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# .

Greek Letters Name TeX HTML Name TeX HTML Name TeX HTML Alpha Digamma Kappa Beta Zeta Lambda Gamma Eta Mu Delta Theta Nu Epsilon Iota Xi

Name TeX HTML Name TeX HTML Omicron Upsilon Pi Phi Rho Chi Sigma Psi Tau Omega

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it . Name Symbo Symbo l l

in in TEX HTML

Explanation

Examples

equality

## is equal to; equals everywhere inequality

x = y means x and y represent the same thing or value. x y means that x and y do not represent the same thing or value.

2=2 1+1=2

is not equal to; does not (The forms !=, /= or <> are generally used equal in programming languages where ease of everywhere typing and use of ASCII text is preferred.) strict inequality is less than, is greater than order theory proper subgroup is a proper subgroup of H < G means H is a proper subgroup of G. group theory (very) strict inequality x x < y means x is less than y. x > y means x is greater than y.

2+25

< >

3<4 5>4

5Z < Z A3 < S3

0.003

1000000

## y means x is much greater than y.

order theory asymptotic comparison f g means the growth of f is asymptotically bounded by g. is of smaller order than, is of greater order than (This is I. M. Vinogradov's notation. Another notation is the Big O notation, analytic number theory which looks like f = O(g).) x y means x is less than or equal to y. inequality is less than or equal to, is greater than or equal to x y means x is greater than or equal to y.

ex

(The forms <= and >= are generally used in programming languages where ease of order theory typing and use of ASCII text is preferred.)

3 4 and 5 5 5 4 and 5 5

subgroup is a subgroup of group theory reduction is reducible to If A B means the problem A can be reduced to the problem B. Subscripts can be added to the to indicate what kind of reduction. then computational L1 L2 means that the problem L1 is Karp reducible to L2.[1] H G means H is a subgroup of G. ZZ A3 S3

## complexity theory Karp reduction If L1 L2 and L2 P, then L1 P.

is Karp reducible to; is polynomial-time manyone reducible to computational complexity theory proportionality is proportional to; varies y as everywhere Karp reduction [2] is Karp reducible to; is polynomial-time many- A B means the problem A can be polynomially reduced to the problem B. one reducible to computational complexity theory addition plus; add 4 + 6 means the sum of 4 and 6. 2+7=9 x means that y = kx for some constant k. if y = 2x, then y x.

If L1

L2 and L2

P, then L1

P.

arithmetic disjoint union the disjoint union of ... A1 + A2 means the disjoint union of sets A1 and A2. and ... set theory A1 = {3, 4, 5, 6} A2 = {7, 8, 9, 10} A1 + A2 = {(3,1), (4,1), (5,1), (6,1), (7,2), (8,2), (9,2), (10,2)}

subtraction minus; take; subtract arithmetic negative sign 9 4 means the subtraction of 4 from 9. 83=5

## 3 means the negative of the number 3.

(5) = 5

arithmetic set-theoretic complement A B means the set that contains all the elements of A that are not in B. minus; without ( can also be used for set -theoretic set theory complement as described below. ) multiplication times; multiplied by arithmetic Cartesian product 3 4 means the multiplication of 3 by 4.

## {1,2,4} {1,3,4} = {2}

7 8 = 56

the Cartesian product of XY means the set of all ordered pairs with the first element of each pair selected from {1,2} {3,4} = {(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)} ... and ...; the direct X and the second element selected from Y. product of ... and ... set theory cross product u v means the cross product of vectors u and v (1,2,5) (3,4,1) = (22, 16, 2)

cross linear algebra group of units R consists of the set of units of the ring R, along with the operation of multiplication. the group of units of This may also be written R* as described ring theory below, or U(R). multiplication times; multiplied by 3 4 means the multiplication of 3 by 4. 7 8 = 56

arithmetic dot product dot linear algebra division (Obelus) 2 4 = .5 divided by; over 6 3 or 6 3 means the division of 6 by 3. 12 4 = 3 arithmetic quotient group G / H means the quotient of group G modulo its subgroup H. A/~ means the set of all ~ equivalence classes in A. {0, a, 2a, b, b+a, b+2a} / {0, b} = {{0, b}, {a, b+a}, {2a, b+2a}} If we define ~ by x ~ y /~ = {x + n : n :x xy (0,1]} , then u v means the dot product of vectors u and (1,2,5) (3,4,1) = 6 v

mod

## group theory quotient set

mod set theory plus-minus plus or minus 6 3 means both 6 + 3 and 6 3. The equation x = 5 4, has two solutions, x = 7 and x = 3.

arithmetic plus-minus plus or minus measurement minus-plus minus or plus arithmetic square root the (principal) square root of means the positive number whose square is x. 6 (3 5) means both 6 + (3 5) and 6 (3 + 5). cos(x y) = cos(x) cos(y) sin(x) sin(y). 10 2 or equivalently 10 20% means the range from 10 2 to 10 + 2. If a = 100 1 mm, then a 99 mm and a 101 mm.

real numbers complex square root if the (complex) square root coordinates with of is represented in polar , then

||

. complex numbers absolute value or |x| means the distance along the real line (or |3| = 3

## across the complex plane) between x and zero.

| 5| = |5| = 5 |i|=1 | 3 + 4i | = 5

Euclidean distance |x y| means the Euclidean distance between; Euclidean norm between x and y. of geometry determinant determinant of matrix theory cardinality cardinality of; size of; order of set theory norm || x || means the norm of the element x of a normed vector space.[3] |X| means the cardinality of the set X. |A| means the determinant of the matrix A

||||

## norm of; length of

|| x + y || || x || + || y ||

linear algebra nearest integer function ||x|| means the nearest integer to x.

## nearest integer to numbers divisor, divides divides

(This may also be written [x], x , nint(x) or Round(x).) a|b means a divides b. a b means a does not divide b.

(This symbol can be difficult to type, and its Since 15 = 35, it is true that 3|15 and 5|15. negation is rare, so a regular but slightly number theory shorter vertical bar | character can be used.) conditional probability given probability restriction restriction of to ; restricted to set theory parallel is parallel to x || y means x is parallel to y. If l || m and m n then l n. f|A means the function f restricted to the set A, that is, it is the function with domain A dom(f) that agrees with f. The function f : R R defined by f(x) = x2 is not + injective, but f|R is injective. P(A|B) means the probability of the event a if X is a uniformly random day of the year P(X is occurring given that b occurs. May 25 | X is in May) = 1/31

||

geometry incomparability is incomparable to order theory x || y means x is incomparable to y. {1,2} || {2,3} under set containment.

exact divisibility exactly divides number theory cardinality #X means the cardinality of the set X. cardinality of; size of; order of (|| may be used instead as described above.) #{4, 6, 8} = 3 pa || n means pa exactly divides n (i.e. pa divides n but pa+1 does not). 23 || 360.

set theory connected sum A#B is the connected sum of the manifolds connected sum of; knot A and B. If A and B are knots, then this sum of; knot composition denotes the knot sum, which has a slightly of stronger condition. topology, knot theory aleph number aleph set theory beth number beth represents an infinite cardinality (similar to , but does not necessarily index all of the numbers indexed by . ). represents an infinite cardinality (specifically, the -th one, where is an ordinal). | |=
0,

## which is called aleph -null.

set theory cardinality of the The cardinality of is denoted by or by continuum the symbol (a lowercase Fraktur letter C).

cardinality of the continuum; cardinality of the real numbers; c; set theory such that such that; so that everywhere field extension K : F means the field K extends the field F. extends; over This may also be written as K F. field theory : : means such that, and is used in proofs and the set-builder notation (described below). n : n is even.

## A : B means the Frobenius inner product of the matrices A and B.

The general inner product is denoted by u, v , u | v or (u | v), as described below. For spatial vectors, the dot product linear algebra notation, xy is common. See also Bra-ket notation. index of a subgroup The index of a subgroup H in a group G is the "relative size" of H in G: equivalently, index of subgroup the number of "copies" (cosets) of H that fill up G group theory factorial n! means the product 1 2 ... n. 4! = 1 2 3 4 = 24

factorial combinatorics The statement !A is true if and only if A is false. logical negation not A slash placed through another operator is the same as "!" placed in front. !(!A) xy A !(x = y)

propositional logic (The symbol ! is primarily from computer science. It is avoided in mathematical texts, where the notation A is preferred.) probability distribution has distribution statistics row equivalence is row equivalent to A~B means that B can be generated by using a series of elementary row operations on A X ~ D, means the random variable X has the X ~ N(0,1), the standard normal distribution probability distribution D.

## matrix theory same order of magnitude

m ~ n means the quantities m and n have the 2 ~ 5 same order of magnitude, or general size. roughly similar; poorly 8 9 ~ 100 approximates (Note that ~ is used for an approximation that is poor, otherwise use .) but 2 10 approximation theory asymptotically equivalent x ~ x+1 f ~ g means . is asymptotically

equivalent to asymptotic analysis equivalence relation are in the same equivalence class everywhere approximately equal is approximately equal to x y means x is approximately equal to y. 3.14159 a ~ b means ). (and equivalently 1 ~ 5 mod 4

everywhere isomorphism is isomorphic to ( can also be used for isomorphic, as group theory described below.) wreath product A H means the wreath product of the wreath product of by group A by the group H. This may also be written A wr H. group theory normal subgroup is a normal subgroup of group theory N G means that N is a normal subgroup of group G. G H means that group G is isomorphic (structurally identical) to group H. Q / {1, 1} V, where Q is the quaternion group and V is the Klein four-group.

is isomorphic to the automorphism group of the complete bipartite graph on (n,n) vertices.

Z(G)

ideal is an ideal of ring theory antijoin the antijoin of relational algebra semidirect product R S means the antijoin of the relations R and S, the tuples in R for which there is not R S=R-R S a tuple in S that is equal on their common attribute names. I R means that I is an ideal of ring R. (2) Z

N H is the semidirect product of N (a normal subgroup) and H (a subgroup), with respect to . Also, if G = N H, then G is the semidirect product of said to split over N. group theory ( may also be written the other way round, as , or as .)

semijoin the semijoin of relational algebra natural join the natural join of relational algebra therefore therefore; so; hence

R S is the semijoin of the relations R and S, the set of all tuples in R for which there is R S= a tuple in S that is equal on their common attribute names. R S is the natural join of the relations R and S, the set of all combinations of tuples in R and S that are equal on their common attribute names. Sometimes used in proofs before logical consequences .

a1,..,an(R

S)

## All humans are mortal. Socrates is a human. Socrates is mortal.

everywhere because because; since everywhere Sometimes used in proofs before reasoning. 3331 is prime it has no positive integer factors other than itself and one.

end of proof QED; tombstone; Halmos symbol everywhere Used to mark the end of a p roof. (May also be written Q.E.D.)

## material implication implies; if then

A B means if A is true then B is also true; if A is false then nothing is said about B. x=2 x2 = 4 is true, but x2 = 4 general false (since x could be 2). x = 2 is in

( may mean the same as , or it may have the meaning for functions given propositional logic , below.) Heyting algebra

( may mean the same as ,[4] or it may have the meaning for superset given below.)

material equivalence if and only if; iff propositional logic The statement A is true if and only if A is false. A B means A is true if B is true and A is false if B is false. x+5=y+2 x+3=y

## logical negation not propositional logic

A slash placed through another operator is the same as "" placed in front. (The symbol ~ has many other uses, so or the slash notation is preferred. Computer scientists will often use ! but this is avoided in mathematical texts. ) The statement A B is true if A and B are both true; else it is false.

(A) xy

A (x = y)

n<4

n >2

## n = 3 when n is a natural number .

For functions A(x) and B(x), A(x) B(x) is propositional logic , used to mean min(A(x), B(x)). lattice theory u v means the wedge product of vectors u wedge product and v. This generalizes the cross product to higher dimensions. wedge product; exterior

product

## (For vectors in R3, can also be used. )

linear algebra exponentiation a ^ b means a raised to the power of b (raised) to the power (a ^ b is more commonly written ab. The 2^3 = 2 3 = 8 of symbol ^ is generally used in programming languages where ease of typing and use of everywhere plain ASCII text is preferred. ) logical disjunction or The statement A B is true if A or B (or join in a lattice both) are true; if both are false, the statement is false. or; max; join n4 n2 For functions A(x) and B(x), A(x) propositional logic , used to mean max(A(x), B(x)). lattice theory exclusive or xor propositional logic , Boolean algebra direct sum direct sum of abstract algebra universal quantification B(x) is

## n 3 when n is a natural number .

The statement A B is true when either A or B, but not both, are true. A B means (A) the same. The direct sum is a special way of combining several objects into one general object. (The bun symbol , or the coproduct symbol , is used; is only for logic. ) x: P(x) means P(x) is true for all x.

A is always true, A

A is always false.

Most commonly, for vector spaces U, V, and W, the following consequence is used: U=V W (U = V + W) (V W = {0}) : n2 n.

for all; for any; for each predicate logic existential quantification there exists; there is; there are predicate logic uniqueness quantification x: P(x) means there is at least one x such that P(x) is true. n : n is even.

! =: :=

## ! x: P(x) means there is exactly one x such that P(x) is true.

!n

: n + 5 = 2n.

definition

x := y, y =: x or x y means x is defined to be another name for y, under certain assumptions taken in context. to mean congruence).

## everywhere P : Q means P is defined to be logically equivalent to Q.

congruence is congruent to geometry isomorphic is isomorphic to ( can also be used for isomorphic, as abstract algebra described above.) congruence relation ... is congruent to ... modulo ... modular arithmetic set brackets a b (mod n) means a b is divisible by n 5 G H means that group G is isomorphic (structurally identical) to group H. . ABC DEF means triangle ABC is congruent to (has the same measurements as) triangle DEF.

2 (mod 3)

{,}

## {a,b,c} means the set consisting of a, b, and c.[5]

= { 1, 2, 3, }

{:} {|}

set builder notation the set of such that set theory empty set the empty set means the set with no elements. [5] { } means the same. {n : 1 < n2 < 4} = {x : P(x)} means the set of all x for which P(x) is true.[5] {x | P(x)} is the same as {x : P(x)}. {n : n2 < 20} = { 1, 2, 3, 4}

{}
set membership

set theory

is an element of; is not an a a element of everywhere, set theory subset is a subset of set theory superset is a superset of A set theory

## S means a is an element of the set S;[5] S means a is not an element of S.[5]

(1/2) 1 21

(subset) A B means every element of A is also an element of B.[6] (proper subset) A A B. B means A B but

(A

B)

(Some writers use the symbol as if it were the same as .) A B means every element of B is also an element of A. (A B means A B but A B.

B)

(Some writers use the symbol the same as .) set-theoretic union the union of or ; union set theory set-theoretic intersection intersected with; intersect

as if it were

A B means the set of those elements which are either in A, or in B, or in both. [6]

(A

B) = B

A B means the set that contains all those elements that A and B have in common. [6]

{x

: x2 = 1}

= {1}

set theory symmetric difference A B means the set of elements in exactly one of A or B. {1,5,6,8} {2,5,8} = {1,2,6} symmetric difference (Not to be confused with delta , , described set theory below.) set-theoretic complement A B means the set that contains all those elements of A that are not in B.[6] minus; without {1,2,3,4} {3,4,5,6} = {1,2} ( can also be used for set -theoretic set theory complement as described above. ) function arrow from to f: X Y means the function f maps the set X into the set Y. Let f: {0} be defined by f(x) := x2.

set theory, type theory function arrow f: a b means the function f maps the element a to the element b.

Let f: x

## x+1 (the successor function).

maps to set theory function composition composed with set theory N means either { 0, 1, 2, 3, ...} or { 1, 2, 3, ...}. natural numbers N; the (set of) natural numbers The choice depends on the area of mathematics being studied; e.g. number theorists prefer the latter; analysts, set theorists and computer scientists prefer the former. To avoid confusion, always check an author's definition of N. Set theorists often use the notation (for least infinite ordinal ) to denote the set of natural numbers (including zero), along with the standard ordering relation . integers Z; the (set of) integers means {..., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...}. or > means {1, 2, 3, ...} . 1, 2, 3, ...} .
+

## if f(x) := 2x, and g(x) := x + 3, then (f g)(x) = 2(x + 3).

= {|a| : a

} or

= {|a| > 0: a

numbers

means {0,

= {p, p : p

{0}}

Z
integers mod n

numbers

n means {[0], [1], [2], ...[ n1]} with addition and multiplication modulo n.

## = {[0], [1], [2]}

modulo n

Note that any letter may be used instead of n, such as p. To avoid confusion with p -adic numbers numbers, use /p or /(p) instead.

p

Zn Zp

the (set of) p-adic integers numbers projective space P; the projective space, the projective line, the projective plane topology

## probability the probability of

(X) means the probability of the event X occurring. If a fair coin is flipped, (Heads) = (Tails) = 0.5.

This may also be written as P(X), Pr(X), probability theory P[X] or Pr[X]. rational numbers Q; the (set of) rational numbers; the rationals 3.14000... means {p/q : p ,q }.

numbers

real numbers R; the (set of) real numbers; the reals means the set of real numbers. (1)

numbers complex numbers C; the (set of) complex numbers means {a + b i : a,b }. i = (1)

numbers quaternions or Hamiltonian quaternions H; the (set of) quaternions numbers Big O notation The Big O notation describes the limiting If f(x) = 6x4 2x3 + 5 and g(x) = x 4 , then behavior of a function, when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. means {a + b i + c j + d k : a,b,c,d }.

O
infinity

## big-oh of Computational complexity theory

infinity numbers

is an element of the extended number line that is greater than all real numbers; it often occurs in limits.

floor

[:] [] [,]

## floor; greatest integer; entier numbers ceiling ceiling

x means the floor of x, i.e. the largest integer less than or equal to x. (This may also be written [x], floor(x) or int(x).) x means the ceiling of x, i.e. the smallest integer greater than or equal to x. 4 = 4, 2.1 = 3, 2.9 = 3, 2.6 = 2 4 = 4, 2.1 = 2, 2.9 = 2, 2.6 = 3

(This may also be written ceil(x) or numbers ceiling(x).) nearest integer function x means the nearest integer to x. nearest integer to numbers degree of a field extension the degree of field theory equivalence class the equivalence class of abstract algebra floor floor; greatest integer; [a] means the equivalence class of a, i.e. {x : x ~ a}, where ~ is an equivalence relation. [a]R means the same, but with R as the equivalence relation. [x] means the floor of x, i.e. the largest integer less than or equal to x. [K : F] means the degree of the extension K : F. (This may also be written [x], ||x||, nint(x) or Round(x).)

## 2 = 2, 2.6 = 3, -3.4 = -3, 4.49 = 4

[ (2) : [ : ]=2 [ :

]=2

]=

## Let a ~ b be true iff a

b (mod 5).

Then [2] = {, 8, 3, 2, 7, }.

## [3] = 3, [3.5] = 3, [3.99] = 3, [3.7] = 4

[,,]

(This may also be written x , floor(x) or int(x). Not to be confused with the nearest numbers integer function, as described below. ) nearest integer function [x] means the nearest integer to x. nearest integer to (This may also be written x , ||x||, nint(x) or [2] = 2, [2.6] = 3, [ -3.4] = -3, [4.49] = 4 Round(x). Not to be confused with the floor numbers function, as described above. ) [S] maps a true statement S to 1 and a false statement S to 0. f[X] means { f(x) : x X }, the image of the function f under the set X dom(f).

entier

Iverson bracket 1 if true, 0 otherwise propositional logic image image of under [0=5]=0, [7>0]=1, [2 {2,3,4}]=1, [5 {2,3,4}]=0

(This may also be written as f(X) if there is no risk of confusing the image of f under X with the function application f of X. Another everywhere notation is Im f, the image of f under its domain.) closed interval closed interval order theory commutator the commutator of [a, b] = ab ba, if a, b group theory, ring theory commutative algebra ). R (a ring or [AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B (ring theory). [g, h] = g1h1gh (or ghg1h1), if g, h group). G (a xy = x[x, y] (group theory). . 0 and 1/2 are in the interval [0,1].

triple scalar product the triple scalar product [a, b, c] = a b c, the scalar product of a b with c. of vector calculus function application of set theory image image of under f(X) means { f(x) : x X }, the image of the function f under the set X dom(f). f(x) means the value of the function f at the If f(x) := x2, then f(3) = 32 = 9. element x. [a, b, c] = [b, c, a] = [c, a, b].

() (,)

(This may also be written as f[X] if there is a risk of confusing the image of f under X with the function application f of X. Another everywhere notation is Im f, the image of f under its domain.) precedence grouping parentheses everywhere tuple An ordered list (or sequence, or horizontal vector, or row vector) of values. (a, b) is an ordered pair (or 2 -tuple). (a, b, c) is an ordered triple (or 3 -tuple). ( ) is the empty tuple (or 0-tuple). Perform the operations inside the parentheses first. (8/4)/2 = 2/2 = 1, but 8/(4/2) = 8/2 = 4.

tuple; n-tuple; ordered (Note that the notation (a,b) is ambiguous: pair/triple/etc; row it could be an ordered pair or an open vector; sequence interval. Set theorists and computer everywhere scientists often use angle brackets

instead of parentheses. ) highest common factor (a, b) means the highest common factor of a highest common factor; and b. (3, 7) = 1 (they are coprime); (15, 25) = 5. greatest common divisor; (This may also be written hcf(a, b) or gcd(a, hcf; gcd b).) number theory

## open interval open interval

. 4 is not in the interval (4, 18). (0, +) equals the set of positive real numbers.

(Note that the notation (a,b) is ambiguous: it could be an ordered pair or an open order theory interval. The notation ]a,b[ can be used instead.) left-open interval half-open interval; leftopen interval order theory right-open interval half-open interval; rightopen interval order theory inner product inner product of u,v means the inner product of u and v, where u and v are members of an inner product space. . .

(1, 7] and (, 1]

## [4, 18) and [1, +)

The standard inner product between two vectors x = (2, 3) and y = (1, 5) is: x, y = 2 1 + 3 5 = 13

linear algebra Note that the notation u, v may be ambiguous: it could mean the inner product or the linear span. There are many variants of the notation, such as u | v and (u | v), which are described below. For spatial vectors, the dot product notation, xy is common. For matrices, the colon notation A : B may be used. As and can be hard to type, the more keyboard friendly forms < and > are sometimes seen. These are avoided in mathematical texts. average average of statistics let S be a subset of N for example, represents the average of all the element in S. S means the span of S V. That is, it is the intersection of all subspaces of V which contain S. u1, u2, is shorthand for {u1, u2, } . . for a time series :g(t) (t = 1, 2,...) we can define the structure functions Sq( ):

## linear span (linear) span of; linear hull of

Note that the notation u, v may be ambiguous: it could mean the inner product linear algebra or the linear span. The span of S may also be written as Sp(S).

subgroup generated by a

## means the smallest subgroup of G

In S3,

and

set

(where S G, a group) containing every element of S. the subgroup generated is shorthand for . by group theory

tuple An ordered list (or sequence, or horizontal tuple; n-tuple; ordered vector, or row vector) of values. pair/triple/etc; row vector; sequence (The notation (a,b) is often used as well. ) everywhere u | v means the inner product of u and v, where u and v are members of an inner product space.[8] (u | v) means the same.

is an ordered pair (or 2-tuple). is an ordered triple (or 3 -tuple). is the empty tuple (or 0-tuple).

| (|)

inner product

Another variant of the notation is u, v which is described above. For spatial inner product of vectors, the dot product notation, xy is common. For matrices, the colon notation linear algebra A : B may be used. As and can be hard to type, the more keyboard friendly forms < and > are sometimes seen. These are avoided in mathematical texts. ket vector the ket ; the vector Dirac notation | means the vector with label , which is in a Hilbert space. A qubit's state can be represented as |0 + |1 , where and are complex numbers s.t. | |2 + | |2 = 1.

bra vector

| means the dual of the vector | , a linear the bra ; the dual of functional which maps a ket | onto the inner product | . Dirac notation summation sum over from to of arithmetic product product over from to of = (1+2)(2+2)(3+2)(4+2) = 3 4 5 6 = 360 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30

means a1 + a2 + + an.

means a1a2an.

arithmetic Cartesian product the Cartesian product of; the direct product of set theory coproduct means the set of all (n+1)-tuples (y0, , yn).

A general construction which subsumes the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups , and the coproduct over from direct sum of modules and vector spaces. to of The coproduct of a family of objects is essentially the "least specific" object to category theory which each object in the family admits a morphism.

## derivative prime; derivative of

f (x) means the derivative of the function f at the point x, i.e., the slope of the tangent to f at x.

## If f(x) := x2, then f (x) = 2x

(The single-quote character ' is sometimes calculus used instead, especially in ASCII text. ) derivative

dot; time derivative of calculus indefinite integral or antiderivative indefinite integral of the antiderivative of calculus

means the derivative of x with respect to If x(t) := t2, then time. That is . .

## f(x) dx means a function whose derivative is f.

x2 dx = x3/3 + C

definite integral b f(x) dx means the signed area between integral from to of a the x-axis and the graph of the function f with respect to between x = a and x = b. calculus line integral C f ds means the integral of f along the , where r is line/path/curve integral of curve C, a parametrization of C. along ab x2 dx = b3/3 a3/3;

calculus (If the curve is closed, the symbol may be used instead, as described below. ) Similar to the integral, but used to denote a single integration over a closed curve or loop. It is sometimes used in physics texts involving equations regarding Gauss's Law, and while these formulas involve a closed surface integral, the representations describe only the first integration of the volume over the enclosing surface. Instances where the latter requires simultaneous double Contour integral or integration, the symbol would be more closed line integral If C is a Jordan curve about 0, then appropriate. A third related symbol is the closed volume integral, denoted by the contour integral of . symbol . calculus The contour integral can also frequently be found with a subscript capital letter C, C, denoting that a closed loop integral is, in fact, around a contour C, or sometimes dually appropriately, a circle C. In representations of Gauss's Law, a subscript capital S, S, is used to denote that the integration is over a closed surface. gradient del, nabla, gradient of vector calculus divergence If . , then f (x1, , xn) is the vector of partial derivatives (f / x1, , f / xn). If f (x,y,z) := 3xy + z, then f = (3y, 3x, 2z)

del dot, divergence of vector calculus curl curl of vector calculus partial derivative partial, d f/xi means the partial derivative of f with respect to xi, where f is a function on ( x1, , xn). If f(x,y) := x2y, then f/x = 2xy calculus See also: . boundary If . , then

## M means the boundary of M

{x : ||x|| 2} = {x : ||x|| = 2}

f means the degree of the polynomial f. degree of (This may also be written deg f.) algebra delta delta; change in x means a (non-infinitesimal) change in x. (If the change becomes infinitesimal, and even d are used instead. Not to be confused with the symmetric difference, written , calculus above.)

(x2 1) = 2

## is the gradient of a straight line

Laplacian Laplace operator vector calculus Dirac delta function Dirac delta of hyperfunction Kronecker delta Kronecker delta of hyperfunction projection Projection of Relational algebra Pi 3.1415926_ or 227 selection attribute set. restricts R to the {a1,...,an} The Laplace operator is a second order differential operator in n -dimensional Euclidean space

## If is a twice-differentiable real-valued function, then the Laplacian of is defined by

(x)

ij

Age,Weight(Person)

Used in various formulas involving circles; is equivalent to the amount of area a circle would take up in a square of equal width A= R2=314.16 R=10 with an area of 4 square units, roughly 3.14/4. It is also the ratio of the circumference to the radius of a circle.

The selection a b(R) selects all those tuples in R for which holds between the a Selection of and the b attribute. The selection a v(R) Relational algebra selects all those tuples in R for which

Age = Weight(Person)

<: <

## x < y means that x is covered by y.

{1, 8} < {1, 3, 8} among the subsets of {1, 2, , 10} ordered by containment.

## If S <: T and T <: U then S <: U (transitivity).

A means the transpose of the complex conjugate transpose; conjugate of A.[9] Hermitian If A = (aij) then A = (aji). adjoint/conjugate/transpo *T T* * T This may also be written A , A , A , A or se; adjoint AT. matrix operations transpose AT means A, but with its rows swapped for columns. This may also be written At or Atr.

transpose matrix operations top element the top element lattice theory

## means the largest element of a lattice.

x:x

top type the top type; top type theory perpendicular is perpendicular to geometry orthogonal complement W means the orthogonal complement of W orthogonal/perpendicular (where W is a subspace of the inner product Within complement of; perp space V), the set of all vectors in V orthogonal to every vector in W. linear algebra coprime is coprime to number theory independent is independent of probability bottom element the bottom element lattice theory means the smallest element of a lattice. x:x = A B means A is an event whose probability is independent of event B. If A B, then P(A|B) = P(A). x y means x has no factor greater than 1 in 34 common with y. 55. . x y means x is perpendicular to y; or more If l generally x is orthogonal to y. m and m n in the plane then l || n. means the top or universal type; every type in the type system of interest is a subtype of top. types T, T <:

bottom type the bottom type; bot type theory comparability is comparable to order theory entailment entails model theory inference infers; is derived from propositional logic , predicate logic tensor product, tensor product of modules tensor product of linear algebra x y means y is derivable from x. A B B A. A B means the sentence A entails the sentence B, that is in every model in which A is true, B is also true. A A A x y means that x is comparable to y. {e, } {1, 2, e, 3, } under set containment. means the bottom type (a.k.a. the zero type or empty type); bottom is the subtype of every type in the type system. types T, <: T

means the tensor product of V and {1, 2, 3, 4} {1, 1, 2} = U. means the tensor product of {{1, 2, 3, 4}, {1, 2, 3, 4}, {2, 4, 6, 8}} modules V and U over the ring R.
[10]

## with functional analysis complex conjugate conjugate

z* means the complex conjugate of z. ( can also be used for the conjugate of z, as described below.) .

complex numbers group of units R* consists of the set of units of the ring R, along with t he operation of multiplication. the group of units of This may also be written R as described ring theory above, or U(R). hyperreal numbers the (set of) hyperreals non-standard analysis Hodge dual *R means the set of hyperreal numbers. Other sets can be used in place of R. *N is the hypernatural numbers.

*v means the Hodge dual of a vector v. If v If {ei} are the standard basis vectors of is a k-vector within an n-dimensional Hodge dual, Hodge star oriented inner product space, then *v is an (nk)-vector. linear algebra mean overbar, bar (often read as x bar) is the mean (average value of xi). means the complex conjugate of z. (z* can also be used for the conjugate of z, . .

## statistics complex conjugate

conjugate complex numbers algebraic closure algebraic closure of field theory topological closure (topological) closure of topology

as described above. )

The field of algebraic numbers is sometimes denoted is the algebraic closure of the field F. as because it is the algebraic closure of the rational numbers .

is the topological closure of the set S. This may also be denoted as cl(S) or Cl(S).

In the space of the real numbers, (the rational numbers are dense in the real numbers).

## Basic logic symbols

Name Should be read Symbol Explanation as Category material A B means if A is true then B is also implication true; if A is false then nothing is said implies; if .. then about B. may mean the same as (the symbol may also indicate the domain propositional logic, Heyting and codomain of a function; see table algebra of mathematical symbols ). may mean the same as (the Examples Unicode Value HTML Entity LaTeX symbol

## U+21D2 U+2192 U+2283 &rArr; &rarr; &sup; \Rightarrow \to \supset

symbol may also mean superset). material equivalence if and only if; iff A B means A is true if and only if B x + 5 = y +2 is true. x+3=y

## U+21D4 U+2261 U+2194 &hArr; \Leftrightarrow &equiv; \equiv &harr; \leftrightarrow

propositional logic

negation not

## The statement A is true if and only if A is false. (A) xy A (x = y)

U+00AC U+02DC

propositional A slash placed through another logic operator is the same as "" placed in front.

&not; &tilde; ~

\lnot \sim

!
logical conjunction and

&

propositional logic

The statement A B is true if A and B n < 4 n >2 n = 3 when are both true; else it is false. n is a natural number.

U+2227 U+0026

&and; &amp;

\land \&[1]

logical disjunction or

The statement A B is true if A or B n4 n2 n 3 when (or both) are true; if both are false, the n is a natural number. propositional statement is false. logic

U+2228

&or;

\lor

## exclusive disjunction xor

The statement A B is true when (A) A is always true, A either A or B, but not both, are true. A A is always false. propositional B means the same. logic, Boolean algebra

Tautology top

T 1

## The statement propositional true. logic, Boolean algebra

is unconditionally

is always true.

U+22A4

\top

Contradiction bottom The statement propositional false. logic, Boolean algebra is unconditionally A is always true. U+22A5 &perp; F \bot

0
universal quantification for all; for any; for each predicate logic existential quantification there exists first-order logic uniqueness quantification there exists exactly one first-order logic definition is defined as x: P(x) means P(x) is true for all x. n N: n2 n. U+2200 &forall; \forall

N: n is even.

U+2203

&exist;

\exists

! :=

!n

N: n + 5 = 2n.

## U+2203 U+0021 &exist; !

\exists !

: ()

x := y or x y means x is defined to be another name for y (but note that cosh x := (1/2)(exp x + exp (x)) can also mean other things, such as congruence). A XOR B : everywhere P : Q means P is defined to be (A B) (A B) logically equivalent to Q. Perform the operations inside the parentheses first.

## := : = := : \equiv &equiv; &hArr; \Leftrightarrow

precedence grouping

()

()

## everywhere inference infers or is derived from x propositional logic, first-order logic

Lower case letters Upper case Letters

U+22A2

\vdash

Unit symbol

## NB it always precedes a unit symbol

alpha

A = area A = nucleon number (atomic mass) a = acceleration = Wein constant = alpha particle

a = atto

x 1018

beta

## B = bell (sound intensity) Bq = becquerel (activity)

o
C = degree Celsius (temperature)

chi

C = capacitance

c = centi

x 10-

d o ligh

c p ci ic h capaci

del

d = diame er

## d = deci da = deca (or deka)

x 10-1 x 101

d = distance D = distance from screen to fringe pattern D = absorbed dose = change in = little change in e E epsilon e = charge on an electron E = energy Ek = kinetic energy E = electric field strength E = Young's Modulus = emf eV = electron volt (energy)

= exa

x 1018

= tensile strain

p rmi i i

pace

phi

F = force f = frequency f = focal length fe = focal length of eyepiece lens fo = focal length of objective lens
* = flux J = work function

f = femto

x 10-15

gamma

K = gamma ray

G = giga

x 109

eta

## h = height h = Planck constant H = dose equivalent H = hubble constant

L = coefficient of viscosity

## H = henry (inductance) Hz = hertz (frequency)

h = hecto

x 102

iota

I = current
I0 = peak current I = sound intensity I = moment of inertia

theta

## J = current density J = moment of inertia

. = angle

J = joule (energy)

kappa

k = kilo

x 103

lamda

l = length

l = litre ( =

## l = specific latent heat

P = wavelength P = decay constant

## L = self inductance L = angular momentum ln = natural log of log = log base 10 of m M

Q 1

mu

m = mass M = magnification
Q = permeability Q = coefficient of friction

m = metre (length) m = metre squared (area) m3 = metre cubed (volume) N = newton (force or weight)
2

M = mega m = milli
Q = micro

nu

## N = number NO = original number NA = Avogadro constant N = number of turns of

n = nano

x 10-9

wire n = number of moles n= order of diffraction n = number of charge carriers per unit volume n = refractive index o O
S 3

omicron

NOT used for anything. it would too easily be confused with the number zero
P = power p = pressure p = momentum
T = 3.14

pi

Pa = pascal (pressure)

p = pico P = peta

x 1012

x 1015

rho

## R = resistance R = molar gas constant R = reacrion force

V = density V = resistivity

W 7

sigma

## s = displacement (vector version of distance) s = slit width

W = conductivity W = tensile stress W = Stefan constant 7 = sum of

## s = second (time) Sv = sievert (dose equivalent) S = siemens (conductance)

tau

t = time T = temperature

## T = tesla (magnetic flux density)

T = tera

x 1012

T = period of a waveform T1/2 = half life TE = effective half life TB = bilogical half life TP = physical half life u U
Y 9

upsilon

## u = atomic mass unit (mass at atomic levels)

v = velocity v = final velocity (when used in conjunction with 'u') v = image distance V = volume V = potential difference

## V = volt (electric potential)

V0 = peak voltage w W
[ ;

omega

W = work done
[ = angular velocity

## ; = ohm (electrical resistance)

w = width of a fringe

## W = watt (power) Wb =weber (magnetic flux)

<

zeta

x = width X = reactance

y z

Y Z

] ^

= >

xi zeta