plane of xy, when on making a and denotes a <=0, the quantity ~-J!<*reduces to a~+y* conicof whichthé originia the focus, and thé dtKetnx. ? Two g~Md~MenMbpar theeame<~M~M~'MC< other «M& t<tjp&M!ecMn)M. ObviouelyS–JD', <S–3f*, have the planes L + Jtf for their planes of intersection. Z 146. TheeqnatMn~'+~+~+~,whereZ,jM;P fepresent planes, denotesa quadnc sach that any one of thèse four planes M polar of thé intersection of the other three. For ajD'-t-&Jtf+oy denotes a cone having the point .Mf~ for its vertex, and the equation of the qnadrM shewa that this cône touchesthé qnadric,P being thé plane of contact. The four planea form what 1 sha!l cat! a ee~<<~a<e tetrahedron with regard to thé snrtaoe. It bas been proved (Art. t86) that given two quadrica there are aiways four planes whose potes with regard to both are the same. If these be taken for thé planes L, JM, J~ the equations of both can be transformedto the &nnB It might aïao have been aeen, a jM~<~ that this is a form to whiohit muet be pomibleto brmg the eystem of equations oftwoqmMhics. ForZ,JM,J~,jP!nvolvetmpMttythreo <xmi~tseach;Mdthe~uat!oDs~ttem&bw<mvolveexplicitly three independentconstantseach. The systemthere&re md~Me~~MnMm~M~Mt~K&MS~M~~ygmM~ to expressthe eqatt~omof any two qttMhics.

112

METHOM OP ABNïMED NOTATtON.

<X<t< 147. 2b~M <&< «MMHttMt onepKKfrM a~MtHjMMS <&<W~t tXeoe~MM a<c~<!<~<~<t<e <e<M<«&wt f~<tr<? another. ?<? of <o If a), y, te denote the &ees of such a tetrahedron, then the equation of the one quadric expreasedin terme of these asaameathe form <M~+~*+o<+<?<e'c'0,while in the equation of the other, the coeSctente of a~, y', < td' vaniah. Now if we formthe discriminantof ~+XF, whiehwe shaHwrite A+\0~<t'+\'@'+~A'-0, it willbe seen that if all the terma in Uexcept<ï,&,c, d vanish, then 0 becomea 'M+ &'<!<&t o'<M (Me, whichvanisheswhen a + + <t', y, c', d' vanish, and since the coefficients 0, &c. are A, invariants, @ will be c'O, no matter how thé axes are tranafbrmed, if Y pass through thé ver6ces of a self-conjugate tetrahedron with regard to n When U redaceBto aa!'+~-t-<M*+J<e*) quantity 0' ta the <tA* is the conditionthat the plane <cehould touch the ~=0 surface F. Rence @'=0 m the condition that the faces of & tetrahedron with regard to P' ahoaMtouch the se!~c<Mt)Og&to snr<~Me as weU aa thé conditionthat the vertices of a self F, shoold lie on thé conjugate tetrahedron with regard to surface C. If, therefore, one of theae things be thé case, the other must atao. <0 willbe fnlûlled if the edgea of & ae!f. conjugatetetrahedron with regard to either all touch the other. Ex. t. If a aphere beeircMBtonbed abouta Mtf-coojug~te tetrahedron, the!ength thetangentto it&<Hn of thecentre the quadrie constant. of is For whenF M a sphere centreM a, /9t and radius r, and whoae ? but

0FABRIDGED KETHOM NOTATMN. m
9 t The Théequation 0 MoMaehe theoiam entmextted. tNreqxmding thcorem forecn!M dueta M.Faure. is Ex.2. If a hypefhoMd Mchthat t,. be 0, thenthe oentre of a aphete imetibed a Mt~eo~te tetrahedron in tiMon thé Mîface. Et. 8. The toe<M the centreof a ephere of a oKnmMfibmg Mt~ to is w co~ugttetettahedron ithMgMd a pttmtoMd a plane. 148. The verticea of two se!f<onjngate tetrahedra with regard to a qnadrîc, form a aystem of eight points, auch that every quadric through aeven will pMa through thé eighth. Hesse, C~e~ t. XX.p. 297. W be thé &cea of the two For, if a:, e, w, F, tetrahedNt, the quadric caa be MpieaMd in either of the fbrms to a-, y, &o. Mng sapp<med contain constant mnltipliere implicitly. Now if any quadric given by the general eqn&ëon in a:, y, <, <cwere transformed to a faction of Y, Z, W, we find, &omthe invarianceof the fonction@, if snd conseqnently, seven of theae qusnëtiea i~nushso muet the eighth. In like maïmer any quadrio which touches seven faces will touch the eighth. 149. Thelinee~&tM~ <~ Mf<M<Many <e()~e<&wt the ? of oerttCM ita ~)o!<!f <e<a~a~M: «~ f~o~J ? <t M cMTMpMMK~ of to ~tHKMc M!~ the «MM~<<~M M û/MM<Ofe of a ~~pM'&jM one <~ and Me Mt<a'MC(«MM of 0/' C<MVMpOa<~M~ the J<!MM of theMmejM~pe~. <wo<e<M<a~a jMSMM The Kso!t of aubstttatmg the co-ordmatesof any point 1~ m the polar of another point 8, M the Mme aa that of anbs6t[[t!agthe co-ordinateaof 2 in the polar of 1. Let this remit be called [1,8]. Let the polar of Ihe caHed J~. Then it M to Béethat the Une joining the point 1, to the intersection esay of~F.b t

114

METHOM OP ABBtMED KOTATÏON.

For this denotesa right line pasaingthrough the intersection of J~, and whose equationis M~anedby the co-ordinates of 1. The notation will be more compactif we cati the four polar planes x, y, <,<c, and denote the quantities [1,8], [1,8], [1)4] by M,M,~ that Mto eay, by the eameletters by whïoh we have expreesed the eoeS)<aenta a~ aN,<Mpn the general of i equation of a quadric. Then the equations of the four linea we are considenng are

Now thé conditionthat anyline <!ic+~+c<t+<~e=0, <t'«!+~+o'e+<fM='0 ahouldintenect thé Ërst, Is, by dunmattBg <B between the last two eqMtKHts, jbnnd to be )t(<![&t')-mt(<M'-<!<)+~(<K?-<M)~0, and the condi~ons that it shoaMiatemect eaoh of thé other three, are in like manner foundto be

But thèse four conditionsaMedtogefher vanish identically. ABynghtHne&eïefbNwM<~mtemect8the~tthreei~ mterMetthe fourth, which is, in other words, the th!ng to be proved.*

This theorem Ktdae te M. ChMJM. Thé ptoof hêtre ghpMt by M Hr. FetKtB, <))M<J~«nM~~Jt&Ot<NM<t<M, ï. p. 24t). (Vol.

the resuit of snbstitating the co-ordinates 1.2]. 2. 116 Tho eqnation of the hyperboloid itself is found ty the methotb of (p. 78) in the form 1SO. Let [1. in the polam of of 1. &e. viz. Fona thé determinant t2 .but. as an ex~MMe. The second part of the theorem is only the polar we rectproctj of the &mt.MKfHOM ABNMEO Of NOTÂttON. &c. l]. [1. give a separate proofof!t. have the same mgni6catlonM before.

respecttvdy are a system of lines proved in the lut ardde to be generstoMof the same hyperboloid. th~n the lines of intersection of each such plane with the opposite face of the tetrahedron. and. Pascal's theorem for conicsmay be stated as follows: Thésides of any triangle intersecta conic in six points lying in pairs on three Uneswhich intersecteach the opposite s!de of the triangle in three points lying in one right line. as before. Chasles bas stated the following as the analogous theorem for space of three dimension: The stdes of a tetrahedron intersect a in twelve pointa. The equation ofthe w hyperboloid is fband to be As a particular case of thesetheoremsthe lines joining each vertex of a cireumecribing tetrahedron to thé point of contact of the opposite face are generatoreof theeame hyperboloid. through whîch can be drawn four quadric planes. and the quadric whose inte~ectMM with thé planesa!)y. the theorem is proved by thé f&ctthat these condMoms hemadded vamishidenticaHy. 151. are generators cf the same Systemof a certain hyperboloid." Let the faces of the tetrahedron boa?. ." M. each containing three points lying on edges passing through the aame angle of the tetrahedron. w.y. <p.1M METHODS OP ABBtDGEBNOTATION.

* The one quadricthen can be made to aasnme the form J'~Mp I~jj! ==0. amï if ~M. 2~e~<<~M~<~cM'emtMCMM~<! <e<Mi~e<<5*oK. where J?. Let the four facesbe a. in Sadîng thé conditionswhich express the permanent relations of two quadn~ to each other. -coa~ -co8<7. e. we may write for them -coe~. . If the four planes iB. As a ~trther illaetration of thé use of thé invanantt. y. «' + touch a quadric tte equationwill be foundto be of thé form ~-i-+e'+<0'+a~(<B!P+~)+2M(yM+<~)+aM(<!M~a~)=0.0F NOTATION. It will be round then that ° 163. Let the four perpettd!cuhra on each face from the opposite vertex be p~ Now the equation of the c!ro!ec!rcumscnbmgany inangte abc may ho written in the form This appeara to be the problem whieh corresponds to thé plane problem of 6nd!ng the condition that a triangle shatt te hMcnbed in one conieand eireunMO'ibedabout another. are the angles of a plane triangle. we mvesttgatethe conditionthat two quadrics ehaU be auch that a tetrahedron may have two paila of oppomteedges on the eoïface of one whUe ita four facestouch thé other.M be each iesa than unity. where l+2&Ma=f+M'+M'. 8. METHODSABNMB5 117 152. j3.

If then we add to the équation of thé lut article the ptodact of theae two factors. thé resal~Bgconditions are foundto be . thé ratio a:~ ia the same whether a and p denote perpendîcaittraon thé plane a. For the equation of any other sphère can only differ from the precedingby terma of the ûmt degree. Fromthe preceding equation we can dedace the eomditions that the general equation ahould represent a sphere. the lengtha of wMeh are (~o). For this is a quadrio whose intersection with each of thé four &CMis the circle cu'emaMïibmg the triangle of which th&t&cecoBBMta. &c. and eUmmatethe mAetenoinate constants. But it ia evident that for any point in the &oe S. < ia 1. Hence the square of the distance betweenthe centres of the uMcrihedand <arcamscnbmg sphereeN 1M.p y jp P &ctor denoting tho plane at innnity. where a.. whieh will be of thé thé second &rm(&+~8+CY+~8}~+~+~+.118 MMHOMO? ABMMtEB NOTATtON. &p. the coe&dent of y*. identify with the general equation of the aeoonddegree. It w!Rbe &and) that when the equation of the sphère in Wtitten in the above &ttm. or on perpeadIcalMs the MMa8. j~. We are thueled to the equation re~tmed~viz. denote petp<md!cn!ats the tmdeaof the on triM~e.

For we form the covarumtB and <8' nd then we have only to form the Jacobian a of the four functions that ia to say.+ X-r+X'T'+ \'</ =0.given two quadrics !7 and F. y. &c. Mfor the faces of a sot~con)t)g&te we cat) solve the problem. and the coe~deats of U and F in the third degree. We sha!! choose M those two covariants. In terms of these fonctionswe can expressthe conditionsthat the sections of FandFbytheptaneaai+~y~yo-t-~MBhatihaveanype~ manent re!a~on to each other. M. have tetrahedron. the determinant whosefour rows are when we have a functiondenotingthe four planes in qnestton. other covariant quadrics aU can be expïesaett. < <owhose poles with regard to both are the same. «. 0 N 119 1M. &o. a conditionwhichwillbe ofthe form o. and <8'the loco<of the poles with respect to 7 of all the tangent phnes to (see Ex. snch as cm be expreMed in terma of the eoeSMentsof thé discriminant of P+\Fwhcn .ï. T' eachcontain a. we ahan get tho conditionthat fM+~ + 'ye+&c shall touchthe surface 0'+ F. to 6nA the equation which denotes the four planes a:. 156. Hence x. The conditionthat eM+~+'ye+Stc ahoatdtouch U is a contravariant of the third order in the coem!c!ents. Thue if These quadrics it will be observed.in the seconddegree. y. Given two quadrics U and F there ara two other principal covMMntquadnee i& terms of whieh toge&er with U and F and with thé inTarMmte. The 6uMttoaa<f.MNHOD8F ABMDOEHOTAMOM. 87).<r'.If we mbBtttntefor each coeJË~enta. p. jS'the locattof the potea with rMpeet to U of <tUthe tangent planes to F. <t+\a'. M we!I as !7 and V. /3.

~9. Let Uthe reciprocal of U be ~~+~3*+C/-t~ then ~=&:d. &c. (Bée<XM«~. MM~ of the sixth order in the coefficients f eachof the ear&tcee.thé equation of s whichisfoundby formingthe discriminant f or + XT X'T'+ X'<r' o + with respect to The equation thereforeof the developable reciprocal to the curve of intersectionof U and F is.and of the sixth degreo in the coenidents of each of the surfaces. thé quantity A is multipliedby . By the help of thé canonicalform eK~ + + ce' + <~M* we can readily express thé circumscribing devekpaMein terms of U. the coenicientof Ms (~CZ)'+ C'DF+2)J?C')a!*+&c..8'.c*+&o. the condition that az+ ~y+'ye + OM' shoaldmeet thé two sm&cesin sections whicb touch. 268). and the discriminantwith respectto Xof its equation will be the equation of the required developable. and thé reciprocal of P' will be BC'P. U and F are two plane entrea. o 157.120 METHOD8 0F ABMD8ED NOTATION.this expresses the condition that the plane <M+~+'ye+&o shoald pass throngh a tangent Uneof the curveof intersectionof U and K This conditionwill be of the eighth order in a. !7+~F denotes a reciprooalto !7+X~ series of quadrica pasaing throngh a common eurve. may abo he regarded aa the equation of the surface teciprocat to U withregard to a!* +~+ + <o'. F and the two covariantsjS' and . or.. in like manner a-+ Xr+ X*T* XV !s thé equationof the sar&ce + Since if X variée. of the eighth degree m the new vttnaMes.that is to say. And p. For instance.. A'K Again. The conditionthat a!C+~+'ye+&o shonidtouch U.!s got by forming the discriminantwith respect to of <r+ \T+X'T'+X*<='0. 8.. as has been noticed in the last article. while whichM=*A<M'(&'c'J+<<y&+<f&'c)a~+&c. in other words.y. By the same method we can form the eqnation of the developablewhich touches both U and K For têt <7and F be the aar&ccsreciprocai to U and then the reciprocal of !7+XF wffi be a snr&ce inscribedin the same developableas U and P. 1M. the reCtprocat ystem touches a commondevelopable.

then it !Bettey to see that both theBesm&ceB must coincide. the M (eeeArt. It is of the eecondorder in thé coefficients each of the mr&ces. and that we aubstttnte m it for eachcoefSc!ent o +X< the cond!t!onbecomea +Xer +\'p' = 0. But if the l!ne itself pass thmugh UV. the . and of the fourth of in the coeScientsofeachof the planes determiningthe right Une. a'a~+~'+c'~+<??*. 121 The developable then iethe discriminantof The discriminantbeing cleared of the irrelevant &ctor A'A" the reault remaineof the ten& degree in the coen!c!entsof ach e jS' and evidently pM8 tbrough the ccrves of equation. p and if the line have any arbitrary position. In the caae where the and quadrics are <M!)-&+<+~to*. a'a!+~'y+'/z+y<o.~)'+4A~. we can by solving this qaadrat!c for determine two snt&cee passing through the curve of intersection CT~tmd touching thé given liae. ïbj~tJ (&< of generated by the e~xaftOM the <!M)e!~<!&!e ?<StMa <am~K< ~'<Xecurvecommon<o<7«K<! If we considerany point on any tangent to thie curve. 76) S<t&('y<S'-<y'S)') which notation quantity p by we mean to express the sum of the six terms of like form suchascd (aj8' <t'~8)' Then o-will be S (aS'+ ~t')~ &c. for that thé !me cannot in general be touched by a surface of the system anywhere bnt in the point where it meets CT~ The condition there&<re whieh we are seeking is o~!=4pp'. (MeArt 160. contact of the developablewith U and f~ whilethe developable meeta U again in the CHrve of intetaectioBof U with (Op-.METBOM 0F ABMDSED NOTATMN. The condition<r=0 wiUbe fulfilled if the right lino is cnt hannomca!ly by the two surfaces. Suppose that the Urneahouldtouch 0. ~)'. andcr'–4~p'is 160. 2b ~tj MK~iMMt a ~tMM?« <(M JMM ~<t< U the Ct~Mof intersectionof <<PO through ~MOMMMand K that we have found by Art 76 the condition p'=0. the right line ia oae+~+~+Ste. a. t~a). 1S&.

See <M<<.OO. 66. M. 76 of this t It Mproved. then . it then easHy appeara that the rMatt M When we make in the above equation tp=0 we obtain a par&ct square. The iatemectïontherere of thé two polar planes meets the cnrve F. VoLn.though only the geomotrical roof is given. By the help of the canonical form the prenons result can heexpïesstidintenms of the covariant quadrics when the is found to be developable Thé curve !7FM mam&stly a double Enef on the locus repreSee OM<tn%eand JOMM~M<!<~NM<M J VoL J~~tMM~ m. f <~<fM% ?. mnMtti8pIam6~m<heaymmet~ofth~ngaTe~th&tthMugh any point in one of thèse four planes thfongh whidt one tangent Imeof the cNrvePFpMseN~a second tangent can a!so be drawn. 1?!. TheeqMti<~w~alMWMkedentbyMt'. hence each of the four plamesœ. When we use the canonical form of the quadrics.122 MBTHOM OP ANHDaBD NMATtON.VoLv.M at jH~i6«' &t<M p. <omeeta the developable in plane cnrvea of the tourth degree whieh are donble lines on thé enf&ce. y. p.p. e.Cfty!ey. able required by mbttttatmg in the condîtionof the last atUda developablewill then be of the eighth degree tn thé variables and of the sixth in the coefMentaof each sar&ce. We findthereforethe equation of the develop. (Meabo p. t6H. a priori evident. 1 h&darrived at the p of KNtttby Mtaat 6M'nm<ion the equationef the developable. ~nme)t that whea the equationof a Mt&eeis P~ + PT~ + y*x.pp.* ThM is. polar plane «f tMs point with regam to either U or V paMM evidentlythrough the point of contact of the tangent on wh!ch it lies. wheM.

Hence abo when the origin is Mt<)5<M(< a quadric. the reciprocalIs a paraboloid. curvecoincide. that !a to say. by at that pointto U <nd Mtd ta theKodt of Mbat!tutingn thé ce* i Md!MtMef point. M9 eemtedby thïa equation. lineouthe Mt&ee. the tangent plane at infinity touches the reciprocal surface. termined by the intenection of C~w!th This is precMeîythe same equation M that found m Art. the reciprocal is a hyperboloid.Apptyi'~thiate&eaboveeqaatMnttNimmediatety that t'oundthatthetwotangent*u givenbytheeq<MtMn ~y-'O. Although we have made &~e use aheady in this chapter of the method of reciprocation. and in parëontar to the section of the one by the phme at infinity con'espomta the tangent cone whieh can be drawn to the other thiangh the ongm. twotmgent~ anypointofitbeSng at !7P'ieadouble the where e are the tattgentplanea t t4 given the equation~y t <w~+ <~x'. that is to M tmch that real tangente can bo drawn from it to the say.MCÏPROCAL 8MM. when it is inaide it is an eUipaold when the origin ta on the surface. surface.<fthec<~otdiMtettofthepamtaKMppoMdtobetmh«itnted. . BMIPROCAL 161. To the section of a surface by any plane coEresponda the tangent cone which can be drawn to the reciprocal surface through the correaponding point. in the sense that each edge of the one cône is perpendicular to a tangent plane of the other. wheM a (N'<tThus }n~. we wlstt now to enter into a little more detaUon the theory of reciprocal snï&cea. and one can aee geometrically that the line of the eighth order 19in &ct the eight tangents to !7F at the points where !7F meets 8. thetwotangent tanes e~y pointonthedouble at andthe p cm~eiaaceoit~ingly a enapidal called caMe onthem]t&ee. Hence thé asymptottc cone of the one enrfaceM Mto <tpM)co! the tangent cone which can be drawn to the other from the origin.CE8. M8. aa we otherwise know it to be. and the locus tneeta C' agtUn in the line of the eighth order de. SURFACES.

The equation of the reciprocalof a qutMtncgiven by the general equation is given in Art. 162.hence the yee~Mwa! a ~«a<Mt: !s of of <Ct<& COMtC respectto a pointon ajTMO~ & a surfaceC/'M~M~MK. of a sm&ee of generated by the motion of a right Une) is a roled Mï&ce. Now {t will be f~rmaUyproved heteaftet. .124 MCmM)CAÏ< 8UMACE6. 75. p. aiMe every point in a (~netatm(.* Hence to a hyperboloidof one aheet alw&yscorresponds hyperboloid a of one sheet <!a!eM origin be onthe snrfMewhen the recithe procal is a hyperboBoparaboMA. &20.1 of a sphère with regard to any point This may !a a snf&ce of revolution round the transverse axis. The reciprocalof a central BHrEMe with regard to any point may alao be found M &t OMttes. The degrea of thé reciprocal ta therefore equal to the number of genemting lines which meetan <u'bittM'yright Une. The redproca. MneN a point on thé surface. It M easily proved that if we have any two points A aa(t J?. M9. Cayley bas remarked that <~ <i!t~'Mof any rukd w~ee & equal to <<<<« of itt twe~MMMt The degree of thé reciprocal is equal to the number of tangent planea whieh «m be d~wn through an N'HtMty right Une. 85) 163.Art. 144)that thé tangent cone whoaevertex !as &)caa «M revolution. For to a right line correspondsa right Une. be proved as M CoMM. It waaproved (Art. For the length of the perpendieular from any point on the tangent plane is (see Art. the distances of thèse two pointa from the origin are in the same ratio as the perpendicular from Mr. The reciproca! a nfM ear&œ (that !s to say. and to the surface generated by the motion of one right !me will corrMpondthe a<N~ace generated by the motionof the reciproctJ Une. that the tangent plane at any point on a ruted aaï&ce containathe ~enett~n~ line whieh p«M8 tbrough that point. But this M exaetty the ttumbe)*of points in whieh the arbitrary line meets the emc&tce. but is M~Menttjf Mide&ttn it~eK.

any point on the rectprocatsurface is euch that ita distance from the origin N in a constant ratio to the perpendicular let fall from it on a nxed plane. of joining thetocuato thepoleof the planeofMotion. and the perpendicular from that centre on any tangent plane to the sphère are both constant. perDendieulattotheNnejoiniNgthe to to focm itapole. the plane corresponmngto the centre of the sphère. And this locus is manifestly a surface of revolution of which the origin is a focus. Et. 2. Anyplane i< petpendi. The ceae whosevertexfa the andbaseanyplaneMotion h apheteu)a right oone. namely. 4. 3.foeat iM< lineejoining w~to oulareectiona parallelto theplane tezof theoone thetwofod. andtheintersoetion withthedireotdx planeof thé tangentplane at the peint.1.the tangent &)cm au with a rightcone. 125 each on the plane eorrespondmgto the other (C!MM<M. hose w ajusiathe Jine equalangles planes making the plano contact. the righthand those of the surfaces of revolution.&EHHM)CAL 8UMACE8. 98). Anytangentplane to a The line joining focua any to ia to sphere perpendicular the line point on thé surfaceK perpendit joiningits pointof contacto the oularto the plane through&cM centre. p . Everytangentme to a. 6. jugate diameter. Art. Now the ditttanceof the centre of a fised sphere from thé origin. A particular case of Ex. joiningthe foenate the inteKee<ton iththe directrix w planeofthe polar laneofthepoint. Thelinejoining to anypoint the 1a to odM to the linejoiningcentreto &ena perpendicular the p!ane itapole. Anyplanethroughthe Anyplanethmughthe tocmia centrela pet'pendiMtM'the con. Ex. Ex. Thé conewhoM baseia AnytaNgentoone has for ita of ! the the anyMotion a epheteha<its oir. ofaection. Rence. By redproc&tingproperties of the sphère we thus get proof perttes of enr&ces revolutionround thé transverse axj& The M~-hand coinnm contains properties of the sphere. Ex. îs "Every plane section of a paraboloidof revolutionis projected into a circle on the tangent plane at the vertex. 2." Ex.

148). The intersectionof the two planes M the reciprocal of the Une joining the two JM. tewintion. 168iwe leum that the square of the distance from the origin of any point on the reciprocalsm'&oe is m a conatant ratio to the prodmotof the distancesof the point from two &ced phmea. by the method nsed ln Art. th&theplanes joiningthemto the &WM righttn~tet. It watmtMa 1WM ledto tMa Cat andto otMtTe the way property. that is to say.126 MCtMOCAÏ.rocal comc.&E~tyeytMetONebpEtetyMcttMpMtiagthMngh il théfooM bastM< foe)M foca*. that the two planes are planes of circutarsectionof the asymptotic cone to thé new surface.hencethe reMptocatof any quadric f with regard to an mabîKcar&<~Ma. Aï)yqM<hicenwl<~n{{<t a If<tquadt!eenvetope(mmt&eeof o iea t the epheM Mt&ee f Tevotntton. as we know (Art. to every point on the mnbtnca. 4. 164. The property just proved* Mtongs. Now if we rec!proc&te this property with regard to any point. thélatteriscone of revolution. we obtain proof any quadric with regard to &OMand coneapondmg parties doectnx. . It appears fmm Ex.he <Maecwlo~ng e whoM vertexil a &x!M of former. areat Ex. It ia to benotedthatinetthercaae&eaxts of the SgOMof revolutionia the rec!procal of the directrix coïMspondmgto thé given &)Ctm. The prodnct of the perpendicalars&om thé two foci of&ant&Mo{T<~Mt<mMtmA&etNMvetMaM€m<ay tangent plane~îa evidently constant. Et. that Mto aay) that they are planes of emsalM sectionof the new surface. SCNPACM. fora iag a ttpheM <~ht. By redof procating properties of enrËMett revointton. Rjt. of the axia of the mrBMeof revolution. Anytwoeot~j~attight Haeo t AnytwocM~u~te areeaoh liassaretmttaa!ly t petpMMHco!M.sar&~<)fMvolntI(m rMmiAe~mM~œam~b~hMg~i~&BM~~r&~a ïa a Bsr&ceof revolutionround the conjugate axh). dMMdonhetweenthetwttdB~ef&ei. 8. of the last article. ?.

whoMtade la the Une joining the foeu to thé pole ofthe plane of section. wbioh plane la pMpeMtMtr to the axh. Thé cone whoaebaMMo~pTane aection of a quadrio and vertex any foeaohas for one axis the Une join* ing to the &eaa thé pôle of thé plane. Thé eone !a a right eone whoM veftM la a ibena and baae the teetion made by any tangent one on a plane through thé corteapendhM directrix pm-aUet to those of thé eireata)' aeotiont. 6. Etc.h&Hghtootte. the right-hand of quadrica in gener&L Ex. in two pointa whieh Ntbtend a right angle at the correeponding tbeM. Thé coae whoee vertex M a fbcM and base any plane section fa a right eone. Any tangent plane la at right angte* with the plane throngh the point of contact and the tuda. 4. 127 Thé aais of the figure of revolntion is parallel to the tangent to the focal corne at the given fbcaa (eee Art.. Î87). The Une joining a 6teu< to any point <m the anf&ee il at right angIeato&eËMjoining~he&MM <othe point wherethe conetponding tangent plane meeta the dh'Mttix. Any two conjugate lines pietee a plane thmugh a directrix pataHet to OMutar sections. The cône who8evertex ia a focus and base any section whose plane paMe~ tbrough the CMt'etpondin~ <tiTeettix. 2. If a cone ehfcamMnte Nn&<e of revolution. one principal plane is plane of vertex and axie. Ex. and for another the linejoining &oaa to the point where thé plane meeta the direettix. 1. E:c. and this right Une ie petpendienh)' to the plane through &Mas and dtteettùt.BECIMOCAÏ. Any two eonju~ate Unes are MMh that the planes joining them to the locus are at right angles. 6. The line joining a &e<Mto any potnt la at right angles to the Une joining the focaa to the point where the polar plane meeta the dh-eetth. . The left-hand column contains properties of etn'&ces of revolution. Ex. The tangent cone whoM vertes la any point on thé axis le a right eone who<e tMgent planes make a <!0)MtMtangle with the plane of contact. and another is parallel to plane of contact E~. The polar plane of any point la at right angles to thé plane eontaining that point and thé axia. SOBFACE8.

Ex. whose vertex la any locus of one and whieh envelopes the other.the plane joining their other extiMmittet paMM through a nMd point. matuajiy at right angles. Ex. the eone. thé MMof the latter M parallel to a principal plane of the former. If a quadrio envelope a aurfaceof revolution.128 MSCïHtOCAL SUBFACES. bas for one axis the line joining that jbetM tothe point where the plane of contact meeta thé cor. IfthMUghMypointenaquadnc be drawn three lines mntMDy at right an~lex. . If two quadriet envelope each other. 7. 8. tetpon([mg<Ureetrix. Lecue of interaection of three tangent planee te a paraboloid. la a plane. If the point be not on the quadrio the plane enve~pe< a sat&ee cf revolution.

In fact through a given point c'y can in general be drawn two conics confocalto a given one. And we commence by pointing ont a method by which we shoutd be lei to thé conaUera~on of the focal conics of a quadric. the axis of a: it&e!fM thé limit whieh séparâtes confocal e!I!pae8&om hyporbolaa. 165.&c. WB shall in thin chapter give an acccant of thoae properties of surfaces which are anfdogonsto those properties of coNice which are connected with their foci. When confocal curve ïs a hyperbola.( 129) CHAPTER VIII.). K . Bat thé two &ct helong to this limit in a spécial sense. 186. If ~~y the eqnation reducing !<se!f to ~=0. anco we have a qoadratMto determine viz. the confocalconic mU be an ellipse. independently of the method foUowed(Arts. it w!N abo be an ellipse when Is negative aa is between &'and ?' the long as it !s tess than y. Two concentric and coaxal cornes are 8Mdto be confocal when the differenceof the squares of the axes !a thé same for 0~ O* both. and when X' is greater than a* the cnrve is imaginary. Thus given an eU!pse + H = Ï< any conmis confocal with it whose equation is of the form If we give the positive sign to X'. CONMCAL8URPA6E8.

Thus given the elUpMtd + Ja + T= t any . Wben X* ia between c* and b' the snr&ce M a hyperboloid of one sheet. or if we take It negative and less than o*the sor&ce Man ellipsoid. to 166.T=0t thus found. A sphere of infinite of radius is the limit of ail e!lipeo!da the syatem. and therefore the two foci are If in a spécial sense points corresponding the value ~'=f. for rega~diag we have evidently a cuMcfor thé détermination of quantity. mamely. COSFOCAL the second root is <deoX'~t*. being what the equation represents when X*=oo. . in general through any pointicye' can be drawn three sarfaces as the nmknown confocal to a given one. Now in like manner two quadrics are said to be confocal if the differencesof thé squares of the axes be the lame for both.130 SURFACES. viz. it. = 1. In tact. belong in a special sense to the limit separating elKpsoidsand hyperMotds. but if we the points on the conic make in the equationX*<=< . + ~j. When X*=<~the auT&cereduceaIt~df to the plane z='0. When it ia between b*andd' it il a hyperboloidof two sheets.s surface is con&eàtwhose equationia of the form If we give X*the positive aign.

Another convenient way of solving the problem to describe through a given point qaadncs confocal to a given one. and to this limit belongs in a special sensé the hyperbola in that ~t t =e L Thé focal conic in the third principal + plane plane ie imaginary. m and a root of <&M equation w!!ta!Mbe X* c*. For if we snbatttnte ~~pefi~M~of in the cnMoof the !ast article Baccessîvely we get results saccesstvety +–+– which proves that the equation bas alwaysthree real roots. one of which is less than e'.CONFOCAt. the secondbetweeno*and and the third between &' and < and it was shown in the last article that the 6Nr&cos corresare respectively an ellipsoid. t68. !oA<e~ 167. a point CM/~eo)? one < and one of <<co. and one of two. is to take for the unknown quantity the primary axis of the songht confocal sarfaco. SUM'ACES. Then mnce we are given o*-& and <t'c" which we shaHcall and ?*. 2~ <~Me ~Ma<&*«M can be drawn ~~M~Aa ~Mx~ to a ~toeM one are respectitely an eM<~MOt<7. In like manner the plane y=00 separates hyperboloidaof one sheet from those of two.a ponding to thèse values of hyperboloid of one sheet.if The pointe on the focal ellipse therefore belong in a special sense to the value \*=!tc*. we have thé equation From this equation we can at once express the co-ordinates of the intermtion of throo confocal surfaces in tenaa of their K2 .

by a proceaa whieh may be employedin reducingother symmetrtcolfunedons of these co-ordmatea.139) <t** meetsthe mr~ce. In the above we suppose y* &c. z'*in the last srtide. This remamderdividedby o"* b' gives a quotient the TheseMp'eMhMM ne ea~tyto enable remember co-ordintteaofthe nmMUM. The aretherefore co-ordinatee . The preceding cubie aho enables as to express the radius vector to the point of intersectionin terme of the axes. for example e"<t"*<!t" when divided by <&* (or by its equal a"&") ~veaa quotient e'o""o'. to involve their f. as arealao & and c' 169. For the second term of it gives <N This expfeasMnmight a!sohave beenworked out directly from the values given for a: y".132 CONfOCAL SURFACES.sincewe might have taken &* c* or for our unknown. the îast term of it givea lu at oncefc"& =o''a"'a" or And by parity of reasoning. Thns if a". we have N. For on substitutingthe preceding values and redncmg to a commondenominator. a' ?"" be thé roots of the above equation. heumhHtM T arethepointa where thefocalhyperbola (Art. axes. The divisionthen !s pertbnneA as follows Any tenn. a)gns implicitly.a/*+~* + e" becomes But thé numerator obTlons!y vanishesif we mppoBeeither <~==& It M therefore dMatMe by the de~'=c*. Thns c"" belongingto a hyperboloid of one aheet ia eesentlaHy negative. <~=< nomm&tor.B. But for the focalhyperbola c a"* a* y. and a remainder ~<t"*a'c'.

85) the directMn-cosines of thèse two perpendicularsare And the condition that the two shonid be at right angles. Ï~OO <<<«tc4 other et)MyM~'6 <!< COM~M<~ MM~MM t~A<<M~&<. each tangent plane cuts the other two perpendicolM-ty. 171. 170. then (Art. Proceediag step by atep in this manner we get the result already obtained.(Art. and it only rem&ioeto be proved .c'y* satisfy the equattom of both sm~Meswehave And if we subtract one of thèse equations from the other. It hm been proved tbat the pt~raUela the normals are at to right angles to each other. 18) But mnce the co-ordinates . 188 yW and a remamder~<t" b~h divided in like manner gtvee a quotient &"& and a remainder &y"& by a"& which!adeettoyedby another termin the dividend.CONFOCALSURFACES. At the point therefore where thrae confocalsmtersect. '=' and rememberthat a"* a** & & = c"* c' the remainderis whiehwas to be proved.and the tangentplane to any one contains the normaleto the other two. Let icy~' be any point commonto the two Bnrfacea. M. and thé lengthsof thé perpendicularfromthe centre on the tangent plane to eachat that point. If a plane te d&MMM <X~A <~ centre parallel to any Me<M!M <ec<MMt &y<&)!< made <tM)y«!t planeto a ~t«K&TC. of are MMWMJb <~ <!co<~):~Ma& ? jp!sK< ~ofaMe~<o<!5e <j4wMy& <<e point of CMtihMt.

From the eq«nation of the surface the length of a central radius vector whoM direction-angles are a. j8. But (Art.KM the central <ec<MM a 172. 90) eh<KtM conjugatediameteMia be the conditionthat two Ëmeft But thé trath of this eqnattom appeam at once on snbtractimg one &om thé other thé eqnatMma which hâve been pfoved în thé last arëdet <t.134 CONMCAL aUBMCES. 'y is given by the equation . . that they are conjogatedtNnetentin their section./M !eay<&<f o o/' of the <oMj$wt)< <t< <~e~cMt< ~t«MMo&ya plane parallel to plane <c*y'e*.

a'-c*. 54). wouldbe the co-ordinatesof the centre of the surface. t78. 186 And subatituting this value in the expreMton already found In tike manner the square of the &r~' we get ~<t'o" otheraxiBB ?'< Renée. o" The three tangent planes to the new systemare the three principalplanes of the originalsystem. Thé reader will observethe symmetry'whichexMtsbetween thèse values for j)". e" and reducing the resultingvalue fbr~" by the method ofArt. as centre three confocalamay be described having the three tangent planes for prmcipal planes and intersecdng in thé centre of the original system of snr&ees. If a central section be parallel to one of these principal planes (thé plano of ay for instance) in thé surface to whichit is a tangent. it appoars from Art. y". <t".this r&dma Mof constantlength. o". and a radius of i onebe drawnparaUet to the normalto thé other at any point of their curveof intersection. Since the product of the axes of a central section by on thé perpendicahof a parallel tangent plane is equal to <t&: we get immediately expresmons for the tengtha (Art. if two confocal qutuMcft ntersect. jp" We hâve the valuee already found for a. p". The axes of the new eystem of con&calsare a'. j~ and thé values already found for If the three tangent planes had been taken as ~*) co-ordinateplanes. The analogy then between thé values for p'p"p'" and those for a!'y' may be stated as follows With the point a. p'.CONFOCAL SUM'ACES. In other words. 169. that the section is . 172 that the squares of thé axes are a*-y.a' & S")& 7 c'.

Let the given plane be J~+~+Cs=l.136 CONFOCAL aUBPACjEB. to describe&ear&cecon&calto & given one to touch a given plane. tangent !ine at any point of ita inteMectton and p the perpendicular on thé tangent plane at that point. Hence (Art. whichin this case (Art. 172) 2?*= a"-a" 176. The theorem just proved.implicitlycentainethe solutionof the problem." For since the pole of a tangent plane to a s)M&oa tts point of contact. The theorem of this article may a!so be . For the tangent line at any point of thé curve of intersectionof two aar&ceais the intersectionof their tangent planes at that point. precieelyequal to the focal ellipse. 170)is normal to the third confocal throngh the point. ita point of to contact being the point where the lome line just determined Bieeta the plane. 174. then pD !s constant for every point on that carve of intersection. ?b~?K<?<~e&)CMso/jpo&<~<t~t'MM~&tMe<ct~f<y<M'd toa f~tteMo~eoM/oca! Mt~~MM. If D be the diameter of a quadric parallel to the with a confocal. no matter where the point ~'bemmatetL IntikemMneftheeectionpamMtothe plane of a?~is equal to thé focal hyperbola. and its pole then we muet identi~ the given e~nationwith The locus is therefore a right line perpendicularto the given plane. it is evidenttbat but one is surface can be AesctiheA touch the given plane.

61) on the polar plane of a~') and (Art. Tite <!a!M any <oMyeN< <o<t $t«K&'tc <~ are of MÛMKa& <&MC <0the <cAtC& &eOfMHMt CM!~M<t& can oet~sco/'<&3COKe." 176. and its pole ?<? regard to any <XM<~caJ'MM~ce. But since this is aiso a section of the cone. 60) that the three normals meet this plane of contact in three points. Considerthe tangent plane to one of these three sar&cea wh!oh pasa through the vertex ic'y')! then thé pole of that plane with regard to the original surface Mes (Art. ?. c'. 187 etated–~The locus of the polo of the tangent plane to any quadrie. plane as in the lut artide. we have cone 177. It follows then (Art. 175) on the normal to the exterior surface.CONFOC~L SURFACES. anch that each is the pôle of the Hne joining the other two with respect to the section of the surface by that plane. Let a!y)!'be thé point of contact of a tangent plane to the surface whose axes are a. with regard to any confocal. It is therefore the point where that normal meets thé polar plane of a. {' thé pole of the same with regard to the surfacswhoseaxes are a'. Thea. b.Mthe normal to the firet eut&ce. b'. the plane of contact of the cone. c. Tb~X~an &)!p~S<&Mt Me~&<NK<!e between<~ J)OMt< for of contactof any tangentplane. 67) that the three normala . that is to say. it follows(Art.

To verify this by actual transformationwill give us an independentproof of the theorem of Art. For by thé last article that tangent plane ia a principal plane of thé cone tonchimgthe confocalsurface and having the given point for its vertex. and the theorem jnat atated m this case becomes. 177.188 CONPOCAÏ. and thé two tangent planes will be tangent planes of that cone. The focal CtMMN (that is to say~ the cones whose verttcea are any points and whichstand onthe focal comcs)are limiting and it is sttU tnte cases of cônes envetopmg confocal6m'&cea. 74. that if thé three nonna!abe made the axes of co-ordinates. 177. is . and smce they are mutaaHy at right aagles they are its axes. fromArt. If the surface he a cone its focal comc reduces to two right lines. The equation of the tangent conegiven. 179. and a Imowledge of the actual values of A.the equation of the cone muet take the form ~ta~+JE~+C~~O. that any tangent plane to a cone makes equal angles with the planes containing ita edge of contact and each of thé focal lines. that the two tangent planes to a focal cône drawn throngh any tangent lineona surfacemake equal angleswith the tangent plane in which that tangent Une lies. 178. are a system of conjugale diametersof thé cône. This theorem. If at any point on a quadrica Une be drawn touehing the Burfaceand through that line two tangent planée to any con&cat. Art. will be proved independently in Chap. It follows.8CBFACN. however. J?. 0 will be useM to us aRerwards. these two planes will make equal angles with thé tangent plane at the given point on the arst quadric. But two tangent planes to any cone drawn throngh a line in a principal plane make equal angles with that plane. ïx.

we hâve to sttbt~tnte the JJtectioB-commes f theec !me)t in the Aumalte o of Art. S t8& Now to ttMM~Kato the three nonnats ae ftxeft. and we see that we have to substitate 180.CONMCAL Ut~ACNt. 17. In ordermore easily to eee the result of thie snbsttta~omthe followingpreHminaryfbrmn!~will be useful: .

140 CONfOCAt. These anewer to thé values a' bl for the square of the pnmary axis: the equaa* tions therefore are Theae equationsmight alao have been found. by forming. 18t. 86.8UMACJE8. . as at p. When now we make the trana~rmtttMna directe. in the Mt-hanA mde of the equation of Att 179. thé coeSdant of a~ M found to be Its square therefore destroys thé nmt gfoap of terma on the other sideofthe equation. As a particular case of the preceding may be found the equations of the focal cônes (Art. 182.and then trana&ïmmg them as i&the iMt tn'tides. thé equattoas of the focal cones. and the equationof thecône becomes whioh is the reqnîred transformedequationof the tangent cône. thé cone whosevertex is any point a!~ and which stands on the focal ellipse or focal hyperbola. 178) that is to say.

The equation transformedto parallel axes becomes 11' !l' But the transformations of~+~+~andof~-+~-+~ are given m Art. The transformed equation is therefore at once found to be '.CONFOCAt. Having aH thé necessary formule at hand. 188. This m a particnlar case of Art. SURFACES 141 It may be seen without dMcutty that any normal and the corresponding tangent plane meet any of the principal planes in a point and line whieh are pote and polar with regard to the focal conic in that plane. The equation tranafbrmedto parallel axes !a . 181. This equationis somewhatmodined if the point a:'y'e'ia on the surface. we give alao in this place the transformation of the equation of the quadric itaelf to the three normals through any point icy~' as axes.C~ 1 =' 111:' and the quantity under the brackets on the left-hand s!de of the equation is evidently the transbrmed equation of the polar plane of the point. 177.

the coefficient fa~ m 186. 181). and the form of the equation ahowathat thé dtSeremces f the squares of the axes are indeo . The equation M(Art. 179.the quantityaa~'+~y'+M'+A* is immediatelytrMM<bm)ed (p'a!+~"y+?'"<+&'). To return to the equationof the tangent cone(Art. Again. 162) (~'+~'+M'+~)'=~-4-&y+< Now using the ~naulas of Art. We give in this place a!so the transformation of the with equation of the MŒproctJ-Bm&ce regard to any point to the three normalathrough the point. Its form proveathat all côneshaving a commonvertex and cira eumscribing seriesof confocalaurfaceaare coaxaland confbcaL For the three normalathrough the commonvertex are axes to every one of the systemof cônes. into when aV + i o +c*)!*s tmns&rmed. the coeSMentof ~e vamMiM whilethe terme of the &rat d~ree ïeduceto p The tMM&nneA equation !s therefore 184.Ï42 CMfFOCAL SDRPACE8.

and emvetopmg the qaadncs. 141). have the same ch'cola)' sectiona. 178). 137). Cott. For the iec!procab of the tangent cônes from that point have the same circnlarsections (Art. This may a!sobe proved thus Take any edge of one ûf the system of cones.2. M3 pendentof a'. p.1. The equations'ofthe commonjbca~mea of the coneaare (Art.theselatter planes are tangent planes to the hyperboloid. CoB. t72) that the central section of thé is hypcrbotoidof one aheet which pasBesthrough a/ and the sectionof the hyperboloidby the tangent plane iteelfis similarto this. xn. . The two generstors are therefore snch that thé planes drawn through them and through any edge of thé cône mako equal angles with the tangent plane to thé cone. Vol. but this !sa property ofthe &cat Imes (Art. and therefore (Art. The projectionsare the sectionsby that plane of cylindersperpendicular to it. and thèse rectprocab are the asymptodoconesof the reciprocalsur6tces. The recîprocab of a system of con&eabt.with regard to any point. If a System af confocalebe projeeted orthogonally on any plane. 140) But it was proved (Art.CONFOCAL 8UKMCN8. And these cylindersmay be conmdered a system of enveloping cônes whose vertex as !s the point at infinity on the common direction of their generators. and throngh it draw a tangent plane to that cone and ako planes containing the generating Mneecf the hyperboloid. t78) make equal angles with the tangent plane to the cone. or is aiso Rence thej~eo!ifM:~o/ of <y<<em conesare the generating ?MM< the~pef&o&)t<i' p<MMN icAttA theorem <&)'o!<~A of <&e~MM!<–a dne to Jacobi (<M&. the projections are confocal conics.

If ~Mt~r~ a given lifte tangentjp&MM drawn to a the K<WNM& oy~emof o<M/!M<!&. precisely as at Art. and it is proved. of whieh they form the other system of generators. 'y' Then it appean. the normal to any plane through the line containsthe pole of that plane with regard to the assnmed confocal. . is sometimesexpressed as fbilowa: teao CMt/be<t& j~'<MM <eeK any <!< point appear <0<K<eMeC< e«My!0&eMright angla. and if we consider any one of the confocals. 186.by definition touch that surface. The property that the tangent cones from any point to two mtetaectmg con&cah eut each other at right angles.144 CONFOCAL 8UMAOE8.y< let the Mea of the three Mr&cea passing thMBgh it be a'. Jf~CO C<M) ? a ~rtcealine. every normal meets the polar line of the given Unewith regard to any confocal. d'. <t' and the angles the Hne makes with these axes a. from Art. 111). are at~M~A any f~A< line to the<<CO eMt/boa& ot right <Mt~!et e<K!& to ot&er. that <tis determinedby the gM<M&~<«: have the given line as a commonedge. And since the tangent planes to a tangent coneto a surface.co~veopoK~M~ genemtea /~perMMJMMSoM~. the plane perpendtcalar to thé given line. jnst referred to. <'OM/M<~ <M<~K!Mbe<&~MM<M<C~ Take on the line any point a. 170. 181. namely. by Art. Honoe. 174. The surface generated by the normab is thereforea hyperbolieparaboloid(Art. it follows that <&e<ttt~<K< planes <~(KMt tO~MA <Ot«!~M. It is evident that the surface generated by the polar lines. be 187. is the same paraboloid. that the tangent planes to the cônes through this Une are at right angles to each other.which pole is a point on the polar line of the given line with regard to that confocal. The normals are evidently parallel to one plane.then.

of the perpendicular to a tangent plane ofthe cone of Arts. If a. for if we take any point on ~he plane. 176). 189. since this perpendicular lies onthé reciprocal cone. Henee in this case aU the nortnala lie !n thé same plane. 145 The points in which this paraboloid meeta the given line are the two pomtt where this line touches con6)cats. 179. the normals will therefore envelope a conic. obtain a proof without transformation of co-ordinates L .. we know a'. If the relation of tho last article were proved independently. The normal correspondingto any plane drawn through that lime ie found by letting &U a perpendicular on that plane from the pole of thé eame plane with regard to j8 (Art. y be thé direction-angles. 188. we ahould. when the surface is an infinite sphere (Art. whichconic willbe a parahola~since thé normal in one of its positionsmay lie at infinity. From thé principle that the anharmonicratio of four planes passing through a Uneis the sameas that of their four poleswith regard to any quadric. /3. d' a'" for that point. now under consideration. y muetsatis~ the relation This relation enablesus at onceto determine the axis of the surface which touches any plane. as abo the angles which the three normalsthrough the point make with the plane. and therefore«' is known. by Mvemmg the steps of the demonetration. 166). The point where the given Une meets the surface to which it M normallies on the directnx of dus parabola. but it is evident that both pôle and perpendicolarmuet lie in the tangent plane to )8'to whtch the given tine is normal. &c.referred to the three normala through the vertex. namely. In the spedal case. A spécial case occurs when thé given Uneis itsdf &normal to a surface <S'of the system.CONFOCALSURFACES. it is foundat once that any four normale divide homographicallyall thé polar lines correspondingto the given l!ne with respectto the systemof snr&ceB.a.

74) that the sum of the squares of the prûjec~ona on any âne of three conjugate a!ameters cf a quadrio is eqaal to that of any other three conjugate d!ameters. The l~twoBneaaM and direction. And it waa pïoved in the Mme article that three other conare jugate diameters of thé eame snBEMe the radius vector from the centre to a~ together with two unes equal and parallel to the axes of the focal ellipse.BCN'ACB). It!a provedthenthat the quantity NCMU!tantwhHethepomt~~moTMm<tg!venp!ame. 0' We have aeon (Art. and cf two Imes equal and pamM to the axes of the constant m magnitude focal ellipse. It &!tow9then that the quantity is eqaal to the sam of the squares of the pr~ectioM on thé perpendicularfromthé centre on the given plane. Ohmtes Thé quantity is the sam of the squares of the projections on a perpendicular to the given plane of the lines a'.while the projection of the radius vector is the perpendicatar ttadf which M constant if ~y~belongto the given plane. and their projectionsare therefore constant. 8$.146 CMtMCAI.an<! it is evident that thé constant value M thé <~of the sar&ce which touches the gtvemplan~amce&rttwe have 190. a". The following proof is due to M. ef the radins vector. ï*i5e &CM the «!<eMec<MH <ib~e at of ~&MM MM<M<t~ ~W~&~M~C~MM~tW~MMM~t~MMM~Mb&a~& ThMie provedae in Art. of the equation of the tangent eoM (Art. 181). Addtogether . It was a!ao proved (Art. 173) that these are the axes of a snr&ce having iB~V for Its centre and passing through the original centre.

~3). from thé eqn&t!onaof thé tangent cènes (Art. In the particular case where the two cones consideredare the cônesstanding on the focal ellipse. and ïemembenng that the <c' of thé a'c** plaNe throogh thé centM plme throtigh the oentre is (Art. and on thé focal hyperL2 . intercepta made on the four common edges are of course ail equal since the edges are equally inc1inedto thé plane of section whichia pataUelto a commonprincipal plane of both cones. 191.CONFOCALSURFACES.. c we learn that the differenceof the squafes of the perpend!cn!<tm on two parallel tangent planea to two con&calB constant and ia equala'-a". 186). Agaïn~by subtracting one from the other. F"'=a[" cos'<+&"os'~+c"cot~'y. 147 where p is thé Satanée from the centre of the intersectionof the planes. Let there be any two oon&calcones 'y* Pottmg in the vaîaes of et*. (Art 178) we is for the eqaare of the required mtercept get If then thé mu'&ces e ail of differentkundethis value shcws b that thé intercept Mequal to thé perpendicular from the contre on the tangent plane at their intersection. thé two equations ~*=a'c<M*a +&'coa'~+c* cos*'y.~8*. J~co eoKM n A<tMM~ ommon wy<ap envelopetwo coMon J~M&/ <0jM &Ky<& the M~C~pt NMM& one of their 0/' coMMMt a plane ~o<~& the ceM~ejMMtNe!the tangent edges by ? The plane to one of the cot~M& tSw~ Me<M!'<ea.

The focalconics required are immediatelyconstmeted. we can nnd . If through any point P on a quadric a chord be drawn. botawehaTea*=a'-o% a' a*-y. and we can by plane geometry determinein magnitade and direction the axes of the section by that plane. Chastes bas used the principlesjust estahlished to solve thé problem to determine the magnitude and direction of the axes of a central quadric being given a system of three conjugate diameters. if throughany point on an eMtpM~be draun a chord meeting&o<A~cco~ cA<wo' conice. that a tiDe through the centre parallel to a tangent to an ellipse enta off on the focal i'adS portions eqaal to the axia-ma~or. and thé intercept reduces to a'. ttnatogona the theorem for plane curves.148 CONFOCAL8UMACE8. touching two con&cab. If now we couldconstmotthe focal contesof this new system of confbcab. 172). due to PMf. MacCuUagh.the intercept on <&M at a ~&Methrough the centre parallel to the tangentj~<MM the will 6e equal to ~e <M!M-m<M' the M~~Me. ?" a" But nowthe lengthsof the axes of thé given section are o'-o". while (Art.the axes of the focalconicsare immedîatetyfound. a'-a"* (Art. Thia point o/' M to theorem. We know thé planes in which they lie and the direction of their axes. The tangent plane at J~ the extremlty of the remammg diameter. and thèse latter axes being known. 193. 178) that the centre of the given quadrio is the point of intersectionof three confbcak. 191. as in Art. M. Now it WM proved (Art. The six planescontaining these four right lines intemecttwo by two in the directions of the required axes. Conaider 6rst the plane of any two of the conjugate diameters. whose common vertex Mthe centre of the originalquadric. determineby their mutual intersectionfour right lines. 191) the three tangent planes through the point P eut off on thèse four lines parts equal in length to the axes. The lengths of their axes are to be o'-a" <ï"-<t" <t* a".having the point P for their centre. then the two focal cônes. Henee. 192. will be paraUel to the tiame plane.

they will intercept (counting from the centre) portions on the diameter whoee pfodnct='jB*. and a tangent plane. 189). It appears. But the portion mtercepted by the conjugate plane !< hatf the chord required. a"==a'. with regard to a point on a focal conic. and the portion intercepted by the t<mgent lane m the intercept found (Art. and atnce it is on the surface the reciprocal with regard to it H a paraboloid. it is evident that we cannot have equal roots except when X is equal to one of the principalaxes. And if through P there be drawn a plane conjugate to thm diameter. 191). 166 muet hâve two equal roote. This agrces with what wu proved (Art. and that the reciprocal. For an amMHc is a point on a focal conio (Art. thé length of which we 6!M!1 coUJB.ia a paraboloid of revolution. eemi*di<HMteter throngh the centre. Hence p may represent a right cone. two of the coefficientsmuet be equal. or o"==< or in other words. that the reciprocal of a surface. or when a~'< is on one of thé focal con!c<. Another particular case of this theorem is that two right to cyundefs can be tarcanMcnbed a centml quadric. thecône standing on the focal ellipse will be a right cône only when . J44). but from what was proved M to the limite within which the roots Ke. that ia to say. vith regard to an mnh!l!c. As a part!cu!arcase of the theorem of this article. the edges of the cylinders being parallel to the asymptotes of the focal hyperbola. is a mtr&ceof revolution. hence. for the point iey~' the equation of Art. 149 DrawapM&Uel aaexpfeMion&rthelengthofthtttchoTd. For a cone whosevertex is at infinity is a cylinder.CONFOCALSUM'ACES.

OtherwiMthM:Iftwo)pmer&t<m~attH~htMtj. Me a system of three tangent phnee to the surface. y right MgtM. To Bad the loous of the intetMetion of three tangent lines to a quadric matutUy at right angles (see p. This theorem of course may be stated withoutany ïe&remceto thé qattdtice of which thé two eomceare focal cornes. SURFACES. equation of one conic be + == that of thé other will t. whoM tateMeetton lies on thé <phete Ex. ita vertex is on the focal hyperbola and <tMewef«!. 89).150 CONFOCAI. and sinM each of these tangent* lies on the tangent cone through that point. 196. the cone envelopingthe former whoee vertex M a &cm of the latter M of revolution. 1. the square of whose radtiMis eqnal toa~+y+e".o*)+ mn<t e an eqnilateral hyperbola. Let a. l («~-a~)c0. ?2)(o*. we have the conditions . thé tocut a ephete. therefore. 86).!jeaj. of to boloid whieh eutaat rightangles. that <~ &)CM <~ Wef<MM ~A< CMMa <Mt <??«! «~M& <<ttK<~ ? ~CCM Û/' 0/' M a eoKtcq~<~<M~6 w apec<M o j)MyeM<MKt&ty K the ~&Me. The &]lowingexampleswillserve fnrther to lUnstrate the principles whichhave beenlaid down Et. It was proved (p.'Y be the angles made by one of these tangents with the normale through the locus point. ~9. From this article then we see that the focal conicsof a quadric are the locus of the foci of all possibleettr&cesof revolation which can dromMcnbe that quadric.169)the eq~re of theMdt~veetef tothe pointSa We hâve. thetr plane together with the plane of eaob and of the normal ttt thé point. 2. mutually at <<°* -K* (Att. But (Art. Theeeedon to the eontaÎM geneMtort parallel the tangent lanewhich p b tethat(Art. Tofindthé loeu ofthe intMMet!ongenerators a hyper. 126) that if a quadric circumscnbe a mn&ce of revolution.

168) a~t=.mdwehave BatdneethepMpendi<M!Mhaned~<ecnerM. . To Cadthé lengfh et the petpendieaîat &omthe eentMon thé which pohr phae ef fty~ in tenna of the MM of thé o<m&)c<tta pMa thKMghthat point.theMbM. Mestndtocon'eeponAif It is «Vtdantthat the mtersectton of two confocal hype~MoHe perces a syatem of etHpsotdsin conrespondiagpomta. a"*ibr M axM. 196.CONPOCAh8CBFACE8. a'a'~a'° the qnantity for from~Mvalue (Art. S.having «". Thé M<t!on an eBlpMM the tangent plane to the Mympof by tetieconeof een&etdhyperboloid ofcomftMtt tea. 92) la invenely pMpOT~<m<~thé petpendieatm en &pmaMettmjj~ntphNe. 4. Bx.~wa<M<!heeqM(ti<Mtcft!Mt<M<MMqaiMd. Two pointe.pKMltOthe MymptetieeoMo~thehypetboMdtWehtw Et. 161 Andthe Mm ofthe tMiptoeahof the roots wiNVMiehwheathé eotBo~t ef\'=& TM<. j[. one on each of two confocal dIIpsoMa. are constant. b a te The MM (Art. N <MBBtant long as the hyporboloUb.

1&7. correspond to any point a/yV on a surface. by an equation of the &nN~(a'.pointe on the principal planes determined a/' F «" y by equations of the form -. that is to aay.a")'=0. the principal planes being limita of confocal surfaces. which correspond to the intersectionof an ellipsoidwith a aeriesof confocal surfaces. URFACES. the eorresponding point is on the focal conio. expressing a relation between thé axes of the con&calhyperboloidswMch can be drawn through the point. The points on thé plane of «y.=-jt–?t ~='M '~) ~*==0.t62 CONFOCAÏ. boloidsof one sheet. and a hyperbola for the intersectionswith hyperboMJs oftwo. Cnrves on the ellipsoid are sometimes expressed by what are caUed etitptic co-ordmatea. of which the points corMaponding to the umbilicsare the commonfoci. Now sinceit appenrefrom this article that a' is ha!f the sum and «" hatf the difference of the dtatances of the pointa correspondingto the points of the locus from the pointa . S It will be obeerved that. The coordinatesof the umbilicsare which are there&rethe fbct of the systemof confocalcomca. and when a)'y'z' ia in the principal plane. EUmin&ting betweenthe equations This is evidently an ellipse for the intemect!ons with hyper. form a series of confocal conics.

otTcataraection the new . –F o o ar=.CONFOCAt. since if by making e'aO m !7 and in F the resnit in each case représenta a cirele. to 198. 163 which correspond to thé umbilics. This theorem in only a par<ico!ar case of the ~bHowmg: that "if any two quadrics have common <arcnlaraectionf).j. and the new a~=i the old a~+~ But by the equation of the plane of c* «'-y. p') =0. the 0?. we can from the equation (a'.ar. It will be neeM. the projection will be a orde.or y–<r . :==-?“a-." a theorem which M évident. to investigate this partîcnlar theorem dh'eetty. . however. 8UBFACE8. If the intersection of a sphère and an ellipsoidbe projected on either plane of <atcntarsection by lines para1lel to the least (or greateat) axis. fromwhieh we can form thé equation of the earve on the principal plane which corresponds thé given locaa. a") 0 obtain an eqaatbn (p + p'. &' ~c*. If we take as axes the axis of y which is a line in the plane of ciredM*secdon and a perpendicular to it in that plane. making ee=0 0 in !7''tA~ mast a!so represent a cirele. ny a quadrio through their mtetBectMnwill have the same. But for the intersectionof .j. the y will remain unaltered.

and. Ivory. in Nce manner. 199.CM. if we take on the .154 CONMCAt. 200. connects aiso the distances &omthe foci of any point on the ellipse. since jr~~?. Wehave x*–«* Thé mm of the squaresthereforeof the central radii to thé two points Mthe sameas that for thetwo conesponding pointe. the dietancesfrom <7and 0' of any point on the line joining these pointe. But the quantities a~ yl~ &~are evidently respectively equal to a~'Z'. OMM each of tw <~e<«)eH~ & egW<~ Me <N<&aM< to ~e<<M8M <!Mcorretk <!<M< eNt~MOM& epMM~~MK~. wenMyhBmedMttotyin&r&oïntheïtMtmtïcteth&ttheptûjection of the intersection of two con&caî q<M<Mcs<ma. h order to obtain a property of quadries <matog<t<M to the property of con!cs&at the snm of the focal distances M constant. Now. due to S!r J.«!' &c. &ga4 that of on the ellipsoid we eaa obtain thé given any carve (a'. ia of use m the theory ef attractions. SMM. e'F'. Jaoobi states thé latter property as follows Take thé two points 0 and C' on thé eU!pse the extremity of the at then the same relation ~+p''=2<t which connecta axis-major. Henoe h(~etathMeofthe!atterthee«BBtactMtto–s–. The theorem <t of this artîde. 2~ <S<<<!MMe <«? pointe. plane of oiroalar section of one of them M a conic whose foci are the NBuhH'pK<ject!otN the maMHea. y. a") of a!geb)"MC equation of the pro)eot!<m that enrve on the phae ef <mcntfu'eection.

Mt<mo~M< Jo~<fMo~ ot. To~Mend easily det4re<Jacobi'a mode of ~jeneratton &om MMCaHagh'a modular pmperty. whoseaides are a. And a Mm!t<o' triangle oan be formed with ito aides ioeteaMd or dhninMMd in a mxed ratio. 198. 196) to any three pointa on the focal eBipM. let it be required to find the !ocna of a point whosedistances from three nxed points are connected by the same relation sa that which connectathe distancéefrom the verticea of a tnangle.then (Art.B'omthe three to the pointa in the principal section.CO~MCAt. p'. Conversely. 50) the relationwhichconnectathem M Bat p'–p") &c. and the distancée of the point on the mnAoe &om the three foci will be in a constant ratio to its dieiMeee &om thé Tettices of thit triangle. the dhtfmcM &om the Tert!cea of which to the point <'y~ sha!l be equat to its dbttuoea from the foci. JM) that thia property onty Mo!~ to pointa on the m«!t<~<'focal cornet. it wiU out the diteotir!e<a coneoponding to the three &Mdfooi in a triangle of invMtabte magnitude and Ngate. For if through any point on the aui&ee we draw a plane pMaHet to a etteahr section. the locM is mam&stly only of the eecond degree. by Art. m. SURFACES. Let p.the eame relation whichconnectathé distancée from the former points of any point in their plane will tJoo connectthe dMtancee from thé latter pointe of any point on thé Mn&ce. p" be the three distances.. In &et. the dititanoeftof the points on the contboalconic from a point on the eNr&eewill be eqnal to the distances of the point on thé principalplane which c<wvMp<M<& point on the Mu'&ce. t9C. p. That any of the points from which the distances are measnred M a focus M proved by ahewing that this equation Mr Townsend hallthewed &om geomettiMl eoMidet~tiom (CbmtW~w V «tMtJOxt~ Jt. e. 1M principal sectionof an ellipsoid thé thMe pointe which correepond in the eenee explained (Art.* 201. being only fanct!onB of the co-ordmate* of the 6rst degree. and in fact the pointa in thé planey whieh correspond to any point <V<' on an ellipsoid are imaginM'y M etaly appeMa from the formula of Art. . to any point in ita plane. Mr.

the du'ect!on-cos!neB the perpendtcnlar to the plane of theradius vector and the perpendicalaron the tangent plane. 15. But this br~supmtotwouiMgmMy&ctom. where 8 m the Mnitety amaH epheM whose centre is this point. tt ia rM[a!red to pmve that the result of makingp'~ 0 !n the preceding equation M the product of two equations ef the &'st degree. Then the direction-cosines f thé radius < contact are a'cosa &'cos~ o'coe'y «i vector to any point of ~p'<y)y ae easily appears by substituting in the formula (Art. &M<M ~e&'jpOM~of COM&tC< ~p~M)k Let a. Now these projections bemg constant for a tystem of confocal saï&cea. (<<~) cos'y Ms<t. 8S) cos<t'for a!'and solTingfor cos<t'.therefore. In other words. we findthem to be where ia the angle between the radius vector and the peppendical<u'. of this tnangle on the coordinate planes are (&<) c<M~ cosy. we learn that for each a eyeteat. Now the denominatorM double the area of the triangle of which the radius vectorand perpendicularare aides.M6 CMtMCALMJKPACES. But that result is where ia the angle opposite« in the triangle a~c. Fonamg then oof)<t'=' <* of by Art.bepo!nt we are dmcnsstngîe a &ooaof the modular kind. M of the fbrm ~S+M<. M~MMM~~M~M~p~M~O~~MC~ <~ M <t of <MK~CCt&. 7 be the doect~on-tmgtes the perpendicular on of o the tangent p!ames.BhMnngthat<. (<t'-y) coaetcos~. both the plane of . Double the projections.

Seeabo C~ade~J9M.p. The Mc!pfocal a systemof confocalsnt&ces of Now the latter equation denotesa system of quadrics passing thmugh a common curve. The reciprocal system is therefore inscribed in a common developable. Many of the c properties proved in this chapter for confocal MM&cea an be denved as particular CMeaof properties of snr&ceainsenhed in a common developable. 208. 170. M7 the triangle and tte magnitude is constant.. If then CM be the perpendicularon the oeries of parallel tangent planes and PM thé perpendicularon that Nnefrom any point of contact P.. one which haa doublecontact with the imaginary cirele at infinity(Art. and Arts. p. 182.the tangent planes to which toach ail the eon6)ca!s.CONFOCAÎ. 122. 1S5). Compare Arts. and therefore the loeu of P ie a hyperbola of which C~f is an Mymptote. it followsthat throughany point on a focal contecan be drawn two imaginary planes which will touch every confocal surface. MIM'ACES. and we thus aee geometricallythe existenceof this developable. t«& . Secrn. ~6!<~otM<&<. 397.m.* Since thé tangent cone from any point on a focal conicie one of révolution that is to say. 176. one qnadrio of the System being thé point aphere a~+y'+~'c'O. we have proved that the plane and the magnitude of the triangle CPM are constant. The imaginary circle at infinity and the focal conicsare all double limeson this sor&ce. And we can atao see that it ia the same aa the developable generated by the tangent planes to the sartaoe whiehpasa through the tangenta to the imaginary cirde at infinity. and QtMW~J~~ Vol. The actual equation of the developableia obtained by fonning thé discriminant with regard to of the equation of the oomocab.

erelore an t e lUS curvature <t = ~. x.o But if 6'om thé centre we let fati a perpendicular CM on tha tangent plane. the right-angled triangle OMP ia similar to JHM and ~B PB a' And the radius of carvatnre is pt pt whioh waa to be therefore a. a normal <ec(t<Mt madeat <M~ be point on a quadric its ~t radius of CMnM<Mye point is e~MNt~ <!< <&<!< to M~C/3 M the MBtwMM)te<ef on parallel to the &'<Me the «c~MK the tangent of <MMf the centreon <&< ~p~MM. The general theory of the cttrvatnre of mrfaces will be explained in Chap. jp M<~ pMy<Nj<CM&M'J~'<Mtt <OK~!< plane. but it will be convenient to state here some theorems on thé curvature of quadncs which are immediately connectedwith the aubject of this chapter. p p If the cirele through PQ have its centre not on PB but on any Une P<S"making an angle with JRS. .P~ g JPÛ* is But if the point approach mdenmtèty near to QP is in the limit equal to ~JB.. p. 296. nB. Q having ita centre on . and if we denote CP and the central radins parallel to C~ by c' and ~3. the only change FO* is that the radins of the cirde îa being ~till on the plane drawn throngh Q paratld to the tangent plane at P. let a plane throagh Qparallel to the tangent plane at P meet thé central radius CP in JB. 0F CUBV~TUBE QUADRIC8. which see. and if F* be the other extremity of thé diameter <X~ then (Art. 70) jRB. Let P. Sproved. We repeat the followingproof by the method of infiniteshnata from CMtMa. and thé normal at P m then the radius of a circle through thé pointa P.158 COttVATOMQU~MtïCS.~P' (= 2a'R) a" 3j3*J'B j8' J°R = 0 therefore QJB' = <t and the radinsof carvatUM= 'r. <? 204. Q he any two points on a quadric.

Of 169 Theradimaf cm-vatmeM BntJRS'evidenHy~JRS'oM~. be then the rattU of curvature by the Mcttom ~=0. by the theory of conics. F p squaresof the eemi-axes of the section by a plane parallel to thé tangent plane (Art.MThis proYM that the radii of curvature are proportional to the of the parallel aemt-diameters a central section. The equation of the section . mM~a~ by oos9.–I~L. SOS. It Mproved(CbM~ p. 172). the terme of highest degree remain analtered. <e'=0 are J! y if Kspecttvety-r. thé radins of curvature at the y If then the equation of any quadric. The same may be proved by aNBg the equation of the quadrio transformed to any normal and thé normale to two con&cahae axes (Art. the plane origin M="~ of a!ybeing a tangent plane. 806) that if ~!B*+8& <y+2~=0 0 be the equation of any conic. the radins of curvature of that sectionwhich contauN the perpendieular on thé tangent plane Mthe same is the form of thé radiua of every other section. And of squares ince.These theorems may abo easily be proved analytically. ThemdSofc<!rvatnMofthe secttonaby the planes <f==0. jpû* therefore coa~ or <~ value for de MxJ~M eMtx~MM o/' ~M~!M~~&<~twMM<~a~M~Mc~~e~MM~ <ee<<Mt <&w~AJP~. and the equation becomes jy tr ThesqaaresoftheiBteKeptsonthefHdBofœand~a. equation be transformed to Bat the paraHelaxes through the centre.CCBVATUNB QCADNCS. vu!. 0 y=0 m n Thennmeratorsaw the s M'eMSpecdve!y–~L. 188).

. These maximum and minimum values are called the ~MtM<~p< radii of cnrvatnre for that point. and the sections whose traces on thé tangent plane are parallel to the asymptotes of that hyperbola will have their radn of carvatnre infinite. It appeara from (Art. 204. which makes an angle 0 with the axis y. that at any point on a eeH(f<!<! guadrio the f<K?MM CMfMtMfS of a tMntM~ section &<M <tmaximum and minimum value. and thé sections to whiclr they belong are called thé principal sections. The codBdent of y* will then become an /1 But this coemcientof ia evidently the square of that semidiameter of the central section. the direction of thé convexity of sections on one side of one of those lines is opposite to ~at of those on the other. 206. as we know aheady. they will be right Unes. The intersection of a qnadrio with a combcat is a curve snch that at every point of it the tangent to thé cnrve is one of the prin-' cipal directions of curvature.t60 CCBYATURB QPADB!C(). In the case of the hyperboloid of one sheet the central section is a hyperbola. y sm~+fi!coaC for y and < and then making the new ~=0. the of <RMe<«MM the <ec<«M! ~eM values M~ paraliel <o<&e < for and aa!M-M:'MM' the central MotMnby a plane <t!BM~M~of parallel <0the tangentplane. Such a cnrve is ca!led a line of ourvature on thé surface. It follows from the theorem enunciated in Art. 171) that the principal secdons contain each the normal to one of the confocalsthrough the point. that is to say. In passing through one of thosesectionsthe radius of carvatnre changes sign that ïs to say. OP made by a plane making an angle 6 with the plane of y is found by 6rst tuming the Mtee of co-ordmatearound through an angle C by sabsttttttingy coaC–~ e!n~.

To find its equation..v!z. 318. &maybeworthwhile etttethe precem which to theelimination by WMe~Mttd! 1 M .the locus of all thèse centres M a sorface of two theets which is càUed the Moj~ee of ceM<~M. e' mtts~ the equations Sobstttatmg for <c*in terma of a: by the help of the hst article. We can ako hence 6nd. but thèse have been just provea to be the tengths of the pnndpal radii of eorvatnie. and at distances from it = (Art. &e. IhM~pM&mMdt~~mm~ &ma~g~mtheK~M~M7~m~~ VoL U! p. 176. OP 161 207.CUBVATUME QCAMtCS. 176).~ The smf&ceis one of the tweK)h degree. If at each point of a quadric we take the two pnacipal centresof cnrv&tnre. we observethat the co-ordmates<c'. we get the equation ofthemmfMeofc'iHitMS. 7!eojMW)c~MJoeM~et~e«HXt<<<~<tM~t!M Me<<M~<M< «<? regard <0<&! <M < <!Mt)M'«?)&<« ~M ~&NM wMe~pass tih~M~~the ~CMf contact. Mtd writing for a". we obtain the follow ing two eqn&ëons: Theeo equations express that all the centres which correspond ~pM~<m&&M~o~~mMon~e~MmM~M~&r~M& If we &MCM~M~ËeomABU~mM&mofhMqw~M& elimmateA* between thèse two equations. a*-A*. and 808. For these pôles lie on the normal to th&t plane (Art. by Art. the co-ordinatesof the centres of the two principal cu'dea of corv&tnte. 176).

this conio bemg a double Ime on the surface. 209. and of a conic (it will be found) three Hmee over. betweena cubie and a quadratic equ<tt!cn. one of the principal radii of curvature at any point on a principal section M the tadma of curvature of the section itself. <~ j~ & But fhrther. From the &rmnhe of Art. the other of the third degree. . The section by the plane at infinityis a!soof a mmihr natare. viz. Im faot.t62 CU&VATUBE OF QCAONCS. inatead of a* in this lad equation. 307 the co-ordmatesof thé correspondmg centre are a: -T– y'. they are thé potes with regard to the focal conic of the tangent at the point a:y to thé principal section.which ia of the s!xth degree. The other )t~)M of curvature oorreapondingto any point in the aection by the plane of a:y !s as appeam from the formtda of Art. We thm get three y aad linear relations between P. sinee c is an axis in every section drawn throngh the axis of e. We can Me& pn<Mtthé nature of the sectionof the oar&ceby the principal planes. The locus of the centres will be the reciprocalof the principal section. wMe the right-hand aides of the other two équation: are got by writing in tara. and the locus of the centrea corresponding is evidently thé evolute of that section. The elimination ia thaa teduoed to e)!minatMn whioh Mpmet~cabiB. 204. that is to aay. The section then by a principalplane of the sur&ce (which is af the twet&h degree) condsts of thé evoluteof a eotuc. those eoeSciente are eonnected by two Mtat!otN. one cf the second.taken with regard to thefocal conic. fînee these quantitiea are MeN<i!enta of a biquadratio equation which bas three roots equal.

C will be atM tho reciprocals of the mtetceptB made by the tangent plane on the axis.CORVATUBE0F QUAMïCS. It will appear &omthe general theory of the curvature of snr&cea.P&HM Ct<n!M. M2 . may be the co-ordinatesof the pole of the tangent amce. The rec!proca!sof the interceptawhichthe tangent plane makeson the axes are given by the equation But it !s evident (as at . 14) that p. if the equation plane with regard to the Bpheïa a~-t~+<=!. <~+~+<{'= 1 being iden~calwith that of the tangent plane. 163 210.B%~ .to be explainedin the next chapter. be understoodto be eo-ordinatesof the rectprocalsurface. that thé tangent a is plane to either of the con&c&l ar~cea through <c'y'<' ~bo a tangent plane to the surface of centres. The t~WMaï of <j~«M~tce of eeK<Me a «o~ace & <<~e~CM~iO~)'<M.

For if we conaider the points of thé cnrve of intersectionwhieh lie in any hemisphere. Thua then a spherc-cMne may he regarded as anatogooa either to an eBipseor to a hyperbola. and if we look at either of the hémisphèresinto which this plane divides See M. When the cone ia of the aecond degree. many . CONBS ANDMHBM-CONiœ. o and<MM~f<it< J~ of !*tedby PtotiMtM ef GtavM. the eorve of eeo6on M called a <)pAew-cotMe. IF &cone of any degree be eut by any sphere. 183T).other.the analogy between them and correaponding pcoperdes of comcebecomesmore stnkmg* Stnctty speaking. whose centre is the vertex of the cone. One of the principal planes of the cône meets neither eurve. &ûm Dublin.( 164 ) CHAPTER IX. 211. the intersectionof a aphere with a cone of the <t'°degree !a a carre of the aa**degree: but when the cône M ooncontnc with the ephere. the curve of intersection may be divided. A cone of the second` degree evidently Intenecta a concentric sphère in two sanihu* closed ourves diametricatty opposite to each . the cnrve of section will evidently be suchthat the angle between two edgesof the cone M DMMttMd the arc joining the two eotteapontUng by po!nta on thé sphere. the points diametricaByopposite evidently trace out a perjteetlysymmetricat carve in the opposite hémisphère. either ef wHch may be regarded as analogons to a plane carve of the M*~ degree. wbkhtheNMmdattMM ofthe theetenM thieohapter m aretaken. atating many of By the propertiea of cones of the second degree as properties of sphero-conics.ChMte~e Memoh Spheto-wntM on in (paNMMd the Sxth Volume fthe 7hMM<M<&<M ~«!<tt)My J~yMM&. in an infinity of way~ into two aymmetncal and eqnal portions.

we see a dosed ourveanalogous to an ellipse. M. 80 again. o. ON..S. if we ohoosefor co-ordinateathe einesof the per. pendioobm PM. an~ on them let M perpend!calM'e jHt~ PN &'omany point on the sphere P. But if we look at one of thé hemiaphereainto whioh the sphere ia divided by a prinoipal plaue meeting both the opposite corvée. it is easy to see in like mannerthat the equation of a spherica1corve in saeh co-ordinatesis only the . Gh'atres's tMna!at!<mofChadea'aMemo!ronSpheM-<iomcs. TheMperpen(~calN'9aMnot. A 165 the sphere. weMe&carveconsistmg of two oppoaite branches like a hyperbola. meet that plane in points m.CONB9 NBSPHEM~CONtCS. 212. hooM~MMofcc'-Md!C natMMtytwogre&t oircles OJS'.equal to the opposite sides of the quadrilateral OJMRy. But <?M.asim plane oo-ordmates.and thé reader will findan elaborate diacM~on of dus system of co-ordinatesin the appeodm to Dr. and therefore it would aeemthat there in acertaîn!&titmdea~!m!b!emoarMlecdoncfephencalcootdînatM. 240). Chtdermamiof Cleves bas chosen for oo-ordmatesthe tangents of thé mtercepts 02!~ ON (see CreUe'e J~tHM~ VoL VI. according M we ohooae for co-ordmatea the perpm~M~Ml~wt~m~~b<M~6~vM~th~ make on the axes.OM are the tangents of the arcs OJM. OFintemectmgatnght angles. Itiseaay to see however that if we draw a tangent plane to the sphere at the point 0. . and if the lines joining thé centreto the points then ÛM. be the Ca!'tesianoo-ordinateaof the point p.p. The properties of epherical corvée have been studied t~DMMN~q~mM~q~MMde~M~M~e&mMdondM m<~<~ Cartes~ o<W(K!mates. 0<twi!l JM. Hence the equation of a sphencat cttrve m Gndennann'e system of eo-ordinates !s in reality no&ing but thé ordinary equation of the plane earve in which the cone joining thé sphencal carve to thé centMof the sphere is met bythe tangent plane atthe point 0. The cnrve of interaecdonof any qaadnc with a concentric t~heM ia evidenûy a apharo-eonic. PN.

which is the sine of thé tpheneal arc têt Ml perpendicnlarfrom P on the great ciro!e AB. then B. And <t-~ a+~3 denote arcs forming with e. ~9a harmonie penciL It may be noted here that if be thé middto point of an arc AB.166 CONES 6PHEB<~CONM& AND equation of the orthogonalpro)ec6on of that curve on a plane paratlet to the tangent plane at thé point 0. ia a point distant from A' by 90°. let a. each is equidistant from the other two points of the system. a-i!j8 dénote ares fonning with a Thus. j8 be the équations of any two planes throngh the centre. Conversety. of 2] 8. the resatt will be the length of thé perpendicalar from P on that plane. again. however. 5S) a– A~ denotes a gréât oMe sach that the sine of the perpendicular arc from any point of it on « is in a oonetant that is to say. if two correspondingpoints of a harmonie system are distant from each other by 90°. For if we join these points to the centre <7.A'.CA' is the internai bisector of the angle ~C~ and therefore CB' muet be thé externat bisector. the fourth harmonieto . than &om the equations of any of the plane curvea into which they cam be projected. It seems. Thns. and J!. . ratio to the sine of thé perpendicularon a great cirde dividing thé angle between a and /9 into parts whose aines are in the same ratio. whieh may a!aobe regarded sa the equations of the gréât cirolesin which they meet thé sphere. then (as at CMt«w. to as tbat thé properties of ephencat enrves are obtained more simply and directly from the eqaations of the cones which join them to the centre. By the hetp of this principle thé equations of cones are interpreted so as to y!etd properties of sphencal cnrvea in a manner pMeieelycorresponding to that med in interpreting the eq~tatioMof plane curves. a– & and ~3a pencH whose anharmonic ratio ia p. p.and meeting thé aphere in a gréât circle ~J9. Let the co-oNtmates any point P on the sphere be snbstituted in the equation of any p!ane passing thmugh the centre (which we take for origin of co-ordinatee).

M in plane triangles.CONES AttD SFHERO-CONtCS. 214.then. 54./3=<yevidently represent thé three Msectors of the angles of the triangle. The arc (tsin~+~8sinJB-ysm<7 passes through the three points where each a!de is met by the arc joining the middle points of thé other two. one of ?<t'!=)M~c:t!Y wh!oh pMeesthrough each of the vert!ce9 while are thé mies of the triangle formed by connecting the pointe where each of these joining lines meets the opposite sides of the given triangle. as at CbK«M. then aa/+tM' denotes the great oirde having a! for its pole.4. 0 be the angles of the triangle. Y denote the three mdea. 5A. 167 It !e coovoniontako to mention here that if <c'y'<' the be c<Mrdmateaof any point on the sphere. and hence that the intersection of . g~nd if .=. 218). p. We can now !mmed!<tte!y apply to ephencat triangles the methods<Medor plane triangles (C~«a. so will the perpendicularsfromthé vertices ofthe secondon the sidesof the first. it is easily proved that as in plane triangles a cos~ = cos~t<=y cos<7 denote the three perpendiculars. Thus f if a. It is in &et the equation of thé plane perpendicularto the line joining the centreto thé point a!'y'<s'. or. and passing through its middle point. The equations e:.'=j8 amJS='y sinC. meet them. again. aad ~t+M~+M-y passes through the intersections of correspondingsides of this new triangle amdof the given triangle.). The three bisectors of sides are a smJ. perpendiculaKfrom the vertices of one tnangle on the sides of another meet in a point. It remains tme. denote three lines meeting in a point. and since one is the middte point the other mnst be 90°diatant from it (Art. It follows from what bas been jast said that the point where asin~+~8smJ9+'ysiaC meets any side is the pole of the great circle perpendicular to that side. /3. it passea through the point on each side 90° distant from its middle point. that !f the p. for Ctsin~i~sinB meet y in two points which are harmonie oonjagateswith the points in whioh a. &c.

vis. The equation phunîy aosertathat the produet of the aines af pef~ pend!cnlam ûorn any point of a sphero-conioon two of its tangents is m a constant ratio to the square of the sine of the perpendicularfrom the same point on the are of contact. 81~) that the product of the sines of the perpendiculars from any point of a aphero-comM two aides of an inscribed on quadniaten)! is in a constantratio to the product of aines of perpentScttlam on the other two mdea. p. while /3 passes through having the edgea of contact. S16. t&e<h~mohperpand!<adMe. that the anharmonicratio of the four aMSjoining four fixed points on a sphem-eonic to any other point on the carve is constant.<~ a+~+c'<y aho<tM perbe ~ for peadMa!ar ia easily foundtrom this by sttbtttMntimg a.having e and <yfor tangents. And from this property again may be deduced. p. y their expMMtona term of a~ e. The resolt !s exaetly the in BMM for the corresponding ae casein the plane. or as denoting a epheto-comc. the ciroumecribing oircle is thepe!eofthe ae!N~+~a!aF+'y~n<X the centrer gM<tte!rc!e 216. we either as denoting a cone may consider the equationay='<M~* e and <yfor tangent planes. Imlike mannerthe eineof the Me perpendicniM <Mt+~+<) to and passing through a given point is found by sabaHtatmgthe o co-OKtiaatee f that point in oM+~+ey and dividing by the root of square 8M. Passing now to eqaations of the second degree. and ~3 for their arc of contact. precîaely as at C~MMw. In uke manner the equationa'y~~M assertB (see CiMtMe. is Ot'ip+t'y+c'~ ehouldbe pcrpetMticatfH' mani&stty <M'+M'+«!0.:? CONESAND 8PHBM~<!Ot!tC6.thatistoMty. ln I!~e manner ahnost all the proo& of theoreme . The condition thttt <Mr-t-6~+. The conttitton that two gréât drctes <!?+ ~y + <w.

xv. coniomake eqaal angles w!th the ama joining that point to ` thetwo~oL .) apply eqnaUytoepheK~cm~ee.that. 217. 141) it wu proved that the cyclio planea of one cone are perpendicular to the focal Imes of thé reclprocal cone. If any great c!rcte meet a apheM-conic two points in then ~Fe=J3~.the locnaof vertex is a BphM'o-comc~ <yc!icaroa of which are the great <aM!ea the for their polee thé exh'emîtîesof the given base. GIventhe baMof a aphe~cd tt~oagi~and the product of cognéeof mdes.JS~.CONESAND aPHËBO-CONIOB.XïV.&eeqM~enofthecomMofthe form a)'+~'+<6*'='ta~ (Art. If then the pointa in whieh the focal fines meet the sphere be called the foci of the sphero-conic. BeciprocàUy. Il represeat the planes of drctttar aeotioa (or c~c!tc~!tHMe)ofaoone. as in the !aat artM!e. If «. and the cyclic arcain points This ia deduced &om the property of the last artide in the same way aa the oorresponding property of the plane hyperboIaNpfoved. Every property of a spherc-cornccan be <toaHed by conmdonDgthe Bphero-comcformed by the cone reciptwat to the given one. which interpreted. Thus (Art. Q. chaps. Or.ehewa that the productof the aineaof perpend!cnlam&omany point of&6phero-con!c on the tw')<yd!e am is constant.$9). 169 respeeting plane conica (given Ctm~. again. The ratio of the aines of the perpendicalars from P and Q on a ia eqnal to the ratio of the e!nea Bat theNnesof ofperpendtoa!M'a&om<j'andjPon/ P and~ on a are in the ratio theperpendlcal&ra&om amd therefore we bave e!n~P:s!n~ NnJF: einAQ am-B~ mnjR~ whenoeit may easily be in&Medthat ~Pe. 218.the property estaM!ahedm this article proves that the product of thé sines of the perpendicnlam let fan from the two foci on any tangent to a sphero-conicis constant.the two tangents from any point to a sphero.." The having form of thé equation shewsthat the cyd!c area of aphero-conica BManalogoueto the asymptotesof plane coaica.

From the fact that the intercept by the cyclie arcs on any tangent îs bisected at the point of contact. 220. Bat considering the triangle of whicho is thé base and and B the base angles. For if we ca!t the intercept of the tangent c. 218 ~Ieanith<tt<~FM<MM~*<<ay &t<tj)~<<'a<pZt<w~MMO &&M~M~M~ M~W~&~MM&W<CM~ Thia o~<iOK<(M<. 218) with a'~+~ot* which isthe fourth harmonie to the cyclie arcs a. . T!& <t!rectty The &rm of this equation shewsthat the tangent at any point is constmoted by joining that point to the intersection of ita polar (axc'+~'+M'. 217 or it may be obtamed from the equationofa tangent.218). 297) p. M!~ &!ecye?M p. the sines of the perpendicalars on a cyclic arcs and ~3are respectivelysin~cs!n~[. Beciprocatly. sec Art. it M equidistantfrom these points (Art. sin~<s!njR. 219. and the angles it makes with the and B. thereforejS. This may a!so be in~Med trigonometricaUy from the fact that the prodnct of sines of perpendicnlare on the cyclie arcs is constant. Since then the given point is 90' distant from its harmonie conjugate in respect of the two points where the tangent at that point meets the tydic arcs.170 OONESAND 8PHB!tO-CONÏCa. 294) that et'ay tangent to a apAet~-cMtM ~M'aM a <tMw 6'«tM~ of CMM&M~ or a triangle the snm of whose area.is ghren. !t may at once be inferred by tho method of in&titesima!s(see CbMM~. As & part!cn!ar CM$of the theorem of Art. B~M~~<~<Mm~Mj~M~o/~t~ ~y~M~Me~MMCMeM~M~ Or the same may be deduced by the mBthodof m&utesunats (see C~M«w. But 0 !s given. /9.the half snm of thé angles. the lines joining any point on a sphero-conio to the two foci make equal angles with the tangent at that point. then by spherioattrigonometry. base angles is constant. and the line joining the given point to their mtersection. theorem may alM be obtained by the me&od of m&oi~Nma!9 from that of Art.

then the «tm of the focal distances i< constant. the equation of the locne M In orderto prove that the planes a and/9 are perpendicular to focal lines of thM cone. a" be two planes perpendicnlar to each other and to a. 171 tfum the theorem that the foesl radii make equal angles with the tangent at any point. if we mtNtitnte ita supplement for one of the angles at the beginmng of thie article. a'ta"* of a point on thé section from we see that this dMtance is in a from the line in whieh jS-a oosa Here again we can Me that a spbero-eonio may be regarded either M an ellipse or hyperbola. Then Nnce If then this locus be eut by ts the square of the distance the intersection of «'a". it is oniy necessMyto shew that sections parallel to etther plane have a &etNon the line pe~ pendiootarto it. eince we have a~cos~. and therefore pasang through the line which we want to prove a focal line. the focal dMtMMejh)m the diamttnefttly oppodte point.ag<nn.* 221. we ahould have the <f~MtMe of the focal distances constant In like manner we may oay that a ~MtaHe tangent mekes wîth the eyetie atM angles whose differenoe is constant. The equation ooB(p~p')c:ooB<t May be written If then « and ~3 denote the planes whieh are the polara of the two given points. Thus let a'. . If we ehooM for foci two point* wilhin one of the clo<ed ourvet in whieh the cone meett the aphere. But if we Mbttitate for one of thé focal distances FP. and constant ratio to the distance any plane parallel to a. Mtok that the sum of its distaneea from two nxett points on the sphere may be constant.CONESAND SPHEtKMJONMS. The focal lines eMh evidently meet the sphere in two diMnetticaBy oppoaite pointa. then since JF"P IW jRP. Convereely.we can find thé Io<MM a point of on a sph~M.

For if Z. Thns <~ ~Mw&M< «5<!t of tha aMMs the <tN~&t «My~<KeM<M' a ~pe~~oM~ of of makes <0t~ tha plme of CtM«&M' MC<«Mt eMM<<!H<. We eee thm abo that the général equation of a cone having ~e!imea~&ra&caHimeisofthe&)rma~+~'=(o!f+&y+0!)'. ~<~ oM!<<M)ce «MM~oMt~OBt oertaind'M~!<!m o~<~e 222.the point a'a" beiag the &etM. a quadrilateral ia equal to the diffemee or enm 01 the retnaitottg two. From thé properties just proved for conea ean be dedaced properties of quadnoa in general. and the form of thé other shewathat that cirde oiMmMcnheahe qnadrilaterale~Zif t the &eat rad!i to any two points on a apheroRedprocaHy. A~M~~MMMMœea~M~~t~ayM~ & ~tcett of <&< <!? tha NMM J~<~ or angla <e7K<!& ~&tKC For Ma&M w&&<J!e <ec<MM!.172 CONESANC 8PHENO-CONM9. since the focal lines of the asymptoticcône are the asymptotes of the focal hyperbola. ~[t~ <Mo <MtM<~& MMe< o~eSboo~ Mtfour <~ <<Mye~ lie ~ow& to~M& on a c~<!&. the M For is parallel to an edge of the asymptotiocône whose generator <arca!aj sections are the Mmeaa thoae of the surface. it followafrom Art.Z~f is identical with The latter quantity représenta a smaU cMe. conic form a sphencal qnadnhteMdin which a sm&H orde cam be inacribed. of thé section. Again. having the Mmepoloae B. TMtNneiBtherefoMthediMetnx McntbythcMmephae. 98) given jp&MM<<!?<(&?' o/' one axis of a central sectionite plane touchesa cône concydio . 228. (Art. 820 that the mm or dMerence N constant of the angles which any generator of a hyperboloid makes with the asymptotesto the focal hyperbola. From this property again may be deduced thé theorem that the snm or dKSH'eneef the &cal radii is cono since the differenoe aomof two oppositesidesof auch or Btamt. Henee <~8-. but this mast be identical with <~=a!'+~*+e'. <e'+y'+)!jB*. wheBceagain it followa that thasineof <~ dSM&MMe of <Myp<w<< <? <f~M-«Mt& ~M <!J~C!M W a <!MM<<tM<to ~e <MM & ratio a arc. the equation of the sphero-conio may be written in the form JMf=jB*. ~f be two tangents and 2! the chcfd of contact.

we bave M~~M~MM~W~M~H~Mmb~<~<MM~ <Z<!ea<MJ'MC<MK M pWp<M~MM<~ <? t~j~M&<C< ~~d~eM&WM~&F~M~ <i~ eMM 224. for of in terma of the given MOB. OB' each a t.MO. the mtetcept made by thé outer . OJ9'. and therefore the pKsent theorem ibBovBttefnee&'mArt. If a' be less than OA' Ma between But OB. and a iBhatf the dMa-enceof BOA'. Hence. Md (if a' be greater thon b) a !a evidently ha!f the aum of the angles BOd'. Il be the axes of any central aectîon) making angles C'with the cycUeplanes. J~O~' whichthe plane of the sectionmakes with the cyc1ioplanée. Î79 with the given quadric. We get an MpMas!on the Mm or ~MSaf~nce the angles. We mw (Art. if a'. Théo the planes containing theee ï!mea <m<tperpen<KcaIa. We obtain the cy~cphneeby « Meeting in that section som-diametem OB. Now if we draw any se~UMetef~'BMMt~MtMtgb awithO~wehaTe Buta* MohvMnsty tmaxMoftheMctMnwhtchpaœea through it and ia perpendicular to the phne of the tigare. coBmdMmg principal Mothe by tîon c<mt~iBgtheg)'e<tteatand!ea6t)Mtes of the quadric.rtothe plane of the figure are the cyc1ic planes.CONES AtfD smNMMXMMCS. 818) that given two ephoM~omo! having the same <yc!ic arcs. JS'0~ ! thia aam or <HSeMnces the eame for all sections having the same mdB.

thé only dMEsTence in the inter. Again. 226. we have o<)t~at=l–<!0f"<t'–cos* &o. these tangents are equally inelinedto the tangent to the outer at that point. RecbprocaUy. But if a. and if tangenta be drawn to the inner from any point on the outer. p. tion ofthe tangent is t t 1 j .(aee C<«w.that tangent euta o~ fromthe outer a segment of constant area (CMtMt. 22& ?b Me locusof M<e!'MC<MH <<tK~K& of <WO ? o <pi5eM-eoKM outat ~A< angla. they Mm thé relations cos'a"+J?c<M'+CcoaV=. 77). and it is so that ït was obtained by Dr. <!t"~8"'y".174 ANDSPHERO~OXtCS. There&)re adding the two precedingequations. 294). if two ephero-contcahave the Mme &)ci. Graves (aee hia translation of Chastes'a Memoir. 'y be the direcdon-cosinesof the line perpendicular to both. cos'a'+~eos'+Ccos'y~O. ThM ia in other worda M~M~ to find the cone generated by the mteraectMnof two rect!B' W* S* angniar tangent planea to a given cône + + = 0' Let the direction-anglesof the perpendicatars to the two tangent then planes be ct'~y. &cone concycUcwith the reciprocal of the given cone. Hence. is problem pretation «f the resalt. by h)&ntea!ma!s. CMfE9 on any tangent to theinner ÎBbisected at the point of contact and hence. 831)be a:'+~==<' where <=<M!+!y-)-<?. S97) the excesa of the anm of the two tangents over the included arc of thé inner conicia constant. Let the equation of the aphero-conic then the equa(Art.0. con&càt with the reciproctd of the given cone.p. p. To ~M? the &C!M ~'<& of ~~ye!!<MMf&!rj~OM <Mt tangent. Thia theorem ia the l'ecîprocal of the 6rst theorem of thm article. by the method of Innnitesimate. The work of thie <X<j~Mo~ <t ~XeM-eMtM <Xe as question is precisely the fMune that of thé corresponding and in plane comcs. we have for the equation ofthelocoa. the envelope of a chord 90*in length t8 a apheroconic.

6 C the angles of the triangle of réfrénée. of If we want to get a MktMmbetween the perpendîcatam from any point of the aphereon the planes represented by a. and there&te denotes the imaginaty cirde which is the intersectionof two concentric epheres. The equation in this form reprettentsa relation.Cc08<7. whieh M only a transformationof that of Art. . we have evidently onlyto multiply the nght-hand side of the precedingequation by y'. identîcal relation satisfied by thé perpenan dicakrs from any point.y. 136).CONESAND SPHEBO-CONïCf). -t-2~yainJ9mnCco9<!+8'y6{mnC6!n~co8&+a<t~Nn~B!njScoao =l-CoM–C06'.between the suMB the arcs represented by a. the imaginary circle at infinity (see Art. ~8. But this question we have implicitlyanswered already. that is to say. and that equation in «. 'y will be the transformation of the equation a~+y'+<=i~. . It remains then to Mk how the three perpendicularsfrom any point onthree fixed great circles are connected. the equation will be the aame M a~+y'+~=0. for the three perpen~McIaKare each the complement of one of the three distances from the three poles of the sides of the triangle of référence. Hence. 62. t75 is not.B-COtf<7-3c08~COS. c be the sideB. M et p!<NM. the aines of thé perpendiculars on the aides from any point are connected by the followingrelation. y jd. If then <!t. then /9. it appoam that if we equate the left-hand aide of the preceding equation to zéro.

j8. This equation enabteous to nnd the equation of the aphere inscribed m&ghnsn tetfahedrom. The sine of the distance of any point of thé cMe &om the polar of the centre ia constant. Thé equationof a ama!lcirde (or right cone) !a eaaîy expressed. if etbe that polar the equationof thecMe is e~==coa'~ (<c'+y*+~. A 228./?. doublecontact with the same conie.-y.176 CONBSt ND 8PHNM)-OONM8.y. the perpendicularson them 6om any point will be <<<< TheeqaattonofthesphetCM theretbre 829.& parallel to ft. AHsma!!cMes then being ~ven by eqn&tiotM the form of their propertiesare al! cases of thèse of CMucshaving ~=~. be Let two circtes <8" . whooeiweeafu'e If through the centre tbree planes be drawn «. Hence. The theory of invariants may be applied to smaHc!tdes.

we can get the relation between two circles inscribed iB)and oreuNMcnbed about thé aame spherical polygon. and secr secf' 8m2). andt8e!therjP=Oor~="'±/. tanf'. the corresponding relation for circtes on a sphere !s obtained by substituting for r. tanr. )' 2). thé invariant the distance the inscribed M given by So. Thus the condition that two ch'des in a plane ahould touch is obtamed by forming the discriminant of the cuMc cqaation. The equation of any BmaUcircle (or right corne) in trilinear co-ordinatesmuât (Art. 177 where D is the distancebctweenthe centres.COXE6 &St) WHERO-CMttCS. relation is fulfilled 0"=4AO'.227) be of the &)rm X . if two circles in a plane be the one the other c!rcumBcrIbedabout the same tnangle. in like manner. 280.B'-2j~ The distance therefore between the centres of and c!rcnmscnbed circles of a spherical triangle the formula inscribed m. if any invariant relation betwecn two ctrcleB in a plane is expressed as a funetion of the radit and of the distance between their centres. which gives for between their centres the expresaton Z)'=. The corresponding equation therefore for two circles on a sphère ts Agam. Now the corresponding vainesfor two cMes in a plane are Hence.

v!z.)t'y-<tam. .178 CONESAHfDSPHEBO~ONtCS. ence. !MtTe&[+<K/3-t. this represents the polar of the centre of the circumscribingcirele. Substituting thM value.B-t<yfimC'. the equatioo of the 8m&!l ircle becomes c The equation of the inscribed cirele toms out to be of exactiy the same form as in thé caae of plane triangles.Mwas H proved be&re.~+~s!n.

281.10. which will determine n values of the radius voctor answering to any assigned values of the direction-anglesa.. BESERVtKG for & ûtture c6apter a more dettuted ex. «. &c.( 179 ) CHAPTER X. for when we obviouslyobtain an equation of the degree. The total number of terma in the equation M therefore thé sam of ?+1 terma of the series 1. The number of conditionsneeessaïy to determine a mr&ee of the M*" degree is one less than this. meana the aggregate of terma of the seconddegree. p coa'y. 'y. CM. Then it is evidentthat «. p cos~. «.6. of six. INTBODUCTOMCHAPTER. &c. aminatton of thé properties of Mr&tces m général. 8. consistsof ono term. where «. ofthree. N3 2 . or =The equation above written can be thrown into the form of a polar equation by writing coeef. we ahaB in this chapter give an account of such parts of thé gênera! theory as can be obtamed with least trouble. « GENERAL THEORT O? SUBFACES. Let thé général equation of a snr&ce be wntten !n thé &nn.

T 0 232. that is to say. 238. a double point (see JS%r~. The aec<<oa any <M~<!e made by a &Mgfe)t< of plane M a <!MM)e the &tCMty point of contactfor a <&?<&& ~X)t'M~ Every radiusvector to the surface. the origin is. we ha. If now the origin be on the surface.'=0. and if it have three double points. the plane will be a double tangent plane. Bat a second root of the equation will hep=0!f<t.ve <t. M W NMtmade by Mf. p. We have aheady had an illustration of this in thé case of hyperboMds of one aheet. and we aee that it expressesmerely that the radius vector must lie in the plane«. Noother conditionis neeeasary in order that the radius shoutd meet the eur&ce in two coincident points. Cayley:Gr~M-y'a &?! a~M)M&y. called de <()tt~e~ ~&MM. And the point of contact of the tangent plane to a qnadrio of any other species is eqnaUyto be con sidered as the intersectionof two imaginary right lines. by <~ <'gtM<tOM ?~=0. 332) meets thé sectionat the origin in two coincident points. the plane 1 TMtKmai-k. that any plane meeting a snr&oe in a cafve having a double point touches the sat&oe. an t~t*~ of tangent ~)M< the M<~C6/ and ~~M to KKM ? all in MM t~MMttMt? plane.J'%MM <~CM. is of comse a!so a radius vector to the section made by that plane.ybe connected by the relation Nov multiplyingthis equationby p it becomesjEi<!+<~+D<!=0. whiehUes in the tangent pbme. p. = 0. M3. If the section have two doublepoints. 27). and one of the Mute of the equation is always ~=0. in two right lines. From this article it follows convenety. which are met by any tangent plane in a conio baving a double point. believe.180 OEMBAL BEOR? F SCRFiCËS. . and aince every snch radins vector (Art. the double point being the point of contact. Thus we eee that in general through an o~MNMof me an point on <!<M<tCe CtM<~MtM M/&t!'<yf radii MC&VM o <P&M& MtK<&<M meetthe <M~~KM two COM<CM&K< <Ao< in ~<W!& M <0 «!y. by definition.

as in Art. meets the snrSMO a section having in the point of contact for a point of inflexion. ~nb~M~A <!MM)M«~ <M MM~~ A & ~MM~ an point 0 <0 <?MtM <tM?MM< Â~Aajh!~ <&e~meet the Mtt~ce M ~MMt&& <&~e OOMCt&K<jpCMt<N. or This snrface M a cone of the second degree (Art.<=0. 0F 181 will be a triple tangent plane. we muat not oniy. 382. 284. The degree of this corve.Mid thereforea &tHe number of planes can in general be determined which wul meet a given surface in a curve havmg three double points: that is to My. tangent planes. the tangent at wMch meets the curve . it is possible to detennine a plane which will satisfy any three conditions.. <?) anA emce every snch cone is met by plane passmg throngh ita vertex m two right l!nea. For a point of inflexionis a point. The secondexpresses that the radHM vectormnst lie in the surface «. the equation of the n'" degree whtch detennmea becomes divisible by p% and haa therefore three roata e=$. the points of contact lying on a certain cnrve tocaa on the sat&oe. <t MM~tce ~<M ~enow!'a <&<et~tM!o<s MtMt~a' It wIMabo hâve an mBmtyof aouNe ~<t~& tangentplanes. and the number of triple tangent planes will be sab}ect3of investigation hereafter. have the condition fulfilled For if these conditionsworo fnMHed.OENEBAt. The first condition expresses that the radius vector must lie in the tangent plane M. In order that the radius vector may meet the surface in tbree coincident points. two right lines can be found to Mnl the reqnïrea condîtion~ Every plane (bemde the tangent plane) drawn through either of these lines. being a!ready supposed to vamsh. Since the equation of a plane contains three constants. THEOMT BCtUPACES.

or unagmary. 285. hyperbola. point of contact. thM accoontwe shall eau the two lines which meet the surface in three coincident pointa the Mt/&!CKMM? tangenta at thé point.+M. whonmt nodced* the dinerencobetweenthesethree kinds of contact. We shall presently show that there will be in general on every surface a nmnber of parabolic points &)mHnga corve locus.182 Qt!t)B!!AL THEOBY 0F SDBFACES. 80 the section made by the tangent plane is to be considered as an infinitely BmaU ellipse. We have proved that the point of contact is a double point m the MctKmmade by the tangent plane. On p. de <?&)M~<f~. in the same section in which tt meeta the quadrio M. And it bas been proved (R~~ jP&tMCxt-Me. ia three coincident points (~Aef ~%MM <7t<rpM.and he divides the pointe of the surface. . hyperhoHc. coincident. 85).and parabolic points. Accordingly the contact of a plane with a mr&ce may be of three kinds accordingM the tangent plane meets it in a section having a node. See Dipm'sjMoe&tppeoxMtft p. then the tangent plane (or a very near plane parallel to it) meets any eur&ce M. hyperbolas. or a conjugate point. A douMe point may be one of three d!S!M'ent inda k or according as the tangents at tt are real. thia carve separating the etiiptic from the hyperbolic points. Thé existenceof these two lines may be otherwiseperoe!ved thns. a cuap. 48. This infinitely antaU section at the Dapm calls the Md<c<t<Wa. Dupin. 98) that at a double point can aiwaye be drawn two lines meeting the eection (and therefore the surface) in three coincident pointa.or parabolas. or in other worda according as the inâexiontd tangenta are real.+«~ And according as the aectionsof this quadric by planes parallel to the tangent plane are ellipses. !mag!naïy.p. stated the matter as fbUows Suppose that we confine our attention to points so near the origin that all powers of the co-ordmatesabove the secondmay be neglected. coincident. according to the nature of the indicatrix into elliptic. or parabola.+&c.+M.

Then.aBNBNAÏ. pe<t<Mthm. <?jy 287. on tha am&ce We have to aappoBe<<y* so small that their equareamay be neglected. Mut taking the linear part of the tnms&trmed equation. Knowmg the equation of the tangent plane when ~Mc~~M<m<~m~M~~Mc~M~mM~m~ MMK~&ee~n~dMtM~mt~MMatMy point. TttEOMr 0F BCBFACES. we hâve ~=0: or.~+~ or d~. or elae diïectiy by putting iB-t-a. ("') that thia h eqa!vat<t)t to the ettttement in tha text: but we do net enter into detaih bee<HMe e thttUhMa MMem occasion in pMetîce to deal with w eqnttiMMwhere < h given eïpHeMy M a fanetton of ar and y. more M<mrately. or pMabaBo point Me~diag M It wiU be&nnd !eM. Nnoethe cansecattvepoint ia on tha tangent plane. the equationof a consecutive tangent plane Nfoundto be TMeh MmetnMo expKMedas &Ho<M When the phne nf ~y h the tangent plane. or eq~to~O* 286. Hon may be written in either of thé forma iu ~')~+~')~. If the tangent phme be zaade the plane of et tMmoftheo!ht&oeb6 189 and the oqa~' ttia marnât that the origin will be an etUp~c. 68) that this eqa<)f. y+y' for te and y. Let it be required now to find the tangent plane at a point.the equation ûf the sar&ceshows that < is a quantity of the same order as the squares of a!' and y'. + iy-r $I-SI (17=0. while. either by the formula of the last article. greater th<tn. hyperbotic. or eqat! ? ~) ~–). tnde6mte!y near the origin. It M proved ptedaety ae &t (Art. of pMftb«I!c point acoordmg as JB*M l6a!. and the eqnathm of the Mt<Me i* expMSted in the tean ('t y)* w< !MW M cHipttc.hyperMIc. . <?o" ~+.

thé equation of the surface can be thrown into the form and the equation of a consecutivetangent 'e+~+&c. wc learn that a pair of a <Q. Now (<eoC~M«!Art. Two tangent Hneaao related are called conjugate <a~ea<i?. And since the lines y. which ia equivalent to making A and <7==0in the preceding equation: then the equation of a consecutivetangent plane ia <+2.B(a''y+y'<c)==0. ~OMt This in fact ia goometrically evident &om Dnpin'a point of view. t'y -y'<c form a harmonie pencil. For if we admit that the points consecutiveto the given one lie on an inSnitely emaUconic.184 Q&NNBA~ TBEOBY 0F SURFACER. and this tangent line ultimately coincidea with the diameter conjugateto that drawn to the point of contact: for the tangent tine ia parallel to this conjugate diameter and inSnIteIy aloseto it. 141)(~a:' + ~') a:+ (Rc' + <~) denotes thé diameter of the conic ~+2jS~+C~*=~ which te conjugate to that to the point a~ Henoe any <OM~eK< M plane <K<e!we<et?a eonaecutive by tangentplane in tho diameter of the MM&Ct<na! <C&M~ conjugateto (~ <~M'eC<MM & <0tP~MA conMe <eoM<t~e M <aJ!!eK. plane coincideswith the given one. we see that thé Km" gent plane at any ofthem will passthrough the tangent une to that conio. wiU be <! 2~y'y =0. In the case where the origin is a parabotic point. Take the mnexion~ tangents for the axes of a?and y.ngent plane at a consecutive point on either will pasa through the other. 238.=0. and if thé consecutivepoint be taken in this direction so as to have y'== then the consecutivetangent 0. thé relation between two conjugate tangents may be otherwise stated. Hence <&e tangentplane <!<a ~C!MfMtC ~M~< M ? lie caMK&~ as a double ~~<K< . Hence the tangent plane at <!Mfy + plane point consecutiveto a parabolio point passes through the inSexional tangent.)!~eK<9 with the tM~aCtOM!~ J~fM. o'y+y'a?. Thua then aH the tangent lines which can be drawn at a point on a surface may be dmtribntedinto paira auchthat the ta. <eM~N«~Aat~MKM CMt/M~<t<e ~CMC~. In the caae where the two inflexional tangents are reaî.

186 plane. It is eMy to aee abo that & line through the origin there meeta the surfacein three coincident points. <~o!<yA double ~o«!<on o! <M~Me a can dhttMtan t~M~ of lines MXM& <ctK<K<e< <M<~ee three <~e wt c<MKC&&t:< and these will all lie ona ccM of the <ec<MMf ?<'<?< <~ee whoseequation is =' 0. in this case it remains for an instant in the same position. For&er.~ then it is easy to aee in like manner that everyUne throngh the origin meets the corve in two coincident pomts and the origin is then caUed a <&)!<&& point. If on trans6Htnmg the equation to any point on a surfaceas origin we have not only «. for we on have proved (jBt~A~ Plane C~fMt. 239. m. THEORT 0F SttS'ACM. 4& M<!<M< ~«MM~. In other words.QMjBKAt.+&C. 8C) that the tangent limeat a point of inflexion is in like manner to be regarded M a double tangent A &!rthw analogy betwéen parabolio points and points. &om those tangent planes now under consideration where the two points of contactcoinc!do.'='0 but aho ait the terme 0 in «. of thèse linesNXwiH 1 M!eM this WM &rat pointed out. We shall therefore call the latter <&t<MKa<y tangent planes. of inflexionwill be afterwM~astated. For the same reason we have ca!iedthe tangent Unesat points of inflexionin plane curves. ~0. sinee it touchesthé surface in two coMecutiTe points. Cambridge and Dublin J&<AeVol.~+j~+~'+2J5~+S~+2j~+M. It M convenient to have a nama to d!st)ngtUBh donble wMch touch in two distmet points. the word expreMmg that the tangent plane being mpposed to move round as we pass from one point of thé surface to another. p.* In thie way parabotic points on surfaces may be cotnajared M analogous to pomte of inSexMm plane carves. p. provided that its direct!oB-cos!nea satm~ thé equation r cos* + F coa'~ -)-û coa*'y a +2Zrcoa~3ooa'y+2~rcoa'ycoac[+3Zcoa<[<!0!~S'=0. so that the equation takes the form . . st&tionaty tangents.

the lines of intetMcdonof the cône M. To a double point then on a surface (whieh !a a point through which can be drawn an infinity of tangent planés). we shall now extend to thé casewhere thé point bas any position whatever. there will correspondto It on thé Kolprocalsurfacea double tangent plane havmg two points of contact. while an infinity of lines can be 6)and to satisfy three conditions (as. or acccofding two as or more of them coincide. Every plane drawn through a double pomt may m Gne eemtebe regarded <M)tangent ptane to thé sar&ce. 241. with the cone of the third degree «. and thoir points of contact lying on a certain locu. but in a epedal aMMehe tangent planes to the cone M.. but we sMt not enter into these (tet<u!s. If however the double point be of thé spécial kind noticed at the end of the last ardcle. when «~ is a perfect square. for instance. 240. those right lines generating a certain aurface. and the sections of the surface by these planes will each have the origin as a cnsp. namely. are to be t regarded as tangent planes to the surface. The only BpeoMcase whieh it Mimportantto mention is when the COBB Teao!vestself into two planes. wh!ch will in général lie on a conic. Double pointtton saï&ces nught be dasamed according to the namber of thèse lines wtneh are real.0. to touch a snj&ce throe tunea). 29) that since the equations of a right line contain four constants. and this i «.tM &BN&RALTHEORY Or SUMACS meet thé sar&ce in four coïncident points. In a subsequent chapter we shall return to the problem to determine in general the number of solutions when four con- . for instance.a nnite number of right lines <!an be detemuned to MB! four conditions (as. The resaltsobtainedin the precedingarticles by taking as ont origin the point we are discassing. wil! in general correspond on the reciprocal surface a plane touching thé saïtace in an infinity of points. since a it meets thé Baï&eein a sect!on having a donble pomt. to touch a sni&ce four tunes). is to say. Let us Srst remind thé reader (see p. iadodes the etiU more specM CMO when theM two again that glanes <}o!nc!de.

c". The result will give an equation of thé ?"' degree in /t. when three conditions are given. and to detenmM the degtee of the mt&ce generated. \'<+~ X'M'+~'to".aBNBM. THMRY OP SCJtfACEtt. 184. whe&eron the anr&ce or not. . Andthe co-ordinatesof any of the points of meeting are ~'+~'a: xy+~t'y".B%~efT~aMC<Mn~. and an infinity of right line. &o. then the points in which the line joinmg them is eut by thé antfaee are found by enbstitutingin the eqnation of the saf&oe. .aodofdtelocasof points of contact.for y. This îa equivalent to two conditions. &t&ischapterwecoBnneoune!vesto the case when thenghtIineMreqniredtopassthroagha givenpoint. &r Xa!'+/<. while a moiteBomber of right Unescan be drawn to aatidy two other conditions. We UBo JoMhmMtal'emethod employed. AUthiswill présentno dMcalty to any reader who basmastered thé correspondingtheory for plane curves. whose roots will be the ratiosof the segments in whichthe line joining thé two given points is eut by the sarfacsat any of the points where it meets it. (forming a cone) can be drawn to satisiy one other condition. 8t.the result ofthe substitutionin questionmay be written . ~'+/<y". And. whereX' ~t' is oneof the roots of the équationof the M** degree. 47of tha volume.Ci)M< pp. p If thé quadriplanar oo-otdm<ttesof two pointe be a:y<'M'') a)'y<<o". as in plane earves. 187 ditiom are given. 61 and at p.

the terme of the nret degree. O? the eeeonA polar.188 QBNE&AÏ. Thus the Bmtpotaris and if ~<a0.s'w'bo onthe surface. m will be ~tc'0. it M manifestlysn~dent that a!'y~"<e"should satM~rthe 'y equation of the plane It ia proved then that all thû tangent limesto a sar&ce which can be drawn at a given point lie in a p!ane whose equation ia that just written. The polar <nu&ceaare got with by d!fE~en<Ia&!g regard to this new variable. By subtracting from thia equation. P' vtmiahes. both in the sat&oc <mdin the polar. 242. Ifnow the point aiy. This may alsobe eeeaby taMng the polar ofthe origin with regard to where we have made the equation homogeneonsby the introduction of a new variable w. w!Il be w. And in order that this should be the equation case. and one of the roots of thé equ&tiom X A second root of that equation will he ~==0) and the Une will meet the Bni&tcein two coincident points at the point YNush in the ai'y'tc'.. provided that the eoeaîctent of re6an'ed to. and M on: the polar plane of the same point being Each polar Mrtace is mani&attyalsoa polar of the point <cy<<p' with regard to all the other polam of higher deg)'«. TBEOBT aOMACES. the MtentHy . If a point be on a snr&ce all its polam touch the tangent plane at that point for the polar plane with regard to the surface is the tangent plane. and this must also be the polar plane with regard to the aeveral polar surfaces.

being (A'!7'. but aiso that of X~ we are considering not only Hea in the tangent plane. as before. for instance. and ayjw in the degree(tt + 2)(M 8). . real or imaginary. if not only the coefficients f X*and o that ia to my. have the coe&denta of X*and \~=0. The condition that this should be the case involves the coenMents of that equation m the degree M-8. When therefore <<'y'<w* Sxed. (Art. !7)* By considenng that term we aee that this discriminant involves the co-ordinates iey~'ie' in the degree (n-2) (<t 8). but also in the polar quadric Now (Art. one term. 241) when a point is on a surfaceall its polam touch the snr&ce. meets it in two right lines. or the equation we are considering will have for three of Ita roots /t =0. we must. The right line will meet the surface in three conMcndve points. whichare the two mBexionaïtangents to the sur&ce. and if the !ine touch the surface a second time this rednced equation mnst have eqnal roots. THEORY SURFACEft. in conséquence of wMch the eqttatton we are conidering bccomeaone of the (M–8)~ degree. ~n~A<t~<MK<<M<tM<<c<M<~<~fKca(M+8)(<t-8) M~M~ touch <M)~!oe e&e!c<!ef& <[Ht~en<< tM~ot&o In order that the line BhouH tonch at the point a:ys'<e'. The tangent plane therefore. it denotes a Nu&ce which ia !s met hy the tangent plane in (a +2) (~ 8) nght tinee. 834.) 244.GENERAI. 0F 189 243. if the line \t vanMi.touching the polar qaadno.

and it M otherwise evident that this muet be the degree of the tangent cone. 246. we see that thé points of contact of all tangent Mnea(or of all tangent planes) which can be drawn through a. by an interchange of accented and nnaccemtedletters. And since the points of contact lie ako on the given surface. 248. and (M 2)(n 8) of them touch thé surface again. The disonnunantis easily ae<mto be of the degree ta(M–l). lie on thé nrst polar. that two of them pass through threo consecutive points. Let us proceed next to consider the case of tangente drawn throngh a point not on the surface. . which M the intemectionof the BNt&ce with the polar. Thus for example. But such a plane meets the surface throngh in a carve to which K(M 1) tangents can be drawn through the nxed point. 245. Since we have in the preceding articles established relations which connect the co-ordinatesof any point on a tangent with those of the point of contact. The assemblage of the tangent lines which can be drawn through a!y<'tp* forma cône. S41). Thus then we have proved that at any point on a BM~ee an infinityof tangent Unescan be drawn that thèse in general lie in a plane.ys'M'. and these tangents are atso the tangent lines whichcan be drawn to the surface thyoagh the given point. The eqnation of this cone is &mnA forming the discriminant of the equation of by the M"* degree m (Art. their locas M the carve of the degree ta (n 1~. THEMtY OP SURFACES. and the latter songht. For thia discriminantexpresses that the line joining the fixed point to a~p meets the surface in two coïncident pointa. the tangent planes to whieh are aiso tangent planes to the surface. express that it is the former point which is now supposedto be known.making thia interehonge in the equation of Art.190 MNNtAt. and there&re a~to may be a point on any tangent line throttgh a/y~'M'. For ita the degree is the same <m number of lines in which any plane the vertex entait. which ie ofthe degree (~ 1) ~iz. wo can.

A!7''='0.GENERAL THEORY 0F SURFACES. wMch is of the < degree. there are ha!f thu number of double tangents. 1M 247. There are therefore M()t-*l)(M-2)(ft-8) points of contact: and sincethere are two pointe of contact on each double tangent. The innesdonal tangents are therefore double tangents whose . its point of contact M determined as one of the intersectionsof the given surface U. 248.the conem virtne of either contact. ~t (w 1) (M 8) (? S)of themare donMe. and also of joining the secondand third. whichia of the (M-1)* and with the secondpolarA' which !s of the (N-2)~. A*<7'e=0. that their assemblageform a cone of the degree M(<t-l): thatM(M-l)(tt-2)ofthemare and inne~donat.namely. to be the intersectionsof the given smr&oe. since they belong to. the tangent planes to the sar&ce at the two contacts. There are therdore n (<t-!)(<2) mch intersections. The mnMdona!tangents. in and whtoh we there saw contained thé co-ordinates the point of of contact in the degree (M–2) (M–8).of the nrst polar. The pointe ~M of contact of sud) Unes are proved by Art. TheM latter double tangents are also plainly donbleedgex of the tangent cône. ~n~w~A a point not «Mthe <Mr/!M6 coMin j~~M~a~ <&M<cM ?(?–!) (M-3) Mj~KBMK~ <<M~i«. If then we consider thé a:y«o of any point on the tangent M known. 844. Thus then we have completed the dMOtsston f tangent o Unee wMch pass throngh a given point. We hâve seen. Through a point tMttoa the N«)~Me MM6t general i&e <?MttOK(M-1) (M 2) (n. Art.8) doubletangenteto it. with its Smtpolar AU. that the co-ordinateB any point on an mCexional of are connected with those of its point of contact by tangent the relations 0~=0. We have ehown that their pointa of contact lie on thé intenection of the Bor&ce with one of the degree K-l. 248.and of the Mtr&cerepresented by the discriminant dMCMMd Art. however. 244. Along sach an edge can be drawntwo tangent planes to the cone. are abo to be regarded as double tangents to the Nr&ce mnoetheline paasing through three comaeeative points is a double tangent in virtoe of joining the Smt and second.

249. By mterdtumgmg aceented and ymaccentedtettem in the equation of the polar ptame. And in like manner the first polars of any threo points on a plane determine by their intersection (?–1)" pointa. any one of which is a pole of the plane.that if we take oneach radiusvector a length whose reciprocatis thé ?"' part of the sum of the reciprocals of thé n radii vectoresto the surface. and ~N(M–l)(M-8)(t!-8) double «~ that M to say. They are therefore caspidal edges of the cone. page 67). We have proved then that the tangent cone M~M~ « û/' the degree<t(M-l) bas M(K-1)(K-2) ct«p~a! e<~es. The locns of the pole of a plane which passes through two fixed points is hence seen to be a carve of the (M-l)* degree. but thé two tangent planes along any auch edge coincide. namely.the locus of thé extremity of the mean between the reciprocak of the n radii vectoreBwill be the polar quadric. 260. First. t~rom thé theory of tangent Unes drawn through a point we can in two ways dérive the degree of the reciprocal sur&ce. and let C be the point of contact of any tangent plane . then the locus of the extremlty will be thé polar plane of the point: tkat if thé point be on the surface. and through whieh points the nrst polar of every other point on thé plane must pass. d points of contact coincide.192 SENEBAt TBfEORT 0F SURFACE. any plane meets thé cone in a section having auch a number of cuapa snd snch a number of double pointa.it is plain that the locus of the poles of all planes which pass through a given point is thé Srat polar of that point. the intersection of the two first polars of these points. Consider now any two points line. It !a provedpreciselyas for plane eurves (HigherPlane CMn. We see a!so that the firat polar of every point on the line joining these two points must pass through the same curve. &c. the number of points in which an arbitrary line meets the reciprocalia equal to the number of tangent planes which can be drawn to the given mt&ce through a and B on that given line. They are <heM&)re ouble edges of the tangent cone.

to &td how many tangent planesto the cono can be drawn through any Ime AB. and for thé aamereason it lies on the nret polar of B. and ~!(~-l)(a-a)(K-8) double points is GeneraBy the sectionof the reciprocalsurfaceby any planecorresponds to the tangent cône to the original surface through any point. 183 passing through AB.the problemis to find how many tangent lines can be drawn through B to tha sectionof thé cone. the problem {s. The number of points of contact. Then since thé Une ~dC touchesthe surface. Othorwise thos: let a tangent cone he drawn to thé surface having the point A for its vertex. amdM called the dison criminant of the given qttantic (ZfMMts J8~~a' Algebra. . then every line through the point meets the surface in two coincident points. Clies on the firat polar of A. 2M. and the point ie therefore a double point. The conditionthat a ~vea auï&ce may have a double point 19obtamcdbyeliminatingthe variables tetween the four eqnationaT =0. But the dass of a curve whose degree is n (K-1). wMch M cf thé degree with thé two polar sar&ecs. then emce every tangent plane to the surface drawn through ~4 touchesthia cone. and therefore<Xe M degree of the MCtpnMo~ n (n 1)'.GENERAL THEORY 0F SURFACES. which has <t(M-l)(M-2) cuaps. &&. And it MeMy to seo that the degree of thé tangent coneto the reciprocatsurface(aa wc!l Mto the originalenr&ce) through any point is of degree n (K-l). Retnmmg to the condition that a line shoald touch a stN'&co we ace that if a!l four differentialsbe made to VMueh thé by of co-oidin&tes any point. whiehare e&chof thedegree (tt 1). The pointeof contacttherefore are the intersection of the given snr&ce. 261. or if we eut the cone by any plane through jB.

th&twhen&)tat&ce bas a doublepoint.2 times with respect to w. 283) that the Mj&ce represented by the general Carteman equation of the M'" degree will. whiehwill be MBgedon a certain carve. a 863.the firat polar of evMy point pMseathrough the doublepoint. containe the coeScientaof each in the degree (M–l)'. When the point aiV~'w' is a double point. <!hepotar<ptMMo!S Now the originbeing a parahoKopoint. dU happen not T~eM~MMi~WMM~by. 2M. the red~MdNm~M~M~~m~~mg~MM~h~eMm&~ydF double points. The polarquadrioof the origin with regard to any snr&ce (where.each of thé degree M-1. we have introdaced<cso sa to make the equation homogeneons)is &nnd by differentiating n. Now we saw (Art. in genemi. The dMemnînant being the remit of eMmina~on betweenfour équations.m~r merely to have pomtBin common. have an infinity of double tangent planes.194 ÛNjfERAL 0F SUBPACB~ TBttONT page 48). Thts car~ will then be a douMe curveon the scrfacoC~ and every point of it will be a double point. 241. !7' and AO" vaniehidenticaRy and any line through thé double point meets the saî&cein three conaecn~vepoints if it eatisnesthe equation A'P' =0. Dividing ont by (M-S)(a-8). Thepdar g«<H&T<!a jjMMtMM a of point OM <M!~t<!6 is <tcone. ~ndi repMBents cone of the seconddegree. that thé eqttaëcn !aof the form . aa in Art. and M there~re of thé degMe4 (a-1)' in thé coenicientsofthe original equation. we have seen. It!sobvi<&omwhathMbe<~6Md.&&. The ematencethen of these double corvée ia to be regaidod among the "ordinaty mngniaiitiea" of saï&cea (aee HigAer F&tMe page C%<M~. Art. 47).but to have a whole cnrve commonto all fourmr&ces.8.

?. in other words. th!s will moot the surface in the parabolic pointe. each of thé Crst degree..*]. It follows from thé tast arëole that if we form thé locus of points whose polar quadrics represent a cone.so the intersectionofa soï&ce with îts HosaMtn determines a curve of the degree la (a–2). This locus is &and by writing down the discriminantof A*P"=0. whichis the lecoa of pturabotto oints (seeArt. If a. p 266. 254. Jh thé samo manner then as the intersection of a plane cmrvewithita Heœ!an determines the points of inSemom. dénote tho second diSerentia!coefficients 'y. 288). whichwe shall catt the Hessian of the given sor&ce. and the intersection thie sorof smf&oe. &c. will &c. 0 GENERAL 1M [or. Otherwisethm) the stationaïy tangent planesto thésorfaco 02 . 238). H-t+2J~'+2~+~ planes are tangent planes to this cone. The two former planes..M of the form «~ <o. thé d!s<a'!minamt be (page 41) This denotesa sur&ee of the degree 4 (<t-2). ThepoIfM'qMdnethecM But we have seen (page 40) that any equationreprésenta a cone when it is a homogcneoasfunction of three quantities. For since the tangent plane passes through a mxed pointa îts pomt of contactMeson the polar whosedegree is n -1. It followsfrom what haa beenjust provedthat throngh a given point can be drawn 4n (n-1) (M–&) <Mt!MMay tangent planes (Me Art. and y the plane of contact. and M. detennime (st -1) (n 2) points. <P' <~ïy' b. The equationjust written thcreforo représentaa cone whose vertex is the intersectionof the three and y. face with the stn'&ce and the surface determinedin the last article as the locns of points ofcontactof staûonMytangent 4~ planes.TSEOSTF SURFACES.'==0.

New evidently aH all contain . But the number of points of inflexionona plane curve are determinedby the formula (JB~Jtef Jf%MM <~)M. y='0 in the equation of the Hessian. this line lies attogether in the Hessian. If a right line lie altogetherin a «a~Me & <otH' <M<c& Me &MMH! nd ~M)~ a ~antMM CM~Ce. dl U.j-t a! or y as a factor. y=0 in ~–my. and let us eeek the resntt of making a? and y=0 in the equation of the Hessian. thèse phnes meet it in the tangents at the points of inflexionof the section. And if we make a='0. straight or cnrved. Let the equation of the surface be <c~+y~=0. and therefore Taniah on this supposition. it reduces 1~ evident that ds d~a d~ofa when the tangent plane touches all along any line.iMs~MKtthM? Journal. thmugh any point are aiso siationMy tangent planes to the tangent cone through that point. (C~MM~~e«H~ Dublin . so as thus to find the points where the line meets `r U. page 2M). If we make a!=0. that the pointeof contact of double tangent planes lie on the intersection of the surface with one whose degree is (M–2) (H*–M*+?–12). it becomesa perfect square (~–M~)% showing that the right Ime touches the Hessian. It wiUbo proved hereafter. 2S6. VoL iv. Now evidently sm&ce. page 91) It followsthen that through any point can be drawn T double tangent planes to the surface. and if the cone be eat by any plane. where T M the number just determined. The reader .196 SNtEBAL TBEORT OP SURFACES. J=0.. ~` that snxface.

0F 25! We prooeed next to inveatigatethe earvatmreat any point on a sar&oe of the vanoua sectionswhich can be made by planespMmngthrough that point. p 258.withreg<tdtothemr&M!e <~+~. of Thua. 197 <Mmwn~tMswîthoutdi&<!nlty. Let now the equation of a sm'&cere6!rmd to any tangent plane as plane of a!y and the correspondingnormal as axis of < be and let us mvestigate the curvature of any normal eection. It fbHowB henco that the radins of corvatafe at thé origin 0 (the axes being rectangular) of y+<+8&~+<+&c. In the first place let it be prenuBedthat if the equation of a curvebe t(. thé radma of curvature at thé For it will be M~~Nt~<MmeM&rdMc~m:~+~. to8). .t=0 M n.that M of thé fteetîonby any plane paasing through the axh of e. the terms got from dMEetentlating u. s' 0.. or thia vatno cameasily be found p. 206). to find thé radius of corv&tmte the section by thé we hâve only to make y=0 m the equation. remembered that thé ordinary expressionfor the radius of corvature indades only thé co-ordinates of the point and the vahea of thé firat and second di~rentia! coeScients for that point.~O. In like manner the section by thé plane bas its radius of curvaturo ==~.CCRVATUBE O? 80BFAOE9. And in ordor to find tho radius of cnrvaturo of any .+M. directty from the ordinary expressionfor thé radins of curva* ture (B)~C!* j?%MM C~MW. and plane <c~ we get a curve whose radius of curvature is j. y=0. &c. The of f values tb&refbre the diSBrentMdoefficientsor the origm are c the sameas if they were obtained&omthé equationMt+ «.(see <X?KtM.+&o. contain powers «“ of a? and and will therefore vaniab for ~='0.+M. But if we difforentiatethe equationnot more than twice. CCRVATURN 8CMACM.

the squares of whose radn are proportional to the radil of carvatare) is a!mu!arto the indicatrix. The radii of cnrvature therefore of ail the sections of «. and that thosevalues of are given by the equation(aee CbMMs. and it was proved (p.+M. It may be seen otherwiae that the radu of cnrvatare aro connected with their directions in the same manner M the squares of the diameters of a central conic. The reader willnot fail to observe that this expression for the radius of carvatnre of a normal sectton is identical in form with the expressionfor thé square of the diameter of a central cornein terms of the angles wbich it makes with thé axes of co-ordinates. are the same aa those of the sectioaa of the quadric «. 269. that the radius of curvature is ha!f the reciprooal of thé new coefficient ofa~ that is to say. as <Xw«M. 140) p. Thus if p be the seau-d!ameter answering to an angle of the como Ac*+2~ty+ 6~='~ we have ~p'. and belong to directions at right angles to each other.198 (HP CUttYATURE aCNFACES. bave only to tmn thé axes of <cand 11throngh an angle 6 (byeabstitatmg~cM~–ysm~fM'a~Md~ain~+ycos~&ry. For we have seen that the mdii of curvatnre depend only on the terms in M. and by then putting y=0 it appetM'a beforo p. that the values of which correspond to thé maxinmm amd minimum are aiways reat..+&c.+«. we aeettoa whose phme makes an angle 9 with the plane <M. We can now at once apply to thé theory of thèse radii of curvatare all tho resolts that we have obtained for thé diametera of central conica. It ia plain that the conic.and u. 260. .. Thus we know that the quantity ~lco~6+2J3coaP9im6+ONn*6 admits of a maximnm and ~!n!mnim) ~a!ue.+M. ÏM) that these are aM proportionalto the squares of the dtameteN of the central sectionparallelto the tangent plane. 7).

and are <heyaM~d!recëomofthea~oftheM<~tnx.CUBVATUBE OB' BUMAOB8. thé d!teotions of these )!Mtiûn9 at right angles to each other. The origin iathen an «mMoc. Now thé formulaof the last article.and~=90* pfMsedmtemM~thetwopnne~n~pa~~andaf the angle which the direction of ita plane makes with thé principal planes. 387).=0. or . and dMcorresponds ing radii ofcorvature the principal )wKt. when thé coeScte&tef a!y vaniahes. p. by the formula ~r atepTenbyaqMdra~oeqn&tK)n. <M<w<t~ a <!&M~~ pair of coN~< foM~wt~ Art.atMypomtenasaï&cethe)'earoamoag~Mn<a'mat 6ectioM.~ves the following expressionfor any radiusof corvature ap'=~' oo~~+ B' sm' But evidently and J!' are the valties of ~B corresponding nenoe any radios ofcarvatoMiB exto0'!=t0. the SMM (see their Mt<Kt CWCNtMMCOtMtttMt. They plainly bisect the angles between the two Memonal tangenta. Thé &nn of thé eqaadon then ta j!!+~(~'+~')~-&o. thewa lt) Itia plain (as in CM~.aa in in the theory of oemtMl cornes. We ahaHca!l theoethe jM~c<p<tJections. Ma From the expreMMBO &!a article ve deduoeat omoe.theeamofHteMqtmnt!t!es being ~+ 6' and their prcjact J~C' When ~=~ <J1the other radn of carTatuMare à!so <=p. M 0~ < Thisfonauh(wtth théiofeMncm &om Mducto Euteï. that the «MX Mo~MW!t!t& ~<MKt CMtIXttMM <MM!M! <ectM!M <!< of 0/' C/' <tPO <t~&e ? eacho<~ <ee<MH<MM<& be and CMM<afK</ again. If we turn round the axes of m and y M as to coincide with the ditecëons of maximum and minimumcorvatore j<tst <~Mmm&hhMm~~&eqm~~y~~+&&y+C~ will take thé form ~'as*+JBy. or the imdKi&trix cu'ek. 143) that and f~.<me&rwhichtheTatoeofthetaditMofcarvatttre is a maximum and one for whîch it M& minimum. M9 Hence.

and therefore at auch a point the concavityof every section through it ia tumed m the same direction. those tomed the other way must be consideredM neg&~ve and the alga changes when the direction ia changed in which the concavity of the curve M tttmed. does not become imaginary. the aSgnof cos'~+SBcoa~Nn~+Cstn'~ remains the same for ail values of <?. when . but only changes sign. and the innexiona! tangents mark the directionsin vhich the surface crosses the tangent plane and divide the sections whoso concavity !s turnod one way fromthose whichare turned thé other vay. p f i ofthesamething. thé radius of curvatnro of any obliquesection. Ml. At a hyperbolicpoint.B* is leu than j~C.* And when we have chosen a hyperbola the squares of whose diameters are proportionalto one set of radii. Having shewn how to find the radius of ccrvature of any normal section. in term of this. that is to say. but meeting the tangent plane in the same line. we shall next show how to express. Thus we have seen that the radius of curvaturo of the normal section made by the plane o The illustrationf the Mmndtof a monatain asa~H eMMethé p howa Mt&ee in two directions ak M Mow the readerto eoneeïw may andontheother desise above The shapeofa saddle M r ih tangent lane. At an elliptic point on a sur&ce that ta to aay. It will be obsèrvedthat the radius of curvature. if the quantity J[cos~~+8J&cos~s!n~+Csm'~ becomes negative. affords anotheramniarllustration . the radius of cnrvatnre tw!ce changes eign and the concavityof some sections is turned in an opposite direction to that of others. inclined at an ang!e to the normal section.MO CUBVATURE0F SUMACS). The sar&ce in fact cuts thé tangent plane in the neighhoarhoodof the point. when F* ie greater than ~C. Now if radii of curvature directed on one aide of the tangent plane are consideredM positive. being proportionalto the square of the diameter of a central oonio. then thc other set of radii are proportionat to the squares of the diameters of the conjugate hyperbola. 262.

If we now make the new y ~0. Meunier'atheorem bas been already provedin the case of a quadric (see p. 263.+M. is the same as that of the corresponding section of thé quatMo M. He!r plane through an angle (wMeh!s d<OM eabstitcdBg by <! coa~-y mN~ fbr e Mid e sin~+y coe~ &try).CORVATMB 8UNFACB8. the normal section!a that which is leastcorved and which approachesmost nearly to a straight !ine. but etiû paasmgthMugh the dd ams ofa. For if the equations of two mrfaces which touchbe . we ehaU get the equation(st!Nto tectangniar MMa)of the eecëomby & ptaM maHag an angte imththé oMplane ~"O.. if we had chosen.+M. and th!*eqaatton will p!amty be and by the Mme method M before thé radiu of carvatore is found to be 'oTt 'S '=~oos~. of course touches the eurface. and which passes through the point whero thé normal mccts the surface.EUNIER'8 that TBEOREM. This ia M. 0F 201 NowletuatomtheMteeofyamdetmmdm ye. 159).+M. the normal section is that whose radius of carv&tureis greatest. But the contact will be of thé kind catted stationary contact (Art.0!a. where jB ia the radius of curvature of tho corresponding normal section. be made through any line ârawn in the tangent plane.+&c. that is to eay. and we might therefore.. the radius of curvatureof an oMt~Me Mc<Ma equal to the ~o~ecf&M the plane o/' <~M M on Mc<~Mt of the radius of curvature of a normal section ~MMM~tM~A the a whiehcan «MM <(H!~eK< Thus we aee that of aU oectioM 7MC. t89) when thé lengtb of the radius of the aphere ie equal to one of the principal radii. Every sphère whosecentre is on a normalto a surface. for we have aeen that the radius of curvature of any sectionof «.r. have dispensed with giving a now proof now.

(Art. 0F and it WMproved paeeMtbrough their carve of !n<emect!on. 189) vhen (~ ~t') (<7. It will be observedthat what we have proved is. The surface then f!+A)~+C~+&<=tO 0 will have etationary contact with the if sphère 2M+a~+~j!=0.-v. fept'eaenttwo snr&ces which toach. as before J~ The equation thon <tf any sphère having the same tM~ont Dianeia amdthe spheK will have atattomuy contact with the quadric if X bodeterminedso asto a&tM~the conditionthat Za:+~ -t-~& ~aUtonch . Now if we traDsfbnn the equation to any point a/y'a' on thé satËMeas origin.m CC&VjMfPMM!M'ACBS. «.+«. the axes of co-ordinates having any posMon. and the secondby a.+~+&c. &c. Theae tangents coincide. g!vea the two tangents to their corve of intersection and there is stationary contact when the plane touches the cône. of then thé intersection thé plane u. e. The primdpleBlaid down m the !<tat article enable us to find an expressionfor the vaines of the principal radn at any pomt. But thèse are 264.or ~teM is etationary contact (Art. it becomes or !f we denote the first diferential eoeSdents ty Z.. 128)that the three tenns just written represent the tangente to thé caïv~ of htemeo&m of the Mt&ees. When ~= JB' = thia conditMn impties either ~1=~' or C'=C'. that if «.6") (~ F)'. 3fa'orc' the vtJnea of the pnndptd tMH!.+&c. with the cone u.

<? 208 when the absolote term rednces to where JSTis the HeaMan. the &tMohte term must vanish. Hence one of the values of (which is the reciprocal of r) must vanish. sinoethree consecutive points are on a right line.written at Ml length Art. For since the directionsof the principal sections Maectthe angles betweenthe Mextonat tangents.one of the principalsectionscoin. 68. and the radius of curvature of this seetion is infinite. where the indïoatnx is an eqd!ateral hyperbola. when the intlexionaltangents coincide. cides with their common direction. whidt mtemecta equation the given surface in tJl thé points where the principal radii are equal and opposite: that ia to say. By equating to nothing the coeNoMntof in the preceding quadratic. We might have seen a jM'tM that for any point on the Hessian.CCRVATUBE BtJBPACM. we obtain the of a aat&ce of the degree SM-4. .

As in the iMt artide A. From thé equations of the last article we caa Bnd the radius of carvatnM of any normal aection meeting thé tangent plane in a !me whose direction-anglcaare given. and radiua equal to the radius of onrvatnro. 98. 265. For thé centre of corvatm'e lies on the normal. and also the equation And smce this equation is homogenoous.we may write for <c.!t muat touch the surface. . whieh ~TM the axes «f & MC~onof the quadric madepara1lel to thé plane Za)-tJt~+J~=Û. ==~ Hence ~V(z'+~'+~')_ acoa'a+~co~+cco~y+2?cos~cosv+2MCOf)~coM+Sxco8<!tCo~' The problem to find the mamnmm and minimum radius of cnrvatnre is therefore to mako the quantity a maximum or muummn BuMect the relations to And thu we see again that this is exactly tho same problem as that of &MUag axes of thé contrat section of a q~m~c the by a planoLx + My+?. the direction-cosinesof the line joining tho consecutive y point to the origin. . and if we deambe a sphère with tbis centre. Theqntdrat!coftM9M'tMenMghtaboh<tvcbeen&und at once by Att. and its équation is of the form The consecative point on that section of thé sor&cewhich we are comddermg sat!s&esthia equation.204 CURVATUIE OP SURFACES.

2M thould have equal roots. And thie cone most evidently meet tho plane Za!+~-t~& in thé axes of tho section by that plane. p. then the diametcr perpendicularaad conjugate is thé intersectionof the planes If the former diameter lie in a plane ~'+~'+~ thé latter diameter traces out the cône which is represented by the determinant obtained on eliminating a~' from the three precediDgequations vu:. 205 266.Mswith the one 267.CCBVATUM:0F SURFACES. one section can be drawn throngh it having that diameter for an tŒM. In like manner the problem to nnd the <ec<t!M!< of thé pnmapat sections at any point !a the Mme M to find the directionsof the axes of the section by the plane 2~ + Jh~ + J<% of the quadricoa~+6~'+o!'+ 3~+8NMa!+2M~'=1. the other axis being plainly the intmection of the plane perpendicolar to the given diameter with thé plane conjugate to it. pas9 through a~y~. Bi~Xtr ~~M. M tt p. Thus then thé directionsof thé principal sectionsare detennmedM the intersectionof the tangent plane Za! +My + . But. whoM diMtimHMnt can be MpteMed as the .* If the plane of a~ be We might Bnd the condition for an umMMe forming the condition by that thé qaadtt~tic of Art. Thus !f the central qnadrtc be !7== and the given diameter 1. 9% thie quadratio having its roots always t'e<J M one of the c!M8 diMUMed. IM. Now given any diameter of a quadnc. 2M enaMe us aleo easily to &td the conditions for an <)mb!!ic. The methods aaed in Art.

a surface oftim~ degreehMmgene~adetermmatemttmbet'cf mnbiUcs. that any point a/y'e' will be an umbUic if it ia possibleso to chooae that Elumnatmg betweenthèse equationswe obtain for an mnMI!c the two conditions Since there are only two conditionsto be eatisSed. may contain u. . r and M. 864.If therefore onlyeoMtdereat umMMM.+~e. it is possible. CPHVATUNE thé tangent plane at an umbilio the equation of the aurface ia ofthe <bna ît M evidentlypossible so to choose X (namely. temït we r the of eqM<iBf[ thediMtiminMt nothingit eqaiMkntto two conditions. We see then by transformationof co-OK~natee as in Art. We sec thns that if M. each cf wMdt represen~ a eomof sqaMM. as a factor.–Xw. to whiehcanbe moreeasilyobtained Min the text.-(-&c.+M. when thé origin is an umbilic. any touching sphère. for the two conditions.epresent tho surface. by taking it c*~) that all the terma in the remainder shaU be divIsiMe by <. so to choMe that «.206 or KUM'ACES.

it will be seen that the investigationtacitly assumesthat noneof the quantitiesZ. there are four oondMom which. ~M. we must examine directiy thé condition that J~+~& may hea&ctorin We must evidently have X<=o. and the eqatttMn of the h snt&ce.COBVATCBBOP SCBFACBS. Mme of the equations would contain inanité tenns. Combiningthen with the two conditMMNere found. And what we have proved in thie article . if so.wemtMtha.haveo=~whue addition mmeethe terme aM<M!+2<M!y be divisible by mnet ~+~&. however. ~'+cj!f-3HC~ whence vo nught conclade that thé 0=* eat~ce Z==0 most always pasa throngh umbilicson the given surface. so that if L nocessanlypassed tbrough mmhmcs woold follow by transformation co-otdma.ve~!&t*=jMt.testhat it of the&'stpoIarofoM~y point passes throngh nmhiUcs. Now it t8 easy to see geometncallythat this ie not the case. 268.~ N whichwe have nsed vanish. Z<=0. since. If we clear of &actiona the conditionsgiven in the last article. exoept in spedM of cases. every pomt <~ whieh would be an umMMo. M:beMFe. cannot be ea~s&adby the co-ordinates any pomts. They appear to be satisfiedby making Z==0. It mayhappen however that the surfaces represented by the two conditions intersect in a cnrve wMchUes (either wholly or in part) on the given sat&ce. On referring to the last article. lu auch a case there would be on the given aniiaco a Une. it wiU bo found that they each contain either L. or jV as a factor. Snpposing then L to vanish. and it is then eamiy seen that ~'+cM'-8MOir m we mast. 207 combinedwith the equation of the given sor&eo déMM&ee. There M one case in which the conditions of the last article are not applicable m the form in wMch we have written them. for L is thé polar of the point yxte with (or -y-) respect to the surface. termine a certain number of points. Such a line ia called a Une of ephericalCM~M~fM.

263. 287) That thcse may be Identioal. < 269. is that thèse &ctors may be snppremed as irrelevant to thé question of mnMMca. whose radius is eqnal to one of the principal radii touches the snr&cea in two consecutive pomta. Erom what bu been Nud we caminfer the nmnber of ambSies whioh a surface of the ft"* degree will in general poMeM.* We now proceed to draw aome other in&rencesfrom what was provcd (Art.. C 'y 'M ° 7<t te of the degtee t md d'. In thé the degree of the curve wonid prêtent tMe ~-Stt-4. Subtmcdng thereiore from the numberjoat foud 3(M-1) (3<t 4).CB*.tr&cea imdudes the curve dd' of thé degree ~t which does not lie on the surface BC'. But we have aeen that thé ayatem we are diMUMin~ineludea three Ottnret such as whieh do not pMathrough umbilics. Bat the mteKection of theee two «. and interMot in a curve of the are degree (<-Hn)*. tFXeK aM~MM two have <<a<t<M<M~ contact. then ~JB' ~C'.we musthave whieh is the condition for stationary contact. B'. The equationacf the two sar&ces being written as m Art. and thete&Mthat the numberof mabiMcs in general K(10tt'-M<t+M).~<y <o«c~ <? <MO C<MMeoM<M)e points.CM* each of the degtee t+M. 263) namely.M8 COWATUM! Or 8CNFACE6. B. . that the two principal epherea have stationary contactwith thc snr&ce. We have seen that the umMica are determlned as the intersection of the given surtaoe with a curve whose eq~Mt!oM aM of the form Now if ~i. <M°2~-a md aeem to be 19«* 46a + 28. The degree therefore of the eurve in question is <*+ &M m*. therefore. The sphère. C' of the degree M. we see thtt the ambilicaare detetmined asthe iatetMttxmof the given Mf&eewith a curve of the degree h (10~ ?? + 16). thé tangent planesat a consecutivepoint are (Art.

of <~ 270. In surfaces tho normal at any point will not meet the normal at a conaecutive point taken arbitrarily. 209 or two consecutivenormals to the surface are aise normalsto the aphere. On accountof tbe importance of thistheoremwe give a directinvestigation it.CHRVATURE0F SURFACES. Bnt we aee hère that if the ctmsecotivepoint be taken in the of thé A!rect!om either of thé princ!pal Mct!on~ two consécutive nomMb will interseet. and consequentlyinternectin Ita centre. 2b ~t~ Mt !0%e< <!<M« normal <t< ~<M'M<a OK any K ~M~M& intersectedby<!consecutive Ofma~Take tho tangent plane for the plane of a~. intersects the original normal.at right angles to each other. making J3=0 p . And these directions are those of the two principal MctioM at the pomt. Now wc know that in plane curves the centre of the cirele of curvature normals may be regarded as the intersectionof two conmoutive to the curve. Taking for greater simplicity the directions of the principal aecttOtMas axes of co-ordmates. 260) whieh determines thé directions of maximum and minimum eurvature. At any point on a surface therefore there are two dirocttom). auch that the normal at a consecutive point taken on either. that ia to say. and their commonlength will be the correspondingprincipal radius. and let the equationof the surfacebo Thé <t!rect!on therefore of a consecutive point whose normal meets the given normal is detennined by the equation But thM is the same equation (Art.

~=: <&c ear&ce has the extremity of the given normal for a double point. to t pNpoftional (C-~jt) Mn2«.or y't ~t 0. if « be the anglewhiehthe o directionftheMMecaiive makes ithoneoftheprincipal w is point tangente.tV} cr. will be of the third tion a!=~-?"t OKC <~ degree.Whena c 0 m' a 90°.y. Thus while every normal immediatelyconsecutiveto the normal M. the two tangents to which are the two principal tangents to the snr&ceat that point. and the umbilic is a triple point on the curve locus. n M<them of the curvature Mt&cM. aloulatea i of c normal iththe planecontaining the anglemadeby the consecutive w the a normal nd theconsecutive a'V. .=0. the normals at wMchmeet a mxednormal which we take for axis of Making <e=!0. thoMofatan~enttmepetpendMalaTtothei'adiMteetoraMpMportionatto theaetwolines. a!'s=0 intersect the axis of e at distances respectively <==~. ~=0in the equation of any other normal we see that the point where it meets the sur&ce must satisfy thé condition The cnrve where this ani&ce meets the given . while eomMof the consecutive to 2<y. normala correspondingto the pointa ~=0. The apecial case where the nxed normal is one at an cmbilic deservesnotice. The equation of the aarCMe being of the form iB-)-~(a!*+~)+&c.<proportional (C-~). whence it la easy to see that thé w ence is that the Ad a G. Bertrand.his anglevanKhea i and the coneecntive normal s in the planeofthe original notmat. the lowestterms in the equa= when we make <!=0. Henoethe eo~neof the anglebetween theaineofthe anglewhieh consecutive the normal akes m withthenormal i to eeetion. in the precedingequations.)/.210 CORVATURE0F SURFACES. We may abo arrive at thé aameconclusionsby seeking the locas of pointa on a sar&ce.* 271. <=='~C. Supposing the d!teesti)l original point sections be axesof co-ordinatee.the eqnation of a consecutive normal becomes––i=S–~e=8~ = 28. to tions of the principal thedirectionnormalare proportional &<<. The intercepts thereforeon a normal by the two consecutiveones whieh intenect it are equal to the principal radii.

A very good illustration of lines of curvature is anorded by thé case of the sar&cea generated by the revolution of any plane curve round an axis in its plane. we may go on to either of the two consecutive points j~ N' whose normats were proved to intorsect tho normal at M. there are threo directions along any of which the next following normal will aiso meet the normal at the umbilic." 124. is due to Monge. these eut at right angles and arc touched by the two "pnncipal tangents" at 3~ A line of curvature wiU ordinarily not be a plane curve. A ~'Me of e«!'M<'<e* on a surface is a line traced on it Bach that thé nonnats at any two consécutive points of it intersect. is the generating curve which passes throngh P. For thé principal section must be normal to the surface.CUttYATUBE OP SURFACES. The corresponding principal radius at P is evidently the radius of curvature of the plane section at the same point. Hence. &t. The normal at again. or. M intersected by the consecutive normals at two tho element NP being a continuation of the points P. In like manner wc might pass from the point P to another consecutive point Q and so have a line of cnrvature 3fMP~. Thus starting with any point ~f on a surface. and being in one plane. and even in the special case where it is plane it need not coincide with a principal section at though it must touch such a section. ambttiea. su at the umbilie meets the latter nonnal. while the element JMP' is approximately perelement J~ pendicular to it. P2 . and the line of curvature may be oblique. See hn «AppUeation de t'Ana~'se A la CMom~trie. 272. The other line of curvature at P is the The whole theory of HnMof eurvature. But we might evidently have pursued the same process had we started in thé direction MN'. in other words. Edition. they intersect. LicaviUe's p. at a&y point Jtf on a surface can be drawn two linea of eurvature. At any point P of such a surface one line of corvatare is thé plane section passing through P and through thé axis. For all the normala to this curve are abo normals to the surface.

while. Gïegoty's &)?' 6~MKe<fy. <&. for the radins of the circle described by P (which.212 CURYATUBJSSURFACES. . The generating curve which passes through P is a principal section of the surface. the projections of that element npon the three axes being <&c. and thereforemtersect each otber. !s an oblique sec~on of tho surface) is thé projection on that plane of the intercept on the normal betweenP and the axis. The mtefoept on thé normal between P aad the axis is plainly the second principal radius of the surface. as we have seen. for thé normals at all the points of this section evidently intersect the axis of the surfaceat tho same point.'y be the coordmatea of a point oommon to two consecutivenormals. 266) that the direction-cosines f o the tangent Uneto a principal sectionfulfilthe relation Now tho tangent line to a principal section is also the tangent to the line of cnrvatnre. The second principal section at that point woold be the plane section drawn through the normal at P and throagh the tangent to the circle described by P. 0F cMe which is the section made by a plane drawn through P perpendioularto thé axis of the Mr&ce. if <&be the element of the arc of any onrve. ~8. It was proved (Art.cos~ co6'y in the preceding < Mnmuat ThM equation may also be 6)tmd directiy as follows (see p. 256) Let et. ds for coea. y. 278. and we have just proved that this intercept is the radius of curvatnreof the correspondingnormal section. The example chosen serves aiso to illustrate Mennier's theorem.it is evident that the coeinesof d the angles which <& makes with thé axes are -j-. The dMbrent!alequation of the Une of curvatnre is therefore got by writing <&B. since it contains the normal and touches a Uneof curvature but the section perpendicular to the axis is mota principal sectionbecause it doesnot contain the normal at P.

206). actual substitution. we get the Nune reMita M if we di~or rentiate the precedingequations. we have *e. EjMwmg as we do that the lines of curvatnre are the intersections of the dlîpsoîd with a aystem of concentnc quadrles (Art.considering<~ M conBttmt. then expreasmg that e<y ft&tMesthe equations of the second normal. <&<~+~<0. <~+~<~+~f=0. by the equationo of thé normal. we have thé Mme determinant aa in Art. viz.<°~=~ or if we call the common value of these &actions we have But if the second normal meet the surface in a pomt<B+<& y+< ~+<&. if a~ be thé point where thé &~t normal meeta the BNiAce. it would be easy to aeNimefor the integral of this and to détermine the constants equation ~a~+~*+(&='0.CCRVATCBE0F SURFACES. If we Msmnenothing as to the form by of the integral we can eliminatea and da by the holp of the equation of the surface. 866. <&?+Z<~+MZ<=0. and M get a dMerentia! equation in two variableswhich is the equationof thé projectionof the Unes . from which equattona f)!m!n&t!"g dd. 2M Thon.

cinqai&meM~noîre. tv.214 CURVATUHEOF SURFACES. and < each pair a&o tM<g!'«c< right anglea at <%eM' next <!<MMMM<tM C<MKMM< then <Ae<?:')'ec. of curvatnre on the plane of xy. in the present case. M!<ef<ec(M<M<Xe are directions of the lines o/'eMfcatttfc on each. 263. Take the point common to ail three surfaces as origin. Otm~-t%<JM<~«<M««M~ .tMM~ the of point. multiplyingby and redudag by the equation of the eU!pso!d and its dt&reNtta!. 274. The theorem tbat confocal quadrics intersect in lines of curvature is a particular case of a theorem due to Dnpin. &'are connectedby the relation It ia not dKEcntt to see that this coincides with thé account given of the lines of curvature in Art. 206.* whieh we shall state as followa If three ~!<MM MtMtect at at rigAt angles. Vot. Thomson: see Gregory't t8MMCMm<<ry. have we or the limesof curvature are projacted on the principal plane into a aenes of comca whoBeaxes <t'. Thé demoMttaW tion here givenle by PM<!eMor . p. p. Thue. <KM<nM<. 82. and '~e titrée rectangular tangent planes as co-ordinate planes.. then the equations of thé surfaces are of tho form Dêvdoppements de Géométrie.

&'=0.JV* N the direction-oosinesof their lïno of intersection are proportional to J)CV-3f'~ ~L'z.thenthetMfe)'<ec<t<M surfaceste!M~Myto d'~reKt & <Mt each. t!fis o&oa line o~ curvature Ma OK onthe other. <='~ wherea' N very ama! The consecutive tangent planes are Fonnmg the conditionthat these ehoatdbe at right angtes and only attending to the terniswhore is of the 6tst degree.& &"each eeparately=0. and thé three equations cannot be fulfilled nnleaa we have &. in order that the other pairs of sar&cea may eut at right angles at a consecutivepoint. we most hâve a:==0. Proceeding as in the taat article. must. we must have ~'+y=0.JM. jM'. If two M<)~)!!CMat right <t)~r~* and if f~' w<e~out section line of cMM!a<«Mone.whenceif & 0. L'. we have6+y='0. in which caM the form of thé eqnationashows (Art. have5 +&':=0. and taking the origin at we any point of their intersection. it !a/by hypothesis. . == Otherwisethus the direction-cosines f the tangent planes o of the two eorfacesbeingproportionalto Zf. at each point of ey<<eMS a line of c<<MM<tt<'e !t. in order that they may eut at right angles. . that thia intersection should bo the directionof a line of cnrvaThisiaalsotïueif theyeutnt anyconstant angle. that ~(~e lie <~Me s~s<e!!M q/'ott~Mes. For.CUBVATPBE SURFACES. 0F 21& At a consecutive point commonto the Smtand second surfaces. 275.possibleto drawa third snr&ce eutting both at right angles. and in order Zjtf'Z'if. Hence followsthe theorem in the form given by Dapm namely.suchthat every~Mr~ce one of cut at right <Mt~M all «~ surfacesof tlte o~e~ t!oo by ~<<em~ of tm s~teMs. &"+&=0. y='0. In like manner. 260) that the axes are the dtKCttonsof thé lines of curvature on each.

The locas of points where two consecutive generatore of a developable intersectis a curvewhose properties will be more fully expkmed in the next chapter. we must have the coadttion foMM (Art. for it joins two coMecutivepoints of the gent cnrve. If then we consider the surface generated by aU the normals along a line of curvature. and whieh is called the C!Mp«M edgeof that developable. 75) stnco two consecutivegenerating Unesintersect. Each generator is a tanto this carve. by definition. through that point can be drawn two Unes of corvatate . A Une of curvature is. the points where the generator in question ia met by thé preceding and by the eacceedmggenerator (see Art. 278) but this is the conditionthat the Une of intersection shonidbe a line of curvatoreon the secondsurface. p. 276.216 CUBVATUBËOF SURFACES. thia will be a developable surface (Note. auch that the normals to the surface at two consecutive points of it intersect each other. namely. H9). The developablegenerated by the normalsalong a line of curvature manifestlycuts the given surface $t right angles. Consider now thé normal at any point Jtf of a stM&oe. tore on thé ~Kt surface.

D. is the caspidaledge of the developable generated by the normals along thé first Une of curvatnre while C'D'JS"ia the cnspidal edge of the developable generated by the normals abng the second. 0' which are the two centres of carvature corresponding the point M. 0F 217 JMKP~. to What haa been proved may be stated as fbtiows: The caapidd edge of the developablegenerated by thé normala along a line of curvature. it cannot be inferred that their plane touches the surface. touches these curves at thé points C. And since the point C in whiehthey intersectis on .JF'. &c. drawn two conaeoitive tangent lines to a surface. 208). be Now if from a point. and yet the plane of thèse Unes Mpposed to toueh thé surface.CURVATCBE SNBfACEf). not on a Barfaeo. lies normal to thé given surfacetouchesboth sheets of the Every surface of centres for it haa been provedthat the normalat jf touches the two curves CDE. The normal at J~ as haa just been explained. C' answering to all the points of a surface is a surface of two aheets caUedthe ~Mj~tce centres(see Art.&c. 277. D*. for it is a tangent plane to thé cone whioh is drawn from thé point touching the surface. and those at JM. The aasemMage of the centrea of curvature C. are also tangent lines to the surface)intemectonthe is not carve.: let thé nomals at the pointa JM. ia the locusof one of the syatema of centres of curvature corresponding all thé pointa of that to Une.&o. V'. The cnrve of ODE liea on one sheet while C'JO'JB' on thé other aheet. intenect in C. For if we eut the surface by any plane whatever.J~ these are' both tangents to both aheets of thé surface of centres. of course. JE. But if two consécutivetangent Knesintersect on the surface. (Jonaider now the two consécutivenormala at the points JM. Jf~ &c. JMyjP' &c. C'D'JF'. then it is evident that thé curve J CPJS. in C'.JP*.and every tangent Ime to a curve traced on a surface is abo a tangent to the audace.N. the plane of those lines ia manifestly a tangent plane to the surface... any two consécutivetangents to the curve of section (which.

the surface of centres bas a double point.the plane of on the two normals is the tangent plane to the second aheet of thesm&eeofceotMs. and if the original surface have a Une of spherical curvature. It is plain that the géodésie is ordinarily the shorteat line on the surface by which thé two points can be joined. hence.218 CCRVATCBB or BOBFACES. Hence~the <<M~eat~&MMw «o~ace of oentrea <cthe at the twojpMM~ M~e CHynormal Mee<< eut each <~<?'. a line. The two sheets willcet at right angles every where along this doubleline. For the bene&t of those who would pte&t a purely geometrical proof 1 add one or two in thé text. 119) at any point is normal to the surface. it followsthat those two planes are at right angles io eachother. formed by the thread. A geodesic line is the form aœumed by a atramed thread lying on a surface and joining any two points on tbe surface. by pnUIng at the ends of the thread. The plane of the nonnata at the pointe JK. lies in the plane of those elements. mnce. the mechanical principles whieh it involves being so elementary t)Mtit seeaM pedantio to object to the infodnction of them. Now the resultant of thé tensions along two consecutive elementaof the curve. in other words. the surfaceof centres will have a double line. the amt sheet but not BecemafHy the aeeond. For Mttdere&nt!!iM with the theory of maxima and minima it M MMeetyneceMary to add that . and since it muât be deatMyed by the resistance of the surface. &'Mon a 878. It ia convement to define here a ~eod5MM and to estaMIsh the fondamental property of such sorface. that tts oscnlatmgplane (see Art. the two sheets of the surface of centres have a point common or.N' is the tangent plane to the other sheet of the soï&coof centres. Me plane of <MO of <&Mc cM&!aM normal <o the MH~ce. But hecaase thé two lines of curvatnre through M are at right angles to each other. c<~)' at y~~ <a~ It is manifestthat for every umbilic on the given surface. namely. we must shorten it as much as the interposition of the surface will permit.* c tha 1 have followed Monge in giving thu proof. it is normal to the e&MeH<e Me ~e~<MMecM«M surface. t!f.

0 21& The Mme thing may abo be provedgeometnca!!y. It followsthen that if J~B and BC be consecutive elements of a curve traced on a surface. Now the plane containing two consecutiveedges is a tangent plane to the cone. if two pointa ~i. The geodeaio however will alway<be the shortest line if the two points oonaidered be taken satncieot!). J~'C.B'. 262). VoL t.near. C in dirent planes be eonnected by joining each to a point B in thé mtemecHonof the two ptanes. the sum of AB aad BC will be lesa than the snm of any other joining lines . 186) that this fundamental propcrty of geodemcafollows at once from Meunier'a theorem (sec Art. For it is evident. p. by Cayloy. t. the remaMn~ portion of that great circle. that curve will be the shortest line connecting A and 0 when AB and BC make equal angles with J?~ the intersectionof the tangent planée at and C. AB and BC becomeone right line since the angle TBA ts anpposed to be equal to fJSC. By which is the tangent plane at The theoremof this article is thus estaHished. if ~& and BC make equal angles with T?". xni. the excess in length over the chord is eo much thé leas as the radius of curvatnre is greater. p. cited M.. if we conaidertwo points on a sphere joined by a great circle. ThM. CMeeding 1800M a géodésie though not the shortest Une connecting the point!. ?3. thé mtemectionof the planes. it followsthat the plane ABC (the oscolatingplane to the geodeHc) is porpend!cnlarto thé plane AB. Md the right line ~4<7 !s the shorteat by which thé points A and C can he joined. For if one plane be made to revolve about TT until it coincidewith thé other.. In thé firat place.OBttVATMEF SURFACES. . that for an indennitely small arc the chord of which !a given. Bertrand haa remarked (Z~'oMOtNe. The shortest arc there&re joining two a geodeMcneed not be the abMhttety shortest line by whiehtwo points on the surface may be joiasd. We see then that -<tB (or its production)and BC are consécutive edges of a right cone havmg JM*for ita axia. and since every tangent plane to a right cône is perpendicnlar to the plane containingthe axis and the line of contact. QuarterlyJournal.

<!)~0. We have given the equations connectedwith Unesof eurvature on the supposition that the equation of the surface has been given. For we aaw (Art. Aa it ia convenient. We usethe ordinary notations <b*=~<&!+~y. and we have seen that tbis is the normal section. We might derive the reaults in this form from those found ah'eady.MO CURTATCBE SURFACES. on a surface M that which bas thé greatest radins of cnrvature. viz. <=s<&!+<t~. that the reader dtoald be able to findhere the fbrmulœ wh!ch have been commonlyemployed. 277) whieh !s the locusof pointeof !ntep. for since we have !7'='~(a'. whenthe equationof the surfaceis in the form e == (. section cf consecutivenormala along a line of curvature M a geotksMon the aheet of the surface of centres on whichit lies.~).y. in the form ~(<c. we shallconclndethis chapter by giving thé principaléquations in the fom given by Monge and hy most subséquentwriters. the plane of two consecntive tangents to this carve) ia the tangent plane to the secondsheet of the surface of centres and !s perpendicularto the tangent plane at C to that aheetof the surface of contres on which C liea Since then the oscolating plane of the cnrve ODE Malways normal to the surface of centrea. 1 say that the curve ODE (Art.however. The equationofa tangent plane is .c. We ahaU. <~=f<&!+~. 0F inde&tMy near pointa J?. repeat the investigationsfor this form as they M'a msuaUygiven. 280.y)–~='0. the curve is a geodesioon that sm'&ce. as it ordinarUyis. 279. however. we have with correapondingexpressions for their second dîSërentM coeScients. 277) that the plane of two consecutive normalato the surface (that H to say. Returning now to the surface of centres.

CURTATURE0F 8UBFACEB. Ml This eqnationdéterminesthé projectionson the plane of xy of the two directionsin which consecutive nonnàb can be drawn 80 as to intersect the given normal. From the oqu&tîoMof the preceding article we eau also find the lengths of the principal r&dS. The equations <&?+jp<&!=('y-<s)< <~+~'=(<y-e)< when transformed abovebecome as . 281.

Then aa beforethe tangent planes through JtMf and through ~f~f' make equal angles with the plane 3fM*Jtf". 847) that if a I!ne of curvatnre be a plane curve.c't-go~s'O.~CMW'. Vol. More generallylet tbe line of curvature not be plane. 278 becomes<&:<t~< But we have alsa ~. p. H JS Et!mn)Kti!)g given by the équation 282. its plane makes a constant angle with the taagent plane to the surface at any of the points where it meets it. then y-ar by the help of thé last eq<M<ion. that along o line tAe<:<!)T<t<tOH angle ~<MMM <<tK~e!tt in <~ the O/'CMtTX~MM plane to <~e~M<Ceand </5e<MCM&t<M!~ to curve Mequal <~ plane <~e the<tpo angle &e<MMM oecaXt<M:~F~a<Mi). con0 + g* constant. 0 will be atso equidistant fromthe same éléments. XL. then the two consecutivenormals are two perpendicatarato these lines passing through their middle points jf. 87) Let JMf'. Vol. It is provedthen that the inclination of thé normal to the plane of the line of cnrvatare rcmams unchanged as we pass from point to point of that Ime. V(l+F*-)-f) Otherwisethus (see HonvIUe. . Thns we have Lancret's theorem.X<M 222 CUBVATME 0F SUKFACE8.p. 3f~ But if from C we let Ml a perpendieutar CO on the plane . ~tf~tf' be two consecutive and equal éléments of a line of curvature. Let the plane be e=0. and therefore the angle CyO==(XfO. then the equation of Art.. XXX. But p' +q' M the seqttenHyjK~-)of thé tangent of the angle wMch the tangent plane square mates with the plane icw: since cos'y=-Tr-s–r.Mf. And evidently the angle whieh the second tangent plane makeawith a second osculatmg plane Jtf~f'~f'" differs from the angle wh!ch it makes with the nrst by the angle between the two oscnlatmg planes. From the preceding theorems can be dedaced JoMbimsthaI'stheorem (see C'fe&. and C the point of meeting of the normals is equidistant from thé Unes .

For then the angle between the t&ngent plane and oseulating plane does not vary. 283. to obtain the radius of corvature of any normal section. FinaUy. we have this AmdBinee relationholdsfor three consécutive points of the section which is oaculatedby the circle we are considering. if a line of ct~~atMw be a ~eo~Mt'c<<must &eplane.CCBVATURBOP 8URFACE8. Since the centre of curvature a~*y Ues on thé normal. 275. From the Mnne prineiples we obtain a simple proof of the theorem of Art. being aiways right: therefore the oseulating plane itself doesnot vary. we have . 228 For exemple.

Thus. ~)=0 0 obtained by etimmat!ag x between the given equations is of the MM"'degree. IT waa proved (p. 284. . CURVES AND DEVELOFABLE8. whichmtersect in M. ? points. the aur&ceswhich they a representare met by any plane in curves of the same degrees. namely. By eliminating the variables alternately between the two given equations. The degree of a corve in apace ia measuredby the number of points in which it is met by any plane. we obtain three equations whichare the equations of the pt~eetions of the carve on the thKeco-ordmate plmes. 24). SECTION PBOJECTIVE 1. For !f we draw any plane through thé vertex of thé cone [or paralld to the generators of thé cylmder] thie plane meetsthe cône m f tmes. The curve PT' is therefore of thewtM~degree. 13) that two eqaatMns represent a carve in space. Thus thé eqo&tloBS 0. Any one 'of the equations taken separatelyrepresents thé cylinder whose edges are p&ra!Ielto one of thé axes. ~= 0 reprosent P= the curve of intersection of the sur&ces V. MOPEBTtES. And it ia also geometrically evident that any cône or cyHnder* standing on a curve of thc degree M of the degree. thé lines joining the vertex to thé points wherethe plane meetsthe carve. The theory of elimination ahows that the equation ~(y. A eytmdaf plainlythe limiting M ceaeof a cone.( 224 ) CHAPTER XI. and which passestbrough thé carve (Art.wheM vertexit at ia&ttty. if C~ Y bo of thé M**nd n" degrees respectively.

Now since the only factors of 3 are 1 and 8. these cylinders being each of the f"' degreo. hichordinarUy nota planecurve. but snch a line could not meet either quadrio in more Can-esm spacewhiehare not planecanres have cemmoalyeen b caUed"cunea of double eaMatm'e. ia Q .if we are given any curve in space and desire to reprcsent it by equations. a cnrve of the third degree cannot be the complète intersection of two surfaces nnleas it be a plane cnrve but the curve we are considering cannot be a plane cnrve. two cônes having a common edge. use the word 1 to a cuïvx" dénote eurve space. for the prqecdon on the third plane of thé extraneous curve in whieh the first two cylinders intersect will be different &om the projection of the given curve. must consist of the oommonright Une. and of a cnrve of the' third degreo.<!)=0. not merely in the curve we are considering but in an extraneous curve of the degree y'–)'.which is in general of thé fourth degree.we need only take the three plane curves whieh are the projectionsof the curve on tho three co-o~dinateplanes. in w M and1 add the adjective "twiated" hen1 wantto ttate exptesdythet w the curve Mt a planecurve. And if we wish not merely to obtain a system of equations satisned by tho points of the given curve. 0. conversely. The intersection of these surfaces. Now. Bat ordinarily these w!!Inot formthe simplestsystem of equations by which the curve can be represented. and for no other. ~'(<a. then any two of the equations ~(y.* for if so any arbitrary line in its plane would meet it in three points."in what~Bowa. It may be possibleby combiningthe eqnations of the three projectionsto arrive at two équations &== 1T=: which shall 0. for example.)=!0. x(~y)'=~ represent the given cnrve. 225 28o. Bat it is not generally true that eMry curve in space is the complète intersection of two surfaces. we must preserve the system of three projections. For if r be the degree of the curve. as. but a!so to excludeaU extraneous points. any two intersect in a curve of r' degree that is to say. consider two quadrics having a right Une common. be satisnedfor the points of the given corve. To take the simplest example.FK(MECT!VEPROPERTtËB0F CUBVE8.

are the &Kt differential eoe~cicnts. section of two surfacesU. If a curve be either the complète or partial inter. The d!rectMm-cos!nes thisélément of orduMttea < and the équationsof the tangent are are therefore T 's Since the eam of the squares of the three cosinesare equal to mti~. 886. the tangent to the curve at any point i8 evidently the intersection of the tangent planes to the two surfaces. F.«5E'+<t< We ahaHpostponeto another section the theory of nonntJtL KnHlof corvature. and therefore could not pass through three points of their curve of intemeotton. the projection of thé tangent !ine to any curve !s the tangent to its projection and when the curve is given as the intersectionof the two cylinders y=~Mt a!==~'(<)) thé equations of the tangent are o. we bave <&=. in which caae the point of contact is a double point on their corve of intersection. <&. An exceptional case anses when the two sm~acestouch. it is projected on the axes of cointo <&). and is representedby the equations The direction-cosineaof the tangent are plainly proportionat to JCV'-Jtf'~ NL' N'L.~&c. ThiB may be otherwîae expressed aa Mowa: CoMKkr any elem<!ntof the curvo <&. than two. 128). AU thia has been explained before (see Art. As a particular case of the above.226 MtOJEO-ÏYE OP PBOCEBTIES CUBVfN. amdin ahort everything which involvoathe . Z~Z'J~ where Z.

The name given to this kind of surface is derived from the property that it can be unfoldedinto a plane wtthout crnmpEng or tearing. Thus imagine any seriea of Unes ~< Bb. The assemblage of the lines of the system fbrms a surface whose equationcan be found when the equation of the curve is given. and suppose a surface to be made up of the <aces~<tJ9. &e.PBMECnVE PROPEBTtM 0F CUBVM. vis. Or. wMchbeing connectedby two relations are reducible to a single parameter. the planes 128. we must eliminate a! between the two equations of the tangent and the two equationa of the curve. 3.by turning the two. In fact it was proved (Art.we obtain the equation of the surface.J9&C. The theory of curves is in a great tneaMre identical on with that of developables wMchaccoant it is necessary to enter more fully into thé latter theory. and by the éliminationof this parameter from the two équations. thèse planes being thé osculating planes of the cnrve.C!t:D. 284.2. &o. (which for the moment we take at a nmte distancefrom each other) and such that each intersects the consecutivein the points a. and in this section we shall only consider what may be called the projective properties of curves. &c. joining each point to its next eonMcnttYe.B6<7. For the two equations of the tangent Ime to thé curve involve the threo co-ordinates y'. which we had thns made into one face.28. containing every three consecutivepoints of the system. &e. these linesbeing the tangenta to the curve and that they àbo give r!se to a system of planes. the lines 18. b. C~ ZM. 227 consideration of angles. & then it is evident that snch a surface could be developedinto a plane by tuming the face ~taB round aB as a hinge until it formed a continuation of . We hâve sa!d (Art. namely. 287.. round cC until they formed Qi . give rise to a system of lines. 119) that the reciprocat of a séries of points forming a curve is a sériesof planes envelopinga developable. We there ehoweAthat the points of a carvo regarded as a system of points 1. 84. il 9) that the surface generated by thé tangents Is a developable since every two consecutivepositions of the generating line intersect each other. &o. in other words. c. o.

The eqoatton of thé tangent to a plane curve is a fonctionof the co-ordinatesof thé point of contact. a tangent plane to thé developable. and these two co-ordinates being connectedby the equation of thé curve. in thé limit. can be unfoldedinto one plane. In the limit when the lines Aa. Now if we consider the developable generated by the tangent Unesof a curve in apace. the equation of the osculating plane at any point a:y<) is also a fonctionof these co-ordinates. the asaembhtgeof plane elementsforma a developablewhich. Bb. To make this statement botter nndemtoodwe shall point out an important differencebetween the caseswhen a plane curve is considered as the envelopeof a moveableline. are indefinitelynear. the envelopeof this plane in all its positions l being the developable.and the equation of the plane containing any tangent and thé next consecutive (in other words. and when a surfacein general îs consideredas the envelopeof a moveable plane.the equations of the tangent at any point a:'y< are plainly fonctions of those co-ordinatea. as just explained. and so arrive at this MMUt. It is plain that we might consider thé surface as generated by thé motion of thé plane ~o~ according to someaB9tgnedaw. The plane AaB containing two consecutive generating lines is evidently. conversely. &c.if we eut a sphère in two tt is impossible to mako the portionsof the Mr&ce lie Bmoothin one plane. namely. the equations of thé curve we can eliminate any two of them. The reader will find no di~calty in conceîving this from thé examplesof developableswith whieh ho is most &m)I!ar. But smce a: are connected by two relations. a cone or a cylinder. 288.228 PROJECHVE PROPEBTtKS UF CUBVE8. a continuationof thé aext face and so on. vis. There is no dMealty in folding a sheet of paper into thé form of either surface and in unfolding it again into a plane. But it will easily he aeen to to be impoMlHe folda sheet of paper into the form of a ephere (whiehM not a developable surface). . 289. that M « developable the envelope a plane <oA<MM of equationcontains a single MMaMe parameter. or.

we have y =* ( ) + 'y 'y du j ~u /M'\ are the and <~M /<?tt\. and the conetants are 6mctiona of a parameter a. For if in « we replace a by ita value.<&<<&! t j da where (E)' 1 id~u~ the diff~td. Then the line answering to the vaine of the parameter a +ie A h° u+du 1 + d'u t9 & and tho point of inteMect!onof these thé pomt of intersectionof theM ~T*' +~c' du two tli'. If it be required to draw a tangent to this curve through any point. Let the equation of any tanp.= -y-~-t And. JE% P&ïM Ctttft~M. or etse express both in terme of a third variable so M to obtain thé equation of the tangent as a function of a single variable parameter. The converse problem to obtain the envelopeof a right line whose equation includee a variable parameter bas been diacuased. It followsthat the climinant in question denotes a carve touched by «. = 0.thé point of contact of any line with its envelope) Mgiven by the equationa «=0. that is to say. If from these two equationswe eliminatea we obtain da the locusof the points of intersectionof each line of the system with the next consecutive. LI. This problem will have a definite number of solutions. ~M <?t< /C?M\ <?M ~C[ denved from the equation y = 0. 0F ~MW 229 we caa either eliminate one of them. and détermine a so as to satisfy that equation. dy are ~)+~ tdun rentiab of « on thé suppositionthat etis constant. Mnea givenby thé équations =0. where u ia of the first degree in a: and y. we have only to substitutethé co-ordinatesof that point in the equation M'=0.PMJfECnVE PROPEMtES CUBVE8. in the limit. is bh u 0. And since < <~M it is évident that <&< ?t<are thé same as on thé h b sup. and the number will plainly be the number of tangents which can be drawn to the curve from an arbitrary . the point of intersectionof a line with the next consecutive (or. in terma of x and y.0 position that a is constant. gent line be « = 0. 98. in other words. + Ad'&c &c. It is easy to prove that thé result of this elimination represents a curve to which Mis a tangent. the equation of the envelope of aU these Unes.

point. we bave only to subatitutethe co-ordmatesof that point in the equation M'=0.whîch being connected by only one relation (v!z. ~S. they may preserve any finite ratio to each other A=X~ We see thus that the intersection of any plane by a coBMcntive one is not a deSmto Une. c. The equation of any other plane answering to the values a+h. But we aee atso that all planes consecutiveto u pass through ~o=0.d/3 da From these three equationswe can eUminatethe parameters a. that the surface representedby this eliminantis touched by u. as we know. when most s!mpM6ec). parameters. It ia proved. Now let us proceed in like manner with a surface. ~8. For axample. when Aand k are taken indefinitelysmall.MO PRMEOMVE PROPBB'HM 0F CU&VE8. indetenntnate. plain1ya cnrve of the third dasa. j8+~ will be Now in the limit. but may be any line representedby M thé eqnat!ona«!=<). thé équation of the containe two variable tangent plane. the pointgiven by thé equationsu=0. the equations se 0. that ia to say. are linear functions of the co-ordmates. . through a given point an infinity of tangent planes can be drawn to the surface.thèse planes enveloping a cone. d a + d u 0. 290. where "de.and so findthe locusof aUthose pointa where a plane of the ayatemis met by the aenea of consecutiveplanes. aa in the last article. the equation of the sur&ce). y+~jg'='0. or. The converse problem is to 6nd the envelopeof a plane whose equation «'='0 contains two variable parameters ft. the envelope of the Une <Mt'-t86a'+8c<t+~=0. If it be required to draw a tangent plane to this surface through any point. d.!a where a. du =0. the dasa of the earve. The equation then containing two indeterminates e and can be aat!anedin an infinity of ways. The equation of the tangent plane to a surface !a a function of the three co-ordinates.

or.c. it is obviousthat only three planea of the system can be drawn through a given point. Agam. however. 8M Suppose. It is proved. namely. But in the case of the developable the tangent plane at every point is the same. Thus if it be required to find the envelopeof <Mt'+3&a'+3ca+J. be forming a cône. 291. of the system correspondingto M. touchesalong the whole of the line -=0. any plane of the systemis cut by a consecutiveptane in a definite line. that we elther consMer M coMtant. if we add another relation connecting the planes we obtain a developableenvelopmgthe given sarface.and the envelope of thoseparticular tangent planes whiehsatîs~ the assumedconditionis a developable.MMEOnVB MOMRTHSS OP CUBVB8. again. It was proved (Art 107) that in général when a surfacecontainsa right Une the tangent plane at each point of thé right I!ne is din~rent. as at Art. Let us now see what propertiecof developablesare to be deducedfrom consideringthe developableas the envelope of plane whose equation containsa single variable parameter. or as any definite functionof a. that the plane u touches the developableat every point whichsattaSesthe equationsM== <~ in other words. d represent planes. In the firat place it appears that throughany assumed point c<m drawn. if we add another retation connectmgthe points we obtaina curve traced on the given surface. the equation of the tangent plane Mredneedto containa single parameter.6. 289. Thus. When a surface Mconsidoredas the locus of a number of pointsconnected by a given retatton. and if we eliminatea between these two equationswo obtain thé surface generated by all those lines. which is thé required developable. If a. So if we consider a surface as the envelope of a series of planes connected by a single relation. not as before an infinityof planes of the aystem. sineeon subatitating the co-ordinatesof any point we get a cubic for a. we may see the analogy betweena developableand a curve. where <t. the line Mc'O. j*'=0. be the plane whichtonches aU along the Mme . but a definitenumber of planes.

For any value of <t. t enter inta the ~mctioa u. There is a similar earfe on every envelope. the equation of the surface can be thrown (aee p. We thus obtain two etinunatmg in x. y. Monge calh the earve w = 0. T. the yT=0.232 PROJECTIVE PROPERTtES 0F CURVE8. t Monge bas called this the "arête de MbroaMement. For the nature of thls curve depends only on the manner in whieh the ~tmabke x. the oharactcrMtic ia alwaya a right line. in which any surface of parameter." or "edge of regresmon" of thé developable. e. namely.x da where any line of the system is met point is thus determined The locus of these points is got by by the next consecutive. and the consecutive intersection of the lines are a series of points forming a curve to which the lines are We shall presently show that the curve is a cuspidal tangents. et between these equations. instead of representing a plane. 7S). the <!&<n'<M!<o'M(<<! of the envelope. y=0. one of them being the equation of the equations These two equations repreaent a eurve traced developable. since what M said in the text apptiM equally if «. and not on the manner in whichthe constants depend on the parameter. and that on the other aide generatee another aheet. being the intersection of two coMecuti~e sphères. y. For the consecutive Intersections of the planes form a senes of lines. is a cirele and the envelope h the !ocu< of a system of cirete~. on the developable. and it is evident as before that their intersection satisfies the equations M=0. The two eheets touch along this curve which M their . denote any surface whose equation ineludes a variable <~t< 0. And so envetopee in general may be divided into &mi!ies according to the nature of the characteristic. It seems unneeMsary to enter more Mty hto the subject of envelopes in general. Thus when « represents a plane.* <c~+~=0 into the form 292. the ehaof racteriatM. edget on the developable. The part of the eharaeteri&tie on one aide of thie earve generates one sheet of the envetope. the system M intersected by the eonMcutiTe. When u repretent* a tphere. Thus it !s evident that starting with the definition of a developable as the envelope of a moveable plane. the locus of points m which eaeh ehaMeteriatie'*h met by the next conaecutive. a:y. we are led back to ita generation as thé locus of tangents to a cnrve. and the envelope M the Ioe<M a system of right lines. Let us now consider three consecutive planes of the system.

tta ctaM. itapoints Memen 1then of <\ AJt 0-. since in this case the point determined as the intersection of two consecutivelines. y whose equations have been juat written. to find certain .S~~r 2%t<M CMfMa. 8 Let be the degreeof a curve. ReciprocaUy. We shall call thèse.there will be in general a certain number of planes of the system which may be called aMtCMryplanes. 294.Thusin thecase e~e ofa cone p<rt!) the generating the of linesonopposite sideaof thevertex theetsof the eonef ndthe cuspidal dgein thiecase a generateopposite e redaceatseiftoa singlepoint.MtM CttrMt. y=0. . we shall in general get a determinate number of values of a for which the condition is satisfied. n TheMequationsre as followe:Bée JS%'A<r a . Cayleyf common limit andMa etNpMal of the envelope.fromPl&cker'sequationsconnecting thé ordinary singularitiesof planecurves.* Mr. points of the system. For if we eliminate<e. This condttion is a 6mction of a. Four consecutiveplanes of thé system will not meet in a point udess the four conditionsbe nualled «==0. We shall now show how. t\ 0~Q. we get the conditionthat the four planes.ttMt of!t8doubletangents.234 evidently coincide. and by eqn&tmgthis iunction to nothing. -~=*0. or. ehati meet in a point. in other words. 91. p.~=0. the numberof its double o that of pointa. coincides with that determined as the intersectionof the next consecutivepair.MMMECTtYt! FMPMTÏË8 0F CUBYE8. There are therefore in general a certain namber of points of the system throngh which four planes of the system pasa. i thevertex. t. 28. . thé number f it$ cMp$.for whieh this conditionwill be aatisSed. amely. a certain number of points in which three consecutive lines of the system intersect. 233 293. as at . These are the planes which contain four consecutivepoints of the system for in such a case thé planes 183. e. It is in general possible values of et. the <<a<!MM~ p.

We speak of the "points of the system. . and ~3the nnmber of stationary points (Art. 291) that the number of such planea is dennite." Let at be thé number of "pointa on two lines" which lie in a given plane. In like manner we shallcaUthe line joining any two point*of the systema Une through twopoints. Let M the namber of planes of the ~stem whieh c<mbe be drawn through an arbitrary point. 288) enableus to determine.. Let r be the number of lines of the ayatemwhich iateiseot an arbitrary right Une. the degreeof thé curve whieh generatesthe developable. Let a be the number of stationary planes. Let f be the nothing gives number of solutions of this equation. may inteNect. Two non-cooseentivelines of the Systemmay intersect. We sh&Ufirat make an enumeration of these singalanties." Let g bethe namber of lines in two planes" which lie in a given plane. We sh&Ucall this of number the e&tM the aystem. We have proved (Art." and thé "planes of the system" M explained(Art. or. Let m be the number of points of the system which lie in any plane. and A the numberof linesthrough two points" which pass throngh a given point The developablebas other singulantles whichwill be datermined in a subsequent chapter. 298). 119). It iB plain that if we form the condu -1 dition that M. and we shaUshow that aU other MngatMttIesof thé system can be expreased in terms of thé three just enumemted. We ahaU call thia number thé f~H~ of thé syatem. T and any assumed right 1. and y the number of planesthmugh two lines" vhich pass through a given point. but these are the singularities whichPHtoker'e équations (note. di ha d b line the remtit will be a funetion of whieh being equated to a deSnIte nnmber of values of a. in other worde." and their plane a "plane through two lines. When this happons we caU the point of meeting a "point on two lines.884 MMEOnvNHtOMKnBaMf CORVEE ÏMM dedaced equations eonnec~mg ordinarysiNgatanues of the devetopablea.p." and thé intersection ofany two planesa I!nein two planes." the "lines of the System.

This proves. note p. The number of such points by definition is <& The tangent lines at such a doublepoint arc mtta!ly distinctbecause the two planes of the system coïteaponding the lines of the to system interaecting in any of the points a. that the carve whose tangents generate the developable!s a cospidal edge on the developable. Lastly. are commonly dinerent. A dcaMe point on the section will arise whenever two « lines of the System" meet the ptane of section in the same point. For they are double pointa as being the interaection of two lines of the system. and the tangent planes at these points coincide." white the tangent lines of the section are the traces on its plane of the "ptanea of the system.smcothe two consecutiveUnes~ Intersecting in one of the points m. and we have such a point whenever the Une meetsa *me of thé system." The chas of the sectionia plainly M. The number of double tangents to the section !s in like s!ncea double tangent anses whenever two planes manner of the systemmeet the plane of sectionin the sameline. It is obviousthat thé pointeof thia carve are thetraces on its plane of the lines of the System. Consider now thé sectionof thé developableby any plane.HMMMTIYB MOPBttTtES or CUNVES." The degree of the section M therefore f. we get a point of inflexion(or a stationary tangent) wherever two consecutiveplanes of the systemcoincide. For the number of tangent Imes to the sectiondrawn through an arbitrary point is evidently the sameas the numberof "planea of the system" drawn through the same point. . lie in the same plane of the system. The mpoints of thé systemwhiehlie in the plane of section are cnsps of the section. Thé numberof points of inflexionis therefore& We are to subsutate then in the fbrmoia. what we have a!ready stated. 233. since it is equal to the number of pointe in which an arbitrary line drawn in its plane meets the section. for it is such that every plane meets that surface in a section which bas M casps the points where the same plane meetsthe curve. 28S 296.

or S=A. whichconnect the double points.286 MOJBCTIVB MOHSSTÏES 0F CURVES. It appeara at once by conaidering the section of a cône by any plane that the same equations connectthe doublepoints. The tangent planes along that edge are the planes joining the vertex to the Unes of the system which correspond to each of these points. The edges of thé cone which we are now consideringare the Unes joining the vertex to all the points of t!te System. of plane curves.* A double edge of the cône anses when the same edge of the cone passes through two points of the system.Me <&~M of <jte <<tce&!p<!M~~MfwM the tangents goany <'«tw by ?&«!&M Me fte~oM~ il <i5< M<M et <&< me <&~e< the <&«<t!poMt ettfw. Now since each tangent plane contains a line of the system. p. &c. and the tangent planesto thé cone are the planes connecting the vertex with thé lines of the system. Another system of equations is found by considering the cone whose vertex is any point and which stands on the given curve. 124. HeXee. doubletangents. for evidently the plane containingtwo consecutive edges of the cône must containthe line joiningtwo consecutivepoints of the system. 296. The class of the cone is the same as the number of tangent planes to the cone which pass through an arbitrary line drawn through the vertex. &c. it followsthat we have as many tangent planes passing through the arbitrary Une as there are lines of the system which meet that line. of cones. It M easy to see that the c!&Mof thh cône is the mme as the dentée ûfthe developable whieh ta the reciprocal of the points of the given tyttem. see note. The degree of the cone is plainly the same as the degree of the curve and is thereforem. double tangent planes. The number sought is thereforef. ~ot«<<of <<«< .

A]so it is eafy to see that this developable can have no atat!oNaryplanes. n are commonto the equations of this and of the last article. Lastty) a stationary tangent plane will exist when a plane lines of thé system passes through containing two consecutive the vertex. A stationary or cuspidaledge of thé cone will only exist when there ia a stationary point in the System. Thus we hâve /t=M. 233) PI&cker'a equations enable us. b. or <c'=~8. «? are of a c given. hence <'== 2(~–1). y=~ S=A. c. and the equation of the developable being the discriminant of the preceding equation. 287 A doublo tangent plane will arise when the same plane throngh the vertex contains two lines of thé system. Hence. or i == M. <=' '=?. let na take the developable which is the envelope of the plane where t is a TMMtMe parameter. represent planes. !t8 degree is 2(&–1). T'=~.three conditionsmust be satisSed m ordor that the two planes may be identical.all ~< t*e<<an &e~oM)!< 297. Now three quantities r. For in gcneral if wo compare coeOMents in the equations of two planes. m. &c. If then we . The dasa of this system M obviously&. a. and k M any integer. To illuatrate this theory.PBOJECTtVN PROPERTtN) 0F CUBVE8. or T=y. Hence by thé fbrmuhe (note p. to determine all the rest. when three of thé singularities of a plane curve are given. when any three of <~ s&~M&)T<MM wAM& have eM«)M'Mt<e<~ curve in t~Mce.

Since the system «=0. 94.that coneepondingto thé vatue <='oo). 298. a = 0) the equ<tt!ons the !aat two articles enable us to determine the rmaining NDgaM~es. attempt to detenNme < eo that any plue may be ident!ca! with the consecutiveone.aud only one cotMttmt tLtour disposât. space we donot enter into dettula. But in order to economize p. aiMBthe correspondingline.B%~ ~%M<C')(nxM. 47) that the where equation of thé developable is of the &mt +~"0. p. is the dMcnminantof u when in it a is made=0. ~=0 îs obvioualyreducible to it followsthat ocis itae!f a plane of the ayatem (namely. aHe). < of H~ving then K= &. Thus we verify what was stated (Art. Now we know from the theory of ~acrmunamta(BéejB%)' ~~<~n)t.238 HMMN'nVB PN(HRMMB9 OF CUKVE8. The case considered in the lut article. enables us to verify easily many properties of developables. in other worde. and atc the corresponding point. Further. the Mctmn eomMtaof the !lM ab twice and of a curve . f ='2 (t 1). which is that when the variable parameter entera only ratIoNaBy into thé equation. is itse!f of the form %+<?~ If now we consider the aeetMn cf the developableby one of the planes of the ayatem (or. 291) that a touches the deve1opable along the whole length of the line ab. if we make <t'=0 in the equation of thé develop. The result is The greater part of these values can be obtained independently as at . we Cndthat we have threoconditions to satiafy.

MMMECTtVE PROPNtTïBSCUBVM. on the developable. 24. where we shall aho determine certain other singularities of the developable." being Ae points where the line ab meetaother lines of the system. the degree of whichM . will find no great di<Ecnt<y eatabliahing ia them. conteqnently meeta it in f–4 other points. and JoMMM?. And it !a generallytrae that !f r be thé rsnk of a developable«M&line of ~e ~<Mt ttM~ r–4 otherliMs The locus of the<epoints forme a doublecarre of ~e ay<<MK..p. Thèse are &Upoints on two lines. Cambridge Dublin JM<~<MOt<M<~ VoL V. 0F 289 ef the degree f 8 aad this c<)rve the form of the equation (as and shows) touches the Une ab at the point <<~c. The reader. and the other properties of which will be given in a subsequent chapter. who may care to examinethe eubject. We add here a table of the singularities of some ape<aal MctMMof the developable. Section by a plane of the system .c. 1 bave given the proof of the greater part of them.

AUthis will be sufficientlyillustrated by the exampleswhich follow.the principle is generally true. Throagh any which thé preceding reasoning showsmuât altogether contain thé line. The uae we make of the principle is this. In Hke manner we can draw a second plane containing the line. It i< true ako by definition when the surface breaks up into p planes. three points of the line we can draw a ptane. then if the number of points so assumed be greater than jM'. Suppose that we take on a curve of thé degree f. for if we took two curves of the degrees m and n (where Mt+M=~-). and if e!~ef lay altogether on of coursewe could take on that any surface of the degree curve any number of points common to the curve and surface. TX~e M MO proper ?MM the MCOMf? of degree tM<a conie.240 0F CLA88!FïCATKHtCMVE8. The followingenumeration rests on the principlethat a curve of the degree r meets a surface of the degree p in ~r points. . the surface describedthrough thé points must altogether containthe cnrve. This is evident when the curve ia the complète intersection of two surfaces whose degrees are M and n. We shall assume that. since otherwise we ehouldhave a !mo of the first degree meeting the plane in more points than one. ï~&ao~MM. as many points as are sufficient to determine a surface of the degree p. which must therefore be the intersection of two planes. 299. a right line. SECTION. The Ime muet therefore be a plane curve of the second degree. the two together might be regarded as a complex cnrve of the degree f. For throngh any two points of a line of the firat degreo and any assomed point we caa describe a p!an6 whîch must altogether contain the line. ca~ASSIFICATMHf H 0F CURVES. 300. For then we have )'=MH and the three surfacesintersect in mnp points. that ia to say. We assume in thia that the curve la a proper cnrve of thé degree y. for otherwise the principle would be violated. in virtue of the law of conttNuity.

A68t!'ïCATM!{ 0F CURTE8. If the quadric break up into two planes.* For through aeven pomttt of the carva and any two othcr points describe a quadric. the t M.. CM!f.. must either &e a plane CMSM the JM!(M? M~MechoM ttpo ~tMM~M~ cxplained. p. 397. is of the degree <M 1 hence thé cône containing a cubic and whose vertex is on the curve is of the second degree. the latter paper in thé articleswhiehimmediately follow. The complete intersection being of the fourth degree. but shall epeak only of proper curves of the!r respective orders.ï][.vm. Chasles ia Note xxxtn. and as before. it must bo the cubic together with a right line. As we may evidently have plane curvea of any degree we shall not think it necessary to notice thèse in subsequent caaea. 885.is the cubicthrough a)t<< these points. aad thé intersection of the two qnadncs includes the given cubic. Some of their most by M3MM in hie . 837. Vol. More recently the propertieeof thèse carfes have been treated of by M. In what follows we shall not think it necessary to notice this again. for then the plane throngh three points of the system would only contain o?Mof thé right lines. 802.Boty!eK<tt<! <4<<e«<tM. t38.Ct. to Hs for 1 ~Mt~« JBM<M~t«. Chasleshastily said that conversely locus of the vertex of a cône ofthe second degreepaaaittg throughsix pointa. c«M)e of the third <e~ 301. p. Art. the curve may be a plane curve lying in one of tic planes.and ny ProfeMor Cremona of tîihn. 285. of as of Art. and in a paper in LiouvINe'tJ<)Mf)M7 t8<7. SchjSter. it is proved therefore that the only non-plane cubic is that explained. we can draw a second quadric throngh the seven points. it mast altogether contain the eurve. Weddle pointed out. t. l. important properties are given by M. 241 The exception noted at the end of the !axt article would occar if the line of tho second degroe eonsisted of two right lines not in the same plane. The cône contammg a curvo of the <n"' degreo and whoae vertex ie a point on the carve. If then the quadric do not break up into planea. <X<M~M%w JMMt B .f We can <AtM describe a f:eM<e<~ curveaof the thM degreeappear to havebeen But noticed Non-plane 1827. But as Mr. ConaideMMe has been madeof uee Vot. C~<<!it.

" Or in other words. The intersection of these coneaconstatsof thé commonedge ab and of a cubic whieh is the required carve passing throngh the six points.e. teads at once to the following by Pascal's theorem Thclines of intersection of the planes 718. For we can descrUioa cône of the second degree of whieh the vertex and nve edges are given. 734. ]f. whichmnst thereforelie on the cnblcwhichis the intersectionof the cones. If thon we are given mx points a. 671. <?. When eight pointa are given four coneecan be desenbedthroughthem. f for edges. namely. 712 meet the opposite aides lie in one plane passing throngh the vertex 7. Convereelyif this he true for two vertices of a heptagon it is tme for all the rest for then these two vertices are verticea of cônes of the second degree containing the other points. Seeappendix "on the order ofayatema equations." of M. the locus of the vertex is not a JOMHM~ curve but a aur&ce. The toeue of the vertex of a cône of the second «tdar whioh pMM< through seven pointail a earw and Mcf the Mxth order.M2 CLASSIFICATION 0F CURVES. 761 lie in one plane. 745. p. between the four diaëraittah of <S+\0'+~P'+f~ where ~S. 69. thé points where the planes of three consecutive angles 567. M. and the lines a~. 303.namely. Cremona addethat whenthe aix pointe aM &tedand the seventh vaaaNe. W are any Ntt&ceathmt~httMMxpomtt. can describe a cone having the point a for vertex. 783. Now when the ~&<t<t)tM<M<!< VoL v. of of a quadric meets in two points ita cnrve Any generator of intersectionwith any other quadric. ad. The theorem that the Unes joining six points of a eoMo to any seventh are edges of a quadric cône. ce.P.c. and eu thus determinethat wo section. «tMe ttroM~A j~teeM points. bc. 756. and in like manner a cone a for edges. in the two points where the generator meets thé other quadric. thMplanepMMtthrough a &tedchordofthe cubio. . ~ene~N~M'a of <ty<<eM <MMe.tHK twice. having b for vertex and thé lines &t. that obtainedby etimtMtin~ p. JL cubictracedona ~pe~toM~ of one<Xee< <K<~all its <Me and <5<Me other~<. s!nce evidently we are thus given five points in the sectionof the corneby any plane. &. <M..

It appoars from tho table jnst given that cvery plane contains one line in two planes". c'–M. white the generatom of the oppoaite system. The system being of the third degree most be of thé kind we are considering. must meet the cnMo in the two pointa. the c!<McM jM~ec<e~on any plane ttt~ o OMM: 0 double point. 296) that thé points of inflexion correspond to the three planes of the system whioh can be drawn through the vertex of the cone. Now it wu proved (Art. We have Thus the System is of the same nature as the rcciprocal ~atem. hâve a right Une common. b'. The question to nnd tho envclope of 3&<* Sct d + (where a. the cone thcre&re. d represent planes and t ia a variable parameter) is a particular case of that discussed. white reciprocally throngh any point can he drawn one Une to meet thé <mMo twice. then through thèse eight points an InSnity of quadries can he described. But sinee threo of the» points are on a right line. and whieh stands on the carve bas one double point. 24& intersection consista of a right line and a cubic. wh3o there is & cubic common to all three.CI. only meet thé cubic in onc other point. Conversely we can describe a system of hypcrboloids throngh a cubic and any chord wh!ch meets it twice. or in other worda. Art.o. For take seven points on the curvc.ac. or that thé section of the developable hy any plane bas one double tangent. since they do not meet the line. and this also appeara from the equation of thé envelope for it is easy to see that any pair of the sur&cea a~-Sc. and an eighth on the chord joining any two of them. Hence the three <) R~ . 297. tmd all theorema respecting it are conseqnently two-fold. whose vertex is that point. &.ASS!nCMM!t Or CMVM. sinco they meet the line in one point. %<!C:*H~' The three pointe of inflexion of a plane cubic are in one right line. it is evident that the generators of thé Rame aystem aa thé line. which !s a double lino on thé envelopo. 304. that Une most be common to all the quadnea~aa must also the cubic on which thé aevcn pointa lie.

Z~MM~.<iB pass through a 6xed right line. c(=:<~ be denoted b being may by the co-ordinates a=l. Hence <~M~efMe<«MtO/M6~&MMao/e<ya<e)H ~«M in plane 0~ the <!<M~Mp<MK)~ points.0'VoI. lie in one plane passing through that pointa Further it ia known that when a plane cubic has a conjugate point. << VoL t JoacUmethal.if through any line two real planes of the system oan be drawn.. ReciprocaUy. and only one real one. given by tbe equations <!(=&. &==f. but that whenthe cubic bas a double point. Hence if a ~OMt< <M plane co~espM~M!~ a tke to J? will be in the plane c<M'yMpoM<~M~ And again.(~<<h. namely the intersectionof the planes and J9. <=!< Now thé three valuesof t answering to planes passing through any point are + givenby the cubic<t'~ 3&'<' 8c'< <f= 0. then any plane through that line meets the curve in two imaginarypoints.its three pointsof inflexionare real.CKmona. that the points of contact lie in tho + plane dd 8&'c 3c'& tfa =0. whence it is evident fromthé values just found.244 CLA6StFICATM!t 0F CURVES. then two of thé points of inflexionare imaginary. the tangents at which are real. ? the planes which correspond to all the points of a line . point J9.. then two ofthé planes of the system whichcan bo drawn through 0 are imaginary. cc=~. Henceif the chordwhich can be drawn through any point 0 meet the cubic in two real points. ChMiM.Vo!. SehrOtcr. These theorema can also be easily established alge+ braical!y for thé point of contactof the plane < 8&<*3c( d.t 805. The three points where any plane At + Bb + Cb+ JM meets thé curve have their <'s given by the equation 1867.T[. The relation betweenthé linos is corresponding to To any plane of the systemwill correspond plainly reciprocaL in this sensethe correspondingpoint of the system andto a line in two planes correspondsa chordjoining twopoints.i.p. The equation JMt written is unaltered if we Interchangeaccented and nnaccented letters. . LVï. points of the system which correspondto the three planes which can be drawn through any point 0. t=o.vm.î.MC.p.M. Bat this plane passesthrough the given point.

then the locus of the intersection of three corresponding planes of the systems !s a twiated câble. &c. touches a cornewhen thé Unes are in ono piano. as Joachimsthal bas remarked. Ex. 124) that a twisted cubic is the locus of the pôles of a nxed plane with regard to a system of quadncs having a common cnrve. and a third through ce'. this mode of obtaining thé equation of the cubic may be interpreted as follows: Let there be a system of planes through any line aa. Now 's since the anharmonicratio of four planes whose equations are of the form \oc=<x'. The tine joining two correspondingpoints of two homographtcally divided lines. ?'.the planes joining each point to the corresponding Une envelope a developableas above stated. or chords of thé cubic.and three vertices ovem &)ted m thelocusof the temaimng vertexta Bne<. (sce C~hM. and when this is a perfect cube. Art.CLA6fHHCATMN 0F CURVEt). Hence givcn a series of points on a right line and a homographie aories either of tangents to a conic or of genorators of a hyperboloid. a homographiesystem through any other Une bb.if three right Unes bo homograpMcaUydivided. X~= & X<. that any plane drawn through the intersection of two real planes of the system meets the curve in but one real point. The lines aa'.whencet followa i thatthe threeplanes whieh înteMeot the vertexare corresponding in placéeof three homographie systeaM. From this it followsat once. 24B JW+ Ci!'+JB!f+~==0. a twistedeuMc. We hâve seen (Art. If the four&eesofa tettahedion an throughBxed p linea. Any numberof positione the bMeforma ayatem of of planeswhiohdividehomo~rapMcaUythree JinMon whiehthe the comeNof the baMmove. RecIprocaIIy. the plane is a plane of the system. c'. depends only on the coefficients &c. 66). X'<t=a'. and thé three right Unesare UUnesin two planes" ofthé system. . For in sncha casethc cubic just written is thé sum of two cubes amdhMbut one'realfactor. the plane of three correspondingpoints envelopes thé developablegeneratod by a twisted cubic. 306. More generally auch a curve is expresed by the resnit of the elimination of X betweenthe system of equationsXa a'. ce' are ovidently Unes through two points. and générâtes a hyperboloidwhen they are not.

Cremona'a theorcm.~Mr~<!e<f~at!Mof tAe<ty<<eM all <~ hKM eut of <&e ratio. which see. 807. < y. . that if a series of chords meet thé line of intersection of any plane d with the Hne joining the correspondingpoint a to any line b of the aystem. it follows from thé nmt equation that the points &.and the corresponding lines points by Orethletters." It is very easy to prove thèse theorems independently. &' coineide.he corresponding by italica. then they It ie oftenconvenient denotethe phuteo the systembycapital to of t tetteK. . B meet 'yo in points <.'y. together with a conio to which aIl other planes of the system are tangents. (. As a particular case of these theorems. o are a harmonio system. Thus then the anharmonic property of the tangents to a conic shows at once that four planes eut any two lines in two planes. cons!sts of the correspondirigline a of the system twice. and from the second tbat thé pointst. AB. (' coincide. and <~ ~«MMjoMM~ ~<oK & the «MMoH&tnK~KM to <tHthe ?MM~ tke ~t(MM are ~M)'~ee<~ ~<Wt& the <~<<SMM of of a CMM&Mt< <MAanM<M!M ~~feM.< Then we hâve If the pointa t. 278. since the Unesof the system are both lines in two planes and Unes through two points . and let ua express that the planes joining them to the Unes a. Let thé planes joining the line a to /8. eut the line 'yo homographicaUy. and 0)8. p Thus consider four points a. ~8. Thus we know that the sectionof the developableby any plane of the system. From thé theorems of the last article it followsconvemely that thé planesjoining four nxed points of the system to any variable line throngh two points form a constant anharmoniesystem" and "four nxed planes of the system divide any t!mein two planes' in a constant anhamonie ratio. Let thé planes A. Many particular inforences may be drawn from these iheorems as at CiMMt. AC in the same anharmonic ratio. and the Mne &to a meet y8 in &. b. and in like manner J[<7ts eut in the sameratio as CD. 8. Thus we obtain Prof.246 CLAS6!FÏCAT!ON 0F CUBVES.

CL&66tFM~HON 0F CCMES. the loeas of polo is this hyperboloid.it ia obvious enough that cnbics may be divided into four speciesaccording to the dtmerontsections of the oorve by the plane at infinity. that M to say. The locusthereforewhichwe seek is a plane conic. 247 will atso meet the Une of intersection of the plane B with the line joinicg to a. 308. the joining lines generate a hyperboloidof one sheet. But s!nce all planes of thé System cut the lines a. The reader will have no digicnlty in aeeing when it will happen that one of thèse Unespasses to infinity. B. lie on a conio m thé plane A XB. of which a and b are generators. Thus that plane may .in which case the other line becomesa diameter. converselythe locus when the latter is taken for Ëxed plane is a conioin the former plane* 809. We have aeen that the eectiom of the developable by the planes of the system are conics. Now conalderthe section by any other plane 0. and will be eut harmonically where they meet these two Unesand where they meet the cnrve. it is evident that the pole of any plane through the intersectionof B lies in the plane which ia thé harmonic conjugate of that plane with respect to those tangent ptanes. the traces on that plane of and B are tangents to that section.te loom of thé centres of these comcS)or more the locas of the polea with respect to these conics generally of thé interaectionaof their planes with a Sxed plane. In conclusion. & homographtcaUy. and the pole of any Ime tbrough their interseetionlies on their chord of contact. However then the plane be drawn through thé Une ~B. lies on the line joining the points where the unes of the system a. Since in every plane we can draw a ~I!ne in two planes" we may suppose that thé nxed p!ane paMesthrough the intersection of two ptanes of the system ~4. meet C. We may thorefore the inTes<jga. It is plain alsofromthe constructionthat since the pôles when any plane JL+\B is taken for the nxed plane. But further.

Of conrse in the case of the cubical ellipse two of these cylindera are imaginary: in the case of the hyperboMcparabola there are only two cylmders. in the former case.4o approach to any Bnite asymptote. But when thé line of the system!s itsetf at infinity as in the third and fourth cases. whichis imaginary in tho case of the cubical hyperbola. a plane of the system may be altogether at infinity. That is to say. in «ne real and two coincidentpoints. and cubical parabola. in one rcat and two imaginary points. The system may be regarded as thé envelope of z<8~<*+8~<–<~ where d is constant. It is plain that when the curve bas real points at infinity. that is to say. the branchesof the curve are of a parabolic form proceeding to infinity without tending. it bas branches proceeding to infinity. but not in the latter. 310. the !ines ofthe system correspondingto the points at infinity being asymptotes to tho curve. m three coincident points. We have proved (Art. Since the quadric cones which contain the curve become cyl!ndem when their vertex passes to infinity. 0F either mcet the curve m three real pointa. 804 that in the case of the cubical ellipse the plane at infinity contains a real line m two planes. two planes of thé system can be paraReL From the anharmonioproperty we infer that in the case of the cnbical parabola three planes of the system divide in a constant ratio all thé lines of the system. cnbical hypers bolic parabola. ît !s plain that three quadric cylmders can be described containing the eurve. the edges of tho cytmders being parallel to thé asymptotes. that M to say. These specieshâve been called the cubicalhyperbola. one of which is parabolic. thé lowest values of whose degrees in eaeh case there is no dimculty in determining. It . a line of the system may ho at infinity or lastly. For farther détailswe refer to Prof Cremona'sMemoir. 299) that through any ourve can be described two surfaces. In this case all the planes of the system out the developable in parabolas. cubicalellipse.248 CLASStFtCATtOX CURVE8. It follows from Art. We proceednow to thé dassincationof curvesof higher orders. and in the case of the cubical parabola there is but one cylinder which ia paraboitc.

and we ehooseto seek for r. where Z. the intersection of whose polar planes with respect to U and F meet the arbitrary lino. we shall inctudeall poMiMe curves up to the r"* order. 0~0. 249 is evident then on the other hand that if commencing with the aimplest values of and v we discuss all the dtSerent cases of the intersection of two surfaces vhoae degreea are and v. In order to determine completely the character of thé system. This denotea a surface which ia thé locM of the points.v. Now th!a developableis got by eliminatingz'y'f!'betweenthé four equations Z'ie~ ~'y+~+P'M~O. JM. are the Crst differentialcoe~oients. as we shall suppose they basno multiple pointa (p. Za:+J~+~+J~=0. Thèse equations are respectively of the degrees /t.. 23. With a view to auch a d!acnMtoawe commenceby inveatigating the charactensticsof the curve of intersection of two NM&ceB. f. . do not. /t-l. their curveof intersection and therefbre ~8=0. 95). the value of this limit f being in each case easy to find when /t and f are given. the degree of the developablegenerated by thé tangents. it is necessary to know one more of its singatarities.&c. p. which 1 pabMahed the ChMM~< <tM<< in JPttM'M VoL JM«~M<t<tCtt<Jo<M''M~. And the points where this locus meets the curve FF The theory explained !mthe remainderof thie Mettott M taken from a paper dated July.CLA8MF!CATKM! OP CURVES. f–1: and since only thé last two contain a~ theae variables enter intothe resalt in the degree which !s evidently of the degree ~+y-2. 1049.*We have obviously Mt==~f. and if the surfaces do not touch. P"=0.

1 A specimen terra of the result M (SO')' ~-2.<&c.8*~ &c. For this purpose !t ia necessary to remind the reader of the method employed at the foot of p. that !a to say. Thus it appears that the result contame the variables o:~ in the degree !l+)'(~t-l)==/tf-l. a~e in the degreea 1. 86 in order to find the equation of the cone whosevertex is any point and which passesthrough the intersectionof U and Y. Let na supposethat thé vertex of the cone is taken on the curve so as to have both U and F=0 for the co-ordinates of the vertex. Then it appears from p." If now in thia cône we consider the co-ût<dmatea f any point a~e on the cone o as known and a. this equation of thé degree (~ -1) (y -1) combinadwith the equations Uand V determine .y. is of courae a "ne through two points. Every edge of this cone of the degree ~f–l.e' as sought. y 1 8 U. while it oontama a:y< in the degree (/<-1) (f– 1). We verify this result by determining independently A thé number of "Unes through two pointa" which can pam through a givcn point. nating Xbetween Thèse equationsin are of the degfees~-l.2. 311. whose vertex ia a point on the curve. the number of lines which can be drawn through a given point so as to pass through two points of the intersection of U and P.260 CLA8S1NC&TÏONOF CUBVE8. 86 that the equation of the cone ia the result of elimi. containthé co-ordinatesa.

Every point of contact then adds one to thé number of double edgea on the cone. Let us now considerthe case when the curve FF haa also actual double points. 812. has as double edges the lines joining tho vertex to the points of contact in addition to the number determined in the last article. and theretoro diminishesthe degree of the developable by two. The number determinedin thia article. If then the surfaces tonch m t points of ordinarycontact and in ~8of stationarycontact. we have . since the point of contact is not a double point on either sarface. the double points remains precisely the same nnmber of a~p<Mw:< as in thé lut article. but thé radius vector to a point of contact bas only one value the same for both. Now in thie case. That investigationdetermines the namber of cases when thé radius vector from any point bas two values the same for both surfaces.CLMMFtCATMN CURVES. that la to say. It is easy to see that the investigation of the last article does not include the lines joining an arbitrary point to the points of contact. The total number and the number of sach points M therefore ~t)'(/t–l)(f-l). since every tangent line in that plane touches the cnrveof intersection. for to an eye placed at any point two branches of a carve appear to interaect if any une drawn throngh the eye meet both branches. when thé two surfacestonch in one or more points. 0F 251 the "pointa" belonging to all the "!ines through two pointa" which cam pass throngh the assumedpoint. 810 since the surface generated by the tangents to the curve of intersection must Include as a factor the tangent plane at a point of contact. If the surfaceshave stationarycontact at any point(Art. 1 ca thé number of apparent double points in the intersectionof two snr&ces. 129) the une joining this point to the vertex of the cone is a cuspidal edge of that cone. This might a!so be dedncedfrom Art. of lines through two pointa is of course half thia. and the cone. standing on the cnrve of intersectionand whosevertex is any point.

let the intersection of two qnadrics conast in part of a right line mtemectiom must (for which M'=l. for we have onlyto sabtract thé number of apparent double points fromthe maximumnumberof double points whicha cnrve of thé degree /tf can have (J~~r Plane Ctf)W<. 314. those for the secondcurve h'. and let H be the nnmber of lines which pass through a point on each curve. we have obviousty equations the Thus when M and A are known m' and A'eau be &)nnd.then the renMmumg be of the thui degree m =3. Let the number of Unes through two points of thé nrst curve be ~5. To take an example which we have atready dtacnssed. S11) that the points belonging to thé !mes through two points" which pass through a givcn point are thé intemecdon of thé curve 01~ with a surface whose degree is (p -1) (~ 1). We can hence obtain a limit to thé namber of points at whiehtwo surfacescan touch if their intersectiondo not break up into curveaof lowerorder. the intersection of whose polar planes with . where M+M'==~tf.p. or one on one curve and the other on thé other. CLASSIFICATION and the reader can calculate without diScdty how the other numbeMin Art. We shall now show that when the cnrve of Intersection of two surfaces breaks up into two simpler curves. both on the curve M'. 8t0 are to be modiSed. t)~ S 813. Suppose now that the curve of intersectionbreaks up into two whose degrees are m and M'. It was proved (Art. In like manner it wu proved (Art. then evidently the "~vo points" on any of these lines must either lie both on the curve m. A'==0). in other words. the charactemt!cs of these curves are so connectedthat when those of thé one are known those of thé othcr can be found. or. and the equation above written determines A=Ï. 810) that the locus of points.232 Of CCRV~S. the number of apparent intersections f the curves. Considering o then the points where each of the cnrves meet the surface of the degree (~ 1)(~ 1).

M' consisteof the t Unesto the pointa of actual meeting of the curves and of the J? Unesof apparent intersection. pointedout in the Memoir ahwdyreferred . The 6tst carve mects this surface in the t pointe where the curvea m and m' interaect (since U and V touch at these points) and in the r points for which the tangent to thé curvemeetsthe arbitrary line. 299). 160)the eqtmt!ouof the developable generated by the tangents to the curvo whîch is of the eighth degree. rememberingalso that M'=~f–M.* We commencewith the cttrveaof the first family. 315. and those through which only one quadric can paas. we resume our enumeration of tho different speciesof carves of the fourth order. For thé quadric determined by nine pointa on the carvemust altogethercontainthe curve (Art. Having now estaMished principles which we shaH the have occasionto employ.1)-8&.viz. to. The intersection of the cones which stand on the carvca M. The characteristics of the intersectionof two quadrics which do not touch are (Art. It ia there proved also that the developable has in each of the four principal planea a double line of the fourth The Mhtence thissecond of of ~Mt was. Thne we have given (Art. It is not generally trae that a second quadric can be described through the cnrve there are therefore two principal families of quartics. <-=)?(<?.C~ASNFICATMN 0F CMVBS. Thus then an equation which can easily be proved to followfrom that in the tast article. and the equation . thosewhichare the intersectionof two quadrics. 810) Several of thèse resnits cam be establlshed independently. !s a mrfaco of thé degree /t+f-8. Every quartic curve ?Maon « y«M?ne.B+(==mm'is easily vcrifiedby nsim~the values just found for F and f. &mity quartics 1 believe. 253 regard to F aad F meets an arbitrary line.

and the developable is of a degree less by two. 316. If then it bc required to draw an osculating plane throngh any assumed point. a conio in eachof the principal planes. 123.254 CMSSmCA'notf OPCCBVE8. every generator of a quadric containing the cnrve is ovidently a "une through two points" (Art. the points of contact are determined as the intersectionsof the curve <7F with a surface of the third degree.* Again. let the two quadncs toMh: then (Art. seeArt. the two generators of that quadric whichpassthrough the point are two lines through two points. Secondiy. t I owethis jrematk to Mr. A quartic of this species is determined by eight points (Art. which contains the co-ordinates of the point of contact in the third degree. 108. 812) the cone standing on the cnrve has a double edge more than in the former case. and through the intersection of its polar planes with respect to the two quadrics. Lastly. and thé problem tberefbro admits of twelve solutions. Cayley. it is shown. The lines through two points may be otherwisefound by the &Dow!ngconstruction. order. 808). The numbery 8 !< thM aceoanted for. p. Hence It ought to havebeenatatedaho that the deTetopaMe ircumacribing o two quadrim hae. . Since then we can describe through any assumed point a qaadric of the form XP. that thé equation of the oscalating plane is ~"F=j8'P. this plane meets the quadrica in four points which lie on two right lines interaecting in 0. whence a?= 16.M double linM. 120). or == 2. i n =12.the tmth of which it ia easy to aee: Draw a plane through the aseamed point 0.

If. the intersection breaks up into two plane conics whoBeplanes intersect in the line joining thé pointa. it muet contain the given carve.* we describea oubic.through their remaining intersectiona second quadric can he drawn for the equations of the quadrio and cubic are of the form fMe=M. nntesa their curve of intersection break up into simpler curves. The euepidatedge is the intersectionof <M+ 3o*. and s!x ofhers which are not in the same plane. If they touch at two points not on the same generator. since through any point can be ia otherwtM theeaMomight coMistof the TMaBmitaRon neeeMaty.CLA68IHCATMN CURVES. the cubic and quadric have common two right lines not in the same plane. J<?<nM~ v. 4ce-8< Since a cone of thé fourth degree cannot have more than three double edges. we have ~'==0. andofa plane. and the mtemect!om bre&ksup into a right line and a caMc. given earve MeCMxM~ andDublin ) .. It is easy to see otherwisethat if a cubic and quadric have a plane cnrve common. and the apparent double points of the two curves are connectedby the relation A–&'==' 2. <M'<='2. The intersection of this cubic with thé quadric already found muet be the given quartic together with a line of the second degree. 818the valnea f='8. OP 265 which expanded contains a as a factor and so reducea to the mMt degree. or the quartic !s one of the species ah'eady examined having two apparent double points. 817.a'.. this is a system having one apparent double point. tMa right line ia common to the aortMes. ThusIfaourveofthéMthorderliein a quadrio quadrlo it cannotbepMved distantfromthé quadrio contain can thé thata cubio JMe<XMM<tM< VoL 37. however. is a plane curve (whether conic or two right Unes). two qaadncs cannot touch in more points than ono. If a quartio curve be not the intersection of two quadnca it muet be the partial intersection of a quadric and a cubic.~='M. as appearaon snbstîta~ng in the formulaof Art. We have already seen that the curve must lie on a qoadr!c.=a!to. If two qnadrics touch at two points on thé mme generator.p. which intersect on c.~='8. therefore &=8. and if throngh thirteen points on it. When thé line of the seconddegree M=4.

AactMythree considered as the M<iM*Me<M~t apparent double ~W)tt. The numerical character!stica of these curvea are precMely the eame as those of the firat speclea in Art. that these quartics are met in three points by all the generatora of the quadric on which they lie. Smce then X'–t. 316. This system of quartica is the rectprocal of that given by the envelope of o<*+4&~+6c<'+4<&+e. It is proved. ~e!MM)<fM </ 818. that double edge being one of the generatora passing through the vertex of the quadric which contains the curve. thé cone standing on either cnrva having three double edges. Mr. drawn a tranavemal meeting both Ënes. a nodal curve of the fourth which ia of the kind now treated of. may o of <t quadric tCt<~a cone of <~ <&M-J rder having one 0~ <~ as tke ~N<!<M! <!double e<~e. We want to describe through the eight points a cône of thé third degree having its vertex at one of them. this latter system has. Thus while -any cnbic may be the projection of the intersection of two quadrics. wMch are of the same aystem as the lines common to the cnMo and quadric. and are met once by thé generatora of the opposite aystem. ~=88 or these quartics hâve three apparent double points. and the difference being that one of the double edgea in one case proceeds from an actual double point while in the other they aU proceed from apparent double points. The quadrio may be considered as the surface generated by all the "Knea through three points" of the curve. Moreover. whose vertex is any point of It M then a cnbic having a double edge. SOS. C&yleybas remarked that it ia possible to describe through cight points a quartic of this second family. as in Art. which edge abaUbe a generator of a quadrio . It is plain from what has been stated. and are therofore essentially distinct from those already discussed whichcannot have more than two. that ece~ gMa~c. in addition to its cusptdal cnrve of the axth order. quartica of this second &mily can only be projoeted into.cubics having a double point. and having a double edge.2S6 CLASStFÏCATÏON 0F CtJKViES. The cone standing on the cnrve.

a cksmncation of curves of the fifth order. nve. 819. tion to curves of higher orders.ASaïnCATM~ CURYE8.carve commonto all three.0F Ct. Four gM<t~Mt <!J~e' can be<&<eWM fore <~OM~A ~~o&t~. that thé h Unes connectingthe assumed wrtex with the seven other points are simple edges on one of these cônes and double edges on the other. through any of which can be describeda quadric and a cubic cone fcMIHng the given conditions. degrees how many of their points of intersection are absorbed by the carve? In other words. The reader will find.S" be three cubical conea having a common vertex and passing through seven other points. XjS~~S'+fjS" is the general equation of a cone MaUing the same conditions. thé ncetof which may have in addition one or two. or six apparent double pomts. It is to be ohserved. if j8". actual double or caspidal points. in how many points do thé M)r&cesintersect in addition to this commoncurve?" Now lot the fint two snr&ces intersect m tho given curve. whose 8 . in the Memoir a!ready cited. and thèse (equivalentto jbnrteen intersections)are irrelevant to the solution of the problem. There ia no dinicolty in carrying on this enumera. and the second one. 367 throagh the eight pointa. which passes through the quartic carve of thé Crst family determined by the eight points. 816) that if a system of qaadnca be describedthrough eight points tdt the generators at any one of them lie on a cone of the third degree. Now it wu proved (Art. to the solutionof a problem which oecasionaUyprésenta M~ "Three sariaces whose are ~t. Farther. and if it have f between threo dtnereatMf~ the the Eliminating then locasof doubleedgeaia thé coneof the 8)xth order The intersection then of thia cône of the s!xth degree with the other of the third determines right lines. whîch consist cf three familieshaving four. We shati condnde this seetton by applying some of the résulta aLfeadyobtained in it.' owever. p have a certain.

2B8 CLA98ÏFÏOATMN Of CCBV~ degree ta m.2m) v the number of intersections of the doublecaTvewith the complementary.p intersect in a double curvo M and a complementary ~tp–SNt. We havethen to subtract from tho number (~ <M) .p. since it was proved (Art. In precisely the same way we solve the corresponding question if the common eurvo be a doublecarve on thé surface p. in the exampte last considered. The last article enables us to answer the question: If the intersection of two surfacesis in part a cnrveof order <Hwhich is a double cnrve on one of the surfaces. The mtemectioNSf the double carvo o with thé complementaryare the points for which one of the tangent planes to one surface at a point on the double carve . But some of thèse intersections are on thé cnrve m. These nambeM expressed in terms of the apparent double points of the carve m are 820. 314) that the latter carve intemects the complementarycurve in M(j!t+f-2)–f points Dedncting this number from (~ff-m) p we find that tho sur&ces intersect in /Nt(/t+f+~-3)+f r points which are mot on the curve m. Hence We can verify this formula when the carveM is the complète intersection of two snr&ces r whose d~reea are k and Then p ia of the form ~!7*+JBPT~ CF* where A is of the degree p 2&. m how curve of intermany points doesit meet the complementary section ?" Thus. and is of the form j&~+~F whare D is of the degree ~–&. then the pointe of intersection not on thé nret curve muet be iacladeet in the (~f–M) p intersections of the latter curvo with the third surface. p 2 {m(/* +v 8) f} points. and the pointa of intersectionof the three sur&ces are got by snbtrMt!ng from (p. and we findthat the commoncurve d!m!niahesthe intersectionsby w (p-t 8/~+ 2<' 4) 2fpoints. and in a comptementary corve ~-M.the surfaces curve ~t..&c. or that the common curve absorbe M(/t+~+p-2)-)* points of intersection.

T!ie Urst equation of Art. . OF 822. when two suriaces partially intersect in a curvc which is a double cnrve on one of them. it is convonicnt to commence hy s)Mw!ug itow somo of the formata: obtained in thé Ëmt chaptcr arc modMed when the lines coumdered are indefinitely near.of the s!xth rank. -They are theréforethe intersectionof thc curve with tho surface ~E* J?FjE+ CD*wMch M of the degree p + 8~ 8 + The numberof intersections MN {p+ 2/t 2 (A+ ~)) which coincides with tho fonnula already obtained on putting M=M. Wc proved (Art. NOX-PROJECriVE PROPERTtES CURVES. but thé secondequation gives us In Hkc manner we find that the apparent double points of the two earvesarc connected thc relation by Thus wlien a quadric passes through & double Une on a oibic the remaming intersection is of thé fourth degree. and bas three apparent double points. 3!4 ceases to be applicablebecause t!io6m'faco/t+)'-2 2 altogcther containsthe doublecurvc. From the preceding article wo can show how. ~(&+!-8)=)-. As we shaU more than once in this section bave occasion to considcr lines mdc8u!tcly close to cach other.XUM'BOJECTÏVE FBOPERTIESOF CCRVE9. thé Btugataritipsof thM eurve and its compicmentaryarc connected. SECTION III. 259 co!nc!dowith the tMtgeot plane to thé other surface. 14) that the angle of inclination of two lines is given by the jbnnnh 82 . 821.

15) that cos~3cosy'-oo8~'cosY. o Agtua. &c. It followsthen that the direcUon-cosinesof the perpendicularto thé plane of thé consécutive Unes just consideredare proportional to M&t-M&M) KM-?& ?&M–)tte~thé commondiviser bemg t~M. o 323. dénote the arst dif~rential coeScients. Of thèse two have been distinguishedby special names. We proved (Art.&c. the normal which lies in the osculating and plane which is commonly oalled the ~nac~x~ KM'BM!J'/ the normal perpendicular to that plane. 48) that the direction-cosines f the line bi&ectmgthe obtnse angle made with each other by two Uneeare proportionalto co8tt–cos<['}cosj8–co9~ cos'y–cos'y'. An infinity of normal lines can evidently be drawn at any point of the cnrve. Z~Z'J~ &c. L. «.260 NON-PSOJECHVE PBOPERnESCORVES. the direction-cosmos of a line drawn in their plane. which being normal . 286) that the direotion-coaines f <&! <)~ <& 1. 8 cosy.< a tangent to a curvoare n carve be y whue. the commondIviBorbeing M. these cosines are where proportional to ~y-~f'j~ ~Z'Z. Hence when two lines are indefinitelynear. it waa proved (Art. and perpendicular to their common direction are proportional to 8 cosa. thé ho given aa the intersection of two surfaces. are proportional to thé direction-cosinesof the perpendicnlar to the plane of the two lines. 8 coB~. 0F It wu proved (Art. v!z.

<yot<<=!0.822)are proportionalto call quantities whichfor brevi~ we ah&U X. SMBt-Venant 6 Binormal.of the osculatingplane is therefore The same equationmight have been obtained (by Art. ita direction-comnes (Art. Ml to two consecattvedémonta of the carra bas been c<JM by M. mdMmaHng<iFa!. ~Iz. The helix may or be de&ted as the form aasamedby a right line traced in any plane when that plane ia wrappedround the surface of a right cylinder. ndis therefoM géodésie the intoa a on cylinderArt.278). Y. 824. it îa convenienthere to form the eqattiom:tmd state Mme of the properties of the Ae?N! curve &nned by the threadof a acrew.PBOJBCnVB MOMENTIES0F CUBVM. & AR the nonnab lie in thé planeperpendicoha* the tangent to line. 826. The eqt)<~ tion. Sinceit containstwo consecutive tangents of the curve.NON. Z. Let œ consider now the equation of the oscalatmg plane. In order to be able to iMostrateby an example the application of thé &nm)Iœof this section. ( .* From this definitionthe équations of the he!ix are ahelixtecomea rightUnewhenthe cyttatter n which a o ConveMety a it ïa ttMedh developed plane. 80) by forming the equation of the plane joining tho three consecutivepoints In applying this formula we may simplify It by taking one of the co-ordinates at pleasnre aa the mdependent variable.

The equation of any right Hne ~'=Mt!B expresses that thé ordinato is proportional to the intercept which that <mluiatc makes on the axis of x. counting from suy nxed point on it. If now the plane of the right line be wrapped round a right cylinder so that the axis of a: may coincide with the circular base.882 PBOPEBTÏE9 CURYES. where a is thé radins ot' the circular base. mcasurod along the cMc. But thé hcight e has been just proveù to bo proportional to thé arc 6. NON-MOJECTIYB OP easily obtained. tvhidt thilt ordinate makes on thé circular base. 286) The cqaattONii of If then a: and y be thé co-ordina. the nght lino will heeome a belix. The length of thé arc of tho cnrvois evidently in a constant ratio to the height ascended. of any point of tho helix are of thé fbnn a:==<itco' y=. Since wc have the angle made by thé tangent to tho helix with thé ax!a of (whieh is tho direction of thc gencrators of thé cylinder) H constant.tea the point whcre the . or when increases by 2rh hence tho interval between thé thi'cads of thé screw is 2~. It !a easy to sco that thia !a the same aa thé angle made with the gouerators hy the line into wMch thé heltx is developed when the cylinder is devetoped into a plane. oftho tangent aie (Art.o8tn0. Ilence the eqnations of the helix aro We plainly get the same ra~cs for x and y when the arc incn-ascs by 2?-. and thé orAinato of any point of thé curvo will be proportioual to the intercept. Thua the co-ordinatca of thc projection on the ptane of thé base.

826. This by eq~tton is identicallyMÛe&ed the co~)rd!natcaof a point . K Since the osculating plane passes through the tangent line.MtOtECnVE MOPERnES 0F CUBVM. We caa give thé equation of the osculating plane form more convenientin practice when the curvo is given a as the intersection of two surfacesU.ia the ttmgent plane to thé ËMtsurface. Thns them thé locus of thé points whare the tangent meets tho haM is the involuteof the circle. îts équation muet be of the form where 7/. normal plane. and osculatingplane of thé intersection of two central quaJnca. the helix will coincide with the tangent line. We leave it as an exercise to the reader to find thé tangent.NON. 268 or the distance between the foot of thc tangent and thé projection of the point of contact ia equal to the arc which meaaarea tho distancealong the circle of that pro}ectMnfi'om the initial point. and the line joining the foot of thé tangent to tho projection of the point of contact will be the at'o of the circle developedinto a right line. for if we imagine the cylinderdevelopedout on the tangent plane. This also eaa be proved geometrically.C+&C. The equation ofthe normalplane is The &fm of tho equationshowsthat thé osculatingplane makea a constant angle with the plane of the base.

eonunon to thé two surfaces. or dae <e. or e. or y. as in ordinary Cartes!an equations.264 NOÏt. we get and smce we may either.PBMECTITE MOPEMtES 0F CURVE8.maHipUedrespectivdy by a! of the Sfth cottuan vMuahea except the last row whiehbecomes . or more geaeraHy may take any tmear fonctionof theMco-ordtaatesas constant. take w M constant. end on sabsëtating the eo~rdhMttes f a second consecutive point. when thé whole colanms. and by those of a consecutive o point. we may therefore add to the two preceding equations the arbitrary équation NtwthiadetennmanttN&ybereduoedbysabtracting&omthe 6Kh cotmnn mt)lttpl!ed by (m–t) the sma of thé &'at four !o.

NON-MMECnVE PROMKHEB 0F CURVE8. HeMe. In like manner we may then subtract from the Mh row multipliedby (m 1) the anm of the &'st four rowe multipliedrespecttvetyby a'. 2M -(aic+~Sy+'j~+SM). when in like manner thé whole of the Mh row vanishes except the 6Ah cohmm whichM (aa? + + <y<! &o). or in other worda. ThM équation h due to M. 324the conditionrequired ia the determinant VoLxn. The conditionthat four pointa should lie in one plane. . Thaa the deto'nunant + reduceato If we calI the determinantlast written 8 and the correspondiag doterminant for the other equation the équation of tho osculating plane is 327. that a point on thé cnrve ehould be the ptane. see Cretle't Jb«fM<t<. ia got by Mbstttatmg point of contact of a Btationary in the equation of thé plane throngh three conseen~a points. M. thé coordinateaof a fourth consecutive point Thus from the equation of Art.

which ia the radius of the sphère determined by four consecutive points on the curve. and its radius M commonly called the radius of <t&Mhfecurvature.266 NON'PBMECnVB PROPMTtES OP CUNYE9.) gives as thé resulting condition the jMeMan S' (see Art. evidently passes through the centre of the circle of eurvature. 810. which. In order to obtain the radius of curvatare we shall that is to say. and which accordingly has been called thé polar surface. Wc shall presently state some properties of this surface. LVin. ït is the sum of two terms.* 828. 16S)) but M. and may he called & pole of the circle. BUcho~ (0'<!<b. to distinguish it from the radius of NpAeMca~ cnrvature. one of which M the Jaeobian. Monge bas therejbre called thé lines of intersection of two consecutive normal planes. BhchoS's MMonin~ ofthe four surfaces U. The condition in gênerai ia of the degree CM+Cx-ZO in the eoefMents. Vol. Y. 329. It obviously lies m thé oaculating plane: its centre is thé intersection of the traces on that plane. the polar lines of thé surface. u in plane cm'ves. The polar lino is evidently parallel to the IIne called the Binormal (Art. and the othet is the same function of thé 6Mt and second dift'erential coeCcients as the JacoMan M when the surfaces are qnadHM. Now the intersection of two consecutive normal planes. is called the circle of curvature. and hM result M only correct in the case where the Mt<ace< are quadries. thé angle first calculate thé angle of coK&!C~ made with each other by two consécutive tangents to the 1 have not Mceeeded in completing thé reduction of the corresponding tondMon when the carre is given as the intersection of two eat&ee< P. by two consecutive normal planes. We shall next consider thé circle determined by three consecutive points of the carve. le unsound. If through the centre of a circle a line bo drawn perpendicular to its plane. any point on this line is equidistant from all the points of the circle. . and is perpendicular to its plane. It Is evident that all the normal planes envelope a developable of which these polar lines are the generatora. If a curve in space be a plane curve. Art. M. as might he inferred &om the value of «. and which will be investigated presently. 32S). this condition mnst be fulfilled by the co-ordinates of every point of it.

thé tangents at the cxtrem!t!esof which make with each other the angle dO. I~et ~J!. then emce thé ttrojeettOMof BCon the axes Me <&t <<*< t d'y.then dnce the angle made ~!th each other by two tangents to a c!rc!eis equal to the angle that their points cf contactsubtend at its centre.SI) i but two aidesof this triangle are each <&. This formula may <tko be proved geomet)'!ca!!y. wo hâve p~==<&. + dy it ia pMn that the projections on the axes of the diagonal CD are d'jr. 822 that <? the <mg!e between two consécutive tangents is given by either of the 6)rmu!œ The truth of the latter formula may bo seen geometrically: for the right-hand mdoof the equation denoteathe square of doublethc triangle formedby threo conRecuûve points(Art. <<*<. And thc élémentof thé are aud thc two tangents be!ng connnon tu the curro and the cirde of ourvature. another value for <?* M &<mdwithout diNculty. But CD projeeted on thé d'y. on a line perpendicular to it is <&<?: whenco . Thé direction-cosinesof the tangent being 267 ) y < S.and thé angle between them is dO.NtMf-HMMECTIVE PROPEttMES CCttVBS. and element ofthe arc ia <<*<. whence C~' (t!)!f t (<~)' + (<~)*. tho radius of curvatare is given by the formula By performing thé di&renUatîoM indicated.hencedoublethé are~ is If now (&be thé element of the arc. OP curve. BO be two consecutive elements of the cmTe! ~D a Une parallel and equal to JBP. <&+<<*<. it follows from At't.

If the angle whichthé Mn'&ces ake with oach other be <e. an expresion for the radius of carvatore can be eamiy obtained. Ex. we m'e eMNed by the formulo of Art. 822 aïso to detennuM ita pûaition.cos/8. p cos~S.the co-ordmates of thé centre ofcorv&tareare determinedby the equations 831.268 NON-HMMEtttVB fBOPEKHES 0F CPBYM. Putting in p then for coset. weSad~a–t 830. and x.coa'y their values jnst found. ofAtt.SM. Let and < be thé radn of curvature of the normal sections of thé two surfaces. then the projections of the radius of cnrvatttreon the axes are a!a:. and be the angle wMch thé oscola~ng plane makes with let thé omt normal phme: then by Mennier'a theorem. y~ « those of thé centre of carvatnre. and perpendicalar to their common direction are hy that arttde. thé aectMna being made along the tangent to thé curve. we have The Mme equations determine thé oscat&tmgplane by tho &))'mn!at<m~=_y. When a curve Mgtven as thé intersection of two sor&cMwhich eut at right angles. but they are a!ao p coeet. For thé ditecdon-coMnes of a line dMwn m thé plane of two consécutive tangents. m theconespondiDjg&nntthis . tMag thé &M'mutm of e'~A* Mdta]f<tdia<ofen)n~tt)''ebMMtMt. cosy. Havmg thus detemuned thé magmtnde of thé rad!a9 of omvtttore. To &td thé Mdiut of CM'Mtt«M thé hettx. y' e'–i!. If Il he the co-ordinate of a point on thé eurve.

Let us now considerthe angle mado with each other by two conaecative oscotatmgplanes. which we shall caU the and denote by < The direction-cosines of angle of torsion. 86& We can henceobtain an expression for the radius of cnr-~ vature of a cnrve given as the interaeotion of two <Mr&ce9. the osculatingplane being proportional to JT. 1~ the second &rmula of Art. we have 832. We may write Z'+Jtf+~=J! and Z"+Jtjr'+j~=JE". 822 gives .NMHMtMECMVE NtOPBtfFtM OP COKVES.

270 0F NON'MMECTtVE PRÛPEMIE8 CCRTKS.we may consider an osculating right conedetennmed by three con~eut~c phnea of t~o aystem. let thé Unesof the system The quaatity y is also Mmetune~ calledthe "Meondcntmtmfe"of the<Mtvo. . the common side la ds.A' an with the base. Nthe aide adjacent face making an angle common to the two faces. howcver.E. Imagine that a ephMe M descnbed having as centre tho point of thé aystem in wbtchthe three planes intersect. so that 2~1'==<p:then for tho volume of thé s pyramid we have 3 ~T==. New if be the triangular base of a pyramid. like the radius of curvatttre.~ain~ and 6~!=8~p~ Nn~==4A~' un). and caR it thé radius of (oMM)!but the reader will obMT~e that th~ ia not. the radius of a reat circle inthnately connectedwUa thé corve. D. Thia fbrmuta may bo also proved geometiieally. Mwe have considered an osculating circle determined by tbrec consecutivepoints of the ayatem. For J)/ dénotes six times the volume of the pyramid made by four consecutive points. thé analogy of thé radius of cutvxtare which ia Following thé later Frontiti wntera denote thé qnaBtity* by the y letter r. and m henee 6r& == thé llmit Q. 333. &nd p thé perpendicular&om thé vertex on a. In the same manner. whHe ~*+y+~* dénotesfour tuucs tho square of thé area of the triangle formedby throe consecutive points. Now in the case considered.

and toudied by -~7~ BT. the assemblageof these planes generatea a developable which is called thé ''<c< developable. Thé problem then is. Thé reason of thé name is.PMJEC'nVE PBOPEBTÏES 0F CURVES. that when and arebothconstant.p du 334. and tan. < the length of the two tangents. the given curvo will become a right line. The intersectionof two consecutiveplanes of thé rectifying Now since thé plane passing developableis thé }'cc<~<~ /< throngh the edge of a right cone perpendicular to its tangent plane passes through its axis. ty thecurremust e a holixtMeed a cylinderand byPuiseux. and which stands on that small circle will evidently oseulate the given curve. that the given curre is obviousiy a gcodesic on this developable. thenifwe describoa small circle of the same sphere passing through and J3. tanB'c' --=. Bertrandthfttwhenthe ratio f p M. and let thé correspondingplanes meet the same aphere m BT. cylinder a circutar Mc. r the hn b p . and from thé rightIf then angled triangle CAT wo hâve 8m~2'=. If thereforethe developablebo developed into a plane. thé cone whose vertex is thé centre. and <?~ correspcnding arc ofthe cu'cteto findJ~Its radius.B=.every where normalto thé surface. tan~~U be the externat angle between two tangents to a oirde.sinccits osculatingplane Is. being given the angle between two consecutive the tangents to a mall circleof a aphere. <f~ or according to thé notationused. Let C be the centre of the circle. 271 passing through that point meet thé sphère in jl end JS. H the radius of thé circle !s given by thé formula tanir=~ In thé limit e is thé element of the arc of thé cirdc. by construction. Imagine that through every line of the system there is drawn a plane porpendieularto the correspondingosculating plane. b on coMtMt. it follows that the rectifying plane passesthroughthe axis of the osculating cone considered It has beenproved M.NON.

and BB' meaMMSthe angle between them. but the generating line hsdf is in everypoint of it one of the principal tangents. In the case of the helix the rectifying surfaceH obviously the cylinder on which the curve is traced. we hâve . the point being a cnsp. Bence if he the distance of any point on the developable from the cuspidaledge measuredalong thé generator. In fact it was proved (Art. of <woM~!<Mty The rectifying line may be therefore construeted by drawing in the rectifying plane a line making with the tangent line an angle whero F has the value determined in the tast article. the rectif~ing plane therefore touches the surface of centrea 'wHch is the envelope of al! these rectitying planes. When 1 vanishes. If ~J3'. fhis radius of curvature vanishes as it ought. Now the triangle BOB' being a vay smaN right-angled triangle.272 NON-HMMECnVE MOFBBTTB! OP CCBVES. 338. namely. and therefore that the Mc<~«!~ line is the OMM <&o!< c<MM. of planea parallel to the osculating and normal planes. The rectifyingsar&tceis the surfaceofeentreaof the original developable. in tho last article. then the central radius to B iathe direction of thé radius ofcnrvature. B' is in the directionof the conculating secutive radius of cnrvatnre. that perpendicolar to the generating une. B' C be consecutive positions of the osand normal planes. The centre of carvatore at any point on a developableof the other principal section.277) that the normal planes to the original Ntr&cealong the two principal tangents touch the surface of centres. is the point where its plane meets the correspondingrectifying line. for evidently the tracea on this plane of two consecutive rectifying planes are two consecutivenormalsto the section.B. the radius of corvatnM of the transverse section is Man. 'M? <~ OK~ &e<!OMM <WtMCCeMtW M!d'tt<<<fM!<Mr& Let AB. JBuM traces on any sphere withradius umty.

y e e!nM' <Mt theMsaltof eliminating <iefound be to becomea whena. that the "angle of torsion" of the one system !a equal to the "angle of contact" of thé other. Since the intersectionof thé normal planes at two con«ccuttvc points J?. a Binoe. It is evidently a skev surface(seenote. 76). 278 Bat emeethe angle ABC m right. And ofthehélixit = o co<M. whieh is dO.tetaM!. Fonner hM remarked.2. and vicew<!< The reader /M will observe howeverthat it doos not followthat the of <& j~ one system ie equal to the of the other. required the writingthe equations y mt&eeieyeosttf. The series of radii of curvatnre at all the points of a curve generate a surface on the properties of which we have not space to dwdl. where <&)and <? have the values already found.* ~*«! it MpMn that + Sincethis equation Impossible on no part ofthefHM&oewithin cyUnder whioh lies the thehelixistraced. ~<3mcasnresBAB'. ToHndthe équation the developable of generated the tanby of gentsof a helbt. JEt. and OB' measares OCB'. <! &Ma ° we arete eUmittote of it~t'by the help of thé equat!oM the eurve. We shall nowspeak of the polar developable enerated g by the normal planes to thé given curve. Tofindthe equation the sm'&ce theradii of curvature of of in thecaseof thehelix.NON-HMMBcnVE PMOPËKTIES 0F CURVE8. which ia < the angle betweentwo consecutive osculating planes. thé angle between two consecutivenormal planes. since two consecutive radii do not in generalintersect (see Art. 836. 338. p.326) ~):. Theradiuset cutvattite o and beingthé tnteKMtion fthe OMuMng normal hasfor !t<équations which plsnea (Art. Theequations thé tangentbeing f -oa s coa~ (e <'). JT' of thé eurve is tho axis of a circle of T .infra). Ex. becauao the <&is not the same for both. The required angle M therefore given by the formula ~B"==<+~. as is SMJBcientty obvtOQSince the planes of this new system are perpendicular s to the Unesof the originalsystem. (< « CM<t<') tinM* (<-<').1.

~4 NOtt-PROJECTïVB FMPNMtM CPKVE8. meeting the first generator in D. Let 3)Hf'. We SeeMong~p. thèse lines bemg the generators cf the polar developable. &c. ~l'J3'. 337. the ghren carve may be ~o?<M' <~M!<~MtMe/* generated in an infinity of ways by the unrolling of a stnng woundround a curve traced on that developable. Draw now at pteasutef any tine JH) in thé 6mt normal plane. J~t~ty curve ~<M t'H/&t~ of e~M<M~Mty on the an that is to say. ~f'Jtjf". the joining Imc~ point 1) on that line he joined to are equal and make oqual angles with that axia.and hence tangents to the cuspidaledgo J!~ of that Mr&ce. Jï'. the &c< m!ddlopoints of thèse éléments. C~are . are the lines in which eaoh normal plane is intersected by the consecutive. say in D'. The l!nes AB. or tvhich 9 aud Jr &M points (Art. In the case of a plane corve this polar developablereducee to a cylinderstanding on the evoluteof the eurve. joïn DJT which being in the secondnormal plane will meet thé secondgenerator ~'B'. lot J8r"D'meet A"B" in 2)". It M plain that three consecutivenormal planes mteraect in the centre of the osculatingsphère hencethé CM~px&t~ edge M locus of centresof ~eMCO~ CM~of <J~ polar <&M?Opa5~ vature. iat<Aen om & Leroy's <M))M~y t TM< 6 ~fMrM2)MtMo<Mtx.then the planes drawn through the points ir pcrpendicularto the elements are thé normal planes. &c.828). In like manner. it followsthat if any and K'.denote thé successiveelementsof the curve.aM.

but M not one of the eystem of evotntes. the circle can be described by moving round a thread of constantlength fastenedto any point on the axis passing through the centre of the cMe. since they are the intersections f thé same normal plane by two dînèrent o will therefore meet thé lino ~2! in a osculating planes. jy~. <&e. -KX~ and the lengths JP~~D~ jP'jr=.Z)'JP". then C is the arst centre of cnrvatore: and in like mannerthe secondcentre !s C'. Now thé rad!! JT'<~ ~'C" are distinct. and windingthe continuationof that tangent &eely round the developable.NOX. 338. when the eurve is a éircle. A plane curve bas th)B an infinity of evolutes lying on the cylinderwhosebase is thé evolute in the plane of the cnrve. Since the firet line DK was arbitrary the carve has an infinity of evolutes. &e. the tangents to the cnrve 2)2)* are nonnak to the carve j?". For the lines 2)jS.J5'"C'. If thereforeDK be a part of a thread woundround . 886) that . ~eo<&<Me For we have seen (p. 819) that a cnrve is a geodesic when two snceesmve tangents to it make equal angles with the intersection of the correspondingtangent planes of the surface and it hae just been proved (Art. DK which are two successive tangents to the evolute make equal angles with J[B whichis the intersectionof two consecutive tangent planes of the developable. An evointe may then be found by drawinga thread as tangent from K to the polar developable. In the general case. it is plain that as thé thread !s unwoundthe point K will movealongthe given curve.PBMECTIVE MtOPERTtH) CCNVE8. For example. that M.&c. Let the nret oscu1ating lane MM'M" meet the first two normal p planes in Kg ~'C. the Unes in whieh the second osculating plane 3f'Jtf"J(f" in met by the secondand third normal planee.2<T'C' f2 . re a on<~j)o! d5K)d~p<!&&. (seo Att 886). the point of !ntepsection of JT'C". Or 276 get thus a curveDD'D" traced on the polar developablewhich ie an evoluteof thé given cnrve. in the special case where the evolute Kdncesto a pomt. The locna of centres of curvature is a curve on the polar developable. aU Me et~«<ecurves D2)'jP".M.MM)".

and thé unwinding of sach a thread would not give the curve jnr' except in the case whero thé tattor ia a plane curve. whero m and r M havethe Mme meMun~M et p. Any radius therefore JSTC' would not be the continuation of a thread wound round CC'O". tl6! thus it atgomen<s ia easyto see that the etaM of that developable m f. m obvïousiy t!to length of thé perpendicnlar distance from thé centre of tho ephere to the plane of the <MTdoof cttrvatufe. To ~M<~the f<tJtM of Me ~?8 OOM<&OMy& J~MM' secutive ~(M'H~. Let bo the radius of any sphere.8'y any point on thé plane. Consequently thé two radii of cnrvatnre J8'C~ ~T'C" situated in the planes jF~F* bave no common point in ~J? thé intersection of these planee. anteas in thc case where two consecutive oscalating planes coincide. 330. Let tho equation of any nonnt~ ptanc be where a~ !s tho point on thé curve.* 839. Of point J which is distinct from C. these rttdH are not tangents to thé iocus of centres. p the with thé radius of a section by a plane making an angle normal plane at any point. and a. and for a consécutive plane making an angle ~cos~t=p. then. two consecutive radii therefore do not intersect. The centres of curvature then not being given by the saocesMve intersections of consecutive radu. 382). . We have then oniy to g!vo in th!s osprMSton to p and <<~ thé values aiready found (Arts. 2~ j~K<~ co-m~MM!<M ~e ceM<n: tXe oscM&t<M!~ the of sp~~e. 840.Art. then thc cquation of a consécutive normal plane combined with the prcceding gtvca Thé chMMterMtiesof thé polar developable may be investigated by 8imilar to thMe umd Higher ~fMe C«rMe. by Meunier's theorem.276 NON-PRMECHYE PBOPEBTÏES CURVES. 234.

The mgle between two succeMiveJ!'a i$ givet~by thé fonnuta The Kadetwittûnd Attther deta!h on the eubjectf)treated of in this section in a Memoir by M.4!7. LioaviUe. de Saint-Venant. employed by Pitot) and who . who bas brought into use the titlo by wh!eh they hâve beea commonlyknown (previously. From thie expression we immediately get values for the radii of carvature and of torsion of thia béas. Ex. Ex.. Ï. We add a few othcr expressions. 0<MM' &Ktndte for the transformation and reduction of ealculatione relative to the theory of mn-phme e))jve< and in a paper by M. thé greater part of which admit of simple gcometrical proofs.Tbtotxt~ r~!eo& jPo~<M&<h XBC. the detaib of wMch want of space obliges ns to omit. 2. p. remembering that the angle of torsion M the angle of contact of the original and vice veM&. If Sbethe length of the arc of the locusof oenttesof ephetîeat where& is the distancebetweenthe centresof e a'! the oMMiating eircte and (Mcahtitt~ aphere. xvn. Of 277 By squaring and adding theso équations we obtain another expression for JB*. .NON-PNMECnVB rfM'FMM'tES CURVfM. 1 abridge the foUo~ing hi<tortcat sketch &om M. The angle between two conaecative reotifyng lines la dB. Frenet..who has also collected into a table about a hundred <t<{W. ) Vol. de Mnt-VeMn~a Memo!r Cnrve lines not contained m the 8MMp)ane have been encceasivelyetudied hy Clairaut (~<eA<M~« «<)' &< <M<f&M <<M<Ne à <M<f6M'<. howe~er. Ex. If <rbe the Mo of the eurve whieh fa the tocuoof eentKW of abeolute ouMatme. «u'vatare <? = Ex. 8. n31). 4.which !s what the value in the last article would become when for p acd we substitute their values.

and hMerted in VoL x. for the ontenon ibt 'pointe of ~mpk înBMtion'where four eoMeenttve pe!n~ are in a plane.." . gente the normalealong it will be parallel to a fised plane. arc.&e. 1780) who wM the nMt presented in 1774. 18M. of &t<XM<t étranger. V. and inserted VoL I. thé geodeNMon that surface anewenDgto right lines. and WM and Dublin ~M!!<Xe<Ma<M<t? MM<!(Dickson. SECTION IV. and &)f <pohn< ef double MexMn' where three coaMM~ve pointa are înatightUne! by'NMean(&<<t«Mt<b9«<~tt«~<~M~NMt. Thue the aphere ve know bas a geometry of ita owa.' M well M in hh 'p<«M<Mtt <<t<Ma~M tt G&tmarM') who gave ex. preadoM for the normal plm. evolutes. hy Monge (3SmoMWt«r le.278 CtfBVEi!TBACED ON SURFACES. CURVE8 TBACEDOH SURFACES. !x. centre of osculating sphère. and in like manner each sarfacehas a geometryof its owa.. J~ N whieh are proportional to the duection-cosmett the normal of direction-cosines thé bisector (Art. polar lines and polar devdepaMe. of the '&e<M« ~ax~t. 978). 168). Vol. nMmah. 17M. to eoMMee the osculating plane and the developable generated by the tangentai by Laofoh (OtM . 341. centre and radius of eun~tuM. < pteoented ~ in 1771. and by Laneret (JM~noMW j~ «xo~M d!Mt6& <!MO~«M.p. The dfferentia equation )a Immediately obtainedfrom the property them proved. For fromthe equation bu given expressions for thé prqjecttoM of thèse carm. hence Z. It remains to say somethmgof the properties of cuves consideredas belonging to a particular sm'fye. for their tangents. jStMH<t~M~ft.. 822). read 1802. We have ahfeady by anticipation given the fandmental property of a géodésie(Art. de l'Inetitut) who cahalated the angle of torsion. and !atMd)Medthe consideration of the KctHy!n~ lines and Kctnying surface. Thns "if the tanof to a geodesic make a constant angle with a fixed line.. C!M~~t%e JoMraa~ Vol.D~rot~M) who wae the nMt to Kndeî the fonnutee tymmetnoal by introducing thé diCeteatiah of the three Mff co-ordiMtea. &c. where great circles take the place of ImMin a plane. <KM&<)~<. that the normallies m the plane of two sacceaatve elementaof the carvo aad bMectethe angle between them.

Henee. if every géodésie through A meet the curve perpendicularly. If ~M«~ any point on a surface ~e~ <~<Mt<tM ez~M&~KM~a~~M~~M~MM~?Me~ww~<& <yem<MMat )'~< aa~ to to<& ta Let ~LB=*~<7 and let us suppose the angle at B not to be right. Ur the proof may be stated thus Thé shortest line &om a point JL to any curve on a surface meets that carve perpendicu1arly.~<7 îa not the shortest path from ~L to C. Take e BD =and then becauaeall the aides of the triangle BOD are in&utely am&Hit may b<t treated M a plane tnangle and the angle DCB is a right angle. 628. contrary to hypothema. . We can paM then from D to the curve more shortly by going along the perpendicular than by travelling along the asaumedradiusvector whichis thereforenot the ehortestpath. but to be = 8. and from this point let &!1 a perpendicularon the curve [wh!ch we caa do by ta!dng along BU a portion=BD cos and joining the point so found to D]. jiD+DO<A0. 842.the length of that géodésie ia constant. 343. 279 which dénotesthat the tangents make a constant angle with a Ëxad line.whoaltopMVM bytheCalculM is <ee to Edition p. Wo have therefore and therefore DC<2)~. <~<X It follows that . For if not. it of fhMtheorem dueto Gaum. It 18 aiso evident mechanicaBy that the ctrcte descnM on any NU&coby a sttamed cord from a 6xed point is every where perpendicularto the direction of the cord. V<niationt) theAppendix Li<mvUle'< of Mange. applied to right lines (C!M!t<y.CURVE8TRACEDON 6UBFACJM. The theorem jast proved ia the &tndamentaitheorem of the method of m&MtesimaIa. take a point D on the radius vector &om and indefinitely near to the carve. we eu (Mnc~ which dénotesthat the notmats are parallelto a fixed plane.

Now flq is tho second element of tho normal section: let tnq = 6'. Mp be two consecutiveand equal elements of the and curve. due to M. Art." We shall presentlyapply these principles to the case ofgeodesics traced on qnadrica. that ia to say. then the diference betweenthé snm of these tangents and the intercepted apo of the curve which they touch ia constant" (see (~MMM. If now be tho angle of contact <p=6<&. if wo construct on any surface thé carre answering to an ellipse or hyperbola. the locusof a point the atttn or (USereaooof whose geodesie d!ataïMea from two Sxed points on the surface is constant. Let mn.* gives at the same tnne a proof of Meanier's theorem.280 CUBYESTBACED OM 8UBFACM. Produce nt==N!K. &c. 676. . let Ml on tho plane the perpendtcnlar mnp. The followingcalculationof the radius of géodésie carvatare." The convene of thistheorem is also trae. if two géodésie tangents to a cnrve. thmugh any point P. 344." or "if two different curreBboth cut at ïight angles a system of geodesicsthey intercepta constant length on each vectorof the series. pp. then is the anglo of contact Appendix to Monge. For example. 289. Aga!n. so the ~ax~M cM~x!<MMa carve of on a sarface Is measared by thé ratio borne to the élément of the arc by the angle betweon two conseoativo geodesic tangents. "if equal portions be taken on the géodésie normab Again. As the cnrvature of a plane curve is moasured by the ratio which the angle betweentwo consecutivetangents bears to the element of the arc. 856). the line joining their extrcmities onts all at right angles. then the tangent at any point of the !oens h!sect8thé angle between the geodesics joining the point of contactto the 6xod pointa.). to a onrve. Ait the theorems therefore which are there proved by mcans of this principle will be tme if instead of right lines we cons!dcrgeodesicstraccd on any suriace. p. make equal angles with the tangent to a curve along which P moves.HonviRe.

The geodeeM~radius of curvature is thepe~re It is dino radius !e the absolute radius of easy to see that this geodeNLC ~furvatureof the plane cnrve into which the given cnrve would bo traosfbnned. p is the perpendieular on the tangent plane at the point. thèse perpendlca!arswill be proportional to the perpend!onlarsfrom the centre on the same planes. 70. jpMg bcing 6" the géodésie angle of 1 J. and (2) If from each of two points ~1.Now thé angle g<p(==~) Mthe angle between the oseulating plane of the eurve and thé plane of normal section. in liko manner. or -==– ~=<pa!a~. The theory of geodesics tracod on qaadncs may be said to depend on Joachunsthars fundamental theorem that at every point on snch a curvc pD 1s constant where. R being cos~ and n =* théradius of cnrvatare of thé normal section and p that of the givencurve.and D is the diameter of the qnadric paraUet to the tangent to the cnrve at the samc point. h&ve ~c!0"<& àino.TRACED CCBVE8 ONSURFACES. their lengthe are proportional to the parallel diameters. we have pq 0"de and pq ip sino. Now. as at Art. 174. B on the quadric perpeudicularsbe let fat! on the tangent plane at the other. Bonnet. For the length of thé perpendtcnlarfrom a:'y~" on the tangent plane 1 have not adopted the name second géodésie em~tare" !ntrodu<ed by M. 281 of the normal scet!on. It is intended to expteM the ratio borne to the élément of the arc by the angle which the nonnal at one extremity makes with the plane containing the clement and Uie normal et the otho. This may be proved by thé help of thé two following prhiciples: (1) If from any point two tangent lines lie drawn to a quadric.by ciroumscnbmga developable to the given surfacealong thé given curvc. 345.extremity. . This is evident from Art.and <j'==6'<&. contact. and since <g==<pcos~we have < =~ whieh laMeunter'a theorem. and unfolding that developable into a plane.

xui.. But J[T and BT are proportionalto D and 2)*. t'<N<.2M CUBVE8 T&ACEDON SURFACES.Vot. p.. If now the lines BT make equal BT with the intersection of the planes.f DMerentiatingthe equation TMa proof is by Dr. Bonnet. <H<t<Mj~ V Ji)Mr~M~ oL v.&& 846. p. 168. J!)«nt«<<& VoL xix. VoL C f~M& t SM~oMMtMthaï. p. .and the perpendiculars are as the perpendïcnlarsfrom the centre and p. t88t Dickson. the linea angles are proportionalto the perpendiculars6'om and Bon the tw~ planes.. 878) that if ~4 TB be saccessiveelementsof a géodésiethey make eqnal angles with thé intersection of tbe tangent planes at A and B.. In like manner the perpendîcular&om on the tangent plane at Ais BT mn<'sm~. Chfavef). IM. C~Nt. But It wu proved (Art. Ch~M~ and Dublin JMa< J'ei~tetaj~. Q. 279. Hence 2~==JP'p'. and if AT make an angle i with thé intersection of the ptane~ the angle betweenthe planesbeing w then the perpend!cnlar from A to the intersection of the planes is ~3"mNt and from A on the other plane js ~jfsmtNnM. Hence the quantity pD temaiM unchanged as we pass from point to point of the geodesic. p.xxvr. On accountof the importanceofthe preceding theorem we wish atso to show how it may be deducedfrom the dinerential équationsof a geodesic. If now from thé points B there be drawn UnesJ[ BT to any point T on the intersection of the tangent planes <t ~i and B.

MACEBON &UBFACE8. when the surface. a &mtmtegr&lof thé equation can be found. ia'~ty of the Meonddegree. &ndreduce the remit JMc + ~Mi~ the diferential equation of the aarSMe ')-~Hk = 0~ by and !t~ conséquence 347. The: precedmg equation is true for a geodeac or Une but of carv&tnMon any MU'&ce. the normal. wc diffarentiate If we actuallyperformthe dMerentiatuMM. the d!rectK)n-coame& a l!ne in the same plane of with two consecattvenormale and pefpendtcular to them are (Art. In fact we have TMa may be easily venËed by namg thé general equation of a qaadno. Heace the -y-. are the d!mct!M~*coMnes of p. for Binco &c. or more simplyby osmg thé equation . &c. CURVM 288 It is to be remarked that thia equation ie (Jao tme for a Uneof eurvature. of a Une of curvature are proportional to But if now ~(~). 822) proportionalto <f (p) &c.

J~MnM<. and ÛtH<ttK~« DublinJ!<o(A<tHa(<e<~ VoLiv. being =Y and since the central section parasol to thé tangent plane at the umbUtcis a cirde. Hence for a géodésiepasaingthrough an umbilie. The equation of the last article then consistaof tenoBeach aepantely integrable. Now from the precedmgvalues But the rigbt-hand 9tde of the equation dénotes the rec!pr<cnl of the square of a central radins whose d!to<~ion-cos!aes are dx <& · ~'<&'<&' The geometric meaning therefore of the integral wo hâve found !a ~J?=* constant. The constant~D ~<M «MMvaluefor aU ~M~MCa tlie toAM~ through an umbt7ic. nd it Mevident a thatpD iain a nxedratioto w<! Henee along sin<. a géodésie s fore. Hert proveathe sametheoremas 6)Uov<: onstder plane O my section an ellipsoid. of têt bethe perpendicnlar fromthe centre the of on o section the tangentUne. For at tho nmMIIo the p ia ~OM of com'Becommon to aU.its differontial alwaysvanishing. by sabstitntmg whiehvalues the equation is at once established. p. theaeetion varies pD aa siniand wtUbe a taaxhnmn herethe ptaaemoeta Mr&ee w the perBat oset~tes aenesof no'nMdeetMMt a there. Then alongthe Metion Mconstant.. Dr.d thediameter f the section to parallel that makes withthe tangent tMtgent) théanglethe planeofthe section plane at anypoint.284 CURVES TRACED ON SURFACES.* 348. Intepting we have ~(<~<~+<+<M'&)==<W. for sucha line pD la constant. the diamoter parallel to thé tangent line to the geodestc îs constant being always equat to thé mean ax!s b.we havejpD~ao. pendioularly. . 84.

Vol. and B another umbilic. 1. 849.since we have just proved that pD M the same for both geodesics. . Michae! Roberte. the differencewhen for one of these umbilles we substttate that diametrically opposite so that one of thé nmMUcss interior. or It followsa!so (aee Art. that is to aay. sinco the vertically opposite angles are equal which thèse geodesics make with either lino of curvature through the point. since the sum PA+PB is conatant and a!ao the dinerence PA'-PB.CURVES TKACKD ONSURFACES. which lie on thé same diameter. and we know that the axes of the central sectionof a quadrio parallel to the tangent plane at any point are parallel to tho directions of the lines of cm'vature at that point. i If A. Thh theorem and itt conMquencM devetcped in the following articles are due to Mr. that is to M'%<cA co~)tec< o~pM~e «MStKcs <MO are say. 285 Let now any point on a quadric be joined by geodesicsto two ttmhttics. I. the ~eod!M<M ~MKM!~ny point a on a ~K<K~M two M~M~CN ake €~<M?ngles <M'<& lime to m the a that of curvature <XMM~ p0!t!< It 6)!lowsthat the geodesicajoining any point to the two opposite umbilics.iouvi))e. are continua~ons of each other. Me constantpD has the same c<!?«e «H ~eo<~MM for «)~t'< touck th eame line of curvature. all the ~M~eatOt of egM~ &~<& In fact. A' be two opposite umbilics. Hence. the other exterior to tho line of curvatare. it Mows that PA+PA' Is constant. it is evident that two indefinitelynear geodesica connecting the same two points on any aur&cemust be equal to eachother. X! p. The sum is constant chosen are mtcrior with respect to thé when the two mnMUcs Uneof eurvature.and mace at the point of meeting the p is the same for both. Bnt two equal diameters of a con!c make equal angles with !ts axes. 848) that the M<M <?~MKMis distances of all the ~otK~ on the aame CMM<(Ht< ~coJ<MM of the lino of curvature from <~M«mAf~tM. the dtameters are equal which are drawn paraM to the tangente to thé geodesics at their point of meeting. the D for that point must atso have tho mmo value for both.

a" be the primary sem!-axesof two confucalsurfaces throngh any point on the curve. ?Xe <o<!<M~e tM&MM<MMt ~eo<~<Mc of o~ <Mo tangenteto a line of curvature. <pJ5<M-CMtM. ByI. The equationpD = constanthas beenwritten in another convenientjbrm. For example. MO. It was proved (Art. 174) that pD hae a constant value all along a line of coi'vatuM. tmd let t be the angle which the tangent to the géodésiemakeswith one of the principal tangents. the umbilicsaMwenng to the foci. a" henoe a" + a'" = constaDt Yo!. we Ifa'. p. <!<? <0 ~ax~MtC tangent8<~(MC!! one ~OM any point on another make e~tM~ the o~&e <c&& tangent at <%<!< point. Then since <«". tx. Th!s is proved as the correspondingtheoremfor plane cornes. hâve a" coa't+ot"*Nn*~==comtaBt. of any other Bem!-d!ameter that sectionis given by the equation 861. Hemce then a eystem of Unes of curvature bas properdes completely analogous to those of a system of confocal oom~ in a plane. Gravee'e theorem for plane conics holds a!sofor lines of curvature.* Let d.p.o"*(Art. a!n'<+a"' cos't's constant. 401. Dr. 172)are thé sem!-axesof the central sectionparallel tothe tangent plane.whilethe intersection movea along another line of curvature of the same 6pec!es (aee <~M«M) 297). that the exceas of the snm of two tangents to a line of enrvature over thé intercepted arc Mconstant. a" belong to the point of intersection.MuTtt)e.M~tbAa<at c Ma aMyXM. v!z. .286 CUBVE8TBACED ON BOBPAC~. a*. but at the pointa where either geodesic touches the Une of curvature both p and D have the same vaine for the géodésieand the line of curvature..

as a parttcnla!'case. the locuaof thé foot of the geodesicperpendicular from an umbilic on tho tangent to a line of curvature is a ephero-conic. The locus of intersection is thereforethé intersection of the given qoedric with a concentricsphere. We hâve therefore whenco it appem that the locus reqairod M the intersection of the quadrio with a snr&ce of the fourth degree.. 852.XtV.* 853. 19~. to a given Une of curvatnre are determined by the equation a" cos't+a"* Bin't=~3. 287 and therefore(Art. 291)by the Vol. o'. t thé angle they make with one of these radii is half the angle they make with eachother. that if the axes of the three surfaces pMsmg through any point on the Ime be <t. To ~M< ?<?«< <H<M'aee<MM! <~ ~eodM: <<M~<K<a <~ ? a line of curvature M~M~CM<t a ~tOMtangle (Be~O) a HonvIUe. 247). 169)the distanceof the point of intersection &omthe centre of the quadricis constant. a" and the angle the line makes with the three normals at the Mr.CBRVE8Ttt~CED ON SUBFACES. It was proved (Art.that the projection this curveon the planeof of at cireular ecdoM the toctaofthe interMethm tangente a conatant a is is ta i thelineof curvature projected. The demonstrationholds if the geodesics are tangents to difRerentMnes of eurvature. and. and since they make equal angles with either of the principal radii throagh that point. p. 186) that two confbcals Cttnbe drawn to touch a given line.Michael Robe~ hMproved(Liouville. The tangents from any point whose a'. angle theconicntowhich . xv.p. of methodof Art. «" are given.

as a particular case of the theorems j~t proved.we see from this article that that équation expressesthat all the <aKyeK< alongthe same yax~tc &KM <OMcA COM/OCC~ M~Me~M'Ma~ M& the axis M~ce The geodesicitse!f will touchthé lino of curvature in whieh this confocalintersects the original sar&ce.p. smoe they are the planes of two planes consecutive tangent Unes to that confocal. reducesto the mnMHcarocal f conic... 848). then the ax!9-m~or of the touched con&cal ie determined by the quadraëc Let us suppose now that the given line Ma tangent to thé quadric whoseaxis is <~we hâve then coaa~0. L!oMTi)t<Vo). Hence. Chasle<'< Memoir. also the tangent to tho confbcal at that point. The value of pD for a geodesic passing through an umbilic is ao (Art. whose primary axis is '/(«'-5*).XT. The axis then of the secondconfocaltouched hy the given Hne is determined by the equation If then we write the equation of a geodcsic (Art. . since the line is of courseat right angles to the normal to thé first surface. and the corresponding equation ia therefore <t''eoB''t+a"*sm't=a'-t'. The oBco!atmg planes of the geodesieare plainly tangent to the same confocal. for the tangent to thé geodeMC the point where the geodesic meets the at confocal ts. Now the confbcal. The geodesictherefore and the intersection of the confocaland the given surfacehave a common tangent. as we have just proved.amcethé tangent plane to the Mr&ce a containsboth the line and tbe other two nonnalB~ The angle </ is what we have called i in the articles immediately preceding. 35!) 0" cos*~+<t"* sm't==a*. <y. The theorems of this article are taken &om M.288 CUBVES TRACED ON SURFACES. and we have coa~3=9!ny. point be a.

ted confocal. Having thus established the theorem of the last article. <e~cA M same for all ~KodiMMS touching the same line of curvature. we might have inferred direetty. if from any point 0 on that focal con!c rectiUnear tangents be drawn to a quadric and those tangents prodcced geodet!caUy on tho sur&ce. in like manner. by reveraing thé steps of the proof. tKterMetthe «mJMHMr~oa~ce)!& Conversely. From tbe &ct (proved p. Art. thé whole lengtbs from 0 to thé umbilic being equal. obtain an indepcndent demonstration of the theorem pD =constant. the lines so prodnced will pass through the opposite umbilie. Chasies haa given the Mlowing generat!za6on of Mr. but thé pole with respect to one quadrio of a tangent plane to another lies on a third fixed quadric. do all the succeedmg tangents. Boherts's theorem. precisely aa at Art. The second tangent to thé geodesic therefbre touches thé samo confocal. by hypotbesis determine an osculating plane of a géodésie which (Art. 144) that tangent planes drawn through any line to the two con&cals whtch touch it are at right angles to each other. M. and the three pointa of contact. 289 all &M)~eK< &nM a ~eo<~MM <oXMA y<M<M ~Mt~A an umbilic. The t&M&paMeeMMMMMrtMto a g~o~c along a &M ~e<x~M<o ita cuspidal edge on another ~aJnc. 279. For thé plane of two consécutive tangents to a geodesic being normal to thé surface is tangent to thé confocal touched by~tho 6rst tangent. 8S6. that tangent lines to a geodesic touch a confocal. <~e)t tho ~enct! toill ~-aoe .CURVES TRACED ON 8URFACE8. If a <&Mo~ at ~M<MM<? (Mû OMCM gtMK~tb a ~eK<~ MOeM~ <<M! jS!M<< J)0m& by B along a coM~xxt! (so that the thread of course lies in geodesics where it Is in contact with the quadnca and in right Unes in the spaoe between them). 848. 854. For any point on the cuspidal edge is thé intersection of three consecutive tangent planes to thé gtven quadric. 8S5. we could. as. 8M) touches a 6. The point on the cuspidal edge !s the pole of this plane with respect to the given quadrio.

276). It being more convenient p to work with unaccented lettera. 357. a line of CMyMtttM the gtMM~fM For thé two geodesics on A. The equation of a geodeaie (Art. and hence the Hne Msectmg the angle between them Is a line of curvatnre. and in tMs notation the equation of the lines of curvature of one system would be of the form ~== constant. wMeh meet in tbe tocua point J~ evidently make equal angles with the tocns of P. Let us consider first the 1 cannot. a" hy the !ettem ~t. drawn from an umbilic.290 CURVES TRACE!) ON SURFACES. 289.352) in which the position of a point on the elUpsoid is denned by the primary axes of the two hyperboloide intersecting in that point. Whence it follows that the sMae pair of /t*=)' imaginary tangents. Liouville. we have =~&'=A*. 162 and JB~Xef Plane C'Mf))M. The method uaed (Arts. and f between the Kmits k and 0. p.. A particular caae of this theorem is that the focal ellipse of a quadric can be deMnbed by means of a thread fastened to two fixed points on opposite branches of the focal hyperbola. ho~eYei. but these geodesics have as tangents the rectilinear parts of the thread which both touch the same confocal. . -)Roberts. ja?~«:(~~M<t<M. 350) would be written cos'<+ Mn't==~ i and when the geodestc passes through an umbilic. S53) thé pD is the same for both geodestcs. Houvule* in denot!ng the quantities which we have hitherto called a'. Throwing the equation of a géodésie into the form we aee that it is satisfied (whatever be /t') by the values tan*t=-l. To &BpMM M eN~<M co-<M'<?MM:<e< element of the arc o~ any eurve on the <tt)~tce. bring myeeM to imitate him in calling the M!s of the eH!pM)M and Ms denoting the q~ntittea <t' b'. and those of the other t"= constant. Vol. 1 follow M. SS1. xv. on thé surface J3. f. < Mem<liiM~ to confuse. touch aU the Unes of cnrvatut'e. . It wUl be ramembered (Art. therefore (Art. 166) that Kea between the umits h and k. M called the method of EUiptic Co-ordinates (see p. the 358.! a further analogy to the foci of plane conice. «* e* (which we ceU & ~) by the lettera b'.

and Now if through the extremities of the element of the arc <& of any curve. the intercept between them is equal to the difference between the central perpendicalamon the tangent planes to the two hyperbolotds. 362. In like manner we can express the area of any portion of the surface bounded by four lines of earYatare. For the élément of the area is ~) The area of the s(u'&ce of the et)ip<otd was thus NKt expressed by Legendre. Let that l!nc be met by the two consecutive hyperboloide. H2 . then. f.whoseaxes are v and f+A. p. Henee 359. we form an elementary rectangle of which <i'o. ï. 190) (p"+<)'-p"'=(f+Jf)' or~ Now we bave proved that <=<?<r. = constant. Vot... two lines and two f. But (Art. J</ are the sides tmd da the diagonal. we draw lines of curvature of both systems. since it cut8 them perpendicutarty. ït~tt~ &< J%Me<tM« Elliptiquas. the element of the arc we are seeking..elementof any line of curvatnrc.

orthogonal trajectory of a curve whose d!6erenttat equation M For tho orthogonal trajectory to JR&r+C~' M ~H~+jKHf. The fnt integral of a geodesic co9't+~ Nn'<=! can be thrown into a form in which the variables are separated and the second integral c&nbe obtained. plainly 'B sinee J</ are a system of rectangalar co-ordmates.and . That equation gives 861. The equation of the orthogonal trajectory is thus found to be 860. The element of the géodésie M the hypoténuse of a right-angled triangle of which d~. Henee we hâve <&=!8mt<Hf'ico:t'<&!r. To ~M an &~p!'MMMt the length of OKyportion of for a geodesic. Bat 3&~ + Ndv can be thrown without difficulty into the &rm JMtr+~<r' by the equations of thé last article.292 CHRVES TRACED ON SURFACES. dd are the sides and whose baM angle is i.

and by m thé angle which the radius vcctor makes with the tine~joining the umbilies.ONSURFACES. 293 It is to be noted that when wa give to the radical in the last article thé aign 4. f. M bisected by the direction of the line of curvature.CUNVE8 fRACBD . S62. This constant cannot be a fonction of p since it remains the same as we go along the same géodésie it must therefore be a function of m only and if we pass from any point to an indefinitely near one. 359) the dïBerential equation of the orthogonal trajectory to a géodésie through an umMUc. 842). Now the équation (Art. for whieh ~t=!y=t~. an cquation which must be equivalent to <~='0 (Art. In place of denoting the position of any point on an ellipsoid by thé elliptic co-ordinates ~t.we must give that m this article the sign This appears by forming (Art. M<~ on the same géodésie radius vector. MO) of a géodésie passing through an umbilic gives tbe aum of two intégrais equal to a constant. we might use geodesic polar co-ordinates and denote a point by p its geodeaic distance from an umbilic. The left-hand side of tho equaëon then becomes Now since the angle externat to the vertica! angle of thé triangle formed by the line joining any point to two amMUcs. we shall have We shall determine the form of the function by calcnt&tmg its value for a point indefinitely near the umbilic. that externat coa~t+t'* sm*~ & angle is double the angle i in the formula In the limit when thé vertex of the triangle approaches the .

while JPP' being the element OP=OJP'. Now since (Art. If P. Q be two consécutive points on a cnrve. for which p is constant (or dp = 0). 36!) vatnre /*==/ . Hence the element of the arc of a curve on any surface can be expreMed by a formula <&'==<+JP'<&e'. O 863. of an M'o of a geodeaio circle. 342) it M evident that JP~'=JP~+jP'<y. We propose now to examine the form of the fonction P for the case of radu vectores drawn through an umbilic of an ellipsoid. Let us consider the line of ourWe have then (Art.294 CCBYES MACEDN8UKFACE8. must be of the form J~M. and if PP be drawn perpendieular to the geodesie radius vector OQ. we hâve F'a~.

365. since P and . 0'. Hence. Now on a sphère the formula of rectification is <&'==<+8m'p~ Renée JP=a!np. Now if <? be thé augle which the radius vector OP makes with the tangent. we bave the funetion = i and J°: JP* stBM smM'. But in the sphere The fanction therefore which multiples y is y'sinpsmM.CUBVES MACED ON SURFACES. Consider now the triangle formed by joining any point P to the two umbilics 0. Then for the arc OP we have the function Pc=and for the Mo O'JF~ connecting 81nœ P with the other umbilie. sin~' on the sphère. where p and p' are the distances from the two umbilics. It is proved in like manner that JP=y~(«'). 348) dpi~'=0. makes atso tho angle with the tangent.P* in the rectincatton of arcs on the eU!psoid answcr to s!np. We determine then tho form of the funct!on by remembering that in the neighbourhood of the umbilic thé surface approaches to the &nN of a sphere. if P be any point on a Imo of curvature we know (Art. If we substttute for the right-hand aide of the equation in the last article an undetermined function of <a. the perpendicular But tho radius vector O'jP element B~M is evidently dp tan~. 1 ainM* 364. an equation analogous to that which expresses that the aines of the sides of a spherical triangle are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles. 2M In this investigation it is not noceseary to assume the result of the last article. Aga!n. we have .

p. then (accordingto thé specieftof the line of curvature) either the product or the ratio of taB~JPO'O. Roherh's expressionfor the element of an an: perpendicular to an umbilical géodésiebas been extended M follows by Dr.* From this theorem follow many corollaries: for instance. P". "!f the geodesics joining to the umbilics any point P on a Une of curvature meet thé eurve again in P'.296 CONTES TRACEE N8CBFACES.. to whom this departmeat of Oeometty &o.) owes so much tLiooviUe.Voh. . Mr. Hart: Let 0~ OT*be two consecutive geodeaiestouchingthe line ofcurvatureformedby the intersectionof the surface with a confocal B. then the tangeht at any point T of either géodésie touchesB m a point P (Art. 362.(Art. Thua tben the distance betweentwo umbilics being taken ae the base of a triangle. due to Mr. Roberts. f. O whence tan~Mtam~M* Mcomatamt when the Mtmof sides ûf the triangle is given. tan~JP'0'0 is conBtant. 2T&). If a geodeaicthrough an umbilic 0 meet a lino of carvatme in points P. 353)¡ and if TT' be taken conjugate to 2T~ the tangent plane at T* passes through TP This theorem. the locnBof vertex is a !ine of cnrvatme. the tocns of the intersection of the transverse geodesicsO'JP'. <~Mthe angle at which they mtersect.. as well as thoMon which its proof dépende." Agarn. p.OP" will be a line of curvature of the same species." 866. and tan~m is to tan~M' in a given ratio when the differeneeof aides of the triangle is given. and xv. M. when either the product or the ratio of the tangents of the halveaof the base angles is given. xni.

~ and F'T~' are equal to the aame degree of approximation. bnt on its return will make with the plane of the mnbilles an angle dinërent from M. But PT. and therefore thé distance we want to express JP?!~==~<~M. then sincethe dtaërence between ~) 2~' is infinitely smaUof the third order.i to whichis Mr. but at the point 0. spondingproperty of plane conics (G~MW. <~=<?<a if therefore Do be the diameter of B parallel to the tangent at 0 to the géodésie. Hence D<~=J)'< This quantity therefore romains invariableas we proceed along the géodésie. Wo want now to express B in the form JM<ethe perpendicular distance from y to TP. be continoed so as to return to thé first umbilic. In order to prove this we or ..and making an angle «*with the plane of the umbilics. where t (= PT) is the length of thé tangent from T to the confocalB. thia a&o of and <Ct!! ona line of CM'MfM'< the~MMtMetefthe polygon MOM ûjf <o<?J constant when ~e ~Mtes curuature are of the same be o/' opecMt. When the géodésie passes through an umbilic. Let the tangents at consécutivepoints. cM'CMMMWSe of curvature. If a géodésiejoining any umbilicto that diametrically opposite. intersect in P* and make with each other an angle o~ Let normals at the points 2~' meet the tangents JP?~ FT' at the pointe2~. one on each géodésie. Roberts's expression. a line Rence. as in the case of thé sphère. and meet the plane of the ombilics parallel to the tangent at 0. 2M~=D~m.CURVES TRACED ON SURFACES. T. 367. are proportional to D and 2)' thé diameters of the snr&ce B drawn parallel to the two successive tangents to thé geodésie. The proof Is identical with that given for the correArt. return on its former path. the surface B redncesto the plane t becomes the line drawn through T of the umbilics. 287) and thé tangent !me to the géodésie at f touches thé confbcai in the same point P. it wiU not. <!s a mean betweenthe segments of a chord of B drawn through JTparallel to the tangent at 0. PT. <Kf< 90~ (Art. if a ~e<x?(Mt'c ~c~OH and if all Meangla but one moMon &MM curvature. 358).

it is required to fmd the limit of the ratio of thé base to thé déférence of the base angles measnred in the same direction. the angle of contact of thé focal hyperbola. the angle made with the plane of the amMMcs the oseulating plane at any point by of that geodemc. Let JP'J°" be the consécutive element meeting the focal hyperbola in H'. if prodaced goea to meet the plane of the umbilica in a point on thé focal hyperbola and the oseulating plane of the géodésie at that point will be the plane joining the point to the corresponding tangent of the focal hyperbola. 194) that the cone circamacribing an eUIpMid and whose vertex is any point on the focal hyperbola is a right cone. Imagine now a sphere round J?'. while AN'P* is the ecmi-aNgte of the cone. Let now ~'P' be an element of an umbilical géodésie produced to meet the focal hyperbola in jB. 8S3) that the tangent line at any point of a geodesic passing through an umbilic. then if J5~. P'Eh' will be two consecutive oscntatmg planes. We know also (Art.298 CUBTB8 TRACED ON SURFACES. lu a the adsphencattnamgleletoneddeamd remain imite while the base jacent angle dumn!ahesindefinitely. ahtt!! investigàte an expression for <?. PHh. Thé formulaof spherieal trigonometry cos~(~-t-J9)=8m~C'L limit <?<9=cosa~ <~ gives CORC But evidently sioa~MB~ us in the Hence mn3 ttma Now we know (Art. jETA'be two consécutive tangents to the focal hyperbola. It is convenient to prefix the following lemma. h'. . and conaider the spherical triangle Then if <~ be the formed by radii to the points h. P. angle ~C' thé angle between the oseulating plane and JU?'&'the plane of the umbilics.

192) tan'ot=Differentiating. we bave <&['="-tanct -)s' But if ~)' be the central perpendioalam on the tangents at H to the ellipse and hyperbola. and if p be the radius of curvatmre at thé same point. In the case under consideration the axes of thé touched eHtpae are (!.CURVES TBACBD ON SUBfACES. t~p=p~ a'a"* <<~ tr Hence<&t=:–tana~-7'-or<&t=tana–7M-. c. 10. and thia we may regard aa a problem in plane geomehy. 858). regarding o" as constant (since we proceed to a consécutivepoint along the same confocal hyperbola). and taking one limit of thé integral at we have the umbilic where we hâve = at. for a MMf the angle mdaded betweenthe taageats &om J5rto the principal section in the plane of the umbûtca. we have (ace CbMM~. confocalto an ellipse whos6 axea are a. and we have = smp tana In order to integrate this eqaat!on we must express J~ in terms of a. while <~ ie the angle of contact of the focal hyperbola &t the samo point Now if a'. while the squares of the axes of the confocal hyperbola are a* & &* c*. and a = . Hence we have thé équation Intcgratmg this.p. 299 them the a{Aen~ triangle M that comidered la ovr lemma. &' e". Now dp Is the element of the arc of the focal hyperbola. &. and if 2ctbe the angle ineluded between thé tangents from H to the latter ellipse. we have &'<&<' =~(~(Art. Bato=. Ex. &" be the axes of an ellipse and hyperbola paasingthrough H.

corresponding to equi-diSerent heights. If a acnés of such curves be drawn. the section M evidently a cirde whose radius !s -~L sin 0 element of thé arc ia smC' or 4–. tan~~&tan~. If then Jt ho the value of this integHd. HouviBe1867. 363) jMm. at this limit I haa a value different from zero. Hart's.. and the equation tan = &tançât dm d8 = Now since thé oseulating plane of the Nowsince the la thé givea gives geodesic is normal to the surface. whose vertex M any point H on the focal hyperbola. If then M' be the value of 9 for the umbilic opposite to that from which we set out. and we have tan~M*==A* tan~m m'M therefore always dIBerent from M. iv. that is to aay. Mr. 369. at their point of contact. we have where i!:=~. p. of two consécutive aides of thé cireornscribing cone. is what we have called (Art.* 868. 868). thé The thect-MM thit articleare Dr. and therefore ako normal to the tangent cône. being the distance.p. in passing from one umbilic to the other. Chttth~e and J0<(&~ of JM!. Stna) and the Now this element. and k a value different from unity. 8!) but in the mode of proof 1 hâve foUowed WiNttmRobert*. Lines of level. If then we eut the cone by a plane perpendieular to thé axis. If we conBtder edges belonging to the Bame tangent cône. it passes through thé axis of that cône. and we hâve thus from the investigation of the tast article an independent proof of the value found for P (Art. And in like manner the géodésie returna to the original ~unbiltc. The ineqnalitles of level of a country can be represented on a map by a sénés of curves marking the points which are on the same level. Now this integral obviously does not change sign between the limite i~.Mtmn<«!tt~ JeMf))~ Vol. . 213.300 CUBVES TtiACED ON SURFACES. making an angle M" sach that t!m~w"==A*tan~ and so ït will paas and repass for ever making a sénés of angles thé tangents of whose halves are in continued proportion. a (and therefore k) is constant.

the curves of level of any surfaceare the sections ofthat surfacehy a series of horizontal planes. TheHneofgreatestalopethroughttny point is the line which ente all the lines of level perpendicularly. Now it is evident that the Une in any tangent plane which makea thé greatest angle with the horizon is that which is perpendicular to the horizontal trace of that plane. And we get the same equation as before by exptesMng that the projectionof the element of thé curve (whosedirectioncosineaare proportionalto <& dy) is perpendicularto the trace whose equation is It la évident that the differential equation ef the carw. ZMMSo~~ea(M(a&)pe. 801 places where the cnrvea lie closeat together evidently indicate the places where the level of the country changéemost rapidly.JM. by the help of the cquatton of the surface. and the differential equation of its pMgec~ontherefore tB The line of greatest slope is oftendefinedas that.CUKVE8 TRACED ON 8UKFACM.when we hâve We can make this &function of x and y only.whieh we may supposeall parallel to the plane of a~. jwhoM diteetion~omnes re as JE. The equations of the horizontalprojections of such a aenee are got by putting <=<' (! in thé equationof the surface. by eliminating the e which may enter into the d!Serent!at coefficients. GenertJty. wMch h thf~ya pefpeBAieattîto the intemetion of the tangent piffne. and a dinerentiatequationcommon to aU these projectionsis got by putting <&=0in the differential equationof the surface. thé tangent at every point of which makes the greatest angle with the horizon.- . V] by &&Md plane whoMdirect!on-<MinM a ~ 111.

and let us suppose tbe equation of the surface to be given !n the form et=~(. the area of the corresponding portion of thé aphere is called hy Gauss thé total curvature of the portion of the surface under consideration. We proceed to express the measure of curvature by a formula. The d!9i'rential equationis ~J! whieh iate~ated. Let us consider then their projections on the plane of :ey. . of 371. and if we draw radii of a unit Bphere parallel to the normals at every point of the bounding cnrve. gives wherethe constanthas been determined by the condition (~) ° (~! that tbe !me dtftti pass through the point <='< y y'' The Uneof of greatest dope is the intersection the quadric by the cylinder wtose equation hM just beea written. at its extremMea in other words. Then since the tangent plane at any point on the surface. Et.802 CURVES TRACEE ONSURFACES. the areas of any elementary portions on each are proportional to their projections on any of tho co-ordmate planes. In like manner if we hâve a portion of a surface hounded by any closed curve. 370. the ratio of the intercepted arc of the circle to the arc of the curve affords a measure of the corvature of the arc. And if at any point of a surface we divide the total curvature of the :nper6cial element adjacent to the point by the area of the clément itsel~ the quotient is called thé m<N<MM curvature for that point. or between the normab. To &tdthe line ofgKatMtetopeenthe qnadtieji~tB~C~~D. and draw radii parallel tu the normals at the cxtremities of the are.c. and at the corresponding point on the unit aphere are by hypothesis parallel. We ehalt conclude this chapter by giving an accoant of Gaum~ theory of the curvature of Mr~cea.y) The reader willSnd bis paper repnnted ia the appendix to LioaviUe'o edition of Monge.and will he a curve of doubleeat~tute lies !a one of thé principalplanes when the equation except when just found redncet to ~=0N'yO.* In plane curves we measure the eurvature of an arc of given length by the angle between the tangents. if we take a c!rcle whose radma is unit y.

.CURVE8 TBACEP OH SURPACEa. ~'+< ~+& &c. <t)'e t«'o ~ftHC~M? ~e )'<)!<?o/'cMrm!~<tv ~<!jMM~. 803 If then te.1. a!+<& a.+&B. Z being thé projecdom on thé axes of a unit line parallel to the normal are proportional to thé cosines of the angles which the normal makes with the axes. jebe the co-ordinatee of any point on the surface. thoae of the corresponding point on the unit aphere. y. J~ y. We hâve there6)ro But from the equation of (Art. the co-ordinates of two adjacent points on each then the areas of the two elemcnttuy triangles formed by the pointa conmdered. p. 281. are evidently in the ratio Now .. 222) it appears that the value just found for the <m€<MM~e CM~M~MM M of <t<tJ where ~n. <t< .

804

CUKVE8 TRACEDN6CBFACE8. O

372. It is easy to verifygcometrieallythe value thus found. For consider the elementaryrectangle whose sides are in the directions of the principal tangents. Let the lengths of thé sides be X', and conMquentiy area its New the normala at the extremitiesof intersect, and if they make with each other an angle we have ~=~ where is the corresponding radius of carvatnre.- But the corresponding normals of thé aphete make with each other, by hypotheiiis,the same angle; i and their length is unity. If therefore be the length of the element on the apherecorrespondingto X, we hâve p==~. In like manner we have and wMch was -i~=~ AA. ~~t e= to he proved. 878. Gausa has proved that if a mrface eapposed to be flexiblebut not extensiblebe deformedin any way (that is to say, if the shape of the surface be changed, yet so that the distance between any two points meastiredalong the surface remains the aame) then the measure of eurvature at every point remains unaltered. We have had an example of auch a change in the case of a developablesurface which ïs moh a deformationof a plane (Art. 287). And thé measure of cnrvature vaniahea for the developable as well as for the plane, one ofthe principalradii being infinite (Art. 884). To establish the theorem in gênerai, let us suppose that any point on the surface instead of being given by three co-ordinatesconnected by the equation of the surface is given by two independent co-ordinates. Let

what we want to provo is that the measure of curvature, or that the product of the principalradH, ia a fonctionof JP,J~ G.

CURVESTRACED ON SCBfACM.

,ao5

In &ct, let a:yz' denote the point of the deformed surface correBpondtogto any point .B~ of tho given Bur&co. Then a: y', < are given fnnctionaof a', y, < and can thereforeatao be expremed in terms of u and e. And the element of any are of the deformedsurface can be expt6Baed the form in But the condition that thé length of the arc shall be unaltered by transformation,manifestly requirea F=JE', JF'=~ 6'==<?'. Any function therefore of JE, J~ <? is nn&lteredby such a deformationM we are conaidering. Now it will be remembered (aeep. 20!!)that thé principal radti are given by a quadratic, in which thé cocf5c!ectof is (L'+JM''+jV')'; and the absolute tenn is

We shall aeparatdy express each of these quantities in termacfIi',F,<?. 374. Now if we subatitute in the equation of the mrface Z<ib!+3~+jM&=0, thé values of <&c, ~, <& given in the a last article, tmd remember that smce u and v are independent of a variables,the coefficients <&t nd dv must vanish separatety, we have

on Art. 21). (See ZesMMM ~%f~ef~l~e~Mt, 875. Let us now examine the result of making in tho absolute term, given Att. 873, the Mumesabstttution, ~z.
We use Roman letters in order that the a, &,o of p. 203 may not be con&tmded with <<,&,<* in a different MMe in this article. used
x

306

CURVES TRACED ON SURFACES.

Z=\(&c'–&'<;), &o. Now an équation whieh we had oecaa!on Ex. to use in the theory of comca(eee CMMM, 5, p. 2M) enables us to write this result in a more simple form. Let ua writo down the equation of a conie

In &ct, either side of this equation, equated to nothing, expresses the condMonthat the line joining the pointa abc, a'&'c' ahouldtouch the corne. The equation however may bo venned by actual multiplication. What we want to calculate then is ~'(P'F*)wheM

and making these anbatitntions on the left-hand aide of the precedmg cquation, substitute for <&,dy, &, from Art. 373, of we get, by equating the coefficients (?M*, ~M~ and de,

CURVES TBACED ON SUBFACES.

307

Now if theae prodncts be expanded accordmg to the ordinary rule for tm)Mpttcat!on determinants,they give thé d!Setence of betweenthe two determinants-

376. Now it is easy to show that the terme in these determinants are 6mct!ona of J~ <? and their dt6erent!atB. Reto the definitions of < &,c, a, a', a", &c. (Arts. 873,875) ferring itMobvioasthat

1 owe to Mr. WîUiMMon the remark that the application of this rule etMMta the KMit in a form whieh manifesta the truth of GfHtM'a theorem.

xs

808

CUBVES TRACEDS NURFACEa. O

It wIHbe aeenthat these equationsexpress in terms of E, J~ (? every term in thé preceding determinants exeept the leading onein each. To oxt)<'<'as .hese, diSerentiate, with regard to ?, the equationla~t Tviliten,and we have

t da Now hecaaso = ) y&c<) q quantities W1 IDthé brackets ow t the quantltleswithin e nwAets dv `~ du in the last two equations are equal. And smee the leading term in each determinant !Bmultiplied by the Bameiactor, in subtracting the determinants we are only concernedwith the djNërenco thèse terms, and the qnantity within the hraekets of disappears from the result. This reeult is multiplied by the differenceof the determinants

<md

We get the meMnïe of carv&toNby dividing thé quantity whose value is given(Art. 874) now &)me~ by (Z'+Jf+~)' when the common factor disappears and the reealt ia oh-

CURVES TBACEb ONSURFACES.

809

TNuatya function of E, J~ <? and their diSerentîa! Gausa'a theomm !a therefore proved. We add the actual expansion of the determinants, though not necemaryto the proof. Writing the measureof curvaturo j5, we have

377. We may consider two systems of curves traced on the surface, for one of which u is constant, and for the other v-1 M that any point on thé surface !s the intersection of a cnrve of each ayatem. The expression then <&=~M'~ 2F<~<~c+(Mp* shows that V(~) du is the element of the curve, passing throngh the point, for which v is constant; and V(~)~ is the element of the curve for which u is constant. If these two curves intersect at an angle M, then since <& is the diagonal of a parallelogram of which ~(jE)~M, ~(<3)~c are the sides, we .E* have cosa while the area of the parailelogram being ='T< <~<&/ sinm= \~(JF<? J!") dudv. If the curves of the system u eut at right attgleBthose of the system c, we mmt have jF= 0. A particular case of these ibrmuhe is when we use géodésie polar co-ordinates in which case we saw that we always have
MM. Bertrand, M~oet, and Pa:aeax (eee Lioaifi!!e, VoL xin., p. 80;i Appendh to Mo])~, p. 683) have eatablished GauM'atheorem by ealett. lating the perlmeter and area of a geodeHe eMe on any «tt&ce, whoM mdtOB,mppoKd to be very amall, is <. They Cad for the perimeter M't~ And of course the supposition SM =~s;t and for the area M* t~~t~t 8jt~ that thMe are unaltered by déformation impliea that JHf is constant.

310

CCNVE8 ON TRACED SURFACES.
Now if in the ~~conatamt, it

an expression of the form <&'=<+.PW. formuléeof the last artMe we put ~-0, becomes

an equation which mtist be satisfied by the function P on any surface, if JMt! expresses the element of the arc of a géodésie circle. Mr. Roberts verifies (Oambridge and Dublin JHat<&eNM<M<t? JoM~o~ VoL in., p. 161) that this equation is satisfied the fonction on a quadric. by sin.

378. Grauaa applies thèse ibmmiœto 6nd the total corvatnre, in his sense of thé word, of a geodea!c triangle on any aar&tce. Thé élément of the area being JMm~p, and the meMNKof the total curvatare is found by beiBg -D-jr; J'P P.:J.7 J!twice integratmg ,th f~M. ln Integrat!ng &'st with reapect we get af~. Now if the radu are meaBured (<7- ,-) 6'om one vertex of the given triangle, the integral is p!amly w to van!ahfor p=0; and it Mplam also that for p ==0 e must have for as p tends to vantsh, the length of an élément =1 perpendicnlarto the l'adms tends to become p<&t. Hence the &mt integral !a <~1 ,-) This may be written in a more convementform as &)Uowa Let 9 be the angle which any rad!na vector makea with the element of a geodesic ab. Now sinceoa'=m<a,M'=(F-t<U')<J'<a; and we and if e& <M', hâve &'c= <&M<M, = /yp the angle y<M=-y-<&?. But bac N evidentlythe diminutionof the angle to curvatare

CUKVK8 TNACED ON SURFACES.

311

in passing to a consécutive point; hence <7~= -j- do.

The

which integrated a integral just found is there&re J<a+~, second time is <e+ C' 6", where m is thé angle between the two extreme rad!t vectores which wo consider, and 0', 6" are the corresponding values of If we call J?, C the internai of the triangle formed by the two extreme radu and angles by thé hase, we have <a==A, 6'==J9, ~"=w- <7,and the total curvature is ~1+jB+C–M'. Hence thé excess over 180° of the sum of the angles of a geodesic triangle is measnred by the area of that portion of a unit aphere which corresponds to the directions of the normals along the aides of the given triangle. The portion on the unit sphere corresponding to the area enclosed by a geodesic returning mpon itself is half the sphere. For if the radius vector travel round so as to retum to the point whence it set ont the extreme values of 6' and 6" are eqnal, while <a bas increased by 2w. The measure of oirvature is therefore 8w or hatf the surface of the sphère.*
For Mme other interesting theorems, relative to the deformation of surfaces, see Mr. Jel!ett*s paper "On the Properties of InexteMÎNe Surfaces, ït'<tM«tt<MM <~<A< Royal ~fM&Academy, Vol. xxii. The theory of mrfMes applicable to one another was the subject proposed by the French Academy as their Prise Question for t860, and the report of the Commission to which the décision was referred, gives reason to think that the Memoirs sent in for compétition will, when published, add considerably to what had been pïe')ioutly known on the subject.

( 312)

CHAPTER

XII.

FAMILIE8 SURFACES. 0F 879. LEftheequatïoasof&cMrve iuclude n parameters, or undetermined constants: then it ia evident that if n equations connecting these parameters be given, the eurve is completely determined. If, however, only a-1 relations between thé parameters be given, the équations above written may denote au-infinity of curves; and the assemblage of a!I these curves constitates a surface whose equation Is obtained by eliminating the n parameters from the given M+1équations viz. the M 1 rotations~ and the two equations of the curve. Thus, for example, if the two equa* tions above written denote a variable curve~ the motion of whichis regniated by the conditionsthat it shall intersect M-1 1 fixed directing curves, the problem is of the kind now under coneideration. For by eliminating a', y, z between the two equations of the variable curvo and the two équations of any one of the directing curves, we express the conditionthat thèse two curvesshouldtintersect, and thus have one relation between the n parameters. And having n 1 such relations we nntt the equationof thé surfacegenerated, in the manner just stated. We had (Art. t09) a particular case of this problem. Those sur&cesfor which the &rm of thé lunctions and is the same, are said to be of Me same ~ntt~, though the equatious connecting the parameters may bo diferent Thua if the motion of the same variable curve were regalated by scvcrat dînèrent sets of directing curves, aU the surfaces generatod would be said to belong to the same family. ln eeveralimportant casesthe equations of all surfaces belonging to the same family can be mdnded in one equation iavolving

whence putting for and o. where u and v are known &mct!ona f o . In order that this curve may generate a aaï&oe we a. and which !eada more dtrectty than tho functionalequation to the solutionofeorneclasBes probleme... whatever be the equation of connection. Hence we have \0= M and dinerent!at!ng (v).o='c. we can throw the two given equations into the form M=:c.'=~(c. of 380. For if <7=0 represents any such surface. If we eliminate the arbitrary fanctions by differentiation.* Solving in turn for each of these conatants.FAMIME8 0F 8UMACE8. whieh ordimarily the expression ia of Mme geometrical property common to all eur&oeaof the family.y. EMm!natingthen and ~'(e). with two 6!mHtr equations for the differentialswith respect to y and <. 818 oneor more arbitrary functtona the equation of any individual surfaceof thé family being then got by particnlarizing the form of the functions. we aee that.e. must be given one relation connectingo.. U can only dMer by a constant multiplier from « (v). their values. We can a!so în this case readily obtain the partial dMerential equation which must he satisfied by atl Burfacesof the family.). common to all surfaces of the family. The aimpteatcase ta when the equations of thé variable cnrve inelude but two coastanta.the equation of the surfacegenerated must be of thé form M= (v).. c~ which will be of the form o. we get the reqnired partial dî&rentMtlequation in the form of a determinant If there were but one eoMtant the elimination of it would give thé equation of a defhMtesurface. . not of a family of surfaces. we get a partial dîcerent!al equation.

by thé condition that the surface shall pass through a given curve.. In this case u and v are aupposed to be known funetions of the co-ordinates. which values must identically cq~tion satiafy the partial differential equation of tho family if the surface belong to that family. 322) is of the form «==~ (e). p. 0~ 0. when we find a relation between c.3M fAMtUES UF SURFACES. We bave only to give to f~. If it be required to determine a particular surface of a given family «=~(e). . geometncatly représenta a surface which can be generated by the motion of a curve whose equations are of the form N==c. 1. The partial diSerential equation afforde thé readiest test whether a given surface belonge to any asaigned family.7 ?' If the equation of the surface were written !n tho form we 8bould have dU.B. If it be required to nnd a surface 'of thé family «==~(e) which ahaU envelope a given surface. and c~ or between u and <~ which is tho equation of the required surface. we know that at every point of the curve of contact 0. e=c. y. 881. All the points of the latter are there&M points on thé surface generated.~)~0. and the partial differential equation of thé family ia of the jbrm ~+~=J?. <(.Dt~ereMtM~ ~tM~M.. &c. And conversely thé integral of such a partial differential equation. have the aame value for thé fixed surface and for that which envelopes it. and thé equation just written establishes a reiation < «'0'~ dU of the firat degree between -y-. where p and q have thé usual signification. whieh (see Boole's . their values derived from the of the given surface... ahould -P 1 dU h&ve ~=1. The geometrical interpretation of this prooeas is that we direct the motion of a variable curve «=!< e=i< by the condition that it shall move so as always to intersect the given fixed curve. . the form of the fonction in this case can be found by writing down thé equations M=c~ <"=€ and eliminating x. between theae equations aad those of thé fixed curve. are known funetions of the co-ordinates. where $.

viz. Thé problem is thereforereduced to that consideredin the first part of thia article. 882. All thia theory will be better anderstoodfrom the followingexamples of important familles of surfacesbelongingto thé claas here coMtdered.fAMtMESF SURFACES. C~N~fMf!?jSM~cM. or envelopea certain fixed sur&ce) this establishesa relation between p and q. Now the equations of a right Ime inelude four independent constants. The family of cylindrical surfacesbelongs to the classconsidered the last two articles. and if thé motion of the right Une be regulated by any condition(such aa that it shall move along a certain fised eurve. in Thus if thé equations of a right line be given in the form <c=h+p. A cylindricalsurface te generated by the motion of a right Une. 0 815 If then in the partial differential equation of the givenfamily. namety. and the equation of the surface cornesout in the form . tion of tbe fixed surface. and there remain but two undetermined. we substitntofor 0~. if then the directionof the right lino be given. whoee equationscan be expremed in the form <t a (c). we get an equation whieh will be satisfiedfor every point of the curve of contact. and which thereforecombinedwith the equationof thé fixedsurface determines that curve. y'=mj!+~ Zand M which determinethe direcdons of tho right Une are supposedto be given. this determinestwo of the constants. to descnbe a surface of the given familythrough a given curve. which remains always parallel to itaelf. their valuesderived from the equa.

To Cad the cytinder. the reauIt will be the equation of the cylinder. « + t < << and substitute the rtautting values in . it ia obviowa that tbe geometrical meaning of Uns equation ia that the tangent plaue to the surface is always parallel to the direction of the generating Une. cM<t+ C~ co8j8+ P~ cos'y'='0. «'< t fy + c'< = e. to thé d!rect!on-co9lnea of the C~ are proportional normal to the surface. Expreseingthat the co-ordinatesof this point satisfy the eqna- .F(. we hâve Substitnte theae values in the equations t~° 0. 1. p. n. Solve for a. y. ~(~-&. we Me that the partial dMeïentM eqa&tion of cylindricalsur&cesM or (Ex. the carve of contact u the intersection of the quadrie with ~h + Bmy Chz = 0. 3. To &td the equation of a cylinder. e 0-ge Y-$( have g-W = !Ll~ *JL. thé direetion-~osineeofwhoae 0. <)s 0. where x.y)-0. ~M. 2. F'= 0.S'M<~MM. 880. elimination may be conveniently performed a: foltow< If <e'. 3. To 6mdthe eqnation of the cylinder whose aides are parallel to the mtarMctton of <M! + «:.816 FAMtUES 8MPACE8. Ex. Remembering that C~. <t'. < between the equations ax + + o. To &id the equation of the cyRadet who<eedges are parallel to . CbKMoJ .. we hâve thme dany pointon theede CaUing Calling the common value of these AtactioM C. <) 0.)t=&. y. The edges Me M. those of any point on thé edge.y<M!.)'. fy + <<.). ~9. y-MM)=0.y'. 26) P. Proceeding then M in the last example the eou~on of the cylinder ia found to he These are generated by the motion 383. partM dtfbtentM equation. 4. n. 0F equation of Art. the direction-eoainee of whose edgea are From the m. and whieh passes through the curve !7'= 0. Ex. <*be the co~rdinatet of the point where any edge meeta the directing curve y. Et. y. and whieh envelopet the quadric ~z* ~y* t Ci~1.y are the d!rect!on-coa!nes of the generating Une. of a right line which constantly pames through a fixed point. which <*y'z'must eatisfl and between the two resulting equations eliminate the unlmown C. J''(jr.MtdwMehpMSMthroughthe plane cutv9it'=0t ~(i):. Ex. and which pMMBthrough + the inteMeetKm of ex + f3y + <. = «.

M.M. Let the equations of the generating Unebe where a. and where the equations. actually contain only wo two. M a homogeneons functton of a. n. we have two retatIoM connecting the four constantsin the general equations of a right line. M. < The partM diSerential equation ia found by puttmg .M..–f. y -'y. Writing the equations then in the ~onn we aee that the conditions of the proMem muet eatabttsh a 4M relaûon between N and M and that the équation of the cône muât be of thé &rm S-7 ~=~ IJ-"f It M easy to aee that this M équivalent to aaytBgthat the equation of the cône must be a homogeneousfunction of the <! be three quantitiesa: –a. m other worde. <yare the known co-ordinatesof the vertex of the of cône.and the problemie of the kind A dtBcumed rt. y– ~-7< which are proportionai to m.. tta eqna~on !a of the torm -==<~('J or. as may a!jM Beend!rectly from the comideratton that the condïtionaof the proMemmuât estahiNh a retat!on between the oirectiom-cosmea the geneof ra.Mare proportionalto the direction-cosines the generating line. In this case therefore the equations of the generating eurve contain but two undeterminedconstants.tor that thèse cosmeebemg &c' any equation . and l. 317 tions of the right line.FAM!UE8 OF SOBFACES. 380. y. function of Mt. Binee are only concernedwith the ratios of the quantitlea Nt. When the vertex of the cône !s the origin. expresNng aud~a relation !sa homogeneous and iheK&K of a:–a.though apparently containing three undetermined constants.

880. and when ~–y <y deared of &actione N Thia equation evidently expresses that the tangent plane at any point of the surfacemust always pass through the fixed point a~Qy. We have already given in p. mustbe ofthe ~(~)' tMnt . the equatious of the generator are <t=c. OMMMiM Surface8. If the axis !s the intersection of the planes a. 'y=< and the general equation of conoidat surfaces Mobvioastya == (*y). These two conditions leave two of the constantsin thé equations of thé line undetermined. 190 the methodof forming equation of the cone which envelopea the a given surface. j8. that so thèse sur&cesare of thé class consideredArt. 380) In Hke mannerthe equation of any mr&eegeneratedby the motion of<tine meetm~twofb:edImet <t/9. 384. Thèse are generated by themotion of a line which ahvays intersecte a fixed axis and remains parallel to a fixed plane. and the generator is to be parallel to the plane'y. «=– os* > in the equation of Art.818 FAMtMES0F SURFACES. 880.* The partial dinerential equation is (Art. 86 the method of forming the equation of the cône standing on a given curve and p.

that is. EUmiMtmg then f. the equation of Art. In practice we are almost exclusively concerned with right conoids. being that formed by the under surface of a spiral staitcaM. z) ° 0. For in virtue of the partial differential equation just written. or the requited equation fa F(a:. where the fixed axia ia perpendicnlar to the directing plane. The fondamental property of a surface of revolution is that ita section perpendicniar to ita . and the plane for plane of . y*<<* ~]. and these being projected into a sénés of radil all passing through the origin. c Its equation is therefore oy + <eV° f'. which represents a senea of concentric circles. This surface is often presented to the eye. J*(y. through the axis ofz and throngh a p!ane curve. 870. trMM&mna itself into . the ftxed line being the axis of the cylinder on which the helix K traced. Eï. t. <t) 0. 870) are in this case alwaya projected Into circles. parallel to the directing plane. < between theae equations and y c e. <! in thé equationa of thèse three planes. 319 This eqaa. who<e equaûoM are x=a. < = < we get F(c. the tunctional equation is y = a~ (e). jS't<y/sceaof ~epo&fttOK. have a common line of intersection. the plane drawn through the point on the surface. 385.al equation is dinepentia! equadon ism =0 + y dU 0. 2. To Snd thé equation of the right conoid pMsict. dU and the rtial thé partial d!œ . and the plane e'aj8' joining the same point to the axis.tton may bo derived direcdy by expreaamg that the tangent plane at any point on thé surface contains tho generator the tangent plane. If that axis be taken as the axis of f. are eut orthogonally by a series of concentric circtea.t*. p. The equation is that given Bx. The same thing i8 evident geometrically for the lines of level are the generatora of the System. y.-+y Thé lines of grcatcst slope (Art. therefore. Let thé direotin~ curve be a heim.)' a. )!)*'0.cy. y. < Ex.FAMHJE9 OP SURFACES.<&:+y<~=0. a: .<.a.. fawhen the Hxedcm've Ma cMe WaUM'soon<w!nnem [. The terms of the determinant just written are the coeniciente of x. 273.

For if we wlahto exprem the conditionthat the two lines . and whose plane is perpeadtcular to that axis. with the sphere whose centre ia any Sxed point on the axis These equations contain bnt two undetermined constants. <md equationbecomes The partial differentialequation is found by the formula of Art. the problem therefore is of the class considered (Art. 380 to be The partial differential équation expresses that the normal always meets the axis of revolution.v the gener&ttogcticle in any position may be representedas the intersection of the plane perpendîcnlar to the axis &c+M:y+oe=*c. Sach a mr&ce may therefore be conceived M generated by a circle of YMiaNe radius whose centre moves along a fixed right line or axia. If the equations of the axis be ie–at== v'j8 ==. 880) <mdthe equation of the surfacemuetbe of the form When the axis of e is the axis of révolution we may take the the origin as the point ct~. axis muet always cornât of one or more c!rcles whoaecentres are on the asia.820 FAMIUE8 OP SUBfACES..

replacing then u and v by their values. the segmentainto whichthe axis divides the c!rcle generate dtatmet sheets of the surface. when thé revolving cu'de meets the axis. y. may write the common value of the equal we fractions in eMh c<Me. which are nodal points on thé em'&ce. and Solving then for x. S81) by eliminating a'. that is to aay. 3." Putting <=«. The equation of the surface generated by the revolution of a given curve round a given axia. a!'+y*=!C and eliminating between these equations.y. the space about thé axis bemg empty. 85) fmdwe take M a further example to Snd the surfaco generated by the revolution of a circle [y = 0.MMtMES 0F 8UMACM. we have 886. 82t should InteMCCt. The motions of thé anchor ring by planes parallel to the axis are found by putting y ~constant in the precedingeqnation. ie found (Art. and equating the values derived from the eqaatMmaof each line. neither can the surface. (x a)t + e*== f*] round an axis in ita plane [the axis of <!]. when the revolving <arcledoes not meet the axta. which will be the form of an anchor ring. On thé other hand. we get It ia ohvlonathat when a îs greater than r. We have already had an example of this (Ex. between and the two equations of the curve. intersecting in points on thé axie ~==~(~<~). z. p. The equation of the section may immediately be thrown T . and those of the cimle.

it continuesto eut plane in two distinct ovals. express all the rest. it is not genetatly been asaigned to the ~anctiona poaaîMeto form a amgle fanettond equation mdadimg aU sur. all sur&ceaare said to be of the aame family for which the form of thé funetionsF and f is the Mme.. It M geometrically evident. where and <S" represeat c!n!lea. B~~e!' of JP&MM Oitn~. The familles of snr&cea which have been considered are the most interesting of those whose equations can be expressed in the form M (v). into the form M'<=constant. and. by a pair of equationa from wMch there Mma!naa constantto be eliminated. as hae been aiready atated. We can however eliminate the arbttrary fanctions by differentiation and obtain a partial aifferentialequation. we can.)~ y*-t -'3~ ° iaa «M&ee <httt t offevotatton. whatever be thé &c. ~04). faces of the same ûmuty: and we can only represent them. We now proceed to the case '== when the equationsof the generating curve inchtde more than two parameters.commonto aU aar&ceaof the same family the order of that equation being. as we ahaMpreaently &c. heMM T ofrevolution c y e. p.822 fAMtLtMOP SURFACES. By the help of the equations connecting theaeparameters. ~M<. i< 387. prove. that as the of Motionmores away 6'om the axis. in terms of any one of them. as above written. Ex. Verify . The Beetionsare lemnMcatea vanoas Mnds (aee 6g. Bat aiBce evidently the form of the omettons elimination cannot be ef~cted until some defmite form haa &o. and thus put the equations of the generating eurve into the form The equation of the surface generated Mobtained by eliminating o between these equations.eqnal to the numberof arbitrary fanctïoms It ia to be remarked however that in general the order of thé partial diferential equation obtained by the elimination of a number of arbitraryfonctionsSrom an equation is higher than . until it touches the surface [~~a–fj when it enta in acurve having a double point ~BemonitK's LemmBcate] after whichit meetsin a continuonscurve.

. the differential onthe MppomtMn that u ia constant.by in terms of c.we bave Now in these equations.fAMtMZS0F SCM'ACZS. as before.c. twice with regard to y.)='0. that to elimmate n arbitrary fancdons we muet differentiateSht 1 tunes.. and with regard to x and ~) gives ua three additional equatMns. the derived functions< &c. 829 the number of fanct!ona etiminated. ThM will happen when it is possible by combining the equations of the generating cnrve to separate one of the constants so as to throw the equations Then expressintothe&rm«==o. the order of the diSerent!al equationM lésa. ~'('e<y)~CttC.the otherconstants ing. we denote by the differential with reapect to a! of the equation of the surface. means of thé equations of condition. thé dicerentiats combined with the original equation form a aystem of three equations containing four unknown fancûoM The second dtnerentiatton (twice with regard to x. but then from the syatem of six equatioM it is not generaUy possible to eliminatethe six quantities We must therefore proceed to a third differentiationbefore the elimination can be eNected. in thé présent case. in like manner. 888. It is easy to see. In order to show this it !s convenient to considerfirst thé special case.is that the functionseliminatedare aMfuactîona same 0/*<i&e quantity. and by F. Thus if an équation incMe two arbitrary fanctions and if we dIneMnttatewith respect to x and y which we take as independent variables.) the reault of eliminationis plainly of the form Now if. The reason why. oniy Y2 . where a family of surfaces cam be expressed by a single fnnct!onal equation.

824 FAMÏHES SURFACES. <~=M&c+«~. on the supposition . These are the first ïntegrab of thé final di~rentia! equation of the M"'order. eaeb containing two arbitrary fanctions. these entering into From the equation last P. can obtam ? dinerent equationa of the order M-1..0. &~mdwe can in like manner form another. and from the sertes of equationa thus obtained (the last being of the K** rder of dfferentiation) we can eliminatethe a fhncttons o &c. each containing one arbitrary fonction. and so on. 0F which contains only thé original OmctMM &c. 889. In like manner we can ibnn eqaations of thé secondorder. the procom of forming these equations may be more conveniently atated as follows: "Take the total dtSerentM of the given equation that u Mconstant. wo can form &om it in like manner the equation which atill contains no arbitrary functiona but thé original &c.. &c. and as nsaat write d<t='p<!a!+~.. and ao on. snd accordmg to our choice of the fonction to be retained. If we take a: and y as the independent variables. If we omit the last of these équation~ we can eliminateall but one of the arbitrary functions. but whichcontainsthe second differentialcoen!cients of U. If we write this equation F=.

or <. p.'y. but not r. the value of m derived from it will not contain p or aad the firat will be of the form diSiaremtMd equation B being a1soa function not containingp or g'. 8. y. the partial dM~rential equation would be of the form JTT* . and that equation will be of the fbnn where jS may contain ?. its projection on the plane of a~ then since this equation does not contain e.FAMtUES OF SURFACES. < if we had three functions to eliminate.and from p + qm= B. e. and then snbstttntmgtheaevalues in m and in the form of the final seconddifferentialequation would anUremain In like manner where m' and jS' might contam x. we ehouldsolvefor these constants from the original fonctional equation of the anrface. y. 325 and the result of eliminating &om thefte two equations ts -jthe same aa the reault of eUmmatimf betweenthe eqn~onB m It is convenient in practioe to choosefor one of the equations representing the generating curvo. a. N)or t in tho second digerential equation are those derived from differentiafingjp+~t. q. The only terme then containingf. and if we denote the ~ partial differentiale of <! of the third order by <!t. If now we had only two thnettons to eliminate.

Since in forming the partial âMbrentM eqa~on we are to regard e aa constant. Then the equattom of the generating line me of the fom a~c. and for c~ (e). tt Mto be regarded aaconstMtt. y~e~c+c~ The 6mcttMM~ equation of the surface ia got by sahstttatuag in the latter equation for c. (e).. And so on for higher orden. foBCtMCB oa: + + <?. by the examp!eswMoh ~e< jXM'a&~ <o<!/. 890.Ke<? lane..whenw6g<!t and eliminating m ty means ef p+ <jw=0. Let us in the 6nt place take the Ëxod phme for the plane of xy.826 FAMtUM0F aUNPACES. each containingone arbitrary fnncdon. DMEMentt&tIcg. ~«<~MM ~Mfa~ p This !a a family of sar&coswMch ineludes conoidsM a pMticular case. the required eq<Mttion Is Nextlat&egeaetatmg~MbepoKtMtooiC+~+ei!. of writing we have The eqa&tMom by eHmumtutgone arbitrary faactiom are got therefore . remembering that mnee M=e. or c. we may as weU leave the equationa in the form es*e~ y='c~EThèse give us AocoKHagas we eliminate o.=0. tM~rentt&te jp-t-~t~o. and c. tta equatiom are and thé <&)nct!oMl is equationof the &auly of tfor&cea got by for o. vis. This theory wiHbu illuatrated Mov. thèse equations give na There are therefore two equations p-t<!c. Ft+2y=~ of the Rmtorder.. To eUmhate completely arbitrary Atnctîons..

y. t6'M)~MM <oAtC~tMe< ~!M<? < a axis. then the equations of the generating Uneare of the form y=c. g vary. m 891. we have ?2. e those of the point a'. DiRerentia~ng the equation of the tangent plane. gent plane Nowif we paesto the line of intersectionof thu tangent plane with a consecutive plane. /9)y be the raamng co-ord!nate«. <!==c. then any generator is the intersection of the tan.a:+e. This equation may atM be arrived at by expMMtng that thé tangent planes at two points on thé same generator intersect. <yremain the same. Let a.a:. while a:. e. on that generator.FAMtUM 0F SURFACES.and M the equation of the family of aarËMee got by writing in the . as they evidently must. a. In the nrat place let the fixed axis be the axis of e. of contact. j~MM~M)!' KMM 6~ Thia class aleo ineludes the family of conoids.. p. y.

where a='<!a!+~+o&-t-<< ~=a'a:+&'y+p'e+<y.a!~ ~+~ tentmttBg)we hâve D! Differentiating agaia. the required partial diSerentta! equationis 893. or (a–. If the equation of a family of snr&ces oontain n of arbitrary jRmctiona the same quantity. and if it be required . f <<a* a More generaHy let the line pass through a &ced axut c<t8.828 FAMtMES 60BFACES.='0 thé MqMred d!Sereniud equation is This equation may aiso be obtained by ejq~ressingthat two consécutive tangent planes întemect in a generator. and putting for M its vàhie =c. we have for the intersectionof two consecadve Kme'ent planes But anygcnerator Mes !nthe ptane e~=~. therefore EIinum&tmg B~t-~=~=~.) whence Difforentiatingagain. 891. y = o~ + c~ and the of eqa&tMn the &auly of sm'&ceaMy=. in Art. arbitrary AmetiolMof 1# rentiating.ra:*+8&Ey+~'=0. we have Mta'c.e)~=*(~-y)ic. 0F Diffe- latter equation for o. and putting in for m from the last equation.Mbe&)re. a? There6)re. we have f-t-Z~M+<)?''=(). we bave f+8Mt+<M*=*0. Then the equations of the generating line are <( c~.. and c.+)Mg'ac. Aa.c.

We have now seen that when the equationof a &mily of sar&ceecontains a number of arbitrary fanctionsof thé Mme quantity. but MKMhaNe intotwo ceno!d<istinguished p~u)~ the Mdittththe sameo)'opposite p)B d by ~ & the last equttdon. 0F 889 to determine a aurface of the family which shall pMs throngh Mfixed curves. hâve a M~dent number of equations to eliminate c.in forming the partial ~fBM'en&d equation. &c.y. c~. of TheKMith appatendy the eighthdepee. 894.. c.PAMtMEN 8UM'ACE8. it M conveniecft.+~ we have. J~(a:. anA expreaing that the we generating curve meets each of the fixed OHrvef). The arbitrary funetionswhich enter into thé equations(Art. If then .cl &c. F(a:. though the expressionof that quantity in terme of the co-ordinatesis unknown.. e. by substitution. the two equations of thé generating curve.)=0. a!=*ye.387) are all functionsof thé same quantity. It îs eaay to aee then that this prooesa ia equally applicable when the family of Mr&cea cannot be oxpressed by a a!ng!e famcëontj equation. Thus to &td a M!'&c& the family a:-t y~ (<)-t (<)'=0 Mdi ehaU of w the &ted cnrves <)=< pMs through at JF*(i< 0 y = a. we write down the équations of the generating carve M=~.z)'s 0.. to substitutefor the equation of the surface. The equations of the generating line being e ~= c.

880 fAMtMES <? SC~ACM. by omitting the last equation and eliminating all .let it be required to fmdthe generalequation of rnled aar6Mes. It ovidentlyresolves itself into the two linear équations of the third order got by substituting in turn for M in the euMc thé two roots of the quadratio. The fint integrals of this equation are found. EMm!natmg betweenthe cuMcand m quaftraticjust found. arbitrary <uBct!onaf c. we dineron~ate again. we have <'+8aM-t<M'c. p.a!-(-c. we have ~+M~=~. If then we paasto a secondtangent plane. $88). while <&e. To pass to a third tangent plane.. The equation<&<&!+~ wh!eh are proportionalto the direca relation between 1) of tion-cosines a tangent plane. w=e. ~'cc~c+c. in. its prejection on the plane xy. where a. For example. we have thé requiredpartial dMerential equation. tM~rentiatiag that quantity gives a~ "md~c. terms of the co-ordinatesis unknown. we cm eMminate the unknown quantityM.that is to say. and the family of surfacesis exo pressed by snbBtttntmgfor c~ c. of sar&cesgenerated by the motion of a right Une. The eq~iatioM the generating line of aMz=e. we have the eame equation as before. between thé total dinMentiahof thé two equationsof the generating curve.m being proved to be constant by the second. as explained (Art. whenwe have <t+8~3m-<-8'ym'+&M''='0.. and so obtain the partial dMRerentiat equation required. Dl&rentiatmg DMbMnttatmg. we are to make remain constant. the first of these equations. E!iminating die dy betweenthe last two equations...we muet d!SereNtiateagain. <&are proportional < o to the direction-cosines f any line m that plane passingthrough the point of contact. This equationmight be got geometricallyby oxpresmng that the tangent planes at three consécutivepoints on a generator is pass throngh that generator.O.. vary whilethe mutual ratios of & <~ <& This gives ~&+2«&eo~+<t<=0. y S are the'third differentialcoeCdents. /3. through a consécutive point on the same line. As this equation still mdttdes m or <~ the expresdon for which. regarding dx <~ constanti and thus have <«&+8~<b~<~+8~<~<~+&=0. Im practioe it is convenientto choose for one of the equations of the generating ourve.

&c. J5t<M&pM.. Consideringthe charactenstM aBa moveable cnrve from thé two équations of whichc M to be eliminated. we find the envelope of aU the surfaces obtained by giving dînèrentvalues toc... it would seem.. 0F Ml bat one of the constants.ni_v o__ s t e~~ EËminating 0 between this equation and -='0.If the équation of a Bar&ceiadade « coïmected by M-] relationB. from wh!ch it appeara that one cf the mtegtab is whero m ia one of the roota of f+2<m+<<N'=c0. If the nmetion J'* ~Et containa arbitrary onctions contams &c. Thua we hâve the equation p+<M~=c.we can in tefms of ptHf&meteM one express a!l the Kst. 887. that the partial diSerential equation of the family the onght to be of the 2tt*"order. But OBrexaminmg manner in whieh these functîons enter. Thé other two ËKt mtegralaare Thé three second integtata are got by eliminatingm &0!n any pair of theae equations. according to the theory prev!oady explained. and throw the equation into any the form ~tf Y:fL_ < i_~. p+)K~*s~(<M). it M easy to see that the order redaces to the ?' In fact. then smce &c. Art. differentiatingthe equation<tc:~ we get . 396.fAMÏMEa SUBFACES. no matter how thé forme of the ftmctMns && vary. <H!* The carve of mtersecttonof the given surface with is the <<tM!C<~&<& p. it is evident that thé problem of envelopesis incinded in that discassed. 882) or line of intersection of two con(aeo secutive sariacea of the system. Theenvdopeaaofbnndaresatdtobeofthesame the family M long ae the form of the fonctionF renMunB same.

when. whmh moves so tbat !t9plane shan be alwaysperpendicalar to thé path along which its centre moves. Let the equation then contain two parametera <~ connectedby an of equation giving b aa a fomctKm o.332 FAMtUES 8UNFACB8. ~=~ form ofthe result ia ev!dently/(!c. 3M. pressed by We might aiso obtain thèse equationsby expressingthat the surface is generated by a jExedcircle. as easily appesm from what &Uows. We need not considerthe case whenthe givenequation b coNtains ut one parameter. 0F are thé d!nëren<ia!s n the apposition that c !a constant. the equation of the envelope is got by eliminating a between S!nce the eliminationcannot be effected until the form of the the function is aBMgned. For example. until we come to the M"* order. these o and not the quantities only containthé origmal ~anet!ons derived From this pair of equations we can form another. and où on. ~. then between the three we can eliminate <t. Nneethe eliminationofthMbetween the equation and ita difFerential gives rise to the equation of a definiteaarface and not of a family of sor&ces. family of surfaces can only be exthe combination of two eqmat!oMjust written. 894. Nowthé equationof ench a sphère being and the conditionsof the problem&aa!gnmg locus along whtch a the point <~ is to move. and therefore detenninmg/3 in terms of <[.y.p) g) = 0. we have equations enough to eliminate a!l the parametem. and the equations<=j~~==J~. let us examine the envelope of a aphere of Sxed radius. For thé equation of the tangent to the locus of e~ is . whosecentre moves along any plane curve in the Thia ia a particular case of the general dass of plane of tubatar surfaceswhichwe ahallconsiderpresently. as in Art.

If then the equation of the envelopedsurface he the envelope of thta aor&cecan be made to pass thjoagh M-1i given curves. Let it then be required to find an envelope of the epheM . 0F 888 ag already obtained.FAMtMES aUBFACES. it follows that each of the given oarvea at every point of it touchesthe envelopedsurfacewhich paMesthrongh that point. we obtain M–l 1relationsbetween the constante c. as it obviouatyM. the family of Mr&cea discasMd in the last article contains but two constante and one arbitrary fnnction. y-~8 and substituting in the equation of the sphere. For example.. but Bmce the ensurface bas at any pomt the same tangent plane as veloping thé enveloped eor&ce which passes throngh that point.regarding a. and can therefore be made to pass through one given carre. as constant.y ~8+ = 0. thé required equation !s We might hâve at once obtained thîs equation as thé geometrical expression of the fact that the length of the normal is constant and equal to r. c. &c. 397. Solving = for a'-a.when we have if <t+jpi!! 0. for by expressîngthat thé surface whose equation has been just written touches eaeh of thé given corves. To obtain the partial differentialequation... The tangent line to one of thé given eurvesat any point of courseMeain the tangent plane to the required sur&ce. differentiatethe equation of the ephere. which combined with the two equationsof the characterisdc enable es to eliminate theM constants. Before proceeding further we wish to showhow the arbitrary fanctions which occur in the equation of a family of envelopes can be determined by the conditionsthat the surfacein question passes through given curves.

. or pomte of intersection of this line with the sphete beiag gt~ea by the quadratic the conditionthat the line ehouldtoach the sphère is We see thus that the locusof the centres of apheres touching the given line is an eU!pM. 398. Thia We have surface must then touch (~-M)'+(y–~+z''=~. whichahall touch the aphereit''+~*+ ~'=~B'.c. ~).c. for example.-a) =<t(y -~8). Thus.) and if between thèse equations and the two equations e'='~ <!==~ which are a&tMnedfor the point of contact.t:='<ty. Thus we have ~==J~.) which paMes throngh that point. EUminating !Cand y hy the help of . condidonswhich !mply e = 0. The envelope required then ia a kind of eHtpt!Ct~ anchor ring. Thé resottis a sur&ceof the eighth degree.&c. Again.. let it be required to determine the arbitrary fanction so that the envelope sar&ce may aho envelope a given surface. The values then of p and q derived 6'om the equations of the fixedsurface and of the moveablesurface mnst be the aame. The envelope may thua be made to envelope as many fixed saï&ces as there are arbitrary tunctions in the equation. we eliminate x. y. the reault will give a relation between the parameten. has also the Mme tangent plane as the fixed surface. !et it be required to determine a tubular surface of the kind dieenssed (Art. <.834 ~UMtHES SURFACES. thé moveable surface <!=jP'(a:. ~=~. whose equation M got by eliminatingft) ~3between 6'om wtuchlast two equationswe have (1 + M*) j3(a. there&re =* ) c *= 'L= ~11" or ~. 897). At any point of contact of the required sar&ce with the fixed surface a =y(a'.y.

~ec*m*(y–/9). the point a~3'y to move. the oponingof the rmgecorrespondingto thé valuesjust assigned. 8M thèse equations.y). between the equation of the fixed and moveable sphere.PAMtMJEOOf 80BFACBS.=J!'(<c–6t.~+~). To &i(t the envelope of a right cone whoae axis Mparallel to thé axis of < and whose vertex movea along any assigned curve in the plane of a:y. we get 4(<t*+~')~*=(~+~'+/3~ Thia gives a quadratic for a*+~8*. IM~renUat!ng we have ~!==m*(a. the radins being either JBif. ~8 is given in terms of a. moved to the point a. the equation of the surface will evidently be If we are given a cnrve along which t!y.whose roota are (~if)'. ~3 in terms of -y. showing that the centre of the moveable aphere moveson one or other of two circles.-ct). we can express a. The surface required M therefore one or other of two anchor rings. 399. 896. Let it be given howeverthat the directing . ita motion being directed by a cnrve along which any given point of the surfacemoves. We add one or two more exampteaof families of envelopeawhose equationainclude but one arbitrary function. Is and the problem ia one of the ctass to be consideredin the next article. as !s evident from the modeof generation.y–~3). where the equation of the envelope ineludes two arbitrary funetions. and Thia equation expresses eliminating we have j)'==?'. the equation of the cone becomes and if we are given a curve e'=M*((. that the tangent plane to the surface makes a constant angle with thé plane of a~. along which the vertex moves. 400. are both ineluded in the following "To findthe envelope of a surface of any form which movea without rotation. The &mtnea of surfaces. then if it be movedwithout turning 80 that the point originally at the origin ahall pa~Mto the position o~-y.F(a:. 399). considered(Arts.e-e!)'+(y-~3)'}. Let the equation of the cone in ita then if thé vertex be original position be <=M'(. It can easily bo deduced hence that the area of any portion of the surface !s in a constant ratio to tts projection on thé plane of xy." Let the equation of the surfacein its original position be z=.

one is known and only one arbitrary.y) = 0. hen. curve & <&'<HMta certain &!M<pa on Mf~~ce. Ex. Thus if we MStune an arbitrary fonctionof a.~3. the required partial dMSerentitJ equationM The three functionej~ are evidently connected by the te!att<m<ry'=~'+g<~ It ia easy to see that the pMrtMdifferentialequation just found is the expreamonof the fact that the tangent plane at any point on the envelope. To and thé partial differential of of equation the envelope a of M whoM entre moves apheM coMtant dhM alongany cm'vetraced ont&MdeqnatapheM . Betweenthe three equations If then the equationof the surfacealong whieh ft~-yis to move be r (a. /3. of the two t equations of the <)reet!ngcurve. the equation of the &ted surface gives 'y M a knownfunctionof a.?6 FAMÏMM 0F 8CMACE8. ia parallel to that at the corMapondingpoint on the ong!nat stu'&ce. eo that the equation of the envelopeindudes but one arbitrary function. It is eaay to see how to find the partial dM~fent!aI equationin this eaae.

which M the required equations. 1 1 owe to FrofeMor Boole my knowledge of the &et that when the equation of the moveable aurfnee containa three parametera. &. W–a'~O. 899) for which p'+g'~M*. a memoir of his in whieh thit theorem ie given. pre~ioM to Its publication. ~==&. whence ~=~(~). a+<m==0. thé partial differential equation M of thé form stated above. < derived from eotvmg the preceding three equations. This last is got by diNerentiating again the equations p = a. for whieh we are to aabstttate their values in tenus of a:. y then we have ~!=~. z . We have also –~a' S~*= (~)) which is the other first integral of the final differential equation. Thus the family is a family of developable (Art. < c). If the equationof the surfacebe <!== JF(a'. as in Art. g = &. when we obtain an eqn&tion of the form 402. We now proceedto investigate the formof the partial differential cquation of the anvetape. He has kindty aUowed me to consult.FAMtUEa 0F SURFACES. These are the envelope of the plane =<t!K+ + e. surfaces. e. and eliminating M. we have The fcnctiûM 2~ contain a. g'=~. 887 401. DM~rentIatmg we have~=<t.y.whenthe equation of thc moveable surface containsthree constanteconnectcd by two rolattona. Any surface therefore is a developable snr&ce if and q are conDected hy a relation mdependent of a:. when we have )'+<w=='0. y. where &r 6 and c we may wnte (a) and (a). 889. . The following examples Me among the most important of the cases where the equation inclades three parameters. Dt&rentiatmg again. Decei'opo&& &<t~MM.c.

298) the tangent plane &t any point meets the surface in two coincident right lines. The HeMiaa of any sot&ce bcing of the degree 4H–8. We Bee now then that every point on a developable is a parabolie point. for mnce (Art. aa is otherwise evident. that of a developable consists of thé surface itseU.338 PAMtMEa (JF SURFACES. By companng Arts. We may return to this subject herca~er. 264. The aame thing may be shown directly by transforming the eqnation f<=0 into a function of the dift'erential coefficients of the help of the relations by when the equation r< becomes identical with the equation of the Hess!an. whose centre moves on any curve. Let it be required to Snd the diB~rential equation of the envelope of a sphere of constant radius. and a sur&ee of 3~–8 degree which we ahall calt the Pro-Hessian. as in Art. 403. The Hessian of a developable must therefore always contain the equation of the surface itaelf as a factor.281 !t appears that the con~tion f<==<*is MtMed at every parabolic point on a surface. . ?~S«&!)' ~«t/acM. the two !nâex!onal tangents at that point coincide. 400. We have.

-) (<. that at any point on the required envelope one of the two pnuctpat radil of e<tf?atNM!s equal to as is geometrically evident. r. and rememberSubstituting for <M = we havo ing that'~T in which equation we are to substitute for thé parametera implicitly involved in it. '? =~. y. y. 404. ('.p. ïn the first place.e. s. write the last equation pr==*r'. 58). y.~) (< ~. diffee rentiating pT=o. V-~=C'.y. 281. We shall briefly show what the form of the ditferential equation is whcn tho equation of thé surface whoM envelope is sought contains four constants. for shortness. z be the Z2 . 839 whieh denotes. s. in addition to thé equation of the surface the three equations F =~. p. tlien. q are thé same for both. Let u". we ahaH next ahow how from a given partîal differential equation can be derived another differential equation satianed by every characteristic of the &m!ty of Sta&ces to which the given equation belongs (see Monge. t. let the given equation be of the first order. of a moveable surface. q. o-=Z).g)=0. The equation is therefore of thé form 6[+3~M+3~'+Om'=~ where M and U are functions of a'. Thia follows from the fact that the envelope touches the moveable surface. Now if x. In like manner we can form the differential equation when thé equat!on of the moveable surface mctndes a greater number of parameters. from thé equation o'+TM=0. Wo hâve. 40S.' it will be utisfied not only by velope the envelope but also by thé moveable surface in any of Its positions.PAMtMES 0F SURFACES. s. that M to say. and therefore that at thc point of contact a:.we bave (~ +J?w) -r+(C+Deet) p-2 (B+Cm) <r=0. Having in the preceding articles explained how pM~at differential equations are formed. of the fonn Now if thia equation belong to the enj~(!B. p. as before. p. and let us write e <!t-=~ ~=~. Art.)'. their values derived from the preceding equations.

%+(~=. y. Consequently~ we differentiate if the given equation. 895) we have p = j~ (iC. p. And combiningthis eqaationwith <& + -.= <~ that previoualyfound. then the pomts of the cbaracteristîcmuat a&tiaf~ equation the Or we might hâve stated the matter M follows: Let the equation of the moveable surface be s = F(a:. 888) of the use made of thoae eqnaëona in integratmg thie chas of eqnationa. In &ct. a). theae are the equationaof therefore . t!ee in the tangent plane to either of thé mr&ceswh!ch intersect in that point. a). a). can be dedaced jR&=&& ~=. Then (Art. we chtain the d~erenëal eqnat!onof the çharacteristic J~ ~<&:=0. is whether p and q have the values derived from one positionof thé moveablesttrface or &omthe noxt consécutive.. Hence we have. = the dMractenatMaattsËeathe equation JR~ <3(&! 0. thé eqnattoc <&==~<&:+%t~ satMed.fince such a point M the intemectiooof two conseeutive positionsof the moveable surface. where the conatant: have all been expressed as fonctions of a single pammeter a. if the above eyatem of amnitaneoasequa~ona integrated give w='< c=c. y. t!. co-ordinatesof any point on the characteristic. Now smcethé tangent lino to the charaetensttcat any point of it. $)=0 wHt be satisded by thMe values of e. whieh vaines of p and q may be saba~tnteA in the given equation. regarding p and q as alone vanaMe. the equation y(a:. <~=J~ (ic. p. from which equation combined w!th the given eqaat!on and with The <&=y<&!+~.y.B< Mader M aware (see Boote's jM~eMtM~ ~M~MM. y.B. We hâve = 0. Now the characteristic is expreMed by combiuing with thé given equation tt9 differential with respect to a and a only entera into the given equation in consequence of its entering into the values for p and q. whether p and hâve the values derived from one position of the moveablesurface or from the next consécutive.340 FAM!MES ()F SURFACES. Thua if the given eqmttton be of thé form .

F==0 and their dISërentials.as la ~eometncaUy 406. in any of ita positions. the given partial di8erential equation and the equation <&!=~<&!+~. or generating cnrve. y<&=j~.by eliminating three constants between the equations !7=0. Ex. for instance. Thua the geometrical meaning of the equation chosenfor the example is that the tangent to any of the curvea denoted by it. 341 the chartMtetisttc. An equation of tbis daœ expressesa relation satis&ed of by the direction-cosines the tangent to any of thé curves which the system J~ F represents for any value of thé constants. as. from the equations z*(l-)-p't~')!=y'. one derived from the equation of a single surface.vis. while in order that w may be constant whenever tt is eonstant. we derive The reader is aware that there are two classes of differential equations of the first order. but we can eliminate these quantities by combining with the equation jast found. by thé elimination of any constant from an equation 0~=0. Thé equations now under considerationbelong to the latter class. betweenthe equations m .)!*(! }*)= t*. . ( then any chaMetoMe Mt~tee the equation~y c ~th'. ~9. The equation just <baDdfor the chamctertsttc generally Inctudea aad g.FAMtUtS 0F aUM'ACES. and the equationmight be obtained by eliminating the constantsa.370) that the ehMMter!eUt dwayea line of greatest dope on the évident. The other class is obtained by combining the equationsof two snr&ces.as. we muttt have M= (v). for instance. Thm~ in the !Mt example. 396). Let the equationbe that comideredArt. makes with the plane of a~ an angle whose cosine is This property is true of every cirde in a vertical plane whose radius is r. and its differential An equation of this dass expresse: a relation between the direction-cosmos every tangent line drawn at any point on of the sur<ajoe. Mt&ce. wMchtadicttea ia (Art.

c-<!f)'+(y-~)*+~=~. the characteristic. second equations are the same when a is variable in virtue of the third equation. es in the last article. if in the equations we write (. (a:-<![)+)M~)=0. and combine with these the equation the diSerendals of the first and l+~'(ct)'=(y-j8)~"(K). the ratios (&e d~ t: <& are the same for any characteristic and the corresponding cuspidal edge. as if a were constant. Thus. is not only true for every characteristic of a family of sur&ces. represents the cuspidal edge when a is an unknown function of the variables to be eliminated by means x of thé equation -. subject to this condition. Prec!sely as a partial differential équation in p. holds equally when they .342 FAMtUM 0F SURFACES. = 0 hâve thé same d!Berentiats when a is considered as <M vanaMe. P=0. The same thing may ho stated otherwise as follows thé aystem of equations when a is regarded as constant. But evidently the equations P==0. as if it were constant. 407. the geometrical property expreMed by the differential equation not only M true for a circle in a vertical plane. but remams tme if the circle be wrapped on any vertical cylmder and the cuspidal edge of the given family of surfaces aiwaye belongs to the family of eurves thus generated. ~3= (x). but since each characteristic touches the cuspidal edge of thé surface generated. so the total differential equations here considered are trae both for the cuspidat edge and the series of characteriatica whieh that edge touches. Thus in the example chosen. and therefore the differential equation obtained by eliminating œ. The dîSerentiat equation found. M == (x). m between the first two equations and their differentiala on the supposition that these quantities are constant. represents ~-==00 which. in the example of the last article. la tme as well for the envelope as for the particular sur&ces enveloped. and consequently the equation now found is satisfied by the cuspidal edge of every surface of the family under consideration. y (expresaing as it does a relation between thé directiom-coNnes of the tangent plane).y='0. ~3.

< + Xd~. and if the distance of that Une from the origin be a. for y. satis~ing the given differential equation. Roberts. t.y.«/<.246) that the dhofiminant expresses tho condition that the tangent to the carve represented by it touches the given surface. the result will be the differential equation of the ouspidal edge of evident (see any developable enveloping the given surface. And we ahaU obtain the equationa of a curve satisfying thia diSercat!~ equation by giving any form we pteaae to ~(a) and then eliminating between the equations 408. common along their line of intersection and can differ only with regard to r. we might conceive a new surface generated by the Mme curve meeting two new d!recdng curvcs. thé given equation being of the second order (see Monge. and let It is convenient to insert here a remark made by Mr. and if these latter directing curves touch the former at thé points where the generating curve meets them. 343 vmy according to the ruies hère laid down. and touching each other all along their Une of intersection. In like manner can be found thé differential equation of the characteristic. In the case supposed then the two surfaces bave !C. Thua the general equation of the cuspidal edge of developables cireunMcriMnga sphère is In the latter form it M evident that the same equation is satisfied by a geodesic traced on any ocne whose vertex is thé origin. that if in the équation of any surfaee we substitute for r.FAMILIES OF 8CRFACBS. In this case we can have two consécutive surfaces. thé geodemc wi)l become a right line. it is evident that the two surfaces touch along this line. . For if thé cone be developed into a plane. y ~y* for ~t s + ~<&tand thon form the discriminant with respect to X. if we had a Mrface generated by a carve moving eo as to meet two nxed directing curves. Differentiate then the given dl&.rentiai equation considenng these quantities alone variable. M. <. then thé area of the to triangle formed by joiaing any element <!< the origin is half . vix. For instance. p. but thia is evidently the proporty expressed by the ptcceding equation. 74). In fact it Art.

we shall ahow that the ptecedmg equationanBes fromthe elimination of a. then the equation of the envelope will in general contain fonctions of two qnantities. and if not. < EUmm&dngtheo ob. p. When it does not so tum out. we refer to Honge. we take thé equation of the family of sur&ces which bas one set of its Unes of curvature parallel to a fixed plane. which. but a point.in the equation of Art. y=mx. the differential equation of the family is As it does not enter into the plan of this treatise to treat of thé integration of such equations. But emce p and q are con+ <t!Hit&IongthM!me. and the dinerential equation will be of the more general form. dt. the equation of its envelope. betweenthé &Uowing equation and ita differentialswith respect to a and j8: . it breaks up into two &ctom. Putting <j~'=M<&. as we have aeen.wahave <?r<Xc+obd~=0. 290). if mtioDat. contams only fanetions of a smgte quantity. charactensttcs represented by aeparate equations. &<&c+<&<~<=0. As an illustration of the occurrence of thé latter c]as9 of equations in geometrical investigations. which we have ah'eady had. denote two branches of the same curve mtersectmg on the point of the surface which we are considering. la fttct when the motion of a surface is regulated by a smgte parameter (see Art. its contact with its envelope being not a curve. the requited equation for the chttracteristic la In the case of any of the equations of the second order. 409. 161 of for a very interesting diaensmon this equation. this equation would tara out a permet square. But if the motion of the surface he regulated by two parameters. the reault be JM5' jS&+ Tdt m0. and the differential equation belongs to the simpler speciea just referred to. Onr object being only t~ show how snch differential equations present themaetvea in geometry. 280.844 0F FAMtLtES SURFACES. behmg to two independent.

paper. t7t. Memoir.we add somefurther AetaUaaa to this family of surfaces. On account of thé importance of ruled surfaces.RULED J&FACE8.ChmM<~ D~Mw . M 845 . and &omMr.xi. vtT.* 410. problem ia redaced to eliminatey between the equatMM RULED BUBFACES. The tangent plane at any point on a genemtor evidently containsthat generator.ChMÎM'a (taetetet'9 t. 284) at that point. <K'Mtw~... Each different point on thé generator bas a différent tangent plane (Art. p.Cayley'a and 3&M<M«<Ma< VoL p.8. whichMone of the inflexionaltangenta (Art.And by compartaon with the preceding equationt we have If then we caU a+m. y the ~+~=(t+M'')~'(a+m~8). M. 107) which may be conetmctedas Mlows: We know that through a given point are taken from Thetheoremsn thiasection ptincipfdly i M. Cbt~Mpc~HM.

and through any point Aon one~draw a line meeting the other two. Now let the three fixed Unesbe three consécutivegenerators of thé ruled surface. and in tMs case the plane containing the two consecutivegenerators is a tangent plane at every point on the generator. thé transversals meet any of these generatora A in four points.Let three tixed lines J9. 411. and which shall also bave the same tangent plane with that surface at every point of their common generator. And by this aritcle it bas been proved that the anharmonic ratio of the four planes is equal to that of the points where the transversals meet A. the intersectionof the planesjoining the given point to the given lines.4.we eau deBcnbea hyperboloid of one sbeet. the tangent planes at which are thé planes containing ji and thé tranaverBals. &Ndthereforethé of thia line and the generator at Mthe t&ngentplane plane at ~t la this constructionit is aupposedthat two coMecutive generators do not intenect. 410 that thé tangent plane at every po!nt . 112). C be intersected by four transveraassin points <M'<t"<?'&"& cc'e"c' Then the anharmonie ratio ~&'&"&} ~cc'o"o"')) since either tneasare: the ratio of thé four planes drawn through A and the four trans= férais. 412. Thia line. Btngalar genemtON wMch are intersected by a coneeca~ve goaemtor. In like manner {cc'c"<} {<M'a"o'"} either measuring the ratio of thé four planes through B (aee Art. For it is evident&om the construction of Art. which ahaUbave this generator in common with the ruled surface. in which case thé generator !a a double Une on thé surface. can be drawn a Urneinteraecting two given Unes namety. The anharmonicraio of four <an~M~ ~!aM< ~MMM!~ Me~Ma! <0that of theirfour points of conthrough a ~KM'<tf<M* <tM<. which ordinarilythey will not do. In apecial casea also two conseent!vegenerators may coincide. however. paastng through du'ee cousecutivepoints on the ecTf&ce. Nowconsiderthree consecn~vegenerators. will be the second m&ex!<MMl tangent at . then by the last ar~cle.846 RULED 8UMACES. There may be on the mr&ce. Ghren any generator of a raled Mu'face.

then every term m ite eqaat!om must contain either a) or y.RULED SURFACES. and evidently in this case any plane y=Ma: will touch the surface only ïn n -p -1 pointa. And + + any planey =M. and that equation arranged according to the powera of a) and y will be of the form where < e~ denote fnnctiona of <: ofthe (<t-1)" degree. and conMqaentlythat if two nded N))'<Me9 have three consécutivegeneratom in common. have a common &ctor «~ M that the terms of the nrst degree in a! and y may be written then the equation of the tangent plane ~(K. ?6) the hyperboloid then determined by any generator and thé two next consecutive w!H touch the given ear&ce as required. but one of a System of right lines by which the surface is generated.+e~)=0. which are determined by the equation M~+~=0. In order ta aee thé full bearing of the theorem hère enonciated.B c'y = 0. Now what is aMerted in the theorem of this article is. &c. the co-ordinates of that pomt. M'. = 0 arc double points on the surface. when the two next consecutive geneKttom are given.B will touch thé surface in but one point. If however «. 347 on a generator is fixed.B ey. they will touch all along the nrst of these generatora. will be M'a. it follows that any plane y=<<M: touches the surface in M-l 1 points. Tho factor indicates that there are on each generator a-2 2 points which are double points on the surface. 107) the tangent plane at any point on the axis will be M'a!+ e~'=0. Then (see Art. ConveKety. thcn the form of the equation will be so that the tangent plane at any point on the axis will be the same as that of thé hyperboloid t<.+e'=0. . that whcn the axis of is not an isolated right line on a surface. viz. let us suppose that the axis of lies altogether in any surface of the M'"degreo. It is easy to see that thé points on thé axis for which u. where M' denotes thé remit of snbstttuting in M~. Now any three nonintersectmg right lines détermine a hyperboloidof ono aheet (Art.

If ot and b (or a' and ~') represent the same plane. exeept that part of it whiehia multipliedby (<!&').in that generator and in a cnrve of the (n 1)'" degree meeting the generator in K–Ï points. namely.&=~ the terms of the nrst degree in a and a* would vanlab. (o&'). Now the line <M'M a genemtor. Then the equation of the surface obtained by eliminating t betweenthe équations of the generator (Bi~Aef.are linear fonctionsof the oo-ordinates~ and t a variable parameter. 414. v!z. the other a 2 are nxed points on the generator. it !a evident that any plane through a generator meets the surface. at least.. Betaming to the theory of mled swr&cesin general. and <M'would be a doubleline on the enrfaoe. b. But we have seen (Art.. p.and thé plane a touches along its whole length. Wo can vorify the theorem juat stated. the first row and first colamn of wh!ch are identical. 413. If we had &=:~ft. thoee any generator of which cm be expreMedby two equations of the form where a. &o. that answering to (=00. a'. for an !mportant daM of ruled aur&cea. &c. S!nce then every term in thé expanded determinant contains a factor from the Ëmt row and a factor from the first column.(<M'). then the generator N<t'intersectathe next consecutive. But that part of the equation which is only of the first degreo in a and a' determines the tangent at any point of <M' thé raled surface is therefore touched along that generator by thé hyperboloid «&&a'=0. the term common to the 6rst row and Srat coinmm. 288) in a certainaenaea point of contact of the plane with the surface.w&Mt. viz. thé seconddegree in <tand a'. Each of thèse points being a double point in the carre of section is (Art. ami we have jost proved that either a or o' will appear in every term both of the &9t row and of the fmt colnmn. the expanded determinant will be a funct!on of.848 RULED SURFACES. may be written in the form of a determinant. 4M) that only one of them ia properly a point of contact of the plane. 84). not varying as the plane throngh it is .(ad*).

arise when two consécutivegenoratom lie in the same plane passing through the vertex of the cone. They are the pointa where t'hia generator meeta other non-<!OMecatîve generators. and thé section by any plane will therefore be a curve having double points but not cusps. that îs to say.b. 13~).It may of eourae happen that two or more of thèse M-8 2points ay coincide. Thé cone wul. 41&. Consider now thé cône whoso vertex is any point. The dasa of the cone. and are pomts of a double curve on the surface. 349 changed. in general.points. the tangent planes to the cone are the planes joining the series of generatoïs to the vertex of the cone. We have proved now that the c~M of the cône M equal to the degree of a section of the sorface and that the former bas no stationarytangent planes as the latter bas no stationary.ttUMH 6UBFACE8. Thus then o <Jteto ruled aurfaceM)general ~M a doublecurve which te met by every ~eMr<!<<M'M–2 2 M ~oM<. p. !s equal to the number of generatora which can meet that Ime. In the case consideredin the last art!cte it can he proved (see Appendix on the Order of Systems of Equations) that the multiple cnrve A ruled surface having a double line will in general not have any cuspidal line unless the surface be a developable. to the degree of thé surface (seenote. in general. But it is only in spécial casesthat a generator will be interaectedby one consécutive the number of planes through two consécutive generatom is therefore finite and hence one will. and that the multiple curve on the m surface may be of higher orderthan the second. not have any stationary tangent planes: for such a plane would. The equations then which conscct any three of thé singalandea . not pass through an assumed point. being equal to the number of tangent planes which can be drawn through any Une through thé vertex. Suice every plane through a generator touches thé surface in some point. and which envelopes the surface. or cuspidal.

Cayte/t. ~..–2 other generators. and Miting on the eurvea <M~M. it Is m. V J and D«M)t ~&<ttand ~)«MM OMHM~ . ChmM~ Va!. it meets other generators... the points where it meets the directing curves. 171. t 1 publlshed a dieouasion of tM< tfm&ce.. is equal to the number of pointa of intersection of two generators which lie in an assumed pitme. times the degree of thé latter surface.<M. aad the assumed line.<!t. in like times the degree of the ruled surface whoae directing manner. or in other worda.f j' The degree of the surface generated ia equal to the number of generators which meet an aMumed right iine it is therefbre equal to thé number of intersections of the curve m.. that is to say. M~M. 46. The degree of this again la. from Art.-l)-t(M)~–l) Thèse theoKmt are Mr. oL ~nï.m~ it foUows. p. that any generator M mteraected by But we have seen that at 2M. 417. while hy a repetition of the same argument. We ahall !Uastr&te the preceding theo~jr by an enumeration of some of the singularities of the ruled surface generated by a line meeting three fixed directing cnrvea..850 RULRD SOM'ACES... Jtta(~<HM«M!ot<)w«!.~ 416. that the number planes containmg two generatora which ean be drawa through an assumed point. The order of the ruied surface being 2m~.<M. For through any point on the firat curve pao mm.. generatom. of to of of a curve prove that the number of double tangent planes the cone must be equal to the number of double points a section of the surface. the degree of this last is 2m.m~.. the degrees of which are m. M. m.. p.w. Come(o~m. eurves are two right Unes and thé carre M. 414. inn. the intereeotiome namely of the cones having thia point for a common vertex. <xa<t:M< JTnt~<t<.. with the raled surface having for directing curves the curves M.–l)-t(ot. whoae ordera are reapectively ~M. It follows that the degree of the ruled surface when the M generators are curves ?! <K. 2wt~ The three directing curvea are multiple lines on the sar~ce.

Now if h.. But this is in other words the thing to be proved.RULED SURFACES. The number of Mch lines resting twice on the ourve m. to be <M~ t!mes the degree of the ruled surface generated by a nght Hne Kst!ng twice on m.w. The ruled sm'&cewill contain & certain number of double generatora. M. and a!so on an arbitrary line.t.M~+m. 351 quently it must meet 2M~)H. Let us commence by thé degree of the ruled surface whose directing determining curves are the curves m~ m. there remain 2m~Mj.-M!. la proved by reMonmg sunilar to that used before. obtained by joinmg any of the points where the plane meeta the curve to one of those where it meets the curve <?“.. since obvionety.-M~. Thus then the degree of thé section (and therefore of the surface) is MuMplymg this nnmber by ?“.+M. tbrough any point of It can be drawn thia number of lines (distinct from the given iine itself) meeting the curves <K~ m.M. we get the number of points where this new rnled eur&ceis met by the corve M. 418. whieh is a line resting on both. it is evident that the aMamed r!ght HBewill on tbis ruled surface be a multiple line of thé . We ehaU estabUah this reault independently by seeking the number of generaton whieh can meet a given generator. will be that Une !tBetf (M. thosenamely which meet one of the directing corves twice and thé other two once..M. be the number of apparent double points of the carve w. and the given gcnorator.. and the assumed generator. Subtractingthis nomber then..-(m. that ia to say.Mj+l gènerature in pointa &ot on thé dtrecttng curvea.+l 1 points of the curve throngh which can be dt'Mra & line to meet the curves M.. the number of lines whieh can be drawn through an assumed point to meet that curve twice. together with the (0~–1) (o~–l) generatom. But amongst theae will be reckoned (tM~-l) times the point where the given generatormeetsthe curve M. But the section of the surface by a plane through the given Une.. In the Ërat place this right line is a multiple line of the order M.-1) times.M.

and base the cnrve <M. amdthe sectionofthé ruled surfaceby a p!mMthrough that !iiM. ~9.t!mea togetherwith ~M. a< &<M<. And generally if the three pairs made ont of the three direetimgcurves have common respectively a. in like manner.(N~–l).. place ./3+ M. the order of the raled surface will be reduced by ~a + Mt. It is easy to see.. as calculated by Art. and the other two curvesof the degree m. a double curve. must be added to the order of the carre. ~K(m-l)(M-2)(<a-3). The degree of the mied surface. as determined in the firat part of thia article.double generators.Cayley <Mteduction MchakM when ~ireeting the have MrvM pointaineommon.. There are. «M&M intersect it the directing line in a certam number of points. and that the prder of the ruled surfaceproper willbe reduced by M. be inelnded will in the system. Thas if thé corvea mg have a point in common.* Thas if the directing lines be two right to r w t b Myattentionwasoa!)edy Mr.362 MtE& aOBFACES. 419. besides ita doublegenerators. 416. of ooame. order ~t. it ia evidentthat the sectionby any plane through thé directing right lime consists of that right Une M. lines mtemectiNgin ~m~. and thé total number of double generatom Il on thé original m!ed aar&ce is 1 am unable to give the order of the double cnrve in general.m.(~ i) (~ 1) pointa not on thé directing eurvea This latter therefore would appear to be in this case the order of the nodal curve.'y points. which. whoae order is.m. it is evident that the cone whose vertex is this point. will admit of reduction if any pair of the directing eurves have points in common.times togetherwith the (~ -1) linea joining any pair of the points where the plane cuts the curve M~ Thé degree of this ruied surface will then he ~+~m.'y. hesîdes. will hâve. if so. that the surfacegenerated by a right line resting twice on a curve m and on a right line. will be that line A. bat in the particular case where one of the directing auvee is a right Une.

It followsthon. which a~o not generators of thé original surface. meeting all threo curves. Thé centre of the aystcm is thé point where thé plane which touches the surface at innnity. If oach interacet it twico tho surface i. is normal to the surface and by thc known properties of inAA . That it must be rcckoncd twico. Accordingto tho geneml theory thc surface ought to be of tho sixteenth order. 353 !meaand a twisted cubic. 411. form a system in involution. If wo take as diMctmg curves thrce plane sections of any ruled surface. a quadric.and two generatorsof thé given hyporboloid. and of a piano at right angles to it. thé equation of tho rnled surface generated will hâve. form a system in involation or. a factor denoting another rnicd surface which passes throngh thé given curves. appears from thc fact that tho four gencrators wMchcan be drawn through &nypoint on one of the directingeurves. are two Imes bolonging to thc cones. In general. If one intersect it twico and thé other once. tho surface is in gênera! of the sixth order. Each pair of dirocting cnrvcs have two points common. Again. Retnrning to thé CMCof raled surfaces in general. For it will generally be possible to draw lines.. thé anharmonie ratio of any four being equal to that of their'four conjugales. let thé dircctmg curvesb&any three plane section!! of a hyperboloidof one shect. that the system formed by the points of contact of any plane. namely. and where thoy are normal to the surface. in additionto tho cones and to thé original sarfaco.BULED SURFACES. from Art. the surface is a skew surface of the third dogree on~which the former line is a doublelino.thé systemof points where planesthrough any genarator touch the surface. but if oach of tho lines intersect t!t0 cubic tho ordcr h only of tho fourth. tho points in which tho Une of intersectionof their planes meets tho aar&ce. togother with tho original quadrM rockoned twice. And tho complex surface of thé sixteenth order consistaof six cones of the second order. and let us sec how a reduction takes place. we know that a eones of planes throngh any lino and a sories at right angles to them form a system in invointion. in other words. 420.

volution. and these intersections are lines parallel to these generators. in.. namely thé plane perpendicular to the generator. The points wherefour generators of a hyperbolicparaboloid intersect a generator of the opposite kind. It is evident that they are all parallel to the same plane. that the shortestdistance Vol. 411) is equal to that of their points of contact. and therefore the anharmonic ratio of the four points is equal to that of the four planes. if the anharmonic ratio of any fonr la equal to that of the four points where they meet the line. ?%<normalsto any ruled MO~Melong<tM~ ~e)Mf<t<M'. where each is closest to thé next consecntive. The locus of the points on the generatora of a ruled surface. We may speak of the anhajmonic ratio of four linea parallel to thé same plane. the point where each generator ïs intersected by the ahortest distance hetween it and its next consecutive. a generatea Ay~~Mtc paraboloid. form a constantrectangle. which again (Art. meaning thereby that of four parallela to them through any point.is called thé ?MM striction of the surface. between two consécutivegenerators is Mo< elementof the an .864 RULED SURFACES. it is easy to see. But a system of linea parallel to a given plane and meeting a given Une gener&teaa hyperholicparaboloid. in order to correct a not unnattu'al mistake (see ZacroM!. p. 421.which we can easilyestablish. It may be remarked.419) M equal to that of thé points where the normals meet the generator. 668). the points where each generator is nearest the next consécutive. which (Art. 422. are the points of contactof the four tangent planes whichcontainthese generators. Thé central points of the involution (Art. that is to say. But thé latter ratio is measured by thé four lines in whieh these planes are intersected by a plane parallel to the four generators. the distances from this point of the pointa where any other plane touches and is normal. 419) are. Now in this sense thé anharmonic ratio of four connais is equal to that of thé four correspondingtangent planes. This propositionfollows immediatelyfrom its converse.

BULEO SURFACES.J9&. generators. then &'<?he shortest distance between the second and third t will in general meet Bb in a point &' distinct from &. be three consecutive a&the shortest distance betwecn thé two former. 'When thé two genetatoK appMach to toinddeMe. ~fe h&T6 foz the eo-ordin&tM«f thé point where either M inteKMted by thNr ahottMt dMianee The lino of tt~ction ia therefore the parabola in whieh thia plane euu the Bnt&ce.1. To6ndthelinoofstrictionf thehyperbolic o paraboloid Any pair of generatoramay be expKMed by the equ&tioM their shortett distance is pMBoth being parallel to the plane pendteola)' to thia plane. In fact if ~<t. and therefore lies m the plane «"-fi whieh htemeetsthé &st genemtotIn thé point < c -g O+U-AP. The same surface considered M generated by the lines of the other system has another Une of striction lying in the plane AA2 . 355 Ce line of etrietion. and the element of the une of striction will be at' and not ab. Ex.

pnUMted 18! . SURFACES EBIVED D PBOMQUADRICS. BEFOBE proceeding to surfaces of tho third degrec.tho locusof their extremities will he a surface of two shects which is caUedthé wave surface. 98.208).* If a pcrpendicalar through tho contre be ereoted to tho plane of any central sectionof a quadrie. whero thé lcngths of thé axes of any sectionare expresocd iu terms of tho angles whicha perpendicnlarto its plane makes with tho axes of thé surface. J)~M<'A'«de l' Inttitut. Tho same equation thon expresses the relation which tho length of a radius vector to the wavo surface hears to thé angles which it makes with tho axes. Tho equation of tho surface of centres bas been already givon (Art. Vol. The equation of thé W&YeSurface is therofore See Preimet. thé theory of which is moro doscty connectcdwith that explained m preceding chapters. 97. and on it tengths bo taken equal to the axes of thé section. ]SO. and form the equation o~ Fresnel's WaYe Sur&ce. Its equation is at once derived from Arts.( 356) CHAPTER XIII. TH. THE WAVE SUBFACE. p.. 423. and we proceed now to define. we think it more simple to treat of surfaces derived from quadrics.

and on it take portions eqnal to cach of those axes. the tangent cono (Art. bas for its equation rTho gcncratmg quadric boing supposa to bé an ellipsoid. only tnrned round throngh 90". If then wc crcct a porpendicular to the plane of section. The section by one of thé principal planea (e. the plano a) breaks up into a cMe and e!I!pM This is a!ao goometrically codent. If a. 357 From thé 6mt form it appcars at once that the intersectton of thc wavo smf&cc by a conccntnc sphere. Real double points oceur only in tho section by tho plane they aro evidently the points corrcsponding to thé circular sectionsof tho generating ellipsoid. lies &ttogcthorwithout the ellipse whoso axes are 6. which in like manner give rise to four imaginary double points of tho SHr~co Sttnatcd at infinity. at this double point. whi!othe other axis lies in thé plane a. Thus the surface has iu all sixtcen nodal pointa. it is cvtdcnt that in thé case of the section by the plane tho circle whose radius is c lies alto. is spherocomc. jou~ points i namely.y. c. since if we consider any section of thé gencrating quadric.<'In cach of the principal planes tho sur&ce bas 6)ur. whHotho locus of the extremities of thé other portion. The section by the plane at infinity also breaks up into factors a~+~+< <t*a:'+&y+c'< and may therefore atso bo considerodas an imaginary circle and ellipse.getherwithin tho ellipso whose axes arc a. 239). of thc circle whoso radius !a a. 424. y' bo the co-ordmatcsof~ne of thcse intersections. b and in tho CMC thé section by the ptane <e.ntE WAYE SUEFACE. throngh tho axis of one of tho axes of that section is equal to c.only four of winch arc real . tho extremitica of one portion will trace out a circle whose radius is c. will plainly be the principal section of the generating quadric. tho intersection of the cMo and ellipsejust mentioned.

3S8 THEWAVEURFACE. Any surface being given. to the maximum or mmimam) radît of that section. if we assume any point as pole.as in Art. take lengths equal to thé apM<M(that ia to say. If OQ be any radias vector to the generatingsar&ce. thé tangent l!no to thé section QOR lies in the tangent plane and is therefore also pefpendicntttrto thé plane of the paper. S 42S. And by oonsideringr variable. and which passeathrough thé intersection with the given surface of a aphere of radius r. Thé equation of the apsidal surfacemay always be calculated. we ahall obtain to all the points on the apsidal surface which correspond to the tangent planes of the assumed cône. Since then OQ is perpendicular to the tangent line in the section ~OJ!. It followsthat 0?~ the radius of the apaidalsurface cotTeapoBdiBgto the point Q. we have the equation of the apsidal aurface. then the locus of the extremities of these perpendiculars19the apaidal surface derived from the given one. draw any section through that pole. 98) to he an apsidal radius of the sectionof the surface by thé tangent plane to the cône. Thé wave surface is one of a dasa of surfaceswhich may be called apsidal «o~tcew. For the tangent plane at Q passes through PQ and is perpendicnlar to thé plane of the paper. in the equation of this latter cone. aud on the perpendicular through the pole to the ptane of section. 98. F!rst form the equation of the cône whose vertex is the pôle. whose edgea are perpendicuiM* the tangent planes to the first cone. a&dOP the perpendicularto the tangent plane ttt the point Q. 426. Each edge of this cone is proved (aa at Art. it is an apaidal radins of that section. then OQ will be an apaidal radius of the section passing throngh 0~ and through OB which is sopposed to be perpendicularto thé plane of the paper POQ. . lies in the plane POQ and is perpendicular and eqnal to 0~. If then we form the equation of the reciprocal cone.

and indefinitely near the plane CM.~ to Consider Srat a radius 02" of the apsidal surface.gentplane ta <Ae apsidal at a&oin the plane JP<?~ <Nt~ ~tp~&MJiaf M <t<<~Me r and egtKt! OF. oona!deran indefiuitely near radius 02*' in the plane of the paper. and therefore that thé tangent at T to the section TOR ia perpendicularto OT.THE WAVE SURFACE. Now OT 19by definition equal to an apaidal radius of the section of the original eur&eo by a plane perpendicularto 0?*. and therefore 02~" will bo equal as well as perpendicularto t~ Thé angle then fTO Is to ~~0. we shall have C~. MacCuUagh. Thé perpendicular to the tangent plane at T muet therefore lie in the plane of the paper.<p!'<A respect to theorigin 0. Oq. Bat. where Oq M mdenmtely near to OQ. For if we take on OP. XVI. perpendicular to the plane of the paper. and therefore perpendicular to the plane of the paper. <c!7A respectto 0. 428. The apaidal radius therefore of a section passing through OQ. RoyalIrish ~[e«ef<my. Secondiy. this will be eqnat to an apsidal radius of the section JÏOQ'. a K-<M«!<'<)'<MM o/' tAo Vol. wîU be equal to OQ. . but this is the Bmt part of the theorem which was to be proved. ~<~ ~tpeK surface. and this plane mnst pass through OQ. It follows then that <3y=<?T*. :ndefinitelynear to 02~ and lying in the plane TOR. OQ portions !nver6etyproportional to them. Again an apsidal radms of a section is equat to the next consecutiveradius. 3ô9 427. a radius voctor and correspondmgperpendicularon tangent plane of thé reciprocal of Theae theoremeredue to Prof. ne ~et~MoA'ott&n'<A< tan. then conversely B is the apsidal of A. The polar reciprocalof au apSMMsurface. and therefore the perpendieular 0~' !s eqnal equal and perpendicularto OJ~ It Mowa &om the symmetry of the constmction that îf a surfaceJ[ iathé apsidalof B. this apsidal radius boing Indennîtely near to Oq will be equal to it. M befbre. is the same as the apsidal of thefectproc~.

and correspondingpcrpcndieularon tangent piane. Hamilton showed a nodcs.360 TIIE WAVE SCBFACE.\fac Odiagh.ùmettteal mMttig:Hlons follow arcducto Profc~). R.vmg an infinity of pointa of contact. and that the reciprocal of a wave surface is a wave surface. thé reciprocal of tho wavo surface gcneratcd from any euipaold. T!M apsidal of tho reciprocal is therofore the samo as tho rcciprocal of thc aps!dal.' . o/' <~ tangentplanes Vol.as for plane curvea. We might have othcrwtso seen that tho reciprocal of a wavo surface !a a Eur&cûalso of the fourth degrce. and at right angles to each othor. T)ic gt. From knowing then that a wavo surface bas four real double points. whtch p. To a nodal point on any surface (whichis a point through whieh can bo drawn an infinity of tangent planes.Lloyd thcorcnn. Dr. movc each in a fixed plane. experimentally ~ca<~N<y. tho given surface.thBncc derived. for tho rcciprocal of a surface of the fourth degree is m general of tho tMrty-mxthdcgrec (Art. 424) that the wavcsurfacebas s!xtcen doublepoints. that each double point on a surface redaces the degrec of ita rcciprocal by two.the tangentplanesat which envelope ones. thcn by the !ast article wc sbaU bave a radius vector. XTtI. MO) but it is proved..~ 429. We shall now show goometncauy that this conicia a orde.fM~. . and are rcspoctively perpendicular to them. In particular. of thé apsidal of thé rociprocal.OT whieli lie in thc!r plane. It is convenientto premiscthe followingiemmas: I. touching a conoof the second dcgroe) answorson the reciprocalsurface a tangent plane. tM. LEMMA If two lines passing thongh a 6xcd point. nd thatit hasfour c which touchalong J~'aoMt<<oM< Royal~<*MA eircles. t32. OT are also a radius vector.is tho waïc surfacegenoratcd fromtho rcciprocal ellipsoid. and perpendicular on tangent plane of thé rcciprocal of the apaidal. we infer that tho wavo surface bas four tangent planes which touch ail along a conic. And if we take portions equal to thcsc on thé lines OtS. But these longths being mvcrsely a& OS. ha. and wc have proved (A]t.p. verinMl optical thé p. lying in a conic. tho SKt that the wavesurface hMfour Sir V. 2M.

the corrospondingperpcndicuIaron tangent plane also movesm a nxcd plane. 86). If a central radins of a quadnc moves in a fixed plane. in thé plane of tho ctrcular sections.T!tE WAVESURFACE. Now let OJ? be one position of the lino which movcsin tho plane OJM~ then thé other lino OA whieh Is parallel to the plane of tho papor being perpendicularto Û.NR But tho plane C~tZ<interaects tho plane of tho paper in a linojBÏ*parallol to O~t. 430. tho planc perpcndtculat' to tho diamoter conjugato to tho tiret ptanc. 4. then OT !s tho nodal rad!us which remains thé aamowh!lc OQ moves of tho wavo sNr&co. LEMKA "If a lino OC bc drawn pcrpcndicular to II. 426) that the plane to 0<?~ (where OR is perpondticular the piano of tho paper) is a circular sectionof a quadric. 106." The ptauo of the paper is supposcd to bo parallel to ono of thé &Md planes. it will goncmte a cone whoso circular sections are parallel to the fixed pianos. as at p.Bsnd to OP is perpendicularto tho plane O." (Ex. Û~J?. and the other fixed plane is aappOBed to pass titrough the !mc JM~. with respect to 2~ of the envclopc of 2?~ The locus is thcre&rc a cirelo passing throngh H LEMMA III. Art. that tho locus of C is the polar rectproca!. 361 piano contaiBmg thc two lines ccvelopca a coao whMO sectiona parallel to tho fixed phmca arc parabolas." Namely. aud wc wish to find thc cono gcneratcd by Hut OtS'is pm'pcmitcular OJS to which tuovcs in thc ))t)mcof tho ch'<u!. It is proved.u'sccttOiM to ~7' and . to which tho tangent plane must bo parallel. Tho Sxed point 0 m whieh thé two Unes mtersect is supposed to be above thé paper. p. P being tho foot of the perpondicular from tt on tho plane of tho paper. Suppose now (soc ngnre.and thereibro perpendicular to JXR And thé envclope of BT ie ovidentlya parabola of which P la thc &)cnsand 3fy thé tangent at thé vertex.

. 178 give immediatelyanother form of the equation of the wave surface. The equationa of p. The form of the equation . for one sheet. Secondiy. and TS !a planes JPOJB. W. 432. It is evident 8''be the angles which any radins vector thence. we bave ~±6' constant.~M. then the point 8 ts 6xed. Roberts in ellipticco-ordmatea. 431. The equation of the wave surfacehas also been expressed as followsby Mr. wMch movesin a Sxed plane by Lemma III. It follows hence also that the intersectionsof a waye atuAce with a series of concentric sphères. suppose the line OP to be of constant length. thereforethe locaa of the point parallel M a circle. then the lengths of the radius vector are. are a series of confocal sphero-conics. which will happen when the plane POJï Ma ttansveNe section of one of thé two right cylmdera whieh e!rcumMrlbethe ellipsoid. to the plane POR. and it !s provedprectaely as m the first part of thia article that the locus of T is a circle. The tangent cône at thé node is evidently the reciprocalof the cone generated by 0~ and is therefore a cône whose sectîons parallel to the aame planes are parabolas. therefore OS générâtes a cône whoM circular seotionaare parallel to the Now T is a fixea point. For m the preceding equations if p or p' be constant. that if makes with the Unes to the nodes.362 THE WAVE SURFACE.

then the equationgives us f" <~ bnt (Art. Smce !a always leœ than <t*and greater than c*. tho equation always denotes a hyperboloid. if for the other. anj if ~t. the firat equation denotes a series of eonfocal quadrica.and those of two sheetsthe other. If thé equations of two snr&ceB expressed in terms of X. and the other sheet in a Une of the other aystem. ~'+~= «*+&< is constant. and the axis of x the kMt.THE WAVE SURFACE. it follows that if through any point on the surjËMebe drawn an ellipsoid of the same system. ohove that thé equation may be got by ottmmatutg 368 between thé equa~oM Ghnng any sénés of constant values. The intersectionsof the hyperboloide of one sheet with corresponding spheres generate one aheetof the wave surface. Now if the sur&ce denote a hyperboloidof one sheet. the axis of <!being the primary ax!e. v denote tho primary axes of three conjbcal surfaces of the system now under considerationwhichpass through any point. v. 169) The general equation of the wave mr&ce atso implies but this denotes an imaginary locus. p is constant for ono sheet and f Since. it will meet one eheet in a Une of curvature of one system. when diiferentiated give .which will be of one or of two sheets according aa Mgreater or lésa than b'.

cats at right angles one sheet of the wave surface. makes equal angles with the planes through the same lino and through pcrpcnd!calarsfrom thc centre on the planes of circular contact (Art. 434. The planeof any )'<!<?« veetor of the wave surfaceand the c<Mva!po~!H~ onthe ~e<pM<?MM&tf tangentplane. while it meets the other in a line of cnrvature on thé hyperboloid. and thèse two equal Unes make equal angles with the axis. ana tho other two planes are perpcndicnlar to thé radu of that section Tthoac lengths are 6. thé mean axis of the ellipsoid. 426) wbieh !a an axis of tho section ~OJB of the gcnerating etHpsotd.SCt THEWAVE 8URFACË. Reclprocating thé theorem of this article we see that thé plane tbrough any line throngh tho centre and through onc of the points where planes perpendicular to that lino touch the sar&ee. f!= constant. f =constantc&tsat right angles any whose equation Mof the fonn <~(\t)=i0. 483. <a" shaU caH p*. whosodirootion-cosines rc Wc shall now calcdate the leugth and thé ~-) dircction-cosinesof the perpendieular on thé tangent plane at cither of thé points whero this radins vector meets thé surface. d'. p". and the perpendicalara on thé tangent planes at the points whero it meets thé two shects of thé surface. 427) that thé required perpendicular is equal and porpendicalar to the perpendicularat the point whero the cllipsoidis met by ouo of thé axes of the section and the dli'cctton-cosincsof this axis arc Tho . If tho co-ordmates of any point on tho generating elHpsoid be a!y. The hyperboloid thercfore. and the primary axes of confocalathrongh that point a'. It was proved (Art. Thèse then givo the two values of the a radius vector of tho vavo surface. For thé ërst plane is perpendicalar to OB (Art. then thé squares of tho axes of tho section which wo parallel to the tangent plane are «*-o". makesegtM? Mt~KM <XC<'<M' the nodal and angles with the planes lines. 430). Tho planes are evidently at right angles to each other. which are drawn tbrough any radius vcctor.

Ita dtTeetton-cosmcs re obtained from the consideration th&t it is perpendicalar to the two linea whose direction-cosmeB_~re respeetively Fonmmg by Art. 15 tho directton-cosmea of a Hae pcrpondicular to these two. after a fow rednctïon~ In fact it is verifiod withont di&cnlty that tho lino whose direction-cosineahave boen just wnttcn !s perpendicular tu tho two preceding. and tho d!rcctMn-cos!ne)! the corresponding perpendicularof the ellipsoid are Th!a then gives tho length of tho perpend!cular on tho tangent plane at tho point on tho wave surface which we arc a conmdenng. It follows hence also. that thé equation of the tangent plane at the same point M In uko manncr thc tangent plane at tho other point whcrû the same radius voctor mceta thé atu'&cois . wc find.TUE WAVE RUBFAPE. 365 of co-ordin&tea ita cxtromity arc then thcao several coa!nc! of multiplicdby p.

and if a plane be drawn perpendicular planes to the radius veetor at a distance p. from Its point of contactlet &I1 perpendiculara on the two planea of Art. The expresnon tanCe=~ leada to a construction for the perpendicahra on the tangent planes at the points where & given radius vector meets the two sheets of the surface.. then the lines joining to the centre the feet of thèse perpendiculara. may he trfUM~ formed by meaaBof the vaines given for p and jp' (Art. îz. The perpeNdtculcura must lie in one or other of two hed (Arts. 178). the perpenare dîcnlam required. . and becomes indeterminate when ~=~=~ 436. 434). it is evident from the is the distanceto the radius vector expresmon for tan~. If be the angle which the perpendicnlaron thé makes with the radius vector.S66 THE WAVE SCRPACE. Thus we hâve the construction. We have therefore In this fMin thé expresstom analogona thé value for the !s to between normaland centrât adma thé r vector of a plane angle e!Hpse. that from the point where the perpendicularon the tangent plane meeta tbis plane. 438."Draw a tangent plane to the generating eïBpsotdperpendicularto thé given radius vector. 435. v In the case of the wave sai&ce it is manifet that tanvanifthea only when p'=<~ or c.433. we haveP= p cos~ tangent plane but we have in thé !&Btarticle proved JP'ni Hence F'P ')! Th!s expreaBion co9*~==tan*~=~.

180.THEWAVE SUBFACE. We may write thé equation of the surface m thé form Now . as at Art. Arts.~+y*+&' remains unaltered by transformation. 183.184. M7 We obtain by reciprocationa MmUar construction. the transjbrmadoM of JL~ 1 1 1 1 ~+~+~ and have also uaed the identical equation ~+oV+a'&'=~+~+F"p''+~'+~ . 1 have sometimesfound it convenientto traM&nn the equation of the surface.to detemine the pointawhere planes parallel to a given one touch thé two sheets of the surface. 437. and we have given. M as to make the radins vector to any point on thé surfacethe axie of < and the axes of the corresponding section of the generating the eH!pso!d axes of x and y.

the values of thé pnnctpal racHiof cnrv&tnro~ tbe directionsof curand vature can bc establiahed. 278. It M worth while to cite an observathm of Brioschi.NoT. a carye havmg for a douMo point tho point y==0.3C8 THEWAVE SURfACE. n. be &nct!oM . -pp. va <md. The maoxioNal tangcnta are paraUel to a rcsdt of which 1 do not see any gcomctdctd Intcrpret&tton* 1 have no apMe for a diMUM!on what tho lines of curvatm'e on the wave <ntfMe are tM<. Tho equation of the rociprocal of the w&YO surface X* M got by writing for a. a!c=~ PP If in tho equation of the carvo ~c make y== wo get 0. 438. that if in the ptMM Il + my + M!! *'<~) m. from which wc learn that that chord of the outer sheot of tho wava surface whieh joins any point on the mnor shect to the footof tho perpencUcular fromthe centre on the tangent plane M bisootcd at thc point on the inner shoot. C&mp<e< ~M~«<. it becomes is We know that thé Bnrf&ce toachcd by the plane a'=–. Tortolini's Annali di ~<a<<tmatica. 13S.M wc onght. Bertrand. 1 P and if we put in thia vaine for s. in the equation of the warc a surface. ÏM8t Combescun and Drioschi.though a hMty asaertion on this subject in Crcllo's toutMt haa led to mtetetting investigations by M.. but 1 have arrived at M ro!ult9of importance. By expanding thé tcrms of the Bcconddegrcc. and if this be traasfbrmed aa in the precedingarticle. &c. VoL H..

eoaahmt. (% BB . from any fixed point. This ret~Sy appears fmmthe form in which the equation of the MqtMdrattc haaheenwnttetL 440. but wHch of a Mquadratie be written in the form may Theresult representssurface ofthe tweMhdegree. that is to say.). 803) which envelopes all qattdrtcaconfbcal to the given one.(Bf~r <?&!?< CM~e~. the surface which may either be defined as the envelope of planes parallel to the tangent planes of the quatMo. the eont dMonbe MNhtd.e. We can then most easily form the equation of the parallel ear&ce hy exprosMng(Att. 878). 2.et their w be of If intetMedon. J where the su&M<t. touohed byoonjugateangenta the Mt&ce. denote di&ten&nion wM) Mfpeet to u and e Kq~Tdy!wMle~Mr~wUte<tt<tt)~htM(.tedoces to the quadrie taken twice.te)!if M* + (<* + tt*) (<A attm. and radius thé given distance)will touch the original qttadnc. on the tangent planes of a surface ia a deoftwovariables aain Art. 369 489. 137) the conditionthat the given w* z* qnadnc + + T* may be touched by the aphere This is done by forming the dMeriminantwith respect to whoeecoeSdenta are given p. itt. . of <t in whiehcuMM the &m!Ke9 coMtant. US.SURFACESMNVBD FBOM QUADNM. but which. when we make &==0.3?3.thenthe plue wiU envelope mt&ee <t «. The locaa of the feet of perpendtcnlam let Ml.+ M~) ° (%+ mm~+<M)) + otM~ MM. It M evident p that the apherewhosecentre is any point onthe paraUetsurface. eaA at a given distance irom them. together with the imaginary developable (Art. or elae as thé locMofthe points taken on thé normaleat &Sxed distance from the surface. We <M1next consider the autace jM~t!M to a given quadric.

. Vois. and by Mr. Pedal curves and aar&ceshâve been studied in particular by Mr. cannot be inctudedin thia treatise. We shall hère give some of their resnits.a.8?0 SURFACES DERIVED FROM <)PAPJ!!CS." which we ahall translate M thé pedal of the given surface. &c. X. From the pedal may.. quadrature. "podaire. Roberts. on account of want of apace. the envelopeof planes drawn perpendicular to the radâ vectores of a surface. which.~ It is obTioaathat if we form thé polar reciptocah of a curve or surface <d and its pedal -B. and makea the angle ~0~=jP(?~. at their extremMea ? a snrface of whîch the given surface ia the pedal. which relate to problemaconcemingree<jJ5cat!on. W. Hirst. tionof the methodof denvatton Reberta hMeoMid~ed &ae<ica<d derived outMtt mt&MSM.pedab. Tortolini. forming a series of second. M that the right-angled triangle QOB ts similar to POQ. in like manner. by M. &c. and if we caUthe angle QOjR. and from this another. and t makea iththeradiusvectoro the curve angle UNag deMw thé ua. then the second perpendieular OB will be cos*a. and whtch we may ca!l thé ËKt negative pedaL The surfacederived in Uke manner &om this !a the aecoad negative.. but must omit the greater part of them.we ahallhâve a surface a which will be the pedal of &. and so on. Mï&ee be daM fromthe ellipse CNM:n!'< An mate~MM le may e!):pM:tL . thM Mr. be derived & new surface. n. It immediately follows hence that the perpendicular OR on the tangent plane at Q lies in the plane POQ. Again. and consequentlythe normal at any point Q of the pedal passes through the middle pomt of thé corïeoponding radius vector OP. rived surface to which French tnathematicianshâve of late thought it worth while to give a distmctivename. If Qhe the footof the perpendicular &om 0 on the tangent plane at any point J~ ît is easy to Me that the aphere decribed on the diameter OP touches thé locus of Q. Tortol!m'a ~K< Vol. JMw~. and XK. and so on. &e. so that the Srst perpendicular OQ is connectedwith the radMM vector by the equationp=p cos<[. &?«" thecurvedetivedfromthe and Thus ovat. 95. hence if we take a sar&ce and Its snccessivepedab the reciprocais will be Thus the radiu vectorto the pedalMof length«Kfe. third. p.

165) of the principalpropertiesof inversesurfaces. tho surface derived from it by aubatituting !n its equation. 889)of the polar reciprocat of the given surface (that Mto say. the correspondingtangent on the inverse carve makes the same angle with the radius vector. p. for the radius vector. the two corresponding normah lying in the same plane with thé radiua vector. H. (4) It followsimmediatelyfrom(2) that the angle whiehtwo curvesmake with eachother at any point is eqna! to that which the inversecarvesmake at the corresponding point. (andtwo pfuraof corresponding points on the same circle) which enta orthogonally thé unit sphere whose centre !s the origin.jS" being negative pedats. ~8" the derived in the latter case .two corresponding tangent planes are equally inctined to the radins vector. (8) In like manner for surfaces. ita reaproeat) and t!tat the inverse of the series ~r.p. In like manner it follows from (3) that the angle which (5) two surfacesmake with each other at any point ia equat to that whichthe inversesurfacesmake at the corresponding point.S' 441.. will be the series jS".Vol. Tortolini. As we shall not have opportunity to return to thé general theory of inversion.. BB9 . It is atso obvionsthat the nrst pedal Mthe tKtWMe (Bt~~ JF%N)e Curves. (1) Three pairs of corresponding points on two inverse aur&ceslie onthe aameephere. and &)rm!ngwith it an Moscetes triangle whoae base is the intereepted portion of the ladins vector. In the limit then. Thé inverse of a line or plane is a cirole or sphero (6) pasaing throngh thé origin. if ab be thé tangent at any point a-.we give in this place the following statement (taken from Hirst. (2) By tho property of a quadrilatéralinscribedin a circle the Une ab joining any two points on one cnrve makes tbe same angle with the radius vector (~ that thé line joining the corresponding points a'y makeswith the radius vector M*. < & sénés j8".8UKFACE8 OEMVBD FROM 871 QUADMCS.

But thé normal m'e. But the centresof B and of B' lie in a right line through the origin. a une of cortatnre on the other. (10) For niverae mrfaces. and to a line of curvature on one. The Sjst pedal of the eHIpsoid +P+ T='~ bas thé invemeof the reoiprocalempsoid. will evidently correspond two sections enjoying the Bame property therefore to the two principal sections on one surface correspond two principal sectionson the other. evidently correqModB a cMe oacotating the inverse cnrve. whose centre is the aame as the centre of B'. (9) To a circle otMoht&tgany carve. Its inverse therefore is another circle. thé oscnlating cMe of al. (7) Any circle may be consideredas the intersection of a plane. and the osculatmg cirele d of e' îs the inverse of c thé oscalating circle of a. For a M evidently the centre of a ephere B which enta ~4 orthogonally.&72 8UMACB! DERIVED FBÛM QUADRICS. The plane therefore whichia the inverse of cnts the inverse of B orthogonaïty. in a great cMe. and which stands on thé given circle. for its équation . f (H) To the two normal sections at m whose centrea of curvatnre occnpy extreme pomlionaon the normal at m. then by Mennier's theoren~ the centre ef c*is the projection on its plane of the centre of a. whieh ia a Mb-contraty section of the conewhosevertex is the origin. the centres of curvature of two normal eectionelie in a nght line with thé origin. evidently touches the so that <~is the vertex ofthé cône c!rcnmscr!bed sphèrej4 at to alongo'. w* e* 442. that M to say. (8) The centre of the second cirde lies on the line joining the origin to a the vertex of the cone ciroamscnbingthe sphère along thé given cimle. and a sphère through the origin. and theorem (10)thereforejbUowsromtheorem(8). If now t~ be the normal section whicb touches tt*at the point M'. corresponding To the normal sectionet at any point m correspondsa carve ce aituated on a sphère paMingthrough the origin.

of thé envelope of planes drawn perpendicnlar to the eeNtral tadii at their extremidea. which paaeesthïoagh the eentm of the quadne. the lines ofcm~ture~erefoTe<)fthe<mr~<)fel~mtya!'e A~mmMdMdMi~MM~MBv~h~sm~Meof~e eameMtaMdenved~mooncycKcqtMMbiot. 87S This eat&ce is Ftemel'e Sur&ce of Ehst:ctty. and the required Mn'&ce M therefore represented by the discriminantof thM equation.that la to eay. Mr. We <hnB eamiyfind the expresmoma Now the second of thèse equations is the differential. and thé imaginary circle in which any spheM enta the plane <tt infinity is a doubleline on the surface. 44S. Cayley firat obtained thé équation of the &mt negative pedal of a qMadno. of the Srat equation." The inverse of a system of confocalacntting at right angles ie evidently a syatem of ant&ces of et<tst!citycatting At right angles. .BOBFAOa.with respect to <. It is evident that if we desenbea aphere passing through the centre of the given quadric. then the point a~e on the derived eut&ee wh!t~ oomeeponds a/y' ta the extrernity of the diameter to of this aphœe. and touching it at any pomt dye'. The origin is evidently a double point on thia aMt&ce. DEMVBD MOM QTADMM.

satisfy the equation of the surface. The double pointa on the principal planes answer to points on th6 ellipsoid for which !~+y+e"='8< or ?* or 2e*. and besides. Tortolini. the equationbeingonly of thé fourth degree. y. Boberts bas sdved the problem discnssed in the last article in another way.whichM a cnrve of the sixth order. while Ct D.P5&m~M<~a~MM<!c<MM. e in the beginningof the artide. and it M évident that both proMems are particular . 444.countea twice. Now the discriminantis of the sixth degree in the coefficients. There is a cuspidalconio at infinity. <! in thé tenth degr~o.is to hd the envelopeof Now m finding this envelope the anaecented lettera are treated as constants. 168)a discussionby ttr. each in the seconddegree. If we write thia biquadratic it will be fbund that and B do not containa!.aa easily appears from the expressions given for x. Thé reader will find (. The former problem is to find thé envelopeof the plane axB'+~+M'e''+y''+e" where a: y'. z. W.. which is a doublecurve on thé surface.a finite onapidalcurveof the sixteenth degree. Thé second problem.is identical with that of forming the equation of the parallel surface.and is of the form ~+B' conaequentlyit can contain x. Its section by one of the principal planes consists of the &mt negative pedal of the correspondingprincipal section of the ellipsoid. E contain them. Mr.Vol. This thereforeis thé degree of the only surfacerequired. y. by proving that the problem to find thé negative pedal of a surface. together with a conic. p.y. wMohwe can eaailyform. d. and 1858. Cayley of the dînèrent forma asaumedby the surfaceand by the cnspidaland nodal corvesaccordingto the dînèrentrelativevaluesof a*.being that of finding the envelopeof a sphère whoae centre is on the surfaceand radius =Jb.374 SURFACES DEMVED FROM QUADBtCg. H. y.

SURFACESMMYBD FBOM QUADNCB. we can find by the substitutions here explained. 1. To Cadthé envdepe planeadrawnpetpendieabtiy the of at efthe tothé plane<M!!y +M+d.whose e equation ia(M + bytx + <~=?*. when we have the equation of the secondpositivepedal (Art. 44. Having found. the envelopeof And it is evident that if we have the equation of the paraUel surface. if we write for A. 87b cases of the problem to 6n<t.as above.under the aame cont~timm. the equation of thé first négative of a quadrio. when we have the eqma~on of thé negativepedaL Thus having obtained by Art. extremities Mdii ectores v + Herethe parallel surface oathtaof a pair of ptanea. 489the equation of thé parallel to a qaadno. y. a. the engin being aaywhere. Further. we hâve only to write in it for i! a~+y*+< and then ~c. as easily as when the origin ia the centre. would probably not be easy to aolve in any other way. Ex. ~e tora:. k+k'. a problem wbich it anywhere. and then make the eame tmbBttto~on for we obtain the firat negative.we have only to form its inverse. thé origin being of the parallel to the qa&tbtc.thatofiheenvelope therefore is . ~y. the equation of the first negative.0).

THE general theory of sar&cea. degree in the coemcîentaof the given equation. The form of the discriminantof a homoT* geneous cabical fnnction in <B. when applied to cubical sm'&ces. The d!sonmmant of thia equation M of the tweKth degree in ita coe&aents. and therefore of the thirty-aisth in ctj8y~: but this conNatsof thé equation of the reciprocal surface mnMpIied hy the irrelevant factor S". 0 445. C'MrpM. dprocal of a mo'fMeof the thod degtee. 8T!MACEBF THETHŒDDSGBBB.&c. e. of the tweMh degree. 99. The result is a homogeneouscubic in a'.explained p. S in the th!rd degree. The tangent cone whose vertex is any point. of the eîxth degree. Thé problem ia the same as that of finding the conditionthat the plane should touch the sor&oe. y. The same then will be the form of the rep. It is conaequenûy of the twelfth clsaa.having six cuspidal edges and no orduuuy double edge. S being of the fourth. &. . and which envelopes sach a surfaceia. containing alao a. g!ves thé following reaulta. ~3. 190). and twenty-seven double tangent planes.p.'y.amdthenetlnunate&<ebythehelpoftheequa~onof the plane. Since then through any une twelve tangent planes can be drawn to thé surface. having twenty-&)aretattonMy.. (that is to My. andthetedpmcal M. 190. any line meetsthe rectprocalin twelve points. Its equation can be found as at Bi~ef jP&Me <~OM.( 876)a CHAPTER XIV. and T of the aixth degree in a. /9. y. Maltiply the equation of the surface byo'. and T aje coM<MK)<M~Mm~given equation of thé above of the It ia easy to see that they are also of the same degrees). in general. e ia 64<8"=' (BS~ef P&t<M y. in general.

and any planethrough either ofwhich meete the surface!n a eecdon having this point for a cusp. and m another line..+c.<<<chtobe considered touching ar as M thé ef thé mt&ee. dependentty any tetationbetween ~9. the reciprocal formed themethod ~ < thelut articlevoaJdvanieh beeMM by identMaUy the in themoxty planemeet9 am&tce a earve havinga double point. 887). it is evident that M. <. but these other lines form a system of generatomresting on the doubleline as director. there are thereforetwo pointe on the double line at which the tangent ptanes coincide. « ciprocel «'. for every plane passing throngh this tine meets the Mr&ce in the double line. There M. If the values of these squares be . whichwill make <«. that there M to the number of double pointe on a cnrve of the degree. There are two values of < real or imaginary. wbetween 0. .0FTHE OMBEE. <t"t<t.X' and y. reckoned twice. BCRfÀCES THtKD 877 446.* A cubic having a double line is neceamnty a rded anrface.that line muat be a right line. Surfaces may have either multiple pointa or multiple Unes.y.therefore. When a mr&ee bas a double Une of the degree p. can each be expreMed in the form ~X*-t y. Hence tXe~MM' <<M~eM< <t< jpoMt< on t~e doubleline. But as e' varies this denotes a syatem of planes in involution of ~<!Me< oKy ( Cb!M<w. Smce a curve of the third degree c<un have only one double point. At any point on the doublelino there w!l be a pair of tangent planes e'M. the same limit to the degree ef the doublecurve on a Mu'&ce the M** of degree. If then we tam round thé axes so M hâvea doubleor other multiple If a eat&ee line. then any plane meets the snr&oein a eectton having p double points.+~ a pet&ct sqaMe. p.«~ 'V't <«.and0. the andthete<bre phne + py + els 8tDis to be eoMideted tonching andtherefore plane '~+~4-'].=0. if a ear&ce of the third degree bas a double !ine. 'HMMm canbeformed !ntbiscasebyeliminating t. If we make the doubleline the axis of < thé equation of the enf&ce will be of the form which we may write t<~+~+~=0. OMtMOco~<~a<e lanes o~ a <~N<aM inin p 00?M<Mtt.

378

SCSfACES THETHHtDBMBEE. 0F

M to have for co-ordinateplanes, the planea JE, y, that !s to Mty,the tangent planes at the cuapidalpoints; then every term in thé equation will be divisibleby either a~ or y*, and the equation may be reduced to the form )M!*=<e~ In this form it is evident that the surface is generated by lines y=\i)! <!M\'<c; interseeting the two directing lines a~, <Mp;and the generatomjoin the points of a system on <MC to the points of a system in involution on icy, homographie with the first system. Any plane through <!<o meets the surface m a pair of right lines, tmd is to be regarded as touching the aar&ce in the two points where thèse tines meet été. Thus then aa the Une .cy !s a line, every point of which m a double point, so the line été is a line, every plane through whieh is a double tangent. The reciprocal of this surface, which ie that consIdeMdArt. 419, la of !ike nature with ItseK The tangent cone whose vertex ta any point, and which envelopes the Bmface, constatsof the plane joinmg the point to the double line, reckoned twice, and a proper tangent cône of thé fourth order. When the point is on the double line the cono rednces to the secondorder. 447. Thera is one case, to which my attention waa oaUed by Mr. Cayley, in which the reduction to the form <!a!'=M;y' is not possible. If u, and in thé last article, have a common &ctor, then choosing the plane represented by this for one of the co-ordinate planes, we can easily throw the equation of the surface into the form ~-t-a:(M!+<oy)*=0. It MhMeeupposed the planea Y, the doubleplanesof the that JC, in are redaceto the h Byetem involution, real We can alwaya, owever, form «'(.i~*)t2)H: the upperaigncon'espondïng real, and the to lower to ima~nary,double planes. In thelatter casethe doublelino is altogether"KaUy" the aar&ee, m the every plane meeting surfaceM a motion it havinj;the point where meetathe Imefor a real code. In thé former eaMthieis onlytme fora timited line, portionof the double eectiom whichmeetit elaewhere the having point of meetingfor a contheseUmitsonthe double jngatepoint thé twocuspidal ointa p marking line. A right iine, everypointof whichlaa «Mp,cannotexist on a unteM the surfacesa cone. when i cubio

8UBPACB8THE 0F THJRD DE&BEE.

87&

The plane a; touches the eor&ce along the whole length of the doublefine,and meets the sarëtca in three coimoMent nght Unes, The other tangent plane at any point coincides with the tangent plane to the hyperboloid«c+tfy. This case may be conmderedM a limiting caae of that consideredin the last article; vm, when the double director aiy coincideswith the single one «x. The following generation of the surface may be given. Take a series of po!nte on a~, and a homographie series of planesthrough it; then the generator of the cnMc through any point on the line, Mesin the correspondingplane, and may be completely determined by taking as director any plane caMchaving a double point where its plane meets the double iino.* 448. The argument which proves that a proper cabMcurve cannot have more than one double point does not apply to snr&ces. In fact the line joining two double points, since it ia to be regarded as meeting the surface in four pomts, must lie altogetherin the surface; but this does not imply that thé surface breaks up into othem of lower dimeamoM. The considerationof the tangent cône however suppliesa timit to the number of double points on any surface. We have seen (Art. 251) that the tangent cone necessarily bas a certain number of doubleand cuspidaledges, and since every double point on thé surface adds a double edge to the tangent cône,. there cannot be more double pointa than will make up the total number of double edges of thé tangent cone to the maximum nnmberwhich such a cone can hâve. Thus a curve of the sixth degree having six cnspa can have only four other double points; therefore since the tangent cone to a cubic is of the sixth order, having six cuspidal edges, the surface can at most have four double pointa. When a surface bas a double point, the line joining this point to any assmmedpoint is, as bas been aaid,a doubleedge of the tangent cone from the latter point; and it is easy to Thereaderareferred am i to mtetestin~eometn<!<J onoubical memoir g ruledMr&cM CMmoaa, "Atte detRealeIstitutoLomb~rdo," n., Vot. by p. 291.

380

SUBMCE9 TBB 0F TBtBD DËOB&B.

aee that the tangent planesalongthis double edge am the planes drawn thiough thia !ine to tonchthe cône generated by the tan* b gents at the double point. If then this (Mme reak up into two it followsthat such a point eataNsa cuspidaledge onthé planes, tangent cone tbmugh any assumed point A cubic then can have only three such'biplanar double pointa. The rec!p)'ocaï of a cohio then having one or more double points may be of any degree Ë'om thé tenth to the third, each ordinary double point redncing the degree by two, and each biplanar by three. If the two planes of contact at a biplanar point coïncide, the line joining this to any Msmnedpoint will be a t~tp~e dge e on the tangent cône through that point, and the degree of the reciprocatwill be reduced by six. P Ex. 1. Wtmth the degreeof thé reciprocal .tyz =«~? of ~t<M. Thereare threebiplanar ointain the plane <p, nd the fee!a p procalis a onbio. Ex.2. Wh&tlathe reciprocal i)! of'+~4.S~$f M P tf t a ~<M. hiateptetenta caMe T the having wtttcesof the pynmMd <~)Ke fordouble mattbe of the&tatth pointa andthétee~meal degree. The equation the tangent laneat any pointity~Wcanbefhfewn ef p intothe fMm + ~+ that 0, ~"M it &Uowa the condition a that <t.t+~t<)<t<M eho<tMbe taegentplane is
an equation whieh, cleared of nutiotb, fa of the fourth degree. GenetaHy the reciprocal of <H"ty + < tp< is of the form

(.B~<f .KetMOtH~, p. 102). h of A eabSc havingfour double points aho the envelope
where a, e, e, l, M, « represent pJMee; 1 and«: /9:'y are two variable parameteK. It !a obvions that the envelope is of the third degree; and it la of the fourth ctttM since M we Mbetitttte the eo-MdimttM of two we po!n<<t ean détermine four ptanet <~thé eyatem pasaing thMagh the line joining thèse pointa. The tangent MM to this Mt&ee, whoM vertex le any point on the surface,being of the fourth degree,and having fou double edget, mtMt break up into two oonesof the second denrée.

SORFACEa 0~ TBB TMRD DEQBEE.

881

44&.The equation of a caMchaving no multiple point may be throwa into the form <M~+~'+e<'+<?a''+e«~0, where we a!,y, c, w represent planes, and wbere for )mnp!ict<y that the constants implicitly involved in a', y, &c.h&ve suppose beeneo chosen,that the identical relation connectmg the eqaatiOMof any five planes (Art. 87) may be written in the form In fact thé general equation of the third a:+y+<!+w+to=0. degree contains twenty tenus and therefore nineteen independent constants, but the form just written contains five terma and thereforefour expressed independentconstants, whilebesides the eqaa~an of each of thé five planes implicitlyinvolvesthree comtants. Thé form just written therefbM contains the same aamberof constants ae the general equation. Thia &nn given and ~&<~Ma<M< by Mr. Sylvester in 1851 (CbH~W%'e .OttMtM VoL t&M~M~ Vt., p. 199) is moat convenient for thé investigation of the properties of cnMcal sar&oes in generaL* 460. If we write the equation of the Crst polar of any point with regard <oa sot&ce of the M** order

ïmM obaerved (JXt~ <~t~t Ath 18) that two fornu )My ~ppmentty eonttin the Mme number of independent ooMt~mta, and yet that one may be !eM general than the other. ThtM when a form M found to contain the same number of constants M thé general eqmtion, it h not <ttMh!tdy detnoMtt&ted that the general equation i< MdudMe to this &??) and Ochteh has noticed a temarhble eMeption in the case ef cuves of the fourth Mdor. ïh thé present CMe, though Mr. Sytvester gave M< tteotem w!th«t)t further demûMtMtion, he stttae that he WM in pomet<!on of a pKof that the general equation could be rednced to thé sum of &Tecubes and in but a ein~te way. 8ueh a proof haa been puMished by Mr. Ctebteh (Ctw&, VoL ux., p. tM). He en-oneonaty aecribea the theotan in the t~t to Steiner, who gave tt in the year t8a6 (CM~, VoL LDL. p. ÏM). It ohanced that Mt&eet of the third order were ttedXd in this coantty a &w yeaM before German mttthemttticitmstamed their attention to this tab}Mt< and eonMqaentty, thongh, M might be expeeted &ont hh ability, M. Steineî't inveatigations led him to Mvertd important MMttt, theM had be<n almoat aU weN tnown hete Mme yeam befoM.

382

SURFACES THETMtBO 0F DENREE.

thea, if it have a double point, that point wtl satisfy tho eqaattoaf)

where a, b, &c. denote second diffarential coeBScients eonwsponding to these letters, as we bave used them in the générât équation of the second degree. Now if between the above equations we eliminate ai'y'x'M', we obtain the loens of ail pointa which are double points on tirst polars. This M of the degree 4 (? 2) and is in fact the Hessian (Art. 864). If we eliminate the ay-îte which cccor in <t, b, &c., since the four equations are each of the degree (M–2), thé resuMag equation in icy~to' will he of the degree 4 (n 2)*, and will represent the locus of points whose first polars have double pomte. Or, again, F M the locus of pointa whose polar quadrics are cônes, while thé second surface, which we shall all < !s the locus of the vertices of snch cones. In the case of snr<aces of the third degree, it t6 easy to see that the four equations above written are symmetrical between a;y~<eand a''y'<'<c'; and therefore that the surfaces F and J are tdent!caL Thus then if <%< polar ~«K&'t<: with respect to <t cubic &e a cotM <cJ5<Me vertex c~ any point w B, the ~o&M* !MaMcof B Ma coae tc~oee weffKe M The g and J3 are said to he corresponding points on the B aro xaid be correxponding pointx the pointx points A Hessian (see ~i~ Plane C«n)M, p. 154, &o.). 451. The tangent p&MMto du B~MMmof ot cubio at i8 <~ polar plane of B M~ M~eof ? <~ CM&M.For if we take any point .4' consécutive to JL and on the Hessian, the pole of any plane tbrongh will be somewhere on the intersection of the nrst polars of and ji'; but these being consecutive and both cônes, it appears (as at B%'&ef JP&MM Cttn~ p. 165) that B, the vertex of this cone, is a pole of any plane and therefore of the tangent phme at A And through the polar plane of any point on thé Hessian of a surface of any degree is the tangent plane of the corresponding point B on the surface J. In particular the <tM~M<t< planes to U along do parabolia curve, <M*e tangent ~&MM ? the eM<tce J.' that is to say,

SURFACES THE THtRODEOREE. 0F

3M

inthecaMofacabictAe <&oe!opa~~cM~MtiMcnM!~acMMc Me <t&o the a&M~ ~MMM<c CMnM) <e«m<CM&M BeMMM.If line meet thé Hcssian in two correspondingpoints any B, and in two other points C, D, the tangent planes at iaterMct along the line joining thé two points correaponding toC,D. 462. We shall also invcstigate the preceding theoremaby meansof thé canonicalform. The polar quadrie of any point with regard to <+t~*+c.+d'e'+e)p' is got by eub~tituting for Mits value (.K + e + v), whenwe can proccedaccording +y to the ordinary ralea, the equation being then expreœed in terma of four variables. We thus find for the polar quadrie If we diRerentiatethis <B'a!'+&+<j!+~'c'+eM'<c'~0. with respect to x, remembering that <~<e equation ==-<& we and since the vertex of the cone must satisfy get <?:)!='eto'M; the four dinerendals with respect to fc, y, c, we find that the co-ordinates y, i! e', M' of any point on thé Hessian a! are connectedwith the co-ordinates x, y, e, c, w of B, the vertex of the correspondingcone, by the relations <M:'a;&~ = os'e= Jo'c == = ete'to. And aince we are only concernedwith mutnal ratios of eoordinates,we may take 1 for the commonvaine of thèse quan1 1 1 1 1 titiesand write thé co-ordinatesof BI titiesana wite the w-orakates of -B, t ) ~i< < –i Sinee the co-ordinatesof B must satisfy the identical relation a!+y+~+r+M'=0,we thns get thé equation of the Hessian

or &<!<&y<!<)M + co~a~tea! + t&o~otM~ + M~ctMy~ + a&e<n) = 0. lies This formof the equation ehowsthat the line c<p altogether in thé Hessian,and that the point a~< is a double point on the Hessian; and smce the five planes a*,y, z, e, <cgive nM to ten combinationa, whether taken by twoaor by threes we have Mr. Sylvester'atheorem that the~ee~aNM~~wt a~~oM~M <0~<Me verticesare doubleJWM~ on tlie B~MMtH tC~Me ten and ten edgea on <~ BeMtaM. Thé polar qnadne of the point lie

8M

SURFACESOP THB THÏftD DESKEB.

aye M do'c'+ete'M', which resotvesitaelf into two planes intersecting along CM,any point on wMch Ene may be regarded as the point B correaponding osy~; thug then there afe <M to toAoM &MO& into pairs 0/&MM< theae points polar quadrics Mp and ejf pMKtsare <&«Me points on the JS~Mton, the tK<~MC<t<M!< thé <xwrMpoK<~tM~ o/* on pairs planes are ~MM Me Hessian. It t is by proving thèse theorema !ndepenJentty* that the resolution of the given. equation into the sum of five cnbe6 c<m be completely established. The equation of the tangent plane at any point of thé Hessian may be written

453, If we coneiderall the points of a Sxed plane, their polar planea envelope a snr&ce, which (as at BigAer JMmM <X«~M, 152) is abo thé locnaof points whoaepolar qaadnca p. ton<Athe given plane. Thé parametem in the equation of the variable plane enter in the second degree; the problem îs therefore that considered (Ex. 3, Art. 448) and the envelope ia a cob!c mf&ee having fonr doublepointe. Thé polar planes of the points of thé section by the cubioare the tangent ptanea thia at those pointe, consequently polar cubic of the given plane is inscribed in the devolopableformed by the tangent planes to the cubic along the section by thé given plane (J9%rAe)' It ~nH the "on a~est &om appendix théorderof systemof eqoat detennimmt p M~~and eotumn~ eaoh eon6MM,"hat a tymmettie of laa of stituentof whioh fimct!on thett"'ordertnthe ~DaHes, epteMnta t of thé and a <n)f&Me opdegree having tf(?* 1) doublepoints} thus bastO(a 2)* double thattheHeMianft Mt&oe M"degree o ofthe always poiate.

SURFACES THE THtRDDEGREE. QF

385

Plane CMtMa, Art. 161). The polar plane of any point A of the section of tho Hesaian by the given piano, touches the HesHan (Art. 451) and is therefore a common tangent plane of the Hessian and of the polar cubic now under considération. But thé polar quadric of 2?, being a cone whose vertex is A, is to be regarded as touching the given plane at hence B is aiso thé point of contact of this polar plane with thé polar eubie. We thas obtain a theorem of Steîner's that polar cubic of any plane <oxc~ <~ Hessian along a certain CMrce. This curve is the locus of the points B corresponding to the points of tho section of the Hessian by the given plane. Now if points lie in any plane ~4-<My-t<M+~)c+gw, thé corresponding points lie on the surface of the fourth order Now <M!! cy M ~.+-2-. fM –+~-+1+ <<t) the intersection of thia surface with the Hessian is of the sixteenth order, and includes tho ten right lines xy, ZM,&c. The remaining curve of the sixib order is thé cnrve along which the polar câble of the given plane touches thé Hemian. Thé four double points lie on thia curve; they are tho points whose polar quadrics are coaes touching the given plane. 464. If on the lino joining any two points a:y.e', ic'y~ we take any point a!'+Xa: &e., it is easy to see that ite where J~ polar plane is of the form ~,+X~ are the polar planes of the two given points, and J~, is the polar plane of either point with regard to the polar quadric of the other. The envelope of this plane, considering X variable, is evidently a quadric cone whose vertex is the intersection of the three planes. This cone is clearly a tangent cone to the polar cabic of any plane through the given line, the vertex of the cone being a point on that cubie. If the two assumed points be corresponding points on the Hessian, JP, vanishes identically; for, the equation of the polar plane, with respect to a cône, of its vertex vanishes identically. Hence <~ <<eo polar plane of any point of <~ ?ttM JoM~Mi~ con~poM~M~ the ~<'0t<~& <K~~eC<<ÛMthe ~M~< of ~K<< on the J2eMMM~<MM<

ce

386

SURFACES0F THE THtBD DMMEt

planes to the &?&? at <<«?p<wt~ In any assamed plane we ou drav three Unes joining corresponding pointa on the Hessum; for the carve of the aixth degree cmxMeredin the laat article meeta the assmned plane in three pairs of con'eepondingpointe. The polar enHo then of the aasnmed plane will contain three right lines; ag will othorwiseappear &oM the theory of right tmeson caMcswhieh we shall mowexplain. 4M. We said, note, p. 39, that a caMcal surfacenecMMmIy contauM right linea, <mdwe now enquire how many in générât lie on the enrfMe.t In the first place it Mto be observedthat if a right line tte on the surface, every plane throngh it ia a double tangent plane becanse it meets the surface in a right Mneand conM; that is to eay, in a section having two doaMe points. The planes then joining any point to the right lines on the surface are double tangent planes to the sar&ce and therefore aiso double tangent planes to the tangent cone whose vertex ie that point. But we have seen (Art. 445) that thé number of aach double tangent planes M <toet!~set!eK. This resnlt may be otherwiae establiehed as follows: let un suppose that a cabic contains one right line, and let us examine in how many ways a plane can be drawn throagh tbat right !!ne, auch that the conio in whieh it meets the sor&ce may break up into two right tines. Let thé nght line be <<?; let the equation of thé annace be tp!y'=oP'; let us substitnte <o=~«!,divide out by <, and then form the diacnminant of the KsaMng qoadric in <~y, z. Now in thia qaadrto it ie aeen without dMScoltythat the ooeScients of a! ay, and only contain in the firsi degree; that those of Steiner sayt that thereeMone hnadted linee'aeh that the polar plane <f anypoint ef onecf thempaMea throngha &tedUne,but Ï believethat hb theorem M oughtto be<nnended abew. M in t The theMyef right Bneton a enMcat r&ee~aa SKtatudied between end the year1M9ima ecn'eep<mdeMe Mr.Cayley me, théMMl<a of whichwerepahMahed, J)«Mt ~MtoM~~ AM~, Ctmtt~ <M< VoLtv., pp.lt8, M& Mr. Cayley aMtctMarMdhat a fte&ttte t namhw of rightlinostM<tHeonthe aM&te;thé deteminaRen f that nambef o a*above, ndthé (ËaenMtem 4Mwereeuppliedy me. a inArt b

BUM'ACBSOP THE TBIBP CEtUtEË.

887

CM? y< contain in thé second degree, and that of e* in and the third degree. It followshence that the equation obtained by equating the discriminant to nothing is of the nfth degree in and therefore that ~MM~ any Wy~< &tMon a cMMxt? MMbe <~MKfive planes, each 0~tcXM& M<e~ «ti~Me Me <M)~Me <K<!KO<~ and coaseqaently every~/t< pair of rig"t M! line Mt a <MM! M<N'MC<e<? 0<&<M. oMtder now the & C by <eK section ot the surface by one of the planes juet referred to. Every Uneon the sm&ce muet meet in Mme point the section by this plane, and therefore must intersect Mme one of thé three lines in thia ptane. But each of these lines is interaected by eight in addition to the linea in the plane; there are therefore twenty-four lines on the cabic besides the three in the plane; that is to say, <<MK<!y-MMtt in <t~. We shall hereafter show how to form thé equation of a surface of the ninth order meeting the given cubic in those Unes. 466. Since the equation of a plane contains three independent constants, a plane may be made to Mnl any three conditions, and therefore a nnite nnmber of planes can be determined which shall touch a surface in three pointa. We can now détermine this number in the case of a caMcalsor&ce. We have seen that through each of the twenty-seven lines can be drawn five triple tangent planes: for every plane intefsecting in three right Unes touches at the vertices of thé triangle formed by them, thèse being double points in the section. The number &x 27 is to be divided by three, s!nce each of the planes containsthree right lines; <~<M <~M~M are in «Hj~y~oe <~& <aHyeK<~&!tMN. 4B7. Every F&Mte w~& a right Mue<?a c<<M3 o6wtM~ M < a <&W&& <(tKyeK< plane; and ~Mt!r< pointa < <!<M!<tM<~fWt of ? <y<<6Nt involution. Let thé axis of z lie on the aorface, in and let the part of the équation which is of the firat degree in:c and y be (<M!'+~+<')a;+(o'<+yj:+c')y; then the two points of contact of the plane y=~a' are determined by thé equation
CC2

888

SURFACES 0F THE THÏBD ÏHBMtEN.

but thit denotes a System in involution (C'<M«a, 28?). It p. follows hence, from thé known propertiea of involution, that two planes can be drawn throngh the Une to touch the surface in two coincident points: that Mto say, which eut it in a line and a conie touching that Une. Thé points of contact are evidently thé points where thé right line meets the paraholio eurve on the surface, It was proved (Art. M6) that the right line touches that curve. The two pointa then where the Mne touches the parabolic cnrve, together with the points of contact of any plane through it, form a harmonie system. Of course the two points where the line touchesthé parabouc curve may be imaginary. 4ë8. The number of right lines may atso be determined &e. repreaentplanes) thus. The fonn <Me=~ (where a, is one which implicitlyinvolvesnineteen independent constants, and therefore is one into which the general equation of a cubic may be thrown.* Th!s surface obvioady containsnine Unes (ab, e<f,&c.). Any plane then 0'='~ which meeta the surface in right Unesmeeta it in the same lines in which it meets the hyperboloid~tee='<~ The two Hnesare therefore generatora of differentspecies of that hyperboloid. One meets the Mnes ed, ef; and thé other the Unes cf, <&. And, since /t bas three values,there are three unes which meet ab, cd~if. The same thing followsfrom the considérationthat thé hyperboloid determined by thèse lines must meet the surface in three more Unes (Art. 818). Now there are clearly six hyperboloids,<tt,<~ef; < c~ de, <&e.,which determine eighteen linea in addition to the nine with whieh we started, that is to say ae before,twenty-seven in ait. If we denote each of the eighteen Unes by thé three which it meets, the twenty-eevenUnesmay be enumeratedas follows: there are the ongnMtInine ot, ad, o~ c&,cd, <~eb, e<~ to< and in lite (a~.c~),, gether with (<c~.e/'),, (a~.c~ manner three Unesof each of thé fbrms <<&, <td'.tc.e~
It wiUbe found in one hundred and twentyWttyt.

SURFACES THETHUU) 0F MGBBE.

?9

The 6ve planes which can be ad.be.cf, a/&c.<&, <&e.< drawn through any of thé Unesab are the planes a and b, meeting reapectivelyin the pture of lines ad, af; ~o,& and thé three planes which meet in (<!&.eaL~'),,(o&.c~.<&),; Thé five (a&.<e~),, (<t&.c~.<~),;(aA.c~ (a~c~e),. whichcan be drawn throughany of the lines (a6.<'d'),, ptanes eut in the pairs of lines, ab, (<c/.<& o~, (<t/c~),; and in (<Mf.&e.~),,(<t~Ac.<&),; (o~c.~),; (a~),, («/d!e),. 459. Pro& SehSR! haa onde & new arrangement of the Hnes (Quarterlv Journal o~ ~a~~ma~eft,VoL ![., p. UC) which leads to a aimpler notation, and gives a dearer conception how they lie. Writing down the two systems of six nonintemectinglines

it M easy to see that each line of one system, does not intersect the line of the other system which M written in thé same vertical line, but that it mtemecb the five other lines of the second system. We may write thon thèse two systems

whichia what SchSS! calls a donble-s!x." It M easy to see from the previous notation that the line wMch lies in the plane of a,, 6, is thé same as that which lies in the plane of a,, & Henoe the fifteen other lines may t)e represented by the notation c, c~, &c., whoMo,. lies in thé plane of a,, and there are evidently Mteen combinationsin pa!m of the six numbers 1, 2, &c. The five planea whieh can be drawn through c,j, are the two which meet in thé pairs of tmee ot,5,,<t~ and thoae which meet in c~c~, c~, c~. There are evidentlythirty ptaneà whichcontain a line of each of the systems< o: and fifteen planes which contain three c Unes. It will be found that out of the twenty-seven Unes can bo n construotedtMrty-six "douMe-MXM."

1 bélier is Mr. the theory tth'oadyexwhich will a!so meet plained shows that it will be a Ime If thetypetM~d touchea the&mfhHae. then the cubic determined by these nineteen points oontainaa!l thé Une~ ~nce each line bas four points conuaon with the surface. ChMtM. We can now geometncatîy comtract a system of twentyseven lines which c<mbetong to a caMcal eai&ce. is met by thé other Unes and through three more points on each of theM lines. through four of the points where a.890 SURFACES0F THE THtBD DEQKEE. Cty!ey's. & These determine a cnbieal for if we descrtbesach a Bnr&tce surface. by threeotheM ofthe&Mr linesabotouohea MmMning Thiaremark the one. Now if we are given four mon-mtersec~ngines. the ChatptM in JBM<6M t89!. another transversal o. In this manner we conetrnct the five new linea «~ o~ an o~ < If we then take another ttansvetsd meeting the four first of these lines.. thenthé condition ia met by onlyone tMmvetMd e~pfeMedy equatingto aothia~the b determinant The wnMdng of the detenninantformedin the Mme manner fromnw linea. we caa in general draw two l traBsveta&b whichA&!1 intersect them all.* Throagh any four then of the Knea we can draw in addition ta the line o.If wedenotethe condition two linea that shouldmtetMet that four lineaehoaM be by(M). MpteMta that the iavolutton of they are eennectedby a reMon whichhMbeen MNed aix !ine*t" and whichwill be MtMedwhenthe lines<tMbe thé dheeti~M of mt foreMin eqaiNhtiam. whichmust a!solie on the saf&ce since it meeta it in four points.and by M.aad&veo~et9 which interaect it. for . The reader wiU &td eeveMi intetesthtg on CMMMmct&MM<M< aubjectby MeMN. h the conditionthat they are all met by commcn tMMtetML of The vMitMBg' the timilM deteradnant for dx lines. Prmier &M«<f<. for the hyperbo!otd determinedby any three meete the fourth in two points throngh which the trMMverMia paaa. 460. Wo aM~y8tta'tbyta!dngtu:bit!'ar!lyaay~ne<t.hétwotauMwmohedoee t f t to a single andit it évidenthat the hyperboloid determined any OM. Sylvesterand 0&yky.

if the surface have four double points. p. and fifteen other lines OM in the plane of each pair. D. fifteen lines and Meen planes real. B.. aad a plane through three anch points as eight. Thns 2x6+15=87.there is one real triangle through every aide of whieh pass four other real planes. B. He &<dathus nve spec!es: A a the lines and planes real. if the surface bas one double point. and. together with three o~em lying in the same plane. . the lines are the six edges of the pyramid formed by the four points(6 x 4). in points whieh He on the line o. 891 Il tho SMt. if we count a line or plane through a double point as two. 266) an enumeration of the modifications of the theory when thé surface haa one or more doaMepoints. each of whichmeets two opposite edges of the pyramid. The planes are the plane of these three lines 1.MtaSt has made an analysisof AediSerent species of oabics aoeording to the MaHty of thé twenty-seven lines. J<M(HM~ IV. C. three linee and thirtean planes real namety. Thus. Again. M. 8xlo+16=." We e ean then immediatelyeonetrcct the remaining lines by taking the plane of any pair «~ which will be met by the lines a. together with the four &ce!) the pyramid (4 x 8). It may be attted genemlly that the cnbîo has aiwayatwentyseven nght lines and &)rty-nve triple tangent planes. that is to say.SUM'ACES OP THE THKD DMBEB. only three of whichcontainreal triangles. There are fifteen treble tangent planes not passing through the double point. <evenlines and five planes real. six planes each through one of theae Unes and through an edge (6 x 2). Wo have thns constracted a "donMe-six.46. three lines and eevan planes real 1 have aho given (C~tKM~a and D<<t~ JMtt<~<Ma<&<~ Vol.< 481. there is one right Kne through which five real planes caa be drawn. of The reader will findthe other cases diMumodin thé paper just te&ned to. throngh two double pointa as four. there are six lines pattsing throngh that point.

we get a new contravariant. ~8.3&2 INVARIANTSAND COVARtANTS A CUBIC. It remains to show how to calculate contravariants in the same case. Wo shall in this section give an aceotmt of the principal invariants. that if we subatitute in a contravariant for a. that a cubic can hâve. &c. 458). We hâve calcnlated for this form the Hessian (Art. as for A covariant.. 0F 462. ~8. as for example that it shall touch the surface. or elsewhere. and let us examine what this becomes when the function is expressed by five variables connected by a linear relation. and operate on a contravariant. ?. example the Hessian. whose vanishing expresses some permanent property of the surface. We only suppose the reader to have learned from the Z<Mû<M on Higher Algebra. as for example that it has a nodal point. Now in discussing thé properties of a cabic we mean to use Mr. dénotes a Bur&oe having to thé original surface some relation which is independent of the choice of axes. A contravariant is a relation between a.~e&f< p. 0F tNVABïANTS ANDCOYARIAKTS A CCBtC. The property of which we shall make the most use m this sectMn is that on proved (ZeMOM Higher . &c.) . viz.. by suhstitating for the fifth its value in terms manner if wesnbstitute in any covariant for a'. An invariant of the equation of a surface is a function of the coefficients. which wiU reduce to an invariant if the variables have disappeared from thé result. Let as suppose that when a jfunctionU is expressed in terms of four independent variables. S. &c. some of the most elementary properties of these fonctions. 'y. &c. But obvioosly we can rednce the function of five variables to one of four. y.. Sytvester's canonical form in which it is expreased by the sum of five cubes. covariants. we have got any contravariant in a. 8 <y. and there would be no dimcalty in calcalating other covariants for the same form. and then operate on either the original fonction or one of its covariants we shall get a new covariant..exshaH pressing the condition that thé plane aai+~+'ye+Ste have some permanent relation to the given surface. 66). In like j~t &c.

the dMerentîat with respect to d d dio J!the 1 t.y. becomes 46S. M<=. M the same problem as to find that the plane (a-e)a!+(~-e)y+(Y-e)e+(~-e)o v have the same relation to the sur&ce.the<!oeaeietttsof. If we reduce the equation of the quadric ta a Ometienof four vanaMea by mbttitudng for tf ïta value in terme of the otheK. in virtae of th relation connectmgM aa! -T. Sinec <e appem in this function both explicMy and atse where it M introdnced in <c.a.s'.JNVABtANra AND COVABtANTS0F A CCBtC. ~-e respectively for et. .z'. and y that then by operating with the fonction so obtained on any covariantwe get a new covariant.<c or. This method will Bebetter undemtoodfrom the followingexample. ~S-e. t~.e'aKrMpeetiTe!yaK.(ai+y+e-t-t)). ~te e while evety other ooeSeient becomes <. the condition that the plane <t. 898 of tho othera. i! <o. It now we substimte fheM ~!ue< in the equation of Att 76. We hâve referred to the theorem that when a contravariant in four tetten M givet~ we may sabsdtate for a «. e.t+~y+'~+ ? touches. Every contravanant in five tettem is therefore a funetion of the differencesbetween a.t'. y.aM . eo that the contravariant in five letters îa denved from that in four by aubstituting a-e. To find then the condttMnthat the plane <KB + + 8e+ e<emay have any + Msignedrelation to the given eor&ce.!t8 equation being may expressed in terma of four variables. Théequation quatMo given thefoim where <+yt<n'+w0: toand the condition that M-t~y+~t'~+'w tMy touch the sur&<!e. 8.. S dM~ïenti&t ymbolswith respect to <c. '1.~9. iB M + -?. on a function expreasedin term9 of five letters a~ y. 'y–e. vtz. eKt. ofa la in Ex. Supposenow that we operate <c.

e.h<Bmm~ethedMïeTentMtMh~tat!on which we have a r!ghttodo. AND HenM&contïwvMiamtin in Sveby w!th the othervMMtMee. <. a for t d. we obtain <t <?<« <!ooa~«tH< M*Mt<wrMM<. we for S.1 <M~«~ <M < «~ <S'<S'3~' «'AM& tlte (Won OpeMt~ <Mt <M~Mt<tJ'~MKe<<!)' <tMy <!0<M~M)t<. e+4 <<+< a.by~titîag M tn the htt & the Art. 464. we In fact if we Sratreduce the fanction to one of four variables. <utMe<~e. y.1 _1' '_1. d d d d d . 8. . a-6. It fa in fact ita dieedminant.tmg6ytnb<)l Ntb8t!ttltmgfor But we have aeen in thé tMtM'tidoth&ttb6cont!'Kva. and that operating with the function so obtained on any M&t)'&van<mt get a new contravariant.~Meh ~~(~"s-) <m!y dM~m by a anmetie<d ~h+~M+~~+M~+~~ h aniavariant f the qaaddc. and pttttin~<t!lhé other <!MSMentseqcalto<. Ex. &c.<heKsdt.tMat in five tettem bas been obtained from one in &nr. a. &nrlettem!etomedmto<mopera.wehave<<nbatIt)KteA&r . Lt like jmanner it is proved that we may aabsûtnte in any covariantfonctionfor !C.?4 OP INVAMAMS COTANAttTSA CUBÏC. by writing for a. ~<. It Mkws theu unmed!&tdy that in any <!Mt<MttKtf«M< Mt ~M ~'MM'< <M~S<&«<6 &.importance of The thtsis&atwh~weh&veonM~unAaMntrtvatMmtofthe form in five letters we eu obtain a new covariant without the tàbor!onsprocessof reoarring to the form in four lettem. wi (M~rentud Bymbob y with regard to ft. Wehave that Be~ (a j9)* contMvatiant theform <een Ma of Ifthen weopeMteonthe qtMdnowith &etûr &Mn . eoaM c and havebeenobtained om expreMhm 63. t+<.

462) Se&M)tp(et-~)''=0.464) it is neceMMyto have a contraTmiant. Art. M Its equation therefore.. &o. &c. &o.by Ex. is S&<!(!eyj:txo=o. Art. as we have already seen. By th!a theorem and that in the laet artide we can. /9.INVARIANTS AND COVABïAt!T8OF A CUBIC. This M what !s caUed a mixeA concomitant. but ifweûperatoontheHesa~wegetacovariantoftheËf~ order in the vanàbtM.. it iB evident that the et. in If a<w we BtdMtItttte tHs for a. 466.whicb. o dMFerentmtsf both with Mgmd to a. 'y.. and operate on the on~aal cubio. generate another.ta f that in four lettera o with respect to a. S. we get the HessMn. 452. Art. Aga!m. &c. The polar quadrio of any point with regard to the M cabio a!i~'+<M*+<~+~ Now the HeoeMm the d!scnmimantof the polar quadric. and for thia purpose 1 o have càtcalatedthe contravariant<r wMchccnrsin the equation of the MCtpMoalam'&ce. and ?) /9. ia of the form 64<~=T~. S are the eame. while the diferential of that in five tettem with respect to a !a thé aeg&tïve aam of the dMarentM. since it conttuna both eeta of variables fB. what we have caHed (Art. being given any covariantand cmtttavMMmt. 463. In order to apply the method indicated (Arts. aa wM aheady proved. The contravariant <r expresses thé .. and the seventh in the coe~aents to wMohweaha~a&erwardaM&t'aa~.which combmect with the &nnef givea t!ee to new ones again without Umit. SM But ainee thé contravariantin five lettem was obtained from that in four by writing et-e afor &a. But this establisheathé theorem. 463. 468) the polar cubic of a plane MagthecondMonthatthîaphnesho~ddtonchthepoiar quadnc is (by Ex. y..

that for five is calculated from it as in Art.and of the sum of their degreea in the coefficients. and. 0F conditionthat any plane aa!+~+&c. its exprosmon ia (t2M) (1246)(1M7)(8848) 6678)'. differential symbolefor thé variables. and tho nfth in the coemdents. should meet the surface in cubic for whieh AronhoM'sinvariant S vanishes. as already explained. and in the coefficients of the cubie. (a) Combining (1) and [l]. ~3. If A be expressed by thé symbolical method explained on (ZeMMM J5~~ ~~e&Mt. 468. The results of this process are given in the next article. It ia of thé fourth degree both in a. We can now.&c. (ZeMo~ M Higher ~J~e&Mt) 70). from any given covariant and contravariant generate a new one.it is indinerent with which we operate. The result M of the aifference of their degrees in the variables. B~c'~ SoMeSo~c.p. by subatitutingin that in whichthe variablesare of towest dimensions. If both are of equal dimensions. (~) (2) and [1] gives an invariant to which we shati re&r M invariant ~t. The resuit is For taciHty of reierenee 1 mark the contravariants with numbers betweenbracketa and thé covariants by numbers between parenthèses. but Unsvaniahes identically. Thé form being found for four variables. the cubio itself and the Hessian being numbered (1) and (2).396 AND ÏNVAMANT8 COVANANTS A CUBtC. The result in this case is an mvanamtof the sum of their degrees in the coenîotenta. we expect to find a contravariant of the nrst degree in the variables. then opMatmg on the other. ( . =. 77). 1 snppres: the details of the calculation whieh though tedious présenta no dintculty. 466. In the case of four variables the leading term is d' multipliedby thé of the temMty cubic got by making <p'='0in the equation of thé surface. Thé remaining terms are ca1culatedfrom this by meam of the diffmntial equation p.

mVAMANTa AND COVABtANM OP A CUBÏC. If then we denote the sum of these quantities. &c. e. rationally expromedin terms of thé five fnndamentttt although their squares can be rationally expressed in terme of .and we may therefore are by sum ttp the principal résulta. thesefive quantities. c. form skew invariants which cannot be invariants. which are all obtained by proceeding with thé process exemplified in the last article We can.(6). 467. viz. 897 (~) Combining with (8) the nuxed concomitant(Ait. by f. J. It is easy to see that every invariant is a symmetric fnnctton of the quantities <~b.. andthereforein terms of the five following fundamentalm~ariants. 466) we get a covariantcubicof the ninth order in the coeScienta <!&c<&3c<&(a+6) ecto. to It seemaTumecesaary give further détails M to the steps which particular covartamts &~md. t. every invariant can be expressed in temM of p. and [1] we have a Unear contravariant (h) Comhmmg (5) of the thirteenth order. a. however. of their prodncts in pairs.

This. ~]z. expressed in terme of the principal invariants.p. Thé e!mp!eatinvariant of this Hnd is got the discriminant by expresaing in terma of ita coe<Bctents of the equation whoaeroote Me a. ia the invadant F of the one hamdredth degree. its square root is an invariant F of the one hanJtedth degree. The discriminantcan eamiy be expreased in tenM of the fundamental mvantmta. c. There are linear contr&vananta s!mpl<6t which. variablesbetween the four diNeren&tb that !Bto aa. It is obtained by etimtnatmg the with respect to a!. the coe~o!ent8 being invariants. of the the of thirteenth degree.37.y. C. Thé conditionthat thèse four planes abould meet in a point. (ttBcnmmamt Snbwe get the deanng of radicale.y. i9 468. 1860. ninth. .898 INVARIANTS COVAMANTS CttBtC. Every other covariant. givea in terma of the fundamental invariants an expresmon for multipliedby the product B. <~ e. H<mce~.48 in the coeSMenta. it will be found.19. Ita expression in tonus of the fundamental invariante is given. Thia invariant being a pertect square. haa been already given. <*S(<)(a-/8).y*eMpropordonalto6c<~cf!e<t. thé next being of the next of the twentythe twenty-Smt. 23S. sdtuting then in the equation!c+y+z+o-Ko'=0. &c. jPAt!Mt}p~M<~ !R'<M!Mc<«MM. x. the result. Thé cuMch<a&Ha'6mdamMtalcovar!<Hitplanes of the orders 11.&c. b. of thé squares of thé tMeMnoesof all the quantities a. AND OPA thèse qnactttiea. <'Sc&(<t-t)(et-/S).J9. indndmg the cubic itad~ can in général be exptesaed in tenas of thèse four.&e.

899 There are covariant quadricsofthé Nxth. by taking for the planée <c and y the tangent planes at the two points where any !me meets the parabolio curve. 60. p and of 0 ia -8<c~(<~+<~). 6. denote the 6rst diSerentialcoeSdentft with respect to the HeaMsn. There are covariant cnMca f the ninth order S<c<& o (<t+~)<Me. with the The equation of a covariant whoae mtemectt<m caMc determinea the twenty-seven KneBis 0=:4H~ given where hM thé meaning explained.&na'teen&. examining the following form. eighteenth. and of the sevonteenth. the second d!Serentials with respect to the cttMc.&c.we can form from it a new one of the degree sixteen higher in the co<tSdents. 466. to which thé by equationof the cubic can bc reduced. 1 had venned thé form. and a. The euï&oe 0-4H~ haa . &c. < The part of the Hessiamthen which does not containeither <eta'y !B~M~: thé comeepondiDg art of <' M -2(a~+oh~). which hadbeen auggestedto me bygeometrical confdderatMmB. Art.the order mcreMtng by eight. We sha]!give M. if a. &o.ïNTABtANTS AND COVARtANM 0F A CDBtC. thé coeiBdentsof the several powers of Xare evidentlycovariants or invanants of the cubic: it followsthat given any covariant or tnvanant of the caMcwe are discussing.&c. and SAeenth in the codBc!ents~Mw which gives the five 6mdMnentaï planes: and one of the nmth order. and this bat covariant mnce if we form a covariant or invariant d Ï~+\P. twentysecond. and two determinate planesthrongh these points for the planes <p. ~9.~So~a: &c. and contravariantsof the tenth. by performingon !t thé operation Of higher covariants we only think it neceaeatyhere to mention one of the SMi order. CkbBch'sproof of this at the end of the volume. If we caMthe ongtMt cubic U. Its equation is expreasedby the determinant at the top of p.ordera. 0 the tocne of points whose polar planes with with teepect respect to thé Hessian touch their polar q<Mdnca to U.

229. and before it~ puMMia~cn.400 INVARIANTSAND COVANANT8 0F A CUBTC. The method however whieh 1 pnKned wM different from that of ProfetMt Ctehseh. Thus the tecond is the invariant (12M)' of the Hetaian. Shoftty after the reading of my memoit.CtebMh of CN-htahe. . M. Clebaoh haa etpMMed his laat i!o<M iBWMnta aa &n<tioMof the coefficientsof the HeMitn. 2 PA<!M~)iMoa<~<MM<t<*<MMM. as well u the notice of the invariant F. 1 Mieve were new. and the dheMden of the covariants. by ~-o&tto). Thia Mctica h ahridged &cnt e paper which 1 contribated to the 1860. &o.there appeared two papert in CreUe'a J!Mfn«~ Vol. therefore no part which doeenot contain either a) or y. in whioh tome of my resulta were Mtieipated: m particular the expression of all the în~Mtiantaof a cubio in term of aw thndameatal attd the expreMon given above for thé tut&ee paMing through the twenty-teven lines. as in Uke manner do the rest of the twenty-seven Unes. ana the line a~ lies altogetber on the surface. p.

t9«~M)~!tce~ed!~)'eem+«+jp+g-4. 469. and in like manner for tbe other two sar&ces. in continuationof Art. For if in this condition we sabstitnte for each coeciciento of ot+ Xa'. equation is evidently got by equating to nothing the determinant whose constituents are the four dMerentM coefficients of each of the four snr&ces. with the general theory of sur&cea. <~?!<?< Forits <K<tpMK<.. 256. can be drawn eo as to touch the carve of intersection of J~ Q. P may coincide. contains the coenidenta of the nmt in the degree Kp(8M+M+~–4). M. InIikemanne)*)~(at+K+p+g–4) snf&ceeof the form <~+ bN. Q (M~OM <J5~WM M. -R* VoL Moutard. and shall nrat mention a &w nusceltaneoas theorema which are Mmei~mee usent!. M. and must lie somewhere on the carve of the degree g(~+M-t-~+g–4) where is metbythelocaasur&ce. WE shall in thia chapter proceed.( 401) CHAPTER XV.where a' is the correspondingcoeflicient of another surface Af' of the same degree as M.p. it ia évident that the degree of the result in is the same as the number of surfaces of the form J~+\Jtf which can he drawn to touch the curve of intersection of N. GENERAL THEOKTO? SURFACES. x!x. ~~MM'< ~MtM&<. It &l!owa hence that the condition that two of the mp points of intersection of three snr&cea JM. 2 DD . 2%<&M<M Me~m~to&Me polar ~&N:~ with ~aM? <0 q~' are four MO~MM JV. for the point of contact must be somoone of the points where the curve PQ meeta the locns surface. If a surface of the form oJtf+~+cJP touch the point of contact is evtdentty a point on the locua just considered.

wheM M' !a the order of «“ &c. Dividing ont this factor. c. is. and the coefficients of M in thé degree )tp(w+M+~–3)+MMp. 1 had arrived at thé same result otherwise thoa: (see Voh p. 6. in thé degree np.. If a surface of the form aM+ bN touch P. !a p times the degree of that eurve. Thé rescit eliminating betweenthe determinant and will contam a~b. determinant. ~t'==M–l. d and the other three rowa are formedby thé four differentiaisof each of thé three snr&ces. the quotient. as of already seen. Thé conditionthat this determinant may be sa~Bnedby a point commonto the three surfaces is got by P.402 GEMBNAL THEORT 0F SURFACES. that t8 to say.tangent planes to the three BNJtaceB a line in common: and thèse planes have therefore have a point in common with any arbitrary plane The point of contact then eatisfies the 'xc+~+<~+<?«'. the cnrve denoted by the System efdetennmamte where «“ &c. But this result of elimination contains as a factor the condition that the plane aa)+i~+M+<?<e may pass through one of the points of intersection of JR And this latter condition containa d in the degree mnp.denote the dinerential coeScients. The locus of points whose polar places with regard to three surfaceshave a right line common. containsthe coefficients M in the degree 470. ()M<M-<e~ section coincide if the curve of intersection 3f<Vtoach the curve MP. 339) Two of the points of interJOttt~M?. But thia carve + (seeAppendix) Mof theorder (M"+ M"+p"+ <M'M' M'p' +~'w'). is equal to the number of points in which thia loeu curve that !s to say. as may be in&rred from the last article. d in the degree mnp. the point of contact ia evidently a point on thé locna just considered. c. At the point of contact then the . and the coeBBdente M of a. one row of ~Mch is a.and therefore the number of saeh ani~cea whieh can be drawn to tonch P. meets Reasoningthen M in the last article we Me that the condition . c.

n intetsect) the tmatbe)f of tMgentt to their em~e of mtetMc6<m whieh are ttho Me]demd tangenta of thé CHt surface. in the fonn of examples. ThM ie got by eMminatiog t!V< between the equations whieh are m ~z'tp* of thé degrees respectively )t). of the devolopable which M touches a Mr&ce along any phne section of a Mo'&Lce whoae d~xee Bt.p.1. coatMM the coeNc!en~ of Min the degree M(M'*+2m'M'+8M'~ or and in like manner in the contains the coe<Sc!ents of degree M(M*+2NMt-)-3~-4M. the sxr&ce generated by thMe Mextona! tangenta in 4m (m !t)(8~ 4).65. Ex. Benee we OMitytmd DD2 . 8. Two sur&eet U. <? 2. a few theorems to whidt it does not seem worth while to devote a separate art!cte.tytw of the degteM 0. 2. which condition involves the aeeond diniMen~tl* of U in the third degree. together with the tangents at ita 3))t (M 2) pointa of innexion. we have the equation of a Mt&ee of the degree (3~ + 2~ 8) which meeta the curve of intersection in the pointa. the tangente at whieh are !aBetionaI tangente on K Ex. Ex. Ex. tince <f4(m-3). 1. The section of the developable by the given ptane h the section of the gtven Mr&ee. 238)) Md. 4. and therefoie the ttM&eea genemted by each of theM tangents coincide.GENERAL THEOM 0F SUBFACEa. To Snd the eh<tMetem<iM. Z. <<. et pt 289. Moutard. VoLxtX. and the degree KquSKdMSM(M-2)(3M-l). If then we fonn the condition that the tangent plane to may touch thé polar quadrie of U.0. In the same case to ând the degree of the Mttace generated by the in1lexional tangents to U at the ee~Otalpoints of the eatre UV. 403 th&ttwo surfaces M and N ahouM touch.m t. The TMatt ia thetefote of the de~'ef OMt(3ot-4). Kf~tM~. To Bnd the degree of the d~etepaMe whieh touches si tm&ce along its htemeetîon with its HeNiaa. But eince <ttevery point of thé p<Mb&l!e curve the two iNBeximMlangente t eo!ncHe.-8M+6). and in . htttMeet in an InN~doMi tangent the degree of (Art. thé number just &oad muet be divided by two.. ]~ of the degreet m. The tangent planes et two eonM<Mt!~e points on thé pttMbolie earve. We add. by thé hot example. h M~(3)n + 2tt 8). The MexioMi tangents at any point on a MM&ceare genestthg Unes of the polar quadric of thtt point any plane therefore thMogh either tangent touchée that polar quadrlc. and the nrat di<brent!al<of in the second degree.

Ex. We have M thete 'v') but thé degree of thé KcipMcal of this cone is Ex. neither of which hea multiple tinM. "-Mt)(M-ty(M-t)'} e~O. f=)M)t(<M-l). = =t'm'm~. Ex. 2SO and the formuhe there given muet then be ) modi&ed. ~<M. 7. hM nodal and empidat edgM in addition to thoae considered at p.à. To &td the chMacterMet of the devolopable whieh touchée & MT&ceof the depee m along ita inteKeetion with a eurfhee of degree t). (D) to find the curve traced by the points of contact of triple tangent lines. of 471. 9. and (C) that of the earve formed by thé latter. 241. (c) to find the degree of that gencrated by the triple tangents.v!z. The cone therefore which stands on the Mrw and who<e vettet is My point. 239. Thé tor&ee< are of degreea and t~. (. (b) to find the degree of that &nned by the Mnesconsideredin (~ and (C). ~tM. 6. To6ndthe chaMctNMties the developable of generated e by linemeeting given two curves.B)when a !ine la an innexional tangent at one point and an ordinary tangent at another. To these may be added: (<t)to find thé degree of the surface formed by the Unes . We now return to the cl&aa problems proposed in Art. 8. <<= + ~'f + Stv'. f=m<t(3tM+<t-6) whenoe the other ~n~tatitiM Me fmmd M at p. of Wehavethere&re tv'.to Endthé degree of the curve traced on a sorEMe by the points of contactof a !inewhichMttsSesthree conditions. to find the degree of the curveformed by the former points.4M CONTACT OP UNES WITH SURFACES.. . thetefbre thé <Mrve af inteKeetten hM t~: and n~' + ~M actual nodal and cuspidal points. x' and M'. E<. a~O. Thé cases we aha!l conmder are: (~) to find the cnrve traced by thé points of contact of lines which meet in four consécutive pointa. and since each hM a nodal and cuspidal curve of degrees respectively and m. To and the ehMMtwMtÏM of the developable toncMng two pTen tur&CM. f"=OMt(~-l)(M-l)(M+M-Z). ThbMthe tedproctd thetMtexemple. To ûnd the charaetetMtiMof thé eurve of intersection of two ` deveIopaMet. = * CMn'ACTF MNE8 0 WtTBSURFACES.

Let three surfaces U. co-ordinates of each of thé points of intemectionof UVrP. n !s of thé degree (Ita 34). X". This result is of the degree XX' in aM. and X'+\+X\ in !c'y'<o*. The conditiontherefore that thay ahould hâve a common !me is n'=0. 2~ jMM(<9 cot~acttben of lines wMchmeet the surface in o~ four consécutive points: or (as we may etdt them) of ~«~ . 77. are determined. merely indicates that the arbitrary plane passes through !B'o'. W. B~Xe~ ~ne C'M<~es. by the formulajust given. if a line meet a surface in four consécutivepoints we muet at the point of contact not only have P'~0. pp. and a:ye'<e'in degrees/t. When this is the case any arbitrary plane <M!+~+<se+~<omust be certain to have a point in common with the three surfaces (namely the point where it is met by thé common Une). 86. The tangent limemuât then be commonto the surfaces denoted by the last three equations. and this must be of the degree Hence. in which case it passesthrough a point commonto the three aur&ceswhether they have a commontme or not. A'='0. We findthe conditionthat this may be possible by the method by which the points of innexion. but atso dP'=0. in 472.CONTACT OP LINES WtTH SUttFACEa. 405 Nowto commence with problem A. and thé arbitrary plane mnst vanish. this result must be of thé form Now the condition aw'+~'+ce'-K~M's'O. and therefore the result of elimination between P. V. and of contact of double tangents. F. A'P*=0. and let the points of intersectionof theBesurfaces ail coincide with a~'M': then it is required to find what further condition must be fuintled in order that they may have a line in common. W contain <ctoy<! the degrees respectivelyX. But since thé resultant M obtained by mnttipiying thé together the result of substitating in <M!+&~+M+<?!p.

The degree of ~f is therefbre »474. second. p. C3.A'P'='0. 1 have thought it better to place it by itsdf in an appendix than te introdMe it hère. and third polars intersect in six points on thé sar&ce. M~M~M~M~~CM~eM~MM~MC~~MM~~MtM~O <!efM fMt~Me of the <~ee llK-34* <S a 473. 19of the degree Now this result expressesthe locna of points whoseBrat. gave this theorem m 1849 (<~M<Ma~a)~ . and the method. 187.ï. we have A'~=0: A!7''=0. Mr. where W M the dMcrimmant of the equation beaittea ~=0.406 CONTACT 0F MNM WtTH SURFACES.p. we m&r that the resolt of elimination must be of the form !7*3fc<0. <~e&. which remains when the nrat of thé degree n 8 in \t. . Vêt. deservet to be atudied. For the we have P"'e=0. three tenna vameh of the equation. and having. For W then wo have X"<=(K-t3)(M-~). The equation of thé surface generated by the double inflexional tangents is got by eliminating a!'y'!9'!c' between which resolt. ordinary mie. As the catcutation is long. A'CT'==0.T!a. which is applicable to other ptoMema a!M. tts nret. 330) which is aatMed for every point on a tuled <ut&ee.&«?? Jb«nM~ VoL ïv... M the eqMtMn transformation of the equation (p. But t snbstitate for my own investigation the Yery beautiful pièce of aaft!ysMby which PtoCMMt CMmch performed the eBminttion indicated in the text. p. We can in like manner aolve problem B. t obtamed the equation in an inconveaient form (~Met~r~ JOttnMt VoL p. second. 3M) and in one more convenient (FAt'&M~Majt jRwtMt~MM. MM. point of contact of an inflexional tangent and if it touch the surface again. 200). and third polars intersect on the surface and smce if a point be anywhereon the surface. A!7'==0. by the P'=0. as /==(K-8)(M-4). 229) which 1 ahall presently give. Cayley bas ohMtvedthat eMetty in the same manner a~ the equation of the Hessian M the tNMfonnaHon of the equation f<-<~ whieh b a 0 M the eathned for every point of a developable. p.

CONTACT OF UNES WtTH SURFACES. by Art. If thcBL he thé X'.t' + (m 2)\'X". ~–M-1). and betadeswe must have satisfied thé system of two conditionsthat the equation of thé degree M–2 in X:/t. In order that a tangent at the point tc~'to' may eleewhere be an m&exionaltangent. tF'=0. the order of the surface which paaaeathrough the points (<7) is. except that for thé conditions . may have three foota all equal to each other. 407 Thé then of thé surface the whieh paMes through degree . degrees in which the variables enter into these two conditions. A<7'-0. Thé eqïUttMm of thé sat~ace genemted by thé Enee (~) ~A~M~mMMph~iM~~m~a~m)m~~M&M~ ia jbond by eUminating tangenta equations haa been of theae just <7*=0. Dividing out this factor the degree of the su)&ce (b) remains 470. that this fesaltamteontMns as a factor. as in the last article. thé degfee of thé vanaNes !s degree of thé MMUant and from in each Bat it appears. 187. (an equation for whieh ~=1. stated ae to thé o!'ye'<p' between thé four what équations A'!7'-0.B M (a points 4) (8M* + 5K 24). But (see Appendix on thé order of systems of equationt) The locus of the points of contact of triple tangent lines M inveat!gated in !iko manner. which remains when the firet 2 two terms vanish of the equation. 472. p. +X. we must hâve Ai7''=0. U in the power 8(M+8)(M-4).

the order of the result being but Bance result containstts a factor D~ this in order to fmd the order of the surface (<7)we are to snbstract MX' from the number just written. ~a-2) (M-4) (M-5) (?'+&?+12). (~ <~ which toudt in four places. None of these proMems has as yet been aatveA: but we can fmd equations which determine a major Umit to the nmnberof points et. Of that the equation jtMt coneidered should have three Mots alt the equal. Snbstttctmg the values firat given for X' \V and for (M 2) (K a) (? 4) (? 6). we get for the order of the auxface (c). A!y'!=0. in one place and ordinary tangents in two othem. the Appendix that for thMsystem of conditionswe have The orAerof the surface which determines the points (D) M. viz..&o. since both at the &'st and second of thèse pointa it is possible to draw a line meeting thé sm&ce . 472). It will l~e proved. theK&M. and ordinary tangents m another. (S)of line inûexîonal in two places.408 CMtTACT U!tE8VïtH 8CBPACZ8. (~3)the number ofpomtsatwMchh~thaiB&emoMltaBgentameettn&mr connseantive pointe. (<)in&exMMtd. ('y)the number of lines which are doubly inËexIonal tangents m one place. which a&t!S~four conditions. and the two conditions. To Sntt the surface generated by the triple tangents we are to eliminate a:ye'M' between !7*=0. 476.TheM teatamstobeeoBaidered anotherdMa of the détermination of thé number of tangents problems. To determine (a~the number of lines which meet in five conaecnûve po!nta. a number which probablyought to be divided by three. If a line meet in five consecatrM pointa it touches the mtrEMeS (Art. The foUowmgis an enumeration of thèse probleme.we sNb:t!tate' conditionsthat the same equation ehoald have two dMtmct in pMN of equal roota.

but which possibly may be greater. p. At thèse points atso therefore the tangent plane to <8' paaaeathrough an inflexional tangent of U We get then an equation where is a numerical multiplier. 409 in four consecutive points. It may be reqnired either to determine the number of aointiomwhen three conditions are given.CONTACTOF PLANES WÏTB aMFACES. by Ex. S. CONTACT PLANES ÏTH8CBFACES. but not saoMientto determinethé number of pointa. which I believe to be =3. 474. and that foundas the locus of points j&)Art. thèse points lie on a denved surface wh<Me degree ia Bat the pomta~3 ako lie on the same surface. And if but one additional conditionbe given. The points wthon are pomta on the curve PN. 1. OF W 477. for these are evidently donblepoints on the cnrve C~ that ÎBto say. mch that the tangent to that cnrve is one of thé m&exioaal tangents of U. a determinatenumber of tangent planes can be found which wiU &?! two additional conditions. In like manner thé pointa N)y are both included in thé Intemectiom of the surfaces U. 408. when two conditions are given. There&re. We can discnas the cases of planes which toach a in NM&ce. Every plane which touches a mr&ce meets it in a eection having a double point: bnt since the equation of a plane mcIadiMthree constante. Another limit ta the number of pointsa and 13 is obtained from Pro&ssorC!ebsch*8 calculation in thé appendix. Of the latter ctaas of problema we aha!l considerbut . or to détermine thé nature of the corvée and developables just mentioned. And other eqaatiom of connexionare found in like manner. points at whieh F «nd jS touch each other. an mnnite series of tangent planes can be found which will satisfy tt. those planes enveloping a developable. the same manner as we have donethoseof touching lines.and their points of contact tracing ont a curve on the snr&ce.

two wlll coincide with the tangent plane at the point of contact of that Une. Other casée have been coneida~d by anticipationin the laat aectioa. f vanish. vis. then the discriminant we are considering. will contain its cubeas a . a~zto. then this discriminantwill represent all the tangent planea to the surface which can be drawn through the Nnejoining the two 6xed pointa. when it meets !n a section having two doaMe pomts. then those of any point on the plane through the points wiUhe ~o'+/M)"+tw.instead of being. as in ether cases. Let the co-ordimateaof three points be aiy&V.or. one of the tangents at which meets in four consecutive points. we shall have the relation whichmust be satisfiedfor every point wherethis plane meets the scur&ce. then [U] may be written The plane will touch the surface if the discnmm&ntof thia equation in X. Let the result ofsnbstitution be [ÏT) =0. For of the tangent planes.410 CONTACT 0F PLANES WITH SURFACES. of two. If the tangent plane at a~'M' be a doaMe tangent plane. which can be drawn to a surface through any tangent line to that sar&ce. &c. :B'ye"«)". only divisible by the square of thé equation of the tangent plane. the diacueMon the caae when the plane meeta the surfacein a section having a c<Mp.: and if we sabstitute these values for ayzM in the equation of the surface.. We sh&tlsuppose the point a/y'~M' to be on thé snr&ce. If we suppose two of the points nxed and the third to be variable. as for example. A.P'*=0. ~'+~<y. and the discriminant w!!I become divisible by the square of AP*.. 478. and the point a!'y's"M" to be taken anywhere on thé tangent plane at that point: then we shall have P''='0. the case when a plaae meets in a section having a douMe point.

and we may setthis factor asideasirrelevant to the present discaeston.wh!ie =:0 le the condition that a/y'e'V should lie on that-polar quadric. In order to examine thé conditionthat this may be eo. in other words. and in a~c are respectively(~. This only denotesthat the point a/y~'to" lies on the polar quadrie of . willnot vanish. three will coincide with that tangent plane./t). Thns we team that if the class of a Mrface be p. two coincide with the tangent plane at its point of contact. and in The problem whicharises in both theaecases is thé following Suppose that we are given a &mction whosedegrecs in <cy~'M'in a!'y<o". then of the p tangent planes which can be drawn through an ordmary tangent line. or. that the point a. Now it will be found that the dîa<anminant f [P~j M of the fmm o when T vanishes as well as )y where is the disaficfunfmt and A. C !t8polar quadric. We may examine at the same time the conditionsthat T should be a factor inJS'LC'. and there can be drawn only p."y"e"w)" lies on one of the inSexionattangents at a~'e'M'. 0F 41t factor. that it represents a series of planes throngh that tine to &id the conditionthat one of these planes ahould . In order that the discriminantmay be divisible by T'./<.8 distinct from it. and there can be drawn p 2 distinct &om that plane: but that if the line be an inflexionaltangent. T tepresenta the tangent plane at the point we are oonsidering. Sappoae that this représenta a surface having as a multiple line of the order the une joining the first two points. sinco it aiso lies in the tangent plane. Fîrst then let vanish. some one of the 6tctom which multiply 2" muât either vanishor be divisibleby 479. If we suppose that a:"y'V<c"bas net been taken on an in6exionaltangent.CONTACT H~NES WMHSURFACES. lot us for brevity write the equation [U] M fbUow~thé coeSdonta of to X* being sapp<Mod vaniah.cye'M' or.

Tho nmt is of the degrees planes through is of the degrees (K-~)(tt'-6). and the equations of an arbitrary tine the résultant B mnat vanish.a~"y"M". the tangent plane at every point of thé carve CEfmeets the surfacein a sectionhaving a cusp~and ia to be counted as double (Art.C)' fromthe degrees of the discriminant of [!7]. S. that the two unes should meet is nf thé crat degree in all thé quantities we are considering and we aee now that B is of the form JtfJB'B* remainBa fonction of iBy-s'tc' alone.2. 403. + At all points then of the intersection of C~and If the tangent plane must be considered double. would vanish even though T were not a factor in V.1).0. Let us conalder next the series of tangent planes whiohtouch along the eurve !7K They form a developable whose degree :s p=a2n(M-8)(3a-4). and in ai'tc'. If M be the tangent plane T whose degrees are (<t-1.J. 888). while M'-SM'+K. {a(K-2).6. But evidently if the assumed right Une met the Unejoining a:y~'M'.2) ()t* M* M-18). and (B*. a!nce the dMcnmoMmt [U] KpMMntaa series of pitmes through of ey~tc'. To apply this to the case we are constdenng. It Mtows then from the last article that thé condition (R=0) that T ehouldbe a factor in ~C is of the degree 4 (M-8). in ai'y'e'V. H is no other than the Hessiam. which is of the degree M(o–l)* in all the variables. a/y'W. F=0. 481. Thé . as appears by suhtractmg the 6nmof the degKes of f. p. and is of the degree ~(<t-8)-t480.412 CONTACT 0F FLANES W!Ta SURFACES. Ex. and therefore any arbitrary if we eliminate between the equations y==0. This Mof the degree in <tM.2}. The curve CK' !a the locus of points of contact of planes which touch the surface in two distinct points. The condition (3f==0). n'-SM'+M-e. it followathat ~C aad both repreBent the aame line. in <t'&'o'<f. and of thé degree ~(M-1)+X. line wMth meeta T wm meet P. and the condition (jK'=0) that T shouldbe a factor in is of the degree (n.

2S7. do not contain any term i~. it tB easy to ahow that the direction of the tangent to DB~ in the line :8 '=0.CONTACT OF PLANES WTTB SUBFACRS. 418 dass of thé samo developable. From thelle data all the siNgnIarMesof the developablewhich.as wiUbe shewnin the appendix. diaBgmg/t &nd The dam of the developabletouching along !XK. We can aieo detemine the number of at&tMntoyplanes of the System. thé plane a being thé tangent plane at any point on the curve PB. whose a!ngal<mt!e8 got by interare etand jS.touches along SB can be determined. For the points of contact are evidently (<t thé intersections of the curve EETwith thé firat polar of the assigned point.in the above&)rmche. (that is to say. whcre we shan abo detemine the numberof solutionsin somecaseswhere a tangent plane Mrequired to fuMItwo othor conditions.+&o. &c. If then «. . be <+~'+M.is t)eea as above to be !t()t-l)(K-2)(K'–M'+M-12).whieh M the degree of a doaMe curve on the reciprocalsurface. Its other amgttiMttteawill be obtained in the next section. as at p. H f e=4M -1) (a 2). If thé equation of P. if the Mexional tangent meet the aurface in four coMecntivepoints) the direction of the tangent to the curva KS is the aameae that of the innexMmat tangent: and the tangent planes at two coneecndve pointa on thé carve PT will be the same. we have c[!='3<!(H-a)(llM-24). The number of Btationarytangent planes is then equal to the number of intersectionsof the curve UH with thé snf&ce& But since thé carve touchesthe surface.=0. We have Thé developablehere consideredanswersto a cnspidal Une on thé reciprocalaar&ce.or the number of planes of thé System which can be drawn throngh an MNgned point. Now the tangent planes to F are thé same at two consécutive pointa proceedmg along thé inSexional tangent y.

o. Let b have k apparent double points. includes doubly'thé curve standing on tho double curve. Neither shaU we hâve cuapidal edges answering to aU the points wherea meets A'O. M that if thé degree of the tangent coneproper be a. although not so on either cone conaidered eeparately. which are stationary pointa on the former. 0 SURFACES. Let a have 8 double and « cuapidal edges. the points where b and c meet A'!7 are plamiy irrelevant to the question. Let the curves 6 and c intereect in <ypointa. we have The clam of the cone <tis the saine as the degree of the reciprocal. with the surface A'0. and let c have Aapparent double points. The tangent cone determined ae in Art. since a common edge of the cônes a and c is to he regarded as a cuspidal edge of thé compkx cone. THEORTF KECïfMCAl. 482. b. 846.and c in <y pointa. and when we want to determine the numberof caspidat edges on the cone a. THEOBTF MCÏMOCAÏ. A sm'&cemay have a douMecurve of degree b and a cuapidalof degree c. Let the same letters acoenteddenote of the reciprocalsurface.414 0 SURFACES. Let the curve of contact a meet b in p points. But when thé line of contact consista of the complex eurve a+3&+3c. and t triple points which are abo triple pointaon the sar&ce. singatanties 488. The following&rmnlœcontain an analyste of the intersections of eaohof the curvesa. We saw (Art. those which in general cxMteither on tho surface or ite reciprocal. Pnderstandïng by the ordinary smgutanttes of a surface. and in < which are Bmgohtr pointa on neither. and trebly that standing on the cuspidal curve. we may make the following enumeration of them. . 247) that the points where the curve of contact meeteA'<7 give rise to caspidal edges on the tangent cône. in j8 which are stationary point: on the latter.

SURFACES. ConseqaenÛy there are twelve pointa o' and twenty-seven points one of the latter points lying on each of thé limesof which the nodal t!ne of thé reciprocal mr&ce is made up. respectively: but it !s not M eMy to aee the reason for the numerical multipliera which are naed in the fbrmulœ. The intersectionsof the corvesc*and &' with the line of contact of a cône a' through any assumed point.thé twenty-seven points and the twelve points < It is maoifest then that thé last pointa must The Smt attempt to exphin the e&et of nodal aad ccapidat linee on the degree of the teciprocd anr&ee. howeter. 876). Although it u probably not impossibleto accoant for these constants by otpriori reasonmg.. Thus we have <t'=6. p. We know that thé reciprocal of a cubic ia &aurfaco of the twelfth degree whichhas a cuspidaledge of the twentyfourth degree.. whose points of contact are the intersections of an aseomed plane with the paraboHc curve KB. is of the mxth degree.THEORT OF RECÏPROCAÎ. being the reciprocal of a plane section of the cubic. and with the twenty-aeven lines. by enabling me to ferm a clear conception of the nature of the reciprocal of a cubic. .46t. Now the sixty points of intersectionof the curve d with the second polar whîch is of the tenth degree.xxin.p.Vo!. anewerto tangent planes to the original cubie. and iv.. 415 The ret~er can BM withoat dinicnlty that the pointa tNd!<*ated in these &rmu!Mare included in the intersections of A'!7 with <t. y. ~M made in the yeM 1M7 in two papera which 1 contributed to the ChotM%w«o~ DttZ~Mt JM<t<~«M<t<M<!< Jb~~fH< Vct. t88. and T of the mxth degree (p. c'=24. 1 prefer to explain the method by which 1 was led to them indacttvely.* 484t.=a7. since ita equation is of the form 64~y*. M'==12.<t'+8&'+8<=!2. that the <tiMMery of the twenty-Mten right lines on a eaMe. comist of the nine points <c'.11. kd me to the theory in the foMnhere exphoned. Some few additional detaila will be found in a memoir whioh1 eomtnhnted tothe 2h!<Mo<!fM)«~&'y<MA~ea<f<N~. The proper tangent cône. It was not tiU the close of thé year 1849. e. 878). p. where jS Mof the fourth. n. Each of the twenty-seven lines on the surface answeK to a doaMe line on the reeiprocal (p. M. and bas nine cuspidal edges.

In this way we are led to asaign atl the coemcients of the équations (~) except those of 485. and the latter is mani&f)tlyto be preferred.256) Thé number of cuspidal edges on the tangent cone to the reciprocal. 3p'-t-+< But considering the curve b' as made up of the twenty'Mven lines. Lastty. and the nfty-&nr points j8'.3. Nowthe equation 12a+ 64&=840 only admits of the Systemsof integer solutions (11.2). 1. and there are two mch points on each of thèse Unes (Art. the points <'occur each on three of thèse lines: we are then led to the formula &'(K-2)~+2p'+3('. the two hundred and forty pointa in whichthe cnrve c meetsthe second polar are made np of the twelve points <r'.and we have just seen that theMis one point p. by any integer vahea of«. M'-2=(M-2)(M'+1). <r'. The points ~3'anewer to thé points where the twenty-seven right Unes toach the pat&hoUc curve. We have then M'=M (?-!)'. a'=M(M-l) and for thé nodal and cuspida!curves we have (Art. answer to the points of intersection of an Msumed plane witb the curves C~ and CET (Art. Thus we are led to the arst of the équations (jl).416 THEOBY? RECtFMCALURPACtS. Let us now examine in the same way the reciprocat of a sarface of the M** order. There are aleo five points < on each of these Hnes (Art. or (2.answering to the number of points of itimexîonon a plane :ect!on of the original. 1. Conmder~ ow the points where any of the twenty-seven n Mnes meets the same sortace of the tenth order. AS5). 1) or (8. 286).sincowe cannot satisfy an equation of the form c except S<t+27&+12c'=60. Now since the equation a + 2&+ 5<!e=0. 2. 1. The points p' and.4). The example we are considering does not enable us to determinethe coefficient f -y in the secondformula becanae o there are no points y on the reciprocal of a cubic. < S count douMe. whieh bas no multiple points. 1). gives us <'=8M(a–2). 480) . the ten points of intersection of one of the lines with thé second polar muet be made up either p'+~3'+< or and the latter form is manifestly to be rejected. 1 can have only the systems of integer solutions (1.

If a plane meet the sur&ce in a sectionhaving an ordinary doublepoint and a cnsp.or'. Sabstitntmg then these values. pMceedmgas above. 417 hence p' = M 2) (~' M* M-12). Sahstitute (M + these values in the formula <t'(n'-2)=<t'+~'+8<r'. iT must either answer to points ~S' or points y'. it is &stationary plane of that system.THEOM 0F RECIMiOCAL8UMACM. smee fromthe mere fact of its touching at the latter point it !a a double tangent plane. M'. Thua the third of the &rmu]œ ia ven&ed. in other words.). 481) that the number of i points ~3' a 2n (n-2) (llK– 94). It would have been sufficientto assame that the pomta coant times among the intersectionsof CEû~ and to have written the third of the fonnubaprovidoMÏly when. it betonga in two ways to thé system which touches along H5'. the quantity c'(M'-a)-2<r'-4~8' becomes alao equal to the value just MStgnedfor y. We shall next apply to thé samo case the third of the &tcmhe (~. Assuming. the pointa P. -=i It only remains to examine the second of the &nnnlœ (~). thus verifying the nmt of formntœ (~). .we &td that the number of triple tangent planes to a em&ce of the M** degree is given by the formula . And sinee evidently the points ~3'are to he includedm the intersections of the nodal and cuspidal cnrve. as it is naturat to do. It was proved (Art. or.j8'. and it ia aatîsSed tdentîcalty. &H-nMtIe couldnot be satisfiednnless = 1. We haTejiMtassigned thé values of all the quantities involved in it except (. <r*= 4t (x 3). and D~ on the original surface. it would bave been found that the a. that the points ~8 count double among the intersections of CBK~ we have But !f we snbstitnto the values already foundfor e'.B. Now the intersections of the nodal and cuspidal carves on the roc!procalsnr&ce answer to the planes which touch at the points of meeting of the cnrvea UH.

If then we denote hy [o~] the number of thé apparent intersectionsof thé curves a and that Nto the number of points in whieh thèse curves aeen from say. it is evident that among theae double tangenta will be ineludedthose common edges of the conea ab. M beforo. If the <ot&ae have t nodal earM. though they do not acttMJlydo M. the values need in thé laet y. 486. and thé above equation Kee~M thé tnodjHMtdon [a6] = <tt 2~) -1. It wu proved (Art. their common edgea mut anawer either to apparent or actnal intetsectiona. 248) that the pointa of contact of those edges of the tangent cone which touch in two distinct pointa lie on a certain surface of the degree (K-2)(n–8). thé following formulea will contain an anatymaof the mtemectionsof < e. For if cones be deacribedhaving a common vertex and standing on the two carvea. The fimt and thîtd of these equations are MtMûd td~tteaNy if we subatitute for &c. a complu cône a-~2&+3e. b in distinct points: and tunNarly for the other pMMof cones. with the surface of the degfee (« 3) (M 8) Now the number of apparent intersections of two curves is at once deducedfrom that of their actual mtemect!ons. vh!ch meet the cnrvM a. Hence.418 THMRT <M* NBOn'BOOAt SUN'ACES. In detenaMn~ however the degree of thé reoiproeal surface the qMndty [ab] i< eiiBdMtedt . but no caapidat. there wiU etm ~e a determinate number < ef cuapidal po!n<< on the nodal eurve. Now when the tangent cone la. any point of space seem to intersect.

is reduced Now the tangent cone to a surface is in by ~(2Mt–l). 482. and the value of A given (Art. 481). we 6nd This is then the rank of the developable formod by thé planea which have double contact with the given Bar&ce. <'y + j9 + <M. by the eMmpte cited. to which wo are to add ~=a(M-2)(M'-9). 480) and NtbtfMt from the degree w determined. that is to say. vis. From &trmalfe and B wo can catcnlate the diminution in the degree of the reciprocal caused by the singularities on thé original tmr&ce enumerated Art. Poaeibly thia may be becanee all the tangent planes which envelope the developable in que$tmn are doab!e tangent ptanet} but it muet be owned that there are pointa in all this theory which need ftather explanation. and we have seen that when general the surface haa nodal and euspidal lines this degree ia reduced In order to vet!~ the theory it would be MeeMMyto show that thia number Jï eoMctdea with what may be deduced from Ex. BB2 . M in the example cited. and which. of the degree «(M–l). Thé secondequationenableaus to determinek by the equation &om this exprestMnthe rank of the developable whichb M of the cuspidaledge can be ca1calated the formula by Pottmg in the vaines aheady ohtamed for thèse qumtt~eo. we gat the ~atne already determined. 6.but if we eabtMCt &om thia the number ~9. if we take the Mt&ce envetoping thé given Mr&ee along !7K' (Art. 4M. ought to be of the degree 28(tt !!)*.* ~87. If the degree of a cone diminish &om m to M– tbat of îts reciprocal diminithes from Mt(m–l) to (m-~)(M1). p. In like tMMteif. In tha &Kt place the developable generated by the ouspidal ourve on the reciprocal mrface corresponda with that whieh envelopes the given anr&ee a!<m{[!7B.article. <'='0. e get not J! but ~B.

The tommbe and B can be thrown intoa formmore cmtveniemt&rTMe. the &rstof&nmbe B may be written . TheMia&comeqnentdimumdoninthed~Mt ofthereciptocdaarface Bnt the exigence of nodal and cuspidal curves on the nar&ct causeaa!aoa diminutionin the nTtmberof dombleand cuapidal edgesin the tangent cone.aUBPAOES.420 TBEOM 0F BECÏPBOCAÏ. we have Bat since if the aat&ce had no multiple linee the number of ca:pt<Medges onthe tamgentccmewould be (o+2&+ 8c)(M-2)t the diminutionof the number of caspidal edgeais The tt!mnmtM)ihen in the nmnber of donHe edgea ia given t by the form. bya&+9«. From the diminutionin the degree of the reciprocal surface jtMt given must be sabtrMted twiet the (MminnUonf the number of double edgea and three ~mef o that of the cuspidaledgea. -IfwetMnembert!mtet+St{+8c'a)t(<t-ï). Now from &)nnahaA. 488.

weget. Adding the eeoondof &nna]<eB to four tumeathe second of formule and giving JBthe Mme meaning a in Art. intersecta the Ërot polar of any other point. if we write 489. in the nmt place. Now let us fnt considerthe case when the surface has only an ordinary doublecurve of degree b. or dse in the p points where a meeta or thé o' pointa where it meete et. eince every nKt polar paasea throagh the carvea t. an equation of which 1 donot Me the geometricalexphmatton atttonghevidentty the B pointa on 6 the tangents atwhich meet any line are inclnded among the p points on b which are pointe of contact of tangent planes through that line. The points of contact of tangent planes which can be drawn through a given line are the intersections with the surface of the curve of degree (M-1)' which is the mteraectionof the Btst polara of any two points on the line. The first polars of the two ponitspam each through this curve. c. The efbet of multiple lines in diminishingthe degree of the McîpMcatmay be otherwiee investigated. Now in looking for the points of contact of tangent planes through the given line. so that their intersectionbreaks up into this curve b and a complementalcnrved. 421 But <«-33-8<f Henoe is ?' the degree of the tedpmcaï aor&ce. 486. that M.THEOMTOP MNKMCAL SURFACES. we are only to take thoae in . in like manner. instead of taking thé points where the eomplex carve ~+J meets the surface. either in the <t* pointa of contact of tangent planée paee!ng through the Mnejoining the two points. If the last of each of thé <bmm!<a treated in like NMamer. the cnrve of simple contact from say one point. be andif we call ~8' he order of the devetopaNegenofated by the t carve c. Thé tntthofiHa equation maybeotherwiaeaeen&omthc coneiderstionthat a.

and 1havenot now ha a cuspidalearve in the Memoir&o)m leimtte attemptto repairthe onnMt<m. (aee fR'<!M<!C<tMM o~t~JB<'ya? xxnt.. the tangents at which meet the line through which we are eeeMng to draw tangent planes to thé given surface. These last are cuspidal points on the double curve b. while the r points being ordinary points on the doaMe line only count for two. whieh d meete It. were a multiple cnrve on the aar&tceof the order p of multiplicity. amd of S&(M–2)-2f points at which the two polar urfaces touch. The theoty just expttumed ought to enable tm to accoamtfbt'~e&ct~tthedegreeoftlM) MCtproodofa a the Themethodof thiaMUdeia not apptiedto the casewheM surface whichï <!te. Bat. 490. we are not to take atl the pointa imwhich meeta thé surface: those in which it meeta thé corve & being to be rejected. p. 1 have found for the redactMn of the degree of the redprocal A'M~~ca<&Mty. to . instead of being merely a double curve.4M MVEMPABMB SURFACES. points at which the two tangent planes coincide. Xll) where r is the rank of the system &. which caquesa réduction bn !n the degree of the reciprocal. 485) for the reduction in the number of cuspidaledgea of thé cone of simple cont&ct MEVEMPABM SCBFACE8. that is to say. If the carve b. Now thèse points conaist of the points on the carve b.Vol. since the three surfaces toach at these points. those being in number 2b(n 2) r (Art. forther.and they count for three in the intersections of thé curve d with the given surface. The total reduction then is wMch agrees with the precedmg theory.

This applicationof the theory both verifiesthe theory itsdf and enables us ta determine Mma eingatarMes of developables net given. 289. M=y. and the fourth is BtttMËed the help of the equation. the interMctton of the &rst and third gives a point on the line a~* We have then the following table.B.<!==M. we get the system of equations The UrBtof theae equaiiom is identicallytrae. ~S=~3. The dmple line of contact (a) conmstaof Mtinea of the ~Btem each of which meete the cuspidal edge m once.80BFACM. 6=iB. A1A. t the namber of "pointa on three Unes" of the aystem. Thé tangent cône to a developable coMÎstsof n planes. the in . The letters on the IeAhand side of the equations rder to the notation of this Chapter and thoae on thé right to that of Chapter XI. it has therefore no cuspidal edges and ~a (n -1) double edgea. MVEUM'ABLE 4S8 developable reduces to nothing. whoaevalues have not before been given. The three remaining equations determinethe three quantities. 'y the number of It i< onlyonMeoantoftheirocourrence thh eïMnpte 1 was in that M to inolude pointe thetheoty. in (r-4) points.X=~.~=H(f–4). 0'==M. and the double Une a. a. for since there three consecutive Hnes of the system are in the Mme p!ane. p. by If we eHmmata <ybetween the third and Nxth equations. pp. The lines Mtand a?interaect at the <[points of contact of the stationaïy planes of the system. ~ and the quanttties<. On subatttutimg these values in &mtcJœ and . we obtain àbo an equation aheady provedto be tme (Chapter xi. 'y) femam to be determined. vis.).C=M.418. provedp. 286. <=0. We use the notation of the section referred to.

pointe of the system through each of which pttmM another aoN-conMcat!veino of the syatem. From Art. «Bd k the ntMabefof apl parent doaMe pointa of thé nodal line of thé developable. 1 have not obtained this explan&tton roM Bnr&ces în gene~ but some particular taees are exammed tmd aocounted for in thé Memoir in the 3~MM<M<MM Royal of t&e i~~c<!<&Mya!readycited. Thé pt<mMof this ey~tem are evidently planes thro~h two linea" of the original <y<temthe etMa of the ty~tem fa therefore yj and the other mngatantie< are thé Meiptocab of thoae of the eyttem whoae tutp!dal edge !t w. caleotated in this article. IgtveonlyoBeexsmp!ehere.we cam by an interchange of letters write down the reciprocal singuJarities.424 DBVEMPABUS SOKPACE8. For we have E]t. v!z. These quantities being determined. . Sinee the degree of thé reciprocal of a raleA Mti~tce redaces aiways to the degree of the original sur&ce (p. To Cnd the <htgalMMe< of the developable gencMted by a Hne K<&~ twice on a p~en catve. or the order of the devetopaUe is given by the formula 491. 488 can be deducedJS the rank of the developable of wh!ch<cis the OMptdaIedge. 3. Tha* the rank of the syotent. the number of planes throngh three ImeSt"&c. 849) thé theory of redprocal snr&cea ought to aocoant for this refor dacdon.

p. are t(/S)(~-3)(~-4) triple poîiita. on which having a double line of the order ~(~-t)(~-2). Again.d. and the carve UH whose order is 4~(~-2) consista of theae Unes each counting for two and therefore equivalent to 4(~-2) in thé intersection. while thé double edges are dimimehedby S!&(K-8)(M-8)-4A. the part of thé Hessian which · doea not contain x and y is But a. that the number of cuspidaledgesin the tangent cone is dumaMhed by 8&(/t-S)-3<. Art. 2S6. and in the generators each of which ia mtersected by one conaecn~vo. if a aurface have a multiple line . 492. we have values which agree with what was proved. together with the double line equivalent to 4(~–1) (~-8). For the apparent double points of thia doaMecnrve.y mtersecta only in the points which reduces to where it meets muMple linea Bat if the equation be of thé form «!c+< (Art. 847. p. must be attended to. 426 Let the equation of the tMt&ce derived fromthe elimination be of< betweenthe equationa where <t. 459. It may be mentionedhère that the HesManof a ruied sm'&cemeets thé surface only m its multipleHaea. Art. Thus in the case we have consideredthe numberof Imeawhich meet one consecutiveare eamiy seen to be 2 (/<-2). 418. are any linear functioasof the co-ordinates. viz. if xy be any generator. Then if we write &+~=~ the degree of the surface h ~t. &c.MYEMPABLE SmOfACES. note. For. 2M) the Hessian pameothrough ay. Then. that part of the équation which is only of the <!mtdegree in mand y is of thé form (aw+y<c)~. InveriiyiDg theMptu'ate&mabe B the remark.

and will be equivalent !7B.(~)~ ~dx" dto~ CcZxdrcJ~ · Pro-Hesatan (aeep.th. having thé right lines M multiples of order m. 838) meets each generator in the &'st place where that generator meets that is to aay) twice in the in point on the carve M. in the Heasisn of the aystem formed hy thoser 4 points combinedwith the point on m taken three times in whieh Hessian the latter point will he indu'ied farn* timM. . and in the second place where the generator meets the Hessian of «. whose degree ia M.tthe <a~ï. we have an équationwhichis iden~càUytme..prove. The interaectionthen of the generator with the Pronesdan consistaof the point on M taken aix tunes. Comparing then the order of the curve CB with thé Mun of the orders of the carves of which it is made np. having ~m(<?-!)+& double generatots.B SCNFACE9.5) other points. that is to say. of the r-4 points on a~ and of 2 (f. in whichthe part independent TM. New the ruled surl'ace toémp(~-t)on&e<M've generated by a line resting on two right lines and on &curve m (wbich is supposed to have no actual multiple point) Mof order 2m. If we form the Heoaian of thé developablea*M+y~. anA otder of multiplicity it ~nHbe ItBe of order 4(~-1) on tho ReMtan. it appem in like manner that we get the developable itadf mntttplledby a series of terma. and 2f genetatora which meet a oonsecuti.eone. <md f– 4 points on the cnrve a.426 NEVBMPABÎ.

Hamiltons and papers "On Symbolical Geometry" in the C~aK~&~e Dublin JMot<XeNM<M<~ to his "Lectorea. In this calcahmthen me signa + and are ueed not with re&rence to numerical addition or sahtMctMB. thé result ia a line of determinate length but of no assigned direction. Thus if we form the snm iB+y+e of three known lines. . In AlgebraicGeometrythough the symbolsa). it is necessary to assign the directionaa well as the length of the line which îa the remdt. re&mmghim for further informationto Sir W. it may seom proper to add some accoontof it to that which bas been given in the preceding pages of other methods of inveatigating the properties of space of three dimensions. allow me to attempt heïe to teach this catcnins. and the eqna~ons only express that certain arithmetieal operatioM are to be performed on the numberswhioh express the ratios of each of the Unes ic. nor my knowledge of the snhject. Hamilton in the deduction of geometrical theorems. Neither the apace now at my disposai." Yectors. y. y. O 1. R. and how they may be used in geometrical enquiries. In the quaternion caicuins a symbol denoting a Une must aiwayaexpress direction as well aa length and if for instance we form the sam a?+y+~. &e." and to his J<M<nM?.( 427 ) APPENDIX I. ONTBBCAMUMT8 PQVATEBMON8. B. ibrthcoming Elémentsof Qa&temiom.yet in the equationsemployed thèse of the eymbo!s denote merely the NtayM<M<!M linea which they represent. are used each with référence to a line measured in a certain assigned direction. a to the linear unit. THE Caîooinsof Quaternionshaving been anccesaMIy employedby Its invontorSir W. bnt in the following sketch 1 hope to give the reader some idea what quaternions are.

not atgebïa!cat. we have ~J?+ BC=*~C~ The som of two vectomthen is the diagonal of the parallelogram of whieh theae Unes are ad)acent ddes. and then from B to C. then their mm would be the ordinary algebraîo sum of the two lines.428 ON THE CAMUMM 0F QUATEBNION8. and denote geometrical. Let the line or vector . addition and sabtraction. operation then BO in like manner would denote the operation of proceeding fromB to <X The stgn + may natar&Uybe employed to denote the coneecutiveperformance of these two operationa. to the commutativehw o+&=it+<~ and the law <MMCM<tce (a+~)+o=~+(&+c). two eqnat lengths measuredon parallel Unes are said to be equal.DC'. and these rem!ts aroequaiNnce ItN evtdentonm~Band~CMeeqnalandparaBdL of thé equation that terpretation Thus we see that the ngn + when geometrtcaHyinterpreted aa here proposer.~B be <mdet8tood denote thé to of pMceedmg from the point A to the point B. and in length bearing to it the ratio M 1. ma denotes a vector coincident in direction with that represented by a.then if we take o6Mt we have o-~t=jdJS. but with re&Mnce to direction (aa we pt'oceed to expïain). thns AB+J9C would denote that we proceed omt &om to B. <md& by elther of thé equ&l Unes DJ~JS'B.. 2. . but if we commence with &wo have &+a==. and m any anthme~cal moIttpUer. Tiz. By the help of thia convention we can interpret and verify thé equation <t+~=}+<t. and it is easy to ne by successiveaddition that if a dénote any vector. conionas to the ordinary rules of atgebmic addition. If AB and J?C' were portione of the Mme right line. Two vectom are eaid to be equal if one can be moved without rotation so as to coincide with the other: that is to say. and since the teaalt ia the aame as if we had gone direct from A to C. Let the vector a be represented by e!ther of thé equal Unes ~E~ J?C.

&[+M~ makes with a and /3 angles whose ines are in the ratio ?:M. 6tM<M'KM!M. ks recatcaluBthese co-ord!nateswill be denoted by ix. be any two co-initid vectoM is easy to eee that it . we can prove. operation. Thus ~(a+/3+-y+~) is the vector to the centre of gravity of the tetrahedronfomed by the extremMes of a. If <tand Il be both of unit length. and that denotea a vector terminating in the plane tbrough the extremities of <t..o.t" is a vector drawn from the same origin to the point ~Mt where the !me joining their sxtrem!t!esis eut in the ratio hM. we come next to speakof and diviaion. that any lino may be reBolvedinto the smn of three lines whose direetionaare those of three given rectangniar axes.. as tespec~vety be denoted by <)J< le. from wlùchform inferencesmay be deduced aa in Ex.~+& If a. 4. These pnncipteamay be used to establiah geometrical theorema.by <B) e. but it is natural aa denotmgthé operation neeemary to mteïpMt the qaotîemt . by AB the operation of going from to -~J? naturally denotesthe revereing of this that ~JB+JMe'O.. have now ehownhow UnescoBmdeMd We with respect to their direction as well ae to their magnitade and may be added and a&btraoted. and the vector fromthe originto P will be denoted apeetively.as in Mechanica. Denoting. 43& 8. M befora. then in this y.ON THE CAMOMM OP QttATEBNtONS. If no~ nmt lines measured along the axes of a:. by M:+~y+&e. Y. It M not obvions what aenaewe multiplication are to attach to the prodnct of two lines. that of goingfromB to BO It can easily be deduced hence that if <t+~=c. 6. as in algebraic geometry. tMre « uo MC<M' <oA«A may <!0< <M <apMMed' <&!j~M <0.v!z. And since any vector M equal to a panJlel one through the origin.y. and if the munencal ratios which the lengths of the co-ordinatesof any point P bear to the unit line be denoted. -y. p. o=e– Sinoe tbe addition of lines according to the method juet explained corresponds exactiy to the compositionof mechanical <brcesacting on a point.

For if the fraction be. It is agreed on that the four elements be to just mentioned BhaU &M~MeK< determine mch a quotient as we are considering that in to say. not only if both be mcreased or duninlahedin the same proportion.if the angle betweena and be equal to that between <yand o. if the lengths of the lines be eqnal =' proportional. to change thé Une into the line et eo If the mat ~='<t.4M ONTBBCAMOUtSOFQOATMERNMNS. a /3 'y 8. vectors <tand ~Sbe portiona of the same !me. In other words thé geometrical ratio of two !!nes M consideredunchangcd. that two quotients are Mtd to be Srst. We shall presently showhow to express any snch quotient as the snm of four irreducible terme: it is thence ca!led a quatemion. & Two geometrical fractions having a oommondenominator are added by adding their numerators: that is to say.or.. Now we have seen that a vector is redacible to the sam of three distinct terme. aecondiy. </ divided by c.thé angle through which one must be tumed in order to coincide with the other. and the direetioncoMneaof the plane of that angle. and we m!ght have foreaeenthia becauee in order to deteraune a vector we muet know three things. as Sir W. it !e evident that the quotient M a numerical constant. we can reaolve 'y into the sam of two lines <t+~. the two lines in which are at right angles to each other. But to determine a geometricalquotient four things are necesaary. when this M not the case. B. equivalent to two more cond!tionB. viz. if aIl four limea be parallel to the aame plane. but a1so if they be tumed round in their plane their mutual incUnattom being nnaltered. . viz. a aco&N' but. the numerical ratio of the lengths of the two lines compared. We can thus have ~+'-=– 00 0 K~< Miyauch &ac~onto one.. and ita direction-mines. in order to change ~8 into a we have aot only suitably t<talter its length. ita length. but aiso to tttm it throagh a certain angle in a certain plane. Hamilton caHsIt. and thirdly. equivalent to two morecondttîons. we as in common algebra.

while thé ratio of 13to c ie that of two rectangular Unes. the rasait is evidently the tuming into eh If now ~8he sappoaedto be a line equal to 'y. and in the direction of a. the latter part being so o&Hed because we ahaU see that thé ratio of two reetangnlar lines can be preeently adequately representedby a vector perpendienlarto their plane. A quaternion may he resolvedin another way via.andtheotherperpentdiculartoit. "1 1= then ~3 into a. and the ratio a to 'y ia resolved into the product of this number into the ratio of the eqmal ineB/3 amd 'y. and ita numerator of length if the angle beand the unit vector perpendicular to their tween them be plane be p. Thus then if the denominatorof a fraction be aime of unit length. into a nomerîcal factor multipliedby the ratio of two equal lines.and the versor expresmig through what angle it is to be tcmed. and if v dénote thé operation of tuming through a right angle round the axis p. 4M one of them in the direction of S (imfact the pto~oetMn Nowemoeet ofyonS). Sir W. without change of length. We have for if we tiret tum <yinto /3 and oh~ioudy -q. is Mpposed to be in the aame direction as c. the ratio of a to 13 is a mere number. we may first reaolveinto the portions coe~. the aum of a scalar part and a vector part.K . Thus then we can reduce every qoaternion to the form f8+ F. the given fraction is resolved into the parts coaC+<' Nn~. R. sinC measured in the directionof the denominator and perpendicolar to it. their ratio is a mère nnmber or acalar.ON THK OAMUMJB OP QOATEBNIONS. Thus suppose that the symbol J denotes the operation of tmning a Une round throngh a right angle in a plane perpendictdar to the vector i: [in order to fix the ideas we may agrée that the direction of the rotation aha!l be that of thé hands of a watch aa we look along t:] then mI denotesthe operation of tnming the line round aa before. Hamilton calla thia the t resolution of a quaternion into the produet of a tensor and a fe~M' the tensor being the number express'ng in what ratio the line y ie to be mereasedor d!mm!shedin order to be made equal to ~9.amdat the Bame time altering the length in the ratio 1.

B represent rectangular rotations perpendieular to those vectors as above explained. M already intimated. 2!' denote rotations without change of length round the three axes respectivety: then a similar rotation round an axis p. making with thèsethe angles + a. 'y. it is easy to Béethat the operation of tttrnmg through the same angle in the oppositedirection would have been expresaett ï cos~ sm~. 7. It is becaaMit can thus be rednc~to the sumof four terme that itmcaUedt a quaternion. thé Kmit being the same as if we turned 'y into a. and. may be reaolvedinto the aam J cos+ J cos~S 2~ coB'y. then if OB be a lime perpendicular to thé. p. then F'=*~+A For (see fig. 6. and if F.432 ONTNB 0F CMCCLPS QOATBMMON8. And in like manner the fraction partially reaolvedin the last article may be completelyresolvedinto the sum We see then that thé most general expression for a geometrical fraction ia of the form <t+~JT+c7+~S. are numerical constants. 858) let p=0~ <x==0~ ~9~ M. c. there~re. .~8 be three vectors sach that ~=a+~3. and let OP. b. J. If p. QP be equal and perpendicular to these lines. Multiplicationof 6'acdons. If the position of thé numerator and denominatorhad beea interchanged. Thos P V of turning 'y mto and then that of tamiag into a. plane of the paper equal in length to 0~ It follows then that the aymbob of rectangular rotation may bo resolved in precisely the Mme way aa the vectom in Art. OQ. 8. N.. Y.denotes the sncceemveperformanceof the operationsrepreeentedby the denotesthat we firet perfbrmthe operation factors. where a. To multiply it M only necessaty to t)N'n round any two &act!oua ~t in its plane until its numerator comeMewith the !nteMec6on . that if l.

It followsas a part!co!arcaseof the last. aad until ita denominator eoincidewith the same line. which !e that of turning OJ[ to OE. gives ~i.mn~. when one !s of thé form scalar+ vector andthe other.CUL. It at once appears hence that when we multiply two qa<Lternions. anchthat the A. If the arcs a and &be each 90".f thé of the quatemMns ~+~+~~ FF .B'='-B. It is seen without dt<Bcntty that the multiplication of M a distributive operation vtz. -B.then indeedthe plane of AB willhe the same aa that of CD.P. and then OE to OB through tbe angle b. p 8. Bat if we had commeaced with the operationof turningthrongh the angle a. D represent four points on a aphere of which 0 Mthe centre. Thus. fundamentaltheotemwe eh&H pMMmtlyrove it Independcatly. but thé directionof therotations in thé two products will be opposite. the orderof the &ctorsis not mdMbrent. M not equal to OB CE t ~r"'?~ whichis the product of two eqnal&otoM taken in opposite order. the product of two rectangularquaternionswhose planes are at As thM is a right angles to eaoh other. thé result îs the operation of tummg OA to OB.. Two quatemionsthuBrelated are aatd to be conjugate quaternions: that !a. thésame scalar the aamevector.and then OJEto <?Cthrough an angle <~thé remit is the operationof tuming OD to OC.ttonia through a right angle) we see from Art 6 that if~.~then B. If then we multiplytogether two rectangular q~teTm&m B.OS CAt. 0. when the multiplication h performed as before. MMihereforethe ptodact OC 0~. 4S3 of thé planes of thé two ~aettoos. Awmhe of the form coa~. that when ~=90*. Mta. TheaifweËmttHmODtoOl? throngh an angle &.CS THE OfQUÂTERNMNfi. (that is.JBbe ofthe form !co<~+~mnC. the plane ûfAB is generally d!Serent from that of CD. that the prodnct quaternions is the sum . let ~t. Now thongh thé arc JLB is equal to CD.

Let us then examine thé meaning of the terms 77. Now if we remember that 7 denotes a reetangular rotation round the axis of x as axis. that when we take the continued produet of three quatemioM (?9*) c?(< . which occnr in auch a product.hence Jrj = i. !s At &c. no mattcr what line be taken for tho axis of rotation... &c. and that the same th!ng A trae if the order of multiplication be revemed. K on thé lines i. 7!'?===~) eSëct of two of these operations performed consecutivety. If now we compare the equations -{f=~.434 OX THE CALCCLUS OF QUATENNtONtt. &. that the effect of twice tarning rounda right angle is to reverse the positionof thé line operated on. are exaclly the same in form as those which dénote the e~cts of the successive performance of these opérations. we gat 7y==-~ or 7*=– t. hence J~!=– tions J?=– ~:==-j.and since it i& evidently true.JR:'==-y. we shall find that the equations which represent the encct of the operations J.. IJ. In like maBnerJ'c'–l. JT!:==t. JEy==– Let ns now consider the Jk=i. but In like manner. from the équa~'=*–t. each expressedin the form Mvemt Modacts the product !a thé sum of the mxteen terms got by combining each of the firat four terms with each of thc secondfour. and then again with I on the resntt k. J~ Zf. and that the effect of such a rotation would be to change a line in the direction of the axis of y to that of c. &c. and one in the direction of <! into the négative direction of y. Again we hâve seen that ~'=~. care however being taken to attend to the order ofthe multiplication. Hence then if we have two quaternions. Now since in thé practice of this calculuswe arc concemed with the laws according to It is aho tme. If we nrst operate on with I. JC*==--1. we can write down the equations ~'=&. Ki=j. it followsthat the square of every rectangular quaternion may be said to be -1. In like manner. J~='jE.. we conclude2y=JC Hence Zf= jE= ~1 In like mannerj~=7== JEy ~7=. t~=–&. though it h not to be token for granted. J.

JST. in t of which.ON THE CALCULU8Of QUATEBNfOSS.1. of i ~fe By actualmultiplication. k. 485 whieli thé symbols combinewith each other rather than with their interpretation.y be any three unit vectors. or is the négative square of the length of the line whhh thé vector represents. virtue thérelations conaeeûng k. get <* Mt~ tj* COt*~ CM~ +t* t t ~) OM~t t (Mt ?) CM'Y «MY CMe + ? +ji) cosaeoe~. FF2 .=-Jt. except that if a scalar or nnmber ia one of thé factors ita order is indifferent. in Hke mtener. We shall write the general form of a quaternion a+M+c/+<N!. We shall then nmierstandi to dénote at pleasure éither a unit line measured along the direction of thé axis of {e. and we shall combine these symbols according to the lawa ~=j'==&'=~=i!. Whatever < propositions are tme of the symbola in thé one sense. we can givo a variety of significationsto the same equation all of which will be equally true. and. and if we multiply/9'yby a~ the remit e~8*'y ay. . In forming the continued prodnct of a nnmber of factors tho order must be carefuUyattended to. ~3. it ia found unnecemary to keep up the distinction of notation between J.j.reduceso au oaght to be the case. smce~1.or rectangular quaiB ternions. or a rotation through a right angle round that axis. Ve may express this hy Mytag that the square of any vector ia the negative square of the <~MM' ofthat vector. (. and it may be brought to thele&hand as a multiplier of the whole.~=~ M=~&. 6. Toformthé square théunitvector co<« eo~ t coa-y.~ + y*+ ~). are cqually true in thé other. Thus. if a. In like manner a rectangular rotation round any unit vector a ia represented by thé letter a as already stated in Art. If the teotor be not of unit length the square of M' +~ + &! is. Ex. by interpreting some vectora M Mnes and others as rotations.

the direction-cernes of a petpendicular to their plane. In like manner the equation which expresses that thé pro&~) a 1. +j (Thia agreea with Art. the equation N~) StS)cl. If we denote by 8 and Ma!M and veetor part of a. Ex. the prodMt may be written CMC6inC (i COSt* CM~" & CMV).9. and we may therefore divide by it nnder thé aign S. Let the petpendteuiM &om the origin on that plane be denoted in length and and let the radius vector ta any point of the plane be p. If the two vectom be at rtght angles the scalar part of the produet eïideatty vaniahes. thh produot would evidently be multiplied by B'. and writing ception the two quaternions 'S'+J~ S'+~. we have 'S("~) 'SQ3<t) eo* y(</3) = ]P'(. direction by h the vector joining the extremity of this radim vector to then the foot of the perpendicular. Hence thé condition that two vectOK e. 3. to be perpendicctar to the equation required is ~(/) <t)a = 0 or ~(p«) = <A But a' ia a acalar.) If the vectors were respectively of tengfhs f. ` Now if it be required to Snd thé tcatar part of the produet (Mnce S~' .. vis. To nnd the product of two quaternions. and since this line is. cone beeause !f it M eatMned for any value of p. we have <~ + ~3'' 2N(<)). And «g«:n. the eqMtion N (pa) = 0 may be taken as the eqaatîon Rince p M evidently of the plane through the origin perpendicular to Umîted to that plane. whenthe product N &y+Nr'~ iyF+!~y*. that the scalar part of the above fraction denotes the projection of thé Une p on the Hnea. îf be the angle between the two fectoM. here m M any constant. If the product had been taken in different order the tentM part of the product would <tiU be -eos~. by hypothesis. and W)-!tethe equation ln the form This equation may aho = 1. Hence.quaternion. in the &tt place repMMnte a Again. ~9. muttipiy oat <t+K+~~ <?)<+M+<~ of thé result by aeparating the Malar and vector part'.may be <ttttght angles M~(«jS) = 0. We may form a dearer eon. a on the direction p M in length equal to p. ~E = 1 !t is there&M the cone whose base P h thé arête represented by the two équationsjut written. Thus then if p be a variable vector passing through the origin.486 ON THE CALCULUS 0F QCATERKMK8. it will also be MtMed w for the value M!/). We have only to f A.). be inferted &omwhat wu stated in a previous article. but the vector part would change thé operation of taking the Ogn. 6. and a a Nxed vector. jection of the nxed line obvioualy repreMnt* the tphcre described on the vector a as diameter. Let it be )'eq<thed to find the equation of any other plane. it paMesthrongh the intmection of <S ]. Seennd!y.

it is ftbo that found by aettud muIttpUcatlOB. Q. p* The expanded product ia then and the vectorperpendicularto the plane is F~3'y+'yw-t e~). < o~oMMlie &e the three Mc~oM. form thc product of three vcctors. lie in the plane. y'. and p*'y a mere vector whose acalar M nothing."+~"+~ three vectors. Retuming to the product of thé three vectors. . y. the sealar part of the product of and of the tecton on the right-handNde of the equation M the produet of their tensomsina. then it fa an identicalequation Now if a. p. cMe. or a is perpendicular to r(~-y). j8. This is atso evident from the consideration that if <8'(a~y)=0 = then c~8'yis a pure vector. <a. by acttMtl mt!lt!pUbe the cation. the scalar part of the produet M the determinant whose three rows are x.the cotidition <&<ï< 'y a.ON THE CUMULUS QUATERNMN8. because is a scalar. and therefore is in the plane of and 'y. eote triangle are the MataM the threequaternions. sinb. Thus let e. y. tbus webave the fundamentalormula f ofsphericaltrigonometry eo~e= cos«cosb+ sina s!n6cos C 9. or the Matarof the produet is thé produit ofthe MataM +the Matarpart of the produet ofthe vectoM. without dH&culty.D. t8'(~S'y) att~'y) there+ fore <!tF(~) isapuro vector. 19). &'+jy'+&z'. Thus we can find the equation of the plane pasang through the extremity of three vectors a. in like manner.it is SS' + N(F'F'). with the extrenuttea of the Manmed vectom.E. be three radii vectores of a aphere. b. We have. into thé cosine of the angle betweenthem. jS (p a) (~ ~8)(p 'y) = 0. therefore. the Unes joining the extremity of any variable vector terminating in the phne. In expanding this we may omit auch terms as ~*<y. JSatca < a. It is found. eM&. c bethe ddM of the apherical that P=*< P &)tt)ed by the extremitift of thèse vectoN. but e~Sy K.8'(<t~y)==0 (Note. We ean. By hypothesia. 0F 437 and ~Fare merevectort). that if M:+~y+&<. ~ey in one plane M . y.

thc following identical equation may be given. that the equation of the plane through the extremity of thé vectorj)Mtwritten. we are to express the conditionthat. from which. &ndthe required equationis . The vectors perpendicular to these planes will then be co-planar. and B that throngh a' we join any assumed point on thé vector ad to thé other two Uneswe get the equation oftwo planes in the formM +M~B== 0. through the extremitiesof the form L1+MB=0. In the first place we may follow a procès proceeding after the analogy of the co-ordinatemethods.488 ON TBE CALCCMJS QUATMNMtO. we get the locus in the form ~B' = BA'. ]~3 denotea a line perpendicularto a and j8. we shall investigate the problem to Rad the equation of the surface generated by a Une resting on three directing Unes. as <~a that the vector part of the product t~8PyS may bc written in either of the forme In &ct.B''=0. if we join by planes any assumed point on the tocM to the three lines. As an example of the method of applying this calculus to a geometrical problem. tho vector now required must therefore lie in tho plane. the joining planes have a line common. and pass through the extremity of a vector a'. L~'+m. tmd through a fixed line. ce and 10. both of and of <y and 8. Let then the first Une be parallel to thé lino a. It is seen immediately by substituting for a in . where ~Ldenotea 'y~ vectqrs If then the plane through a~-y. then tho vector perpendicular to the plane throngh this line being perpendicularto a and to a' –pis I~t (a* p). Otherwise thus.(&x+aM') the equation of a plane throngh three points. e. 0F In connection with this. eliminating M.

and that its proceMea thoagh coastandy following the analogies of the co-ordinate methods. 439 11. Now let the Unejoining the extremity of p to an indefinitely mear pomt be <~). .ON THE CALCCMTS 0F Q~ATERXKMTS. The equation of any aphere in p'=. the method of 6nding the equations of tangents and nonnab.then the next consecutiveradius vector ia p+< and we bave whichindicatesthat the radius p is perpendicularto the tangent Une dp. We give one more example to show how In6nltesunah are introdneedinto this calculus.ttre by no means Blavisbiy dépendenton that system. But cnoagh has been BaH to dispose the reader to give crédit to the assertion that there ia no geometticalproblem to which it may not be appliea that !t is very rich in transformations. Unes of curvature. Very much more must be said if it wore mtended to give any complète aecountof this Calculus. geoeteatc~ &c. as. for example.

Serret arrives at the conclusion(seeZx~M?~. Z' being the first derived 6mctKHM of X. y. &om Dnpm'a theorem. however.may form one of a triple orthogonalsystem. Supposethat are these système and it is evident by the condittons of the problem that we have (-Y'. Z) For the following appendix. involving a parameter. 241) that in order that the equationF (a*. to which these fonctions must be subject. Im order that a given &milyof surfaces. ON SYSTEMSF ORTHOGONAL 0 SURFACES.or equations. Let an equation then be given of the form It is required to determine the condition. M. W. that being given a series of aar&cea. in order that the sur&ces(1) may have a pair of conjugate orthogonalSystems.. and along their lines of cnrv&tore. &)=<[. . the famctMnmust Batisf~ two partial differentialequations of the aixth order.of conditionmust be satisfied.Robettt. z reapecttvety. with a parameter. it would be alwayspoemNeto determine two other systems. is not the case. may be one of a triple orthogonalsystem. This. an equation.each containing a parameter.VoLxïr. 1 am almost entirely indebted to a manuecript note to Mndiy placed at my dispoaal by the Rer.( 440 ) APPENDIX II.. M well 118 hM papNN pubIMted ln the Cb~M J~Ht/w. We give Serret's investigationof the particalar case where the given AmcdonM the sum of three fondions of x. on a Bubjeetwhich I had omitted m the preeeding treatise. y. Y.' IT might be thooght. a is a parameter. Y'. where p. and cutting the surfacesof the given system at right angles.

ONSÏJtTBMS ORTHOGOKAL 0F SURFACES. we may regard y and <! a functionsof M. 44i Pfoeeedîng to mtegrate the 6mt two of thèse eqaattonBby the ordinary methodsof pNttfJ d!&tent!al equations. and the quantities j9 and v muet satisfy not only (3) but alM the derivatives of (8) obtained by dMerenttatmg it on the supposition that x alone !s variable. y.w. Henee x entem (8) as an indeterminateparameter. where Now M and v being fonctions of x. we find that and Y are funetionsof u and o. anda*. Din~rentiating (3) with respect to x on this hypothesis. and remembering that t m 'y <?t rm .

however. of the particular form representedby equation(1). M. This relation expresses the conditionthat a &mHyof surfaces.when the equation of condition M BatIsSed. Serret bas observed that it follows at once from what bas been stated above. who haa ahown much !ngenn!ty and analytical power in deducing the eqttattonaof the conjugatesystems. that in a hyperbotioparaboto!d.the sum or differenceof the distances of every point of the same Uneof curvaturo from two Sxed generatnces is constant. Thus M.The anr&cea (a) are hyperbolio ptu-aboloMs. Jh~N are &metI<Mt9 the three eH!p~c co-ordmatesrespectively.has sought for Systems orthogonal to Z-~ JM+~='e. and which there ia no dHBcnltyin vorifyinga po8teriori. This lacuna has been completelysupplied by M. It wa~ first given by M. Even when the equations of conditionare s&tNËed tm by MBnmed equation it does not Mem eaay to determine the two conjugate system. expressing in dliptio co-ordinates tho conditionthat two aaï&ceaabould eut orthogonally. Tho syatem (~8)is composedof the closed portions.LtoxM?~ VoL xt. Bouquet. SMMt'amemoir. 416. but the above prouf has been taken from M. He has ahown that the three equations. of a rather compUcatedchamcter. He of . Mr. W. We must content omaelves with refemng the reader to bis memoir. represent a triple ayatemof conjugate orthogonalSM'&cos. shoutd form one of a triple orthogonal System.442 OP ONSYSTEMS ORTHOGONAL 9C&PACES.. but he gave no dae to the dtacovery of thé eoc~tgate system. of which the principalparabolm are equal. Serret. whcre L. Roberts. and the ayatem (y) of the in&ute aheets. Bouquet observedthat the condition just found is aa~sËed when the given aystem ta of the form a~<c'e[. of the mr&ces of the fourth order. The actual resutts are. only mentioning the aaaplest case obtained by him. p.

Let a fised point m the Unep! one of the axes of a system of confoeal etËpaolda be madethe vertex of a series of coneadfCttmsonbedto them. To these points two anr&cesinteraectingat right angles wHlcorrespond. P !s a given point. The locus of the curves of contact will be a determinate surface.ONSYSTEMS ORTHOQOKA!. 1861). Let ~d. and because P is the pole of jtB in roferenceto the &)calconic in this plane. is that whose equation in elliptie co-ordmates ia /tty=tt\. J?. and if we suppose thé vertex of thé cones to move along thé axis. and for which he has given the following constmctica. ia a cirolè !n a plane perpendicular to the principal plane containing AB. Let P be the point where the normal to one of the eUipsoidsat M meets the principal plane containing the Une ~jS. we obtain a &tnuy of surfaces involving a parameter. .geometneally. at right angles. Two other systems are obtained by taking pointa 6ttaated on the other axes as vettices of c!tcamacnb!ng cônes. 443 haa thas added some systems of orthogonal snt&cea to those previonsly known (C5~mp<M Rendus. whosoplanes are perpendicularto the principal planes of the etItpMida. be two nxed points. two by two. And thé curve of their intersection will be the locas of pointaJtf on the comfocal ellipsoida. taken reapect!ve!yupon two of the axes of the con&eatsystem.the tangent planes at which pass through the Une AB. The ear&cesbelonging to theae three systems will intersect. Hence the locus of 3~ or a line of cnrvature. OP aCRFACBS.September 88. It may he readily ahownthat the lines of cnrvature of the abovo mentionedsurfaces (which are of the third order) are cu*des. Of theae perhapsthe most intere«tmg.

A'!7'.. y. and multiplying the raulta together. c. a!j the running co-ordinates y. and the polar quadric &*P'. A'~T*.' 1. 406. eo that by suitably determinmg t. . 472.. the second and third di~ren~al -coeniclenta being denoted in like manner by mbindices. the tangent plane A!7'. then it ia evident that the co-ordinatesof thé intersectionsof SeeNote. but it is not nocesas<y for us to determine the actnal values of &c. for it will be found that these quantities w!Hdisappear from the result.. «. ta we can.. in an infinity of waya. aubatttutmg theee co-ordinatee sacceadvely in A*!7'.. A'Ï7'. form an equation identically aatMed We shall suppose this transformation eSected. Art. aa «. CÎ~BSCH'S CALCULATMN THES~IRFACE OF S.we can draw a plane.( 444) APPENDIX III. «“.. by which the equation M detemuned of a surface whieh meets a given surface at the points of contact of Unes which meet it in four consecutive points.. 1 write with M. y.“ «~.. We perform this elimination by solvmg for the co-ordinatesof the two pointaof mtersection of thé arbitrary plane.. te. that in order to obtain this equation it M necesMry to eliminate between thé equation of an arbitrary plane. the four co-ordinates of the point of contact the <B. and the functioBBAU". < dM~renëal coefficients u. Through each of the lines of intersection of A!7'. Let the arbitrary plane be e~+c~-tc~+c~. 406. It was proved. Itf this appendix we give the caïcalation referred to p.. Clebach.p. u.

(where &. and the left-hand atde of this equation when expanded is merety thé double of the last expression.+M~+~. tho arbitrary plane.e. are after expansion replaced by dIS~renttab. that is to My.Myty~t ovident then that the result of substituting the co-ordmates of the first point in A*P'. C<tytey'<"Hyperdetenaînant CatcuiM. thé tangent phne M. Mtutt VQutd evidently contain sixth powen of a. means &c. In like manner we write the result of substituting thé co-ordinates of the second point (S~. We awid this by the employment of different on tymbott.+<ï~)'.Ct.. and to get rid of p and We shall commence by thus q by means of equation and q.la the M<xmd <t. where e.). as m Mr. emth <tif6Bï<ntMl eoef&e!en<t. it is immaterial whether the symbol used originally were a or b. banMhtBg le The reaeon why we use a different qmpM for &o. The eliminant required may therefore be written For since the quantities a.+~. for the powera of the a's as haa been just explained. is a symbot used in the same manner as a.+M~.y. fS) with which thé method bore used M subattmtiaUy tdentieat. so that after expansion wo may dx. We hâve now to perform the expansion. b. sabatitute for any term ~~y~~ It ". thé expMded determinant. . may be written as thé cube of the where after eubing we are symbolical aeterminant S<c~ to mbstituto third differential coefficients. and A'< are the four determinants of thé two ayBtema 445 Theee co-ordinates have now to be substituted in A'P') which we write in the symbolical fom (~+~.EBSCH'8 0F CAMULATMX THE SUBFACES.Ct is becanae if we employed the same eymbol.M~)'." (JE<MM<< jy~<r ~%f~< p.

If then i.c. Now if we remember what M meant by m~ thm double snm may be written in the form of a determinant For smcetins determinant muât contain a constituentfrom each . B~.<~+< the resnit is the aameM if in F*and 6 we everywhere altered p and q into t and u.û. for example. and we have i (F+ 6~ =SS~~M~. We shall septtrately examineF+ <?.«~.c.«. or (~'+6T-8FC(F+C)==0.~+~). M~in thé determinant Bot. where both and y are to be given every value from 1 to 4.M~ we alter into «.. If the detennïnaats in F were M far expanded as to separate the p and g which they contain. the determmaats would vaniah as having two coIamMthe same. by comparing coefficientsn equatMn we have Now it is plain that if for every term of the form My+~f we ambstitute<. we ahonid have and where. The latter set of terms therefore in F+ <?d!aappeaM. F+0'=SS~(F. j be any two satindices the coeBSdemt f And we may write M!~ in F+ 9 M (~+j~<).c. i But.M~ M~!a o S&. But if in the detennmtmta S<t.446 CMtBSCR'tt CALCPLATMN THESURFACE 0F & The eliminant is F'+<y=-0. and F<?. in order to get rid of p and q.

c. &c. and to throw it into Mch a form that we may be able to divide out e.. and it becomea SSM)~ becomes ~Bmr~u~..Ct. The second line is transformed m like manner and we tbus find that (F+ 0)'-8~(-F+ tmasfbrme <?)<=0 into It remains to complète the expansion of this symbolicalexpression.~ ~a.+c~+< We ahaRfor shortness write a. insteadof a. and horizontally with h. is equivalmt to befbro. < <f. «.+<t~+o~+<~a. c..iB.+c~)!. 3. ia équivalent to t~ 1 C4 C~ ). and for every term we substitute its value derived fmm equation (~A+MJ it appears.. as before. &. c. Thé quantity F<? is transformed in like manner.+&c.+&c. As we shall have frequently oecaaïon to ~tseAetennmmtBof this kind we shall find it convenient to denote them by an abbrevtatMn. which. . ia evidently the produet of It Now if the first Une be multiplied out.EBSCH'S CAMUt~TtON OF THE SURFACE 447 of thé last three rowsand co!umMit is of the &mt degree m M. and the coeS~tent of <myterm «~ is In the determinantjust written the matrix cf the HesNan is bordered vertically with <<«. u. and shall write thé result that we have juet arrived at. where the notat!on indicates the determinant formed by bordering thé matrix of thé Hessian both verdcally and honzontaHy with a. that the terms including t vanish. as be&re.

C 0F THE SURFACE.&c. In like manner we have Now as it will be our Crat object to get rid of the letter a. . S 448 CLMSCH'S.vert!cal!yof s'a and horizontallyofb's.=~.U. we may make thèse expressions a little more compact by whcn it is easy to ace that writing ~-6e. when it becomea where dénotes thé matrix of the HeMian bordered with (~] \o~ a single line..CtJLAT!<Kt «t thia determinant may be reduceAby multiplying thé Sjst fow columns by a* a* a' a' and subtracting their sum from the !ast column multiplied by ("-t)) and stmUarty for the rowa.

. and M causing spectively by y. aee Z~soM~on Bt~e~ ~~e&M. the corresponding d!ËhroNt!fJ oefficient. in the first place. are eaeh to recetvo in tnm all thé values 1.3.CULATïON0F THE SURFACE <& 449 8. c <t. Thus we have Now if P~ Lastly it is neceeMo'y to calculée a ( ) (j) dénote the minor obtamed from the matnx of the HeMt&n by eraaing the line and column wh!ch contama M~.2. a. by subtracting the first four columns multiplied refrom the fifth column. Art. a<ï . M. a. q Bat. We proceednowto expand and anbatttute for eachterm &c. it to vaniah except the last row.CLEBSCR'SCÀÏ.<t. 28.4. it le easy to see that whera the nambem <V~==-(tt-2)S~P~M~c~.. Then. M. it is evident that Bat tho last determinant is reduced as in many similar cases.o.

on Art. It remains to shew how to express this result in thé ordinary notation. andZeMOM J~~er ~~o. <mdis then brought to the form But (Art. S) the hmt term in both theee can be reduced to t2 (M 2)'JT*c Sabtractiag then. we see that d or <~<B.+<B.4M CLEB8CH'8 OPTH<! M!RFACE & CAÏ. the &ct0f avides oat agtdn.+o~ vanishes identically. 76. In the CMt place we may transform it by the identity (see Art.+<~a'..CUMTKW Bat attending to the meaning of the eymbok <<“&c. If then we ambe~tute the equation wMchwe are reduoing the values in jast obtained it becomead!viaH)kby e*. and we have thé finalfMalt cleared of irrelevant Stetors~ &)ïm expressed in the eymboUcal 7. 28) .

8.) aaa . 476.a form scarcely so convenientfor ealculat!on as that in which 1 had written tho equation. A'!7' and an arbitrary plane must satisfy A'P'. through the points where tS* and <7 touch.p. 389. in another notation what we have called 0. either of the intersections of AP'. to S!~H~. 1860.~%tZM<~A<ca~ 2~ttM<M<M<M. If at any point on a surface &o<& inflexional tangents meet in four coincident points. the sMne meaning ae before. (See Art. But the differential coefficient of ~Twith respect to can easily be seen to be SC. OMK~at'<~ of Mo~tCMcan p<Mtof <~ degree tOK -18. For giving to C~.CLEBSCH'8CALCULATIONOF THE SURFACE & 4M Now the covariant which we have befoM ( ) (j (t. or.) expresses called 0. 1 must vanisb. independentlyof any suppositionas to the vahMof the b symbols. In the equation then which we found at this stage of our work we may consider both the b and c aymbole which oceur in d aa arbitrary constants.K~ M that 0 is S~ Il t ~r W wh!ch ie. in other words. where where 0~ dénotéea second minor formed by enuaag two rowsand two coinmns &om the B)atr!xof the Hesman. The covanant jS is then reduced to the form 0 4B<&. 899. p. ahowa that ~ot<y& the pointe OKa MO~ce where two domblyM~ea!M)M~ tangents can drawn. and the equation just written whose degree in the variables is easily eeen to be 10a-Ï8. where notesa seconddifferentialcoe~Ctentof B. as Mon a9 we have made the ~ymboucatsubstitution for a. For surfacesof the third degree Œehsch bas observed that dereduces. For snch points then the expression at the end of Art. thé Bymbolical expression expanded.as was mentionedbefore. may be written B~~O~M~ wttere each of the suiBxeB is to receive every value from 1 to 4.

by au identical equation already made ase~of. as well as A'C". We bave made use. Smee the equatton j8 is of the form @-~LB<&=0. M.EBSCH'8 To find the points on a anr6tce where a Une can be drawn to meet in five consccuttve points. 408) an infinity of satfaces tan be drawn of the degree 14M-80. We can say therefore that the number of mch points does not exceed M(1ÏM-24) (14n 80). we have . there romain c symbob in the aecond degree. (p. and the resalt being of the degree 14M-3& in the variables. Me <M<~tee <otMJ5M <tM~ace along a eey&t~ S the H eMt~e.and for which1 refer to Ma memoir. proved then that N touches B. we have to fonn the condition that the intersection of A!7't A'P\ and an arbitrary plane ehould eatta~ A'U'. Ctebsch has applied to A*!7' the aame symbolical method ef elimination wMch bas been hem appHed to A'P'. He haa Mcceeded in dividing out the factor e* from this resuh: but m the final formwhich he bas &nmd. all that can be c<aidodedfrom it is that through the points which 1 have called a.where c is arbitrary: Hence 0 touches H along its intersection with the snr<aceof the degree Ta–15. and that throngh the eurve of contact an infinity of sar&ces can paes of the degree 7n 15. of the theorem that the curves toneh each other. it in anntCtetttto prove that 0 touches But since @ is got bordermg the matrix of thé Hessian with the d!<Rsreat!aÏ8 hy of the HeMian~ 0~0 is equivalent to the symbolicalexpmsNon But. p. PS and ÏTB~ . 9. <~ It M ( /KT\ ). )–J=0. 418.4&2 CÀKtHjLMON OPTBE8UBFACE A Ct.

to ascertain the number of points which satisfy a! Bee Qt«tf<<f~~e«nM<o/J&~tma<)<'<. which may not be represented by meau of the equations of a system of surfaces beeause (p. we eau atways. determine a number of surfaces of the M"' degree whieh shall pass through the given points. and we cannot <&~e the given points except by a system of more than threo equations. .0F SYSTEMSOP EQUATIONS. for their întersection will in general consist of the curve in question and an extraneous curve besides so that the curve is usually not the complete intersection of any two. But any two surfaces of thé system will not &/?M thé curve. but only that part of the intersection which is common to ail thé rest. Thé object of this appendix ia to show how. p. 250. it is tbe object of this appendix. Vol. WE have showed. the given points being the onty ones which satisfy all the equations. when a system of equations is given denoting surfaces which pass tbrough a common curve. by taking m large enougit.* 1. ON THB OBDEB. Conversely. 240) by taking m large enongh we can always find a namber of surfaces of the <?'" degree each of which shall entirely contain the curve. how to determine the char racteristics of a curve given M the intersection of two surfaces but it bas been remarked (p. 28&) that there are many curves which cannot be so represented. p. There M no algebraic curve. But ordinarily the intersection of thrce snch sor~ces will consist of the given points and extraneous points besides. In like manner if we are given r points in space.( 4M )j APPENDIX IV. when snch a system of equations is given. however. 246. thé charactenstica of that curve can be determined.

and X is an indeterminato coe&c!ent. p. to every one of which oorrespondsa point whichis the intersectionof the three corresponding planes. that though any two of thèse surfacesintersect in a curve of the fourth degree.~-e~. any three of which intersect in e~A< points.rapreaentpltmes. It Mtow* that four values of can be found for which these eqaa~om will t~reBent planes meeting in a point. And in general if we are . It is evident aleo that sach points must s&tisf~the equationsgot by eliminating the 1 parametera between any ~+1 of the given equations. Yet these all represent surfaces of the second degree. suppose we are given ~+8 equationsinvolving f parameters. 2. which are got by eliminating X betweenany pair of the given equations. The eimpteat illustration of this is to take four planes &+\<t)&+X~c+~<!+\6. this ia eomdi~on known to be of thé fourth degree in X.a~&c. And yet any three of thèse latter equations will dénote surfaces iaterseoting not only in these pointe common to all but in certain extraneous points besides. it is evident that by eliminationof the variables we get a sunictent nnmber of equations to détermine systems of values of the pMtuneters for which the equations will denote surfaces having a point in common. wheîeo. cet-o~. 9. ~+\ c+~y.454 ON THE QBDER 0F 8TBTEM80F EQUATtONS. then if we form the condition that theee four planes ahouldmeet in a point. 241. But it waa proved. It is obvious abo that thé locas of all those points must be a ourve common to all the surfaces <~8-&a. And obvioualythe four points 80 found most aatiafy any of the aix eqoatMNM (snch aa <=~a). In like manner if we had been given the three planes e+X<t. it is obviouBthat we may give to X an inËnity of vaines. It follows then that the ayatem of equations denotes a system of surfaces having four pointa m common -1 but that any three sur&ces of the system intersect not only in these four points but m four extraneouspoints. In general then. there is only a cuMceommonto aU three.

&c. which will be common to aU the sarfacea got by eliminating thé pammeters betweenany f+11 of the equations. aiso indicate the degrees of thèse fonctions. to be of any degree. and let p and q denote the correspondingsnma for the quantities a. b'. We propose to determinethe charttctene<ics f o the carvo whichis common to the mtr&ces fepresented by aU theae determinanta.b. 6+a. &o. if the letters <t. Thé eUmmattonof thèse gives rise to a system of determinants where the numberof horizontalrows is aupposed to be y. &+j8. to be a+~. &c. of values of theee patametetw can be determined for eyatems which tho equadomawill dénote surfaces having a point in common. Let os suppose then that we have f+11 equations. and vertical y+1. 4M involving r parametem.. &c.. b". an infinity of given f+3 2equations. /3: then we assert that the order~<~ CMMM common<0<tB <M)~!tCM <'<pfMM<e~ <Xe &<eMMMMt!&<y<<MM < ia ~+jpP+~g< 0/'<~ In the Sr6t place we observe that if this formula is true . but we supposethe degrees of the coKespondingfonctionsin either the same row or the same coinmnto be equi-dt~erent. &c. Let P and Q dénote thé snm of the qnantities a. &c. and the snm of their products in pairs. &c. To Sx the ideM we take the matrix with four row9 and five columna the methodof proof nsedin thia case being generally applieable. We suppose the funetions o. Thus. c.. t.ON THE OBDM 0F MtMMS OF t~UATMNS. 4. Yet any two aoch surfaceswill intersect not only in this carve but in an extraneous carve. The locus of theae points will be a curve. to be a+a. of d'. involving r parametem in thé first degree. we supposethe degrees of d. b. &c.

i the q<Mmtitiea wh!oh we. a!nce the dMerenceebetween the orders of the Srst and succeedmg rowt are a'–<t. had been a+a'. wMIe. Now if the aam and aum of products in pairs of the quantiticsa..V. and the eorre<pondmg Mms for a'. and if we denoted the snm of the qaant!t!eB o'. <t"-<t) a"<t) it 6)Uowathat the quantMes c&tledp and g are f 3i~a + 6a'. we get . & &c. «'+«'. a".456 0!t THEOM&BB OPSYSTEMS EQCATîn~ OP it Mlowa that if the ordem of the tunctione &. then the order of the curre inby vesttgated would be +j)'F' + F~ ~'< For the fermaof the top row being of the degrees <t. values in ~+~F+~)* we get g'+~. g+~P"+J°" Subtracting this number then from the product of thé other two.&c.have caUedP and Q are reepeetivety 6a+j?'. c be denotcd by P".P'+. it ia easy to see that the order of the two determinants is WhUe the order of the irrelevant F"+p-t<~ JP"+F+e. p'. ~3'. curve is. <t+~ a+'y'. b.< o+~ <t'+~S*. and 10tt'+4op'+gf'.(<t&'o"e'") and that thèse two surfaces both pass through the carve which does not lie on thé surfacea represented by the other detennuMmteof the system. a"+< those of c. o+o'. o" and of their products lu pairs by P'. hy the last article. is part of the intersection of the sur&ccs denoted considering by the two determinants (efc"<r"). g'. To estahUsh now the truth of the formula it is sn&Ctent to show that it îa troe for a system with rows if it is true for It is easy to eeo that the curve we are a system with &-1.P" And in general if tho nnmber of rowx be k we have 6. and on substituting thèse 4~.<&c.o+a'.

OK THE OB&ES0F SYSTEMS F EQUATIONS. 4). 9 both = 0. then the capital and amaUletters in the formula would simply be interchanged. < <t". we have a. c. &c. that the ranks of two systems which together make up thé !ntcHect!oaof two sur&ceBare coNnectod the relation by And if these substitutionsbc made and thé rcsult reduced by theidennties . 'y. and therefore p. admitttng the truth of thm formula it fbUowa that if JP'. Let B be the sum of the products in thrces of the quantities <t. (Art. Next let it be required to Sud the order of the developable generated by the curve cousidered in the preceding articles. Again. 6. 253.. all = 0. b. ~3. 4. &c. p. eeen for a matrix of two rows and three columns. &c.a'" the orders of the terme in the first vertical row.. When aIl the rows are of the eame order. It Is needless to remark that the formula wa9 at first obtained by commencing with the simpler caBO and proceeding on to the gcnerat one. therefore it is generally truc. we know. and the con'espondtng sum of thé qaaatttte: a. and the order of the system is Q. then we say that the order of the developable in question is In the 6mt place. C 4S7 or to Now thé truth of the theorem is eaeUy J~-t~. &c. and thé order of the develop~Me would be This ia provedexactiy as in Art. had been usod with refrénée to a.

and let M examine how many pointa are commoa to aIl thé smr&cesrepreBentedby the determinants of the (o6W").468 ON THE ORMN 0F SYSTEMSor EQUATIONS. in number The capital and émaillettere would be mteKhanged if we had aaed Il in referenceto thé lettem in the Stst column If the aeventitwa had been of thesame <«'. &c. 7. Let us next coamdera matrix each as where the Bomber of columns exceeds the nnmber of rows by two. Md p tho degree and rank of the curve. then the number of points representedby the syetemts .if a. p be the degKes of the sar&ceB. then (see p.y") system.<t' degMes. bave commonthe carve and if m. it b generally trae. It follows then that if the fbrmnh be trae for a matrix with it k rows. n. e".it is true for one with k +1 and mmce is eMHyproved to be tme for three rows.t!l '=' 0. (<<. 2&8)the surfaces will intereect in points not on this earve.that iB. Now any thMe surfaces (a&'e"<f").

JP–~(<t+&). then the product These are then double points on the complex system CD. on Now we have the identical equation (ZeMMM J?~ Art. and aum of product of pairs. for the degrees of the rows. o~. ~(J+o). Now it is évident that thé sor&ce representedby ~(~)' bas as double points the intersections of J~. by writing ~(<:+<!). &c. 459 0F 8. aH the determinants of the remaining system (of which <7is one) have common a namher of points. JK. sum of produet8 in pairs. double points on D. e~. Let the anm. 28) ~(~)'==(7D. &c.. and are therefore either double pointa on C. P. aad aum of products in threes of the degrees «f the leading terms a.. Now if we eram from the matrix thé firat two rows. be P. where means the ~~Mt. minor obtained by erasing from the given determinant the Une aad column containing a. and the degrees of these being respecdvely J'–a. or pointa of intersection of C and D. and they each count for four the inteNectMMof thèse enr~ces.b. Thé reenit M But the points whosenumber bas been just &)andare points at which touch. which can be calculated by the formula of the last article. of the terms exdasive of <t amd be denotedbyj~ g". Q. It may be deduced hence that the sor&oe represented by any symmetncai determinant bas a detemmmte number of double points. SabtrMtlag then Maomg four times the number jmt found from the total number of mteraections. <t~. jl. then the nnmber of snch double pointe ia ~(F~). &c.Of ONTBB OMBR 8T8TEM8 EQUATtONS. Let the snm. the number of double points is the product of thèse three numbers. D is the determinant itself. (d+b).~(c-t-&). and C is the second minor obtained by erMing the two Unes and colamM which contain o.we get .

Let there be four surfaces whose degrees are X. Now we hâve seen what is the order of the carve denoted by a System of determinants. and if we eaU ~+/ /+/ of the same curves. &c. Then the weight of the system is .. &c.480 ONTBE ORNBB F SMTNMS EQUATMN& U Of wheace we team that if the number of double points on the audace repreaented by the eymmetricat determinant <7 i. and the following is the result. 4. and the first theorem bemg established in the simplest case the other M generally true..which is in like manner~p' S («a'). 9. There is stili another question which m&ybe proposed concerning the curves. q'.M'~jRP'-S(<t~). ~O/V-f"). 4 it remains to enquire what ia the weight of the same system. m that j8'iaa!. &c.P'. B. m the degrees ~+c['. a'. Let also < = S (a~8'). & &c. and letp'. b. &c. Let the fonctions a. ~8*.and whose coefficients tbenthe eliminant any new variable in the degrees of these four equations containsthe new variable in the degrce Now X. snm of products in pairs.: let t8 denote the sum 2 (aB) where each a is multiplied by all the capital letters except A. we can assert that the weight of the condition that two curves may intersect is the snm of t!te producta of the weight of each curve by thé order of the other. of the quantities A. contain X~. that of those on the surface D ia ~(f~). denote the corresponding stms for a'. denote the smn. &c. We may therefore proceed as in Art. &c. Q'. J?+a'. C~&c. 4. Art. Let . contain the new variable in the degrees A. are thé orders of the curve of intersection of the first and second. and third and fourth sar&ces rethe weights specdvely. snch as Art. It is easy to sce that when a curve breaks up into two simpter curves the weight of the complex curve !s equal to the sum of the weights of its components. c.

functions of the co-ordmates. o~ and is tbeM6)M. suppose /t+8a.B~ef Algebrat Art.OK ORMHt SYSTEMS THE OP 0FEQCATÏ&N8. we nue the M the sum of M+tt-8 8 formula (Art. The problem is then a particnlar case of that considered. tben thé capital and «maU lettem in thé preceding formula would bo interchanged.and if t be a parameter. and a. Thèse conditions are (ZeMMM . thèse conditions will represent a curve in apace. &c. 88) the determinantsof on the system where the &t)t Ime is repeated M–l 1 timea. two conditions must be fntSHed. But in point of &ct. &c. 10. &c. 461 If we had used P to dénote the aum of the degreee in the Srat column tnstead of in the Srat row.and the second m–1 1 times there are <)t+K–2rows. and M+a–1 columns. a' be those of 6. of c. We propose next to investigate the order and weight of the system of conditionsthat the two equations may bave two commonroots. Art. bnt a syatem of conditions. if the degrees of a. It is evident that ïn orderthat this ehooictbe the case.. we obtain not two. c' to be \+2a. 8<x. We suppose thé degrees of the fumerons introduced to be we eqn!-difEBrent that M to say. b' to be X+a. if ~re ~mte & M+w=~.and Mthefe~M . ~+<t.no two of which BaNceto df/&)ethe given curve. 1n the same case q is the mm of prodacte in pa!m of thèse qnamt!Uee. 4. To find the order of the system. 4) g+~JP+F* terms of the acnea 2a.

\–9a. are of the &'at degree. that is to say. and wntmg X='='l i and a = 0 in thé preceding &nnata. &c. ~-2<t. o'<*+&c.we may write X+~=~ ~=~ and the same formula gives for the degree of the double cm've 11.462 ONTBtB OMEtt 0F SYSTEMS BQPATMNtt. if <?<=?. We have then If the eliminantofthe equations represent a snr&ce. When geometrically interpreted thèse conditions represent triple points on the sar&ce represented by the eliminant of the two equations..b. Of AgamPistheeam ofa–1 tennaofthe eeneB~ \-ft. thé surface generated is a raled surface.. If the two equations considered are of thé same degree. may hâve three common roots. the matrix for which M formed as in the last article.that surface. &c. save that the line . If all the fnmctîonB <ï. we fmd that the order of thé double curve is (<a-m-1) (<?+ K 2). We can in !!ke manner determine the ordor of the system of conditions that the eqoat!ona <+&c.the c!)rvehère consideredis a double curve oa. The conditions are representedby a system of determinants. an4 of <K-ï tenns of the series ~-cc. &c.

and thé anelimmated in the degree X'. Nt-a2 and the matrix consiste of M+M-2 eotnmM and times. \-8.o. X'-l. and M round to be The order of the developablegeneratedby the doublecorve (Art. The next system we disccss M that formed ty the ayatemcf eondi~OMthat the three equations <tV+y'<+&c. but ihe number so found must be reduced by four times the nnmber of triple pointsjust found. 7. c is repeated M-*9 limes..=~ «'<<T''+&e. m+«'-4 Mwe. tmd the Une a'. &o. may bave a common factor. The order of the system N cdcalated &~m Art. whichare alM triple points on that curve. c'. The system may be expressed . then the weight of the system !a 12. To find the weight of the same system we have only to apply the mme method to the formula of Art 8. b. &c. <~+~'+&c.=0. 8. and let the terrns A. 10) is calcutatedin like manner by the formulaof Art.ONTHEORDEB OP&YNBM8? BQUATtONN. ~3.~O. decreMe regularly in the former and Increaaem the latter. Thus in the case of the rnled eoî&cethe rank of thedoublecarve is 3(M+M–2) (m+M-S). 463 < a. Let the term a contain the variable to be eliminated in the degreeX. ao that their degrees are ~-1.

c. y. b". Again. < &c. 10. may have two common factors. the order and weight that of the system of con~itiomB the two first diSerentMda ~f'+&c. hecause these conditions *'re found by expressing that the three second dincrential equations may have a common factor. Systems of equations of lower degree can be got by multiplying the given equations by t. &c.464 ON THE ORMS 0F SYSTEMS0F EQnATMKH. Writing in the and for f. then 1 found (~tMf/e~ Journal) that the order of the system is the value for the weight however haviag been only obtained by mducëon.<t". are X. and m like manner for its weight 6(M-2)\X'+8ttfM-2)(\-X')-2K()t-l)(M-8). and M. subtraci then tho orderand weight of the systemfound in the firat part of this article. M. for~t. wh!ch enter implicitly into «. by Art. We o~'+&c. b. Let us suppose that the orders of a.. X-2. tam beby the three equations obtained by clumnating ia tween every pair of theae equations. when the order of thé resulting equation in t determines the order of the system. It is a particular case of the preceding to find the order and weight of the system of conditions that an equation <t<'+&<+&c. \-1. a System equivalent to two conditions. f respectively and of b.. ~1. ~-1. <t'. The order of the system may be fbund by eliminating from the equations x. The resuitis that the orderis . until there is a auSeient number to eliminate dialyticaUy all the powers of t. we and for the order of the syatem 8(M-2)\(~-)t)+M(tt-t)(M-2).M-2. preceding for ?. may have three equal roots. to find thé order and weight of thé system of cënditions that the same equationmay have two distinct paiMof equal roota we form first. ~t. 13.

407. or t~o pairs of double points. that four carvea shoatd meet in a point. THB END.. ttXMiMtt. tCttMim. bnt theae problem have not yet been solved. w. that a enrve ahotddhave a cnap. Otoot oEMOBr. &c. . 465 0F The &rmuka of thia article are those of which use hae been made p.0F ONTM ORDEB NTSTEMS EQUATIONS. Mnrctt. It would be deforaMeto Sud in Uke manner the otder sad weight of the system of conditions ~h&tthree curveashoaldhave two pointe common.

a A TREATISE ON CONIC SECTIONS. . nw xa. SERMONS 0 PBEACBED TEECBABELF TRBMTÏ IN DUBLIN. A)m LmmoN ND A C*jmuMt: Mt<wtT.o~. ALGEBRA. DCBMN!HOD9MANBStC~B.*n Co. DcBLCt: HoMM ANB8'nra. Priee lu LmmoN t LMKHttN Atm Co. A TREATISE NTHE HMHEBPLANE O CURVES. LESSONS ON HIGHER Mee 6<. P)cîcel2t. Mce6<. COLLEGE.BYTHE8AME AUTHOB.t.

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