Definition of Optimization Cellular system Optimization is the continuation of the design process that occurs after site construction

, to ensure that a cell site is incorporated into the overall RF plan in a way that maximizes its potential for coverage and capacity while at the same time minimizes its detrimental effects on co-channel areas. Elements of Good Optimization 1. An Optimization engineer must be aware of all aspects of RF engineering from the design process and the implementation stage before he/she can make well informed decisions about optimization. 2. An Optimization engineer must consider the entire cellular system as whole and not just piece by piece, that is practicing “think globally, act locally”. 3. An Optimization engineer must be proficient in his knowledge of important database parameters in order that he/she may know what to change and how the changes affect the behavior of serving and neighboring sites. 4. An Optimization engineer must have an “eye for detail” for the entire network. For example, in matters relating to the maintenance of the neighbor list and database parameters. Who is responsible for Optimization Optimization Engineer • Responsible for setting database parameters so that mobile station (MS) hand in and hand out of each site at the appropriate signal levels and locations. The main objective for this is so that subscribers are able to experience continual calls with equal or better quality than the previous call whilst minimizing dropped handovers or drop calls. He/she is also responsible for minimization of interference to co-channel cells by ensuring that the serving cell is not ‘dragged’ beyond its intended serving area. RF Engineer • Responsible for building sites that significantly improve coverage and capacity without contributing to excessive interference to co-channel sites. Frequency Planner • Responsible for assigning channels that have the best chance of successful Optimization.

Optimization Duties 1. Call quality maintenance

a neighbor list has to be provided to the frequency planner for this to take place. An Optimization engineer must follow the procedure as in “New Site Verification and Functionality” form that is to ensure that the hardware is in proper working order. ms power control. Frequency & BSIC retunes • This happens when new frequencies specified by the frequency planner need to be implemented in order that new sites can come up. Therefore. In any case. Bringing into service (BIS) of new sites • The BIS of new sites happens as and when RF engineering rolls out their growth plans to meet capacity and coverage requirements. an Optimization engineer should have strict control over this list. 5. check and verify for call origination and termination. Regular drive tests on the field will also be necessary in order that real problems maybe discovered and attended to. That engineer’s primary responsibility is to ensure that the call quality and congestion of the area is at an acceptable level area via drop call and blocking statistics respectively as an indicator. 4. site information is as in work order.2. familiarize with the coverage area of the new site and ensure that this new site is integrated without causing any problems to the existing network. What is handover? . An Optimization engineer must provide the correct neighbor list to BSS and carry out the drive test to verify handover performance whenever this takes place. Neighbor list maintenance • A correct and accurate neighbor list the heart of correctly defined handovers. Reparenting of sites & LAC change • Reparenting takes place when there is a need to transfer the site to another BSC as determined by capacity requirements specified by BSS network design. Basic Optimization Theory 1. • Each optimization engineer in MNPP is specifically in charge of a given area. retunes take places for interference control reasons. 3. Alternatively.

Criteria 1 Rxlev_ncell (n) > Rxlev_min (n) + Max (0. Intercell handover occurs between two different cells.g. we observed that the rxlev perceived by the MS of cell B is stronger as the MS goes further away from cell A. relief of congestion.Consider cell A and cell B. While external handover occurs between two cells of different BSC. In general. Handover is required to maintain a call in progress as a MS passes from one cell coverage area to another and may also be employed to meet network management requirements e. To sustain the call. Pa) (1) . Intracell handover occurs within a same cell from one carrier to another. Poor signal strength measurements taken on the original radio channel would not normally be improved by performing intra-cell handovers as the signal strength of all radio channels within that cell would be similar. namely intracell and intercell. ‘internal’ or ‘external’. Handover Criteria i. Internal handover occurs between two cells within the same BSC. the MS therefore should hand into cell B. At the edge. there are two types of handover. It can be categorize into two. The MS travel from cell A to cell B. It would only be required if an MS is on the radio channel that is subjected to co-channel interference.

Interference There are basically three types of interference that an Optimization engineer has to deal with.Actual BTS output power = power correction factor P is max power of the MS = 2 Watt or 33dBm Rxlev_DL is the downlink receive level as measured by the MS Substituting the values given and simplifying Equation 2 yields PBGT = [ Rxlev_DL ] . iii.Rxlev_DL . ii.Pwr_C_D] serving . namely co-channel interference. .Ho_margin > 0 (2) Criteria 2 states that the PBGT(n) value must be greater than the ho_margin value which is specified in the add neighbor parameter for a handoff to be requested.P P = max power of ms = 2Watts or 33dBm and ms_txpwr_max is the parameter max_tx_ms set in the database as 33dBm Criteria 1 states that the neighbor’s receive level otherwise know as Rxlev_ncell must be greater that a minimum level for that neighbor.[ Rxlev_DL + Pwr_C_D) neighbor server (4) 2. The value is so low that the first criteria has no effects on handover but in a correctly optimized system this value would be set depending on the measure signal strength of the neighbor at the desired point of the handoff. adjacent channel interference and external interference.Rxlev_DL] neighbor (3) where ms_txpwr_max is the parameter max_tx_ms set in the database as 33dBm Pwr_C_D is max_tx_bts .[ min (ms_txpwr_max. The power budget formula is given as: PBGT = [ min (ms_txpwr_max. By setting a correct value of Rxlev_min. P) . Criteria 2 PBGT (n) . Setting a higher value of Rxlev_min will bias the traffic to stay on the serving cell longer. Power Budget Assessment Process Handover are generally triggered by a mathematical process based on Power Budget calculation. Any neighbor failing Criteria 1 is not further considered in any handover decision process.Where Pa = ms_txpwr_max (n) . P) . you can force MS to stay on a cell throughout its intended coverage area even if a neighbor cell become stronger. Currently the default value of the Rxlev_min is -105dBm.

In order to achieve this.is a result of frequencies transmitting in the adjacent frequency band next to the carrier in question.comes from sites using the same frequency as its carrier some distance away. This interference causes the desensitization to our MS receiver causing the phone to be unable to receive our own Maxis signals. the interferer must be at least 12dB lower than the carrier. Below is a summary of some of the methods used for controlling interference. Other sources include interference from other operators namely. Every channel has therefore 2 adjacent channels.Co-channel interference . the C/I of every serving cell must be closely maintained. This will cause high interference on idle to our sites and increasing the drop call. For adjacent channel interference. Another source is Mobikom. Maintaining Carrier to Interferer ratio (C/I) The most common specification in Optimization is what is know as Carrier to Inteferer (C/I) ratio. the interferer must not be allowed to be stronger than the carrier by 9dB. The C/I has a direct reflection on the perceived quality of the call. The goal of any good Optimization is to maximize the capacity of the cell without comprising the quality of the call experienced by the subscriber. 3. Controlling Interference An Optimization engineer must make decisions about the handover boundaries in order to deal with interference that is inherent in the system. The Optimization engineer needs to deal with both power budget defined boundaries as well as quality defined boundaries. these boundaries can be different due to irregularity of DRCU power levels. For quality defined boundaries. Should the C/I degrade. Celcom.can classified as interference that is external to our own Maxis Network. typically 4 cells away (for n = 4 reuse pattern) Adjacent interference . This figure specifies the minimum requirement that the system can tolerate before suffering from bad quality calls. External interference . the system must be able to handover the call to its best neighbor in order that the subscriber can still experience a goof quality call. these boundaries can be different because the BCCH frequencies . The most common source is Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras that are found in a wide area of retail and commercial shopping complexes. 3.1 Defining correct handover boundaries This task involves knowing where the serving cell covers both for the BCCH and the TCH DRCUs. For co-channel interference. For power budget defined boundaries.

Lowering down a site/antennae will let you have a better control over the site boundaries and thus.does not employ frequency hopping whilst the TCH has aggressive frequency over 9 frequencies.3 Power down of sites The powering down of a sites will enable you to meet the C/I at the areas you are experiencing bad quality calls.4 Lowering down sites/antennae This option is also done in conjunction with the RF engineer This method is only used when you are certain that you do not need the site to serve so far. 3.5 Employing Power Control . and that no areas especially far field will suffer from low rf or bad quality after the lowering down. 3. and no subscriber should enjoy the rxqual of 0 while other subscribers in the network suffer from a bad quality call due to co-channel interference. 3.2 Downtilting antennae This option is done in conjunction with the RF engineer and is only used when you are certain that the main beam and far field of an interference site is causing a problem at another co-channel site. Note that the power of the side lobes of an antenna is not reduced by downtilts. the powering down of an interfering site can cause problem to in-building sites where it was originally serving. you can ensure that your serving cell covers the intended area of service before experiencing interference from co-channel sites. By downtilting the antenna. while being very effective in a localized area.Long term interference control Power control is a feature available to GSM and can be described as follows. Should the server experiences interference. By employing BTS/MS power control carefully. This option. This will in turn ensure that the subscribers the best quality calls wherever he is. the average BTS/MS transmit power will reduce significantly whilst the C/I ratio is another co-channel site will increase thereby improving the quality of the call. 3. This idea is based on the fact that the human ear is unable to differentiate between the voice quality of Rxqual 0 and 1. a handover to the best target should occur. 4. reducing interference. Therefore. we can reduce the interferer anywhere from 1dB to 20dB. has been known to cause other problems in other areas that are further away. This means that there is no benefits from downtilting if the side lobes is causing interference. For instance. the BTS/MS will dynamically reduce the power until a level that will not compromise the quality of the call. it should be used only when necessary and with great care. Optimization Tools (TEMS) -Test Mobile System . When the BTS/MS is receiving the MS/BTS transmission clearly. By knowing where your serving cell boundaries.

uplink receive level vi. downlink receive level vii. Handover Algorithms There are a number of reasons that can cause a MS to handover from one cell to another. 5. uplink receive quality ii. mobile station distance viii. Below is a summary of how it looks like. power budget . downlink receive quality iv. uplink interference iii. The Radio Sub-System (RSS) software decides on the appropriate handovers cause values according to the following priority order: i. downlink interference v.The basic tools Optimization engineers use is TEMS.

the BTS will initiate an interference handover and the MS will handover to another channel within the same cell. The concept behind this is most applicable for non-hopping cells.5times . by enabling rxlev handover. 5.g. To enable ul/dl rxqual handover. The threshold is set at l_rxqual_ul/dl_h = 350 which is between a quality of 4 to 5 (rxqual 0 is best. The default value is 40.1 UL/DL rxqual The uplink and downlink quality handover procedures are identical. e. However. So. the RSS will have to determine when the quality is considered ‘bad’. ul/dl_rxlev_ho_allowed = 1 and the threshold set is l_rxlev_ul/dl_h = 10. If the rxlev is 40 and below with rxqual above 350. since power budget handover is disabled. if power budget handover is also enabled. the optimization engineer is able to extend the cells coverage. then. the BTS will initiate a quality handover and will handover to another cell. A common usage for rxlev handover is when a cell is significantly powered down or downtilted in order to combat interference. 5. the others further down the list are ignored. The Motorola recommended value is 1.If a handover is triggered through one decision process in the priority list. The handover trigger will then lead to further processing for Criteria 1 and Criteria 2.4 Ms_distance Here is a handover is initiated because the MS is being served by a cell to faraway. so that the MS will hand out of that serving cell. 5. the hopping carrier will then use l_rxqual_ul/dl_h_hopping. For an interference handover to occur. If hop_qual_enabled is turn on.2 UL/DL interference Interference handover igs a intracell handover. If ul/dl rxqual handover are enabled. Since the ‘powered down’ cell has shrunk. set ul/dl_rxqual_ho_allowed = 1. To enable. concentric cells. namely handover between radios in the same cell. at which point the BTS will determine whether to handover due to quality or interference. Thus intra_cell_handover_allowed = 1 and interfer_ho_allowed = 1. This discriminating parameter is u_rxlev_ul/dl_ih. ordinarily. As such. pbgt handover is disabled when turning on rxlev handover. Rxqual handover has the highest priority so as to reduce the possibility of a drop call. It is initiated if the signal strength of the MS or BTS decreases below a given threshold. where a particular channel (having been assigned to given radio) is interfered greater than other channels in the same cell. for a signal strength (rxlev) of above 40 with a quality (rxqual) of above 350. the MS must first qualify for an ul/dl rxqual handover. a great amount of care must be taken when enabling rxlev handover. 5. which is determined y its timing advance value. However. rxqual 7 is worst).3 UL/DL rxlev Rxlev handover algorithm is basically a comparison of receive signal strength. This threshold is then set by the optimization engineer. it is likely to qualify for pbgt handover before ever qualifying for rxlev handover.

Type 1 to 7 are various forms of Power Budget Handovers.1 Type 1 Algorithm (PBGT algorithm) This algorithm simply allows all the handover reasons to function is they are enabled. It may be used to keep fast moving mobiles on the macro and reduce handovers in cell that are extremely strong for only a short period of time. Type 2 handover is typically used to handover from a microcell to macrocell. 6. where [PBGT . All this means is that the MS in a serving cell may handover to a different neighbor based on different handover conditions.4 Type 4 Algorithm The handover is determined by the handover margin and a delay timer which started upon a hand in into that cell. delay timer and threshold.5 Power budget handover By far. the MS will handover to this neighbor. timing_advance_period = <0 to 31> and ms_distance_allowed = 1. which simply means that whenever the power of a neighboring cell is greater than the server by 4dB. which is 12km away due to quality. When all 3 conditions are met. 6. a timer is started and no handovers are allowed until the timer expires. Cell B has ms_distance handover turned on with a ms_max_range = 20 (approx 10km). The 3 main mechanisms for microcell handovers are handover margins. C. Example: The MS hands out from a cell A to cell B.5 Type 5 Algorithm . 6. The delays are based on number of SACCH multiframes (approximately in steps of 0. the cell boundary (of say Cell A) is defined by the relative signal strength of its neighboring cells (say Cell B. etc.3 Type 3 Algorithm Commonly known as ‘around-the-corner’ handover and is defined by a handover margin. D. 6. As such. Microcell Handover There are a total of 7 types of handovers and are popularly know as ‘Algorithms’ and are determined on a per neighbor basis. 6. Upon a hand in.ho_margin > 0] and as well as uplink and downlink rxlev threshold where [ul_rxlev(s) < ul_rxlev_serv_l & dl_rxlev(s) < dl_rxlev_serv_l]. only then the MS will qualify for a handover. Type 1 handover is the used for macrocell to macrocell handover. the most important handover and is enable by setting pwr_handover_allowed = 1. The default handover margin = 4.2 Type 2 Algorithm (Emergency handover) This algorithm is known as emergency handover since the MS will handover to another cell with any reasons except power budget.5s) and the threshold are based on signal strength (rxlev dB). 6. The parameter used to set the handover type is pbgt_alg_type = <1 to 7>.the cells serving area.). The parameters used are ms_max_range = <0 to 63>. Will the MS in cell B handout? ___________ 5.

increases Phantom RACHs. Some extra points 8. upon which a static offset is added to the ho_margin to further discourage handover to it. The Type 6 algorithm may be viewed as a more sophisticated type 5 algorithm. Upon expiry of the timer. 7. These in turn. validation. 8.The handover is determined by the handover margin. 3 times that of a non-LAC border.2 Phantom RACHs Phantom RACHs occur primarily as the result of sporadic noise and interference. SDCCH usage of a cell in a LAC border is approx. Location Area Code The location area code indicates the location of the cell. attaching/detaching of an IMSI.6 Type 6 Algorithm This is a handover where the neighbor is made extremely unattractive when it is first detected. An important factor in determining SDCCH utilization is whether the cell is a Location Area border or not. If the signal strength difference between the adjacent channels is greater than the parameter adj_chan_rxlev_diff. a dynamic offset is subtracted from previous calculation. The area where 2 or more cells have different location areas. are known as Location Area border. the MS will perform a Location Update (LAC update). When the signal strength of the target cell is above the specified threshold. delay and a threshold. the handover will be triggered. 6. When a mobile moves from one cell to another cell having a different LAC. 8. Short Message Service (SMS) and Location Update. This is to inform the network that the MS has now moved to a new location area. Having co-channel co-bsic sites close to one another. The timer starts when PBGT(n) > ho_margin. the neighbor will be taken off the candidate list. but becomes preferred neighbor after the expiry of a timer. It is part of the GSM cell identity (5 0 2 1 2 2021 27721) and is used to page mobiles within a group of cells defined by having the same Location Area Code (LAC). if PBGT (n) > ho_margin. After the expiry of the timer. thus encouraging handovers into the particular cell. the timer will start. This algorithm is commonly used to handover from macrocell to microcell. Dynamic channel reconfiguration is also used to balance out the need for SDCCH blocks and the TCH timeslots according to the traffic needs at a given time and reduce the blocking without the permanent loss of TCHs.7 Type 7 Algorithm The algorithm is used to avoid handovers to neighboring cell with adjacent interference problems. 6. 8.1 Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) The SDCCH is used for call setup. clog up an already limited SDCCH timeslots resource and influence SDCCH congestion.3 SDCCH Blocking . Channel requests from distant mobiles can be affected by such noise.

while Paging Channel (PCH) and Access Grant Channel (AGCH) operate in the downlink direction. 8.4 Common Control Channel (CCCH) Where SDCCH is crucial in making calls. Common Control Channels (CCCH) are essential for both making as well as receiving calls. On the uplink. Type 2 will handover all the mobiles which qualify for the handover due to congestion relief. and unable to send SMS may occur.6 Congestion Relief Congestion relief is designed to handover candidates meeting the criteria. the PCH and the AGCH are never used at the same time4. when there is congestion in a given cell. When using dynamic SDCCH configuration 1 TCH (or more) is reconfigured to give 8 SDCCH sub-slots. If a cell has abnormally high SDCCH blocking. The number of paging blocks required will be determined by the paging rate and the number of subscribers within a given Location Area.5 Traffic Channel (TCH) Blocking Also commonly known as congestion and is probably the second most common subscriber complain after drop calls. 8.SDCCH Blocking is influenced mainly by the Phantom RACHs and whether a cell is a LAC border cell. The first type of CR is the preferred choice. the Location Update Rate and the SMS Call Rate. Basic RF Optimization 2. whereas the PCH is used to call a mobile. TCH block normally occur when the traffic for the particular cell site increases or there is a site down event and may also due to hardware failure. The number of AGCH blocks are determined by the Call Rate. Microcellular Principles SYS08 6. Introduction to Digital Cellular CP02 3. Congestion relief is one method to circumvent blocking. BSS Database SYS02 4. Type 1 only handover the required number of mobiles so that those mobiles which are trying to originate within that cell will be able to access it. The AGCH is used to assign resources to the MS. BSS Sub Stem Performance SYS05 . then various other problems such as unable to make calls. such as SDCCH. it is used to send RACH messages. BSS Database Application SYS03 5. There are 2 types of CR. instead of the MS that is attempting to make the call. BSS Sub-system Planning SYS04 7. Reference 1. It is also influenced by the number of SDCCH blocks configured for a given site. 8. It should be noted however.

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