Introduction to QUALITY OF SERVICE and TRAFFIC LOAD MONITORING BSS release B9

TRAINING MANUAL 3FL10491ACAAWBZZA ed 2 – October 2006

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Safety Warning Both lethal and dangerous voltages are present within the equipment. Do not wear conductive jewelry while working on the equipment. Always observe all safety precautions and do not work on the equipment alone. Caution The equipment used during this course is electrostatic sensitive. Please observe correct anti-static precautions. Trade Marks Alcatel and MainStreet are trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarks, service marks and logos (“Marks”) are the property of their respective holders including Alcatel. Users are not permitted to use these Marks without the prior consent of Alcatel or such third party owning the Mark. The absence of a Mark identifier is not a representation that a particular product or service name is not a Mark. Copyright This document contains information that is proprietary to Alcatel and may be used for training purposes only. No other use or transmission of all or any part of this document is permitted without Alcatel’s written permission, and must include all copyright and other proprietary notices. No other use or transmission of all or any part of its contents may be used, copied, disclosed or conveyed to any party in any manner whatsoever without prior written permission from Alcatel. Use or transmission of all or any part of this document in violation of any applicable Canadian or other legislation is hereby expressly prohibited. User obtains no rights in the information or in any product, process, technology or trademark which it includes or describes, and is expressly prohibited from modifying the information or creating derivative works without the express written consent of Alcatel. Alcatel, The Alcatel logo, MainStreet and Newbridge are registered trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Alcatel assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented, which is subject to change without notice. © 2004 Alcatel. All rights reserved. Disclaimer In no event will Alcatel be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including lost profits, lost business or lost data, resulting from the use of or reliance upon the information, whether or not Alcatel has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Mention of non-Alcatel products or services is for information purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Please refer to technical practices supplied by Alcatel for current information concerning Alcatel equipment and its operation.

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Product Line Course Title Course Number

™ EVOLIUM™ Mobile Radio Solutions Introduction to GSM QoS and traffic load monitoring / B9 3FL10491ABAA

Audience
Customer personnel in charge of the radio optimization, quality of service and radio trafficengineering.

Course content
1 Introduction
1.1 Monitoring the Qos of the BSS 1.2 Monitoring the traffic Load of the BSS 1.3 Information sources available 1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation

Objectives
During this training, the participant will learn how interpret counters and indicators of the Alcatel BSS System. By the end of the course, the participant will be able to interpret : Global indicators, in order to assess the general quality of the network Detailed indicators, in order to detect / identify / locate the main malfunctions Handover indicators, in order to quantify efficiency and reason of HO Directed retry indicators, in order to quantify efficiency of directed retry RMS indicators to ease radio optimisation and fault detection Traffic indicators, in order to detect/predict overload and compute adequate cell dimensioning as well as to understand how RTCH resources are used in the network

2

Global Indicators
2.1 Indicators definition 2.2 Methodological precautions 2.3 Typical call failures 2.4 Description of global indicators 2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators 2.6 Global indicators interpretation

3

Detailed Indicators
3.1 Indicator reference name 3.2 Indicators classification

4

HO Indicators
4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell 4.2 Internal handover indicators per cell 4.3 External handover indicators per cell 4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells

5

Directed Retry Indicators
5.1 Internal directed retry indicators 5.2 External directed retry indicators

Prerequisites
In depth knowledge of GSM BSS system architecture Windows literate

6

Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) indicators
6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives 6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS 6.3 RMS data 6.4 Call quality statistics per TRX 6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX 6.6 C/I statistics 6.7 RMS indicators usage 6.8 Additional information

Training Methods
Theory and practice on PC

Language
English - French

Duration
5 days

7

Traffic Indicators
• • • • • •

Location
Alcatel University or Customer Premises

Number of participants
8 maximum

7.1 Call mix definition 7.2 Basis of traffic theory 7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators 7.4 Resource occupancy indicators 7.5 Traffic model indicators 7.6 Preemption indicators

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Objectives
Course title : Client (Company, centre) : Language : Number of trainees : Surname, First name : dates from : Location :

Contract number :

to :

Did you meet the following objectives ? Tick the corresponding box Please, return this sheet to the trainer at the end of the training
Instructional objectives 1- To be able to interpret Global indicators, in order to assess the general quality of the network 2- To be able to interpret Detailed indicators, in order to detect / identify / locate the main malfunctions 3- To be able to interpret Handover indicators, in order to quantify efficiency and reason of HO 4- To be able to interpret Directed retry indicators, in order to quantify efficiency of directed retry 5- To be able to interpret RMS indicators to ease radio optimisation and fault detection 6- To be able to interpret Traffic indicators, in order to detect/predict overload and compute adequate cell dimensioning as well as to understand how RTCH resources are used in the network Yes (or Globally yes) No (or globally no) Comments

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Objectives (continued)
Instructional objectives Yes (or Globally yes) No (or globally no) Comments

Other comments

Thank you for your answers to this questionnaire

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1 INTRODUCTION

All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

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Alcatel © Alcatel 8 .1 Introduction Section presentation > Objective: to be able to explain what is QoS and Traffic Load monitoring of the BSS and what are the information sources available for that purpose > Program: • 1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS • 1.3 Information sources available • 1.4 Introduction to K1205 PC emulation Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 8 All rights reserved © 2004.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS • 1.

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 9 .

localize. etc.1. Alcatel © Alcatel 10 . BSS.) • diagnose: radio. TC problems Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 10 All rights reserved © 2004. diagnose outages • detect (decide according to thresholds) • localize (which cell.1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS Definition > ”Monitor" "network" "quality" • monitor = measure or ensure? • network = BSS? BSS+NSS? BSS+NSS+PSTN … • quality = service (end-user) and/or system (technical) > But also detect. BSC.

⇒ needs to have the most detailed status of QoS at cell and TRX levels on an hourly basis.1. ⇒ needs to have a general view of the Network QoS on a monthly (and sometimes weekly) basis. daily (and sometimes hourly) basis. Supervision and Maintenance team: has to detect dramatic QoS degradations and identify the responsible Network Element (and if possible component). Management team: has to compare Network QoS with competitors' one and to plan Network evolutions. 3. ⇒ needs to have a detailed status and evolution of the QoS at BSS and cell (and sometimes TRX) levels on a weekly. Radio Optimization team: has to detect bad QoS areas in the network and to implement and assess modifications for QoS improvement. Alcatel > 3 usages of QoS data ⇒ 3 levels of QoS reports: 1. © Alcatel 11 .1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS Usage Radio optimization Radio optimization Management Management •network monitoring •network monitoring •comparison with competitor •comparison with competitor •comparison of manufacturers •comparison of manufacturers •contractual requirement: licence •contractual requirement: licence •quality responsible •quality responsible •cell radio quality survey •cell radio quality survey •HO quality monitoring •HO quality monitoring •assessment of tuning efficiency •assessment of tuning efficiency BSS maintenance BSS maintenance •cell/BSC/TC problem detection •cell/BSC/TC problem detection QoS Results QoS Results Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 11 All rights reserved © 2004. 2.

1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 12 .

handover.1. location update. © Alcatel 13 . Alcatel > Traffic characteristics used as a "call mix" to dimension or re-dimension the network will be developed in the section Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS. etc.2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS Definition > Measure the "quantity" of traffic handled by: • the network • the BSCs • the cells > Analyze traffic characteristics • call. > As input for dimensioning/architecture team Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 13 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Information sources available All rights reserved © 2004.1 INTRODUCTION 1. Alcatel © Alcatel 14 .

3 Information sources available Observation means > DIFFERENT WAYS TO OBSERVE/MEASURE the GSM network External Interface Analysis A interface: MSC/TC-BSC Abis interface: BSC/BTS Air MS/BTS OMC Counters BSC (NSS) Tektronix K1205 Counter browser W&G NPA Gnnettest MPA Abis Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 15 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > QoS data can be built-up from different and complementary kinds of information sources. MS Air BTS MSC/VLR BSC TC Abis SACCH RSL Ater N7 A N7 drive test tool protocol analyzer © Alcatel 15 . A (or Ater). Abis. > Usually post-processing applications will build up QoS indicators from: • OMC-R counters provided by the BSS system itself. • Signaling messages provided by a protocol acquisition tool on the different interfaces handled by the BSS: Air.1.

3 Information sources available A interface trace INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "A" > Capture/decode signaling between MSC and BSC-TC (A or Ater MUX) with "protocol analyzer" (Wandel. etc. as the N7 signaling load is spread over all N7 links. Alcatel > The main advantage of the A interface is to allow the detection of Call Setup failures either due to the User or to the NSS (or PSTN).Time consuming. © Alcatel 16 . file analysis) . Tektronix. Gnnettest. > Some typical user failure causes are: Some typical NSS failure causes are: IMSI Unknown in VLR Temporary Failure IMSI Unknown in HLR Resource Unavailable IMEI Not Accepted Switching Equipment Congestion PLMN Not Allowed Normal Unspecified Service Option Not Supported Recovery on Timer Expiry Requested Service Not Supported Call Reject Unassigned Number Interworking Operator Determined Barring Protocol Error User Alerting Network Failure Facility Not Subscribed Congestion No Route to Destination Normal Call Clearing User Busy Invalid Number Format Call Reject Interworking Normal Unspecified > CAUTION: In order to assess the QoS of a BSS or some cells of a BSS. Indeed.High cost of equipment . signaling messages relating to one call can be conveyed on any of the active N7 links. K1205/MPA: 32 COCs maximum!) .Expertise needed for analysis . all N7 links between this BSC and the MSC must be traced.Low coverage (K1103/MA10: 8 COCs.) + GSM standard. > K1103 protocol analyzer can trace up to 8 COCs at the same time but on maximum 4 PCM physical links. "post mortem" (installation of tool. can be used for arbitrage between manufacturers + Complete information (message contents. > K1205 protocol analyzer can trace up to 32 COCs at the same time but on maximum 16 PCM physical links.Large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes /hour/BSC) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 16 All rights reserved © 2004.1. time-stamp) + Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems .

1.3 Information sources available Example of trace On a K1205 protocol analyzer Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 17 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 17 .

> BUT from B7 release. © Alcatel 18 . Tektronix. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > The main advantage of the Abis trace is to allow a detailed and precise assessment of the radio quality of a cell at TRX level. file analysis) Important expertise needed for analysis Very low coverage (A few RSLs. Gnnettest. the Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) feature implemented in the BSS provides a good level of information allowing to reduce the number of Abis traces to be done for radio network optimization.3 Information sources available Abis interface trace INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Abis" > Capture/decode signaling between BSC and BTS with "protocol analyzer" (Wandel.1. etc. Both DownLink and UpLink paths can be observed and compared. "post mortem" (installation of tool.) + + + + Complete information (message contents. a few cell(s)) Very large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes/hour/BTS) 18 All rights reserved © 2004. time-stamp) Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems Complete radio information thanks to measurement messages Downlink and uplink High cost of equipment Time consuming.

no location of the radio problems is provided through the RMS. © Alcatel 19 . > Even if the RMS feature will allow to assess the radio quality as perceived by the end user.3 Information sources available Air interface trace INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Air" > Use trace MS to capture signaling and signal characteristics + + + + Give precise location (x.y) of problems Give downlink radio information Only way to localize a lack of coverage Only way to monitor competitor .1.Very time-consuming .No uplink Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 19 All rights reserved © 2004.Difficulty to perform a lot of calls -> number of samples insufficient -> only a few streets .High cost of equipment . Alcatel > The main advantage of the Air trace is to associate a radio quality measurement to a given geographical area of the network.

Alcatel > The main advantage of the BSS counters is to provide easily QoS data for permanent QoS monitoring. value reported periodically (1 hour) + Low cost: collected directly at OMC + Compact data: possibility to store counters for a complete network . © Alcatel 20 .Manufacturer's dependent: questionable/difficult to compare .3 Information sources available Performance Measurement counters SUB-SYSTEM COUNTERS > Counts events seen by sub-system.Raw information. having to be consolidated to be understandable .1.Weak to analyze other sub-systems Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 20 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 21 .1.3 Information sources available Exercise > Draw the BSS PM counters flow on the chart > In which sub-system are the BSS QoS indicators computed and stored? BSC OMC-R BSC OMC-R OMC-R NPA BSC RNO Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 21 All rights reserved © 2004.

with breakdown per cell/BSC > SPECIFIC DRAWBACK • NSS/PSTN/MS/USER problems not seen Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 22 All rights reserved © 2004. PSTN or User. © Alcatel 22 .1. there is no way to identify QoS problems due to NSS.3 Information sources available BSS counters BSS COUNTERS > Combined into significant formulae: indicators > Used to monitor BSS network quality > Over a complete network. Alcatel > As BSS PM counters are defined in order to provide information to assess the QoS of the BSS and help to detect BSS misbehavior.

3 Information sources available NSS counters NSS COUNTERS > Combined into significant formulas: indicators > Used to monitor NSS network quality > Over a complete network. Alcatel > The NSS QoS is provided through NSS PM counters and indicators. © Alcatel 23 . It is out of the scope ot this training course. with breakdown per BSC (maximum) > SPECIFIC DRAWBACKS • BSS problems usually not precisely identified • No breakdown per cell Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 23 All rights reserved © 2004.1.

The principle is to count for a given duration called granularity period (typically 1 hour) pre-defined events occurring on the Abis or A interface. with breakdown per network component (i. or internally. Alcatel > Alcatel has chosen to implement PM counters in the BSC and to increment them mostly on Abis interface signaling messages.1. around 1000 counters are available (without GPRS). In order to provide the operators with an easy and cost-effective way to monitor their network and carried traffic.3 Information sources available ALCATEL BSS counters INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (1/2) > Performance Management implementation • Easy and cost-effective way to monitor network and carried traffic > Principle: • For a given duration (granularity period= typically 1 hour) • To count pre-defined events occurring on the Abis or A interface. cell). > Other suppliers may have chosen to increment them on A interface signaling messages or to implement them in the BTS. > Therefore caution should be taken when interpreting QoS indicators value since some discrepancies may be observed due to these possible choices. called performance management. cell) > In the BSS B9. • Counters stored with breakdown per network component (I. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 24 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 24 .e. or internally. BSS manufacturers have implemented specific software features.e. These counters are stored for each duration.

> Every reporting period. > Several counters are reported to the OMC-R permanently every PM granularity period: • Type 180: per cell adjacency • Type 110 per cell • Other Types: per TRX / N7 Link / BSC …/… Millions of counters are collected every day Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 25 All rights reserved © 2004. counters are computed by BSC.1.3 Information sources available ALCATEL BSS counters INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (2/2) > In Alcatel BSS (except GPRS). counters values are sent to the OMC-R for storage. Alcatel © Alcatel 25 . based mainly on Abis messages.

Alcatel > All counters are described in the "PM counters and indicators". Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 26 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 26 .1.3 Information sources available BSS counter Example > MC718: counter number > NB_TCH_NOR_ASS_SUCC_TRX: counter name > Cumulative: method of computation > Type 110: BSS PM measurement type to which the counter belongs > Measured object: minimum object level for which the counter is provided: TRX or CELL or BSC or N7 LINK or X25 LINK etc.

Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Main counters are of cumulative type. > Observation counters are grouped in a Performance Measurement record associated to a particular GSM BSS telecom procedure: SDCCH channel seizure. a task quantifies an internal resource status (usually a table) At the end of a collection period. or internal event At the end of a collection period. the result is the sum of the events > Inspection • • Every 20 or 10 seconds. internal handover. © Alcatel 27 . UL & DL measurements reporting) 27 All rights reserved © 2004. channel release. the result is the mean value > Observation • Set of recorded information about a telecom procedure (handover.3 Information sources available BSS counter characteristics Collection mechanism > Cumulative • • • The counter is incremented at the occurrence of a specific event Abis or A message. > Inspection counters are of gauge type. TCH channel seizure. etc.1.

26. 18. 27) > The most important types for QoS monitoring and Radio Network Optimization are in bold. 4. 180) • detailed types (1. 5. 15. or TCH channels Set of counters related to the usage of CCCH channel (PCH. 3. 29. > A standard PM type can be activated for the whole network. 32. RACH) Set of counters related to the usage of SDCCH channel Set of counters related to the usage of TCH channel Set of counters related to the TCH handover procedure Set of counters related to the LapD logical links Set of counters related to the X25 links OMC-BSC Set of counters related to the N7 Signaling Links Observation counters on SDCCH channels allocated Observation counters on 08. 6. 15 • 1 cell per BSS for PM types 11. SDCCH. 5. X25 link. 6. 28. 12. 31. 4. 3. Adjacency). 5. AGCH. 30. 13.z: cumulative counters in PM type 110 (M stands for Major) © Alcatel 28 .08 CLEAR REQUEST and 08. 6.z: cumulative counters in PM type 8 (X stands for X25 link) • Ny.08 ASSIGNMENT FAILURE Set of counters related to Short Message Service Point to Point Set of counters related to SCCP Layer of the N7 signaling Links Set of counters related to outgoing TCH handover provided per adjency Set of counters related to incoming TCH handover provided per adjency Set of counter related to the SDCCH handover procedure Set of counter related to the directed retry handover procedure Set of counters related to Short Message Service Cell Broadcast Set of counters providing radio quality measurements for TRX/Cell Set of counters related to handovers including a change of TCH Frequency band Average emitted power at the BTS antenna output Set of key counters allowing to access Quality of Service of a given Cell/BSC/Network Set of counters related to incoming inter-cell SDCCH/TCH handover performed per adjency Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 28 All rights reserved © 2004. 28. 2. 180 • Ly. 14. N7 link.1. 25. 29. 26. 13. 25.3 Information sources available BSS Performance Measurement types N° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 110 180 Type Name Traffic Measurement Resource Availability Measurement CCCH channel resource usage measurements SDCCH channel resource usage measurements TCH channel resource usage measurements TCH Handover Measurements LAPD Measurement X. 11. LAPD link. 19. 14 (HO stands for HandOver) • Tyz: observation counters in PM type 15 (T stands for TCH) • RMSyz: cumulative counters in PM type 31 (RMS stands for Radio Measurement Statistics) • MCyz or MNy. 8. Alcatel > BSS Performance Measurement types (PM types) are split into two categories: • standard types (7. 9.z: cumulative counters in PM type 7 (L stands for LAPD link) • Xy. > A detailed PM type can be activated only on a sub-set of the network.z: cumulative counters in PM type 9 (N stands for N7 link) • Syz: observation counters in PM type 10 (S stands for SDCCH) • Ryz:: observation counters in PM type 11 (R stands for Radio measurements) • HOyz: observation counters in PM type 12. It means that the related counters are reported for all the Network Elements they are implemented on (TRX. 30. 32. 10. 14. It means that the related counters are reported only for a limited number of Network Elements: • 40 cells per BSS for PM types 1. 4. 19.58 MEASUREMENT REPORT for a TCH Observation counters on internal intra-cell or inter-cell SDCCH or TCH handover Observation counters on incoming external SDCCH or TCH handover Observation counters on outgoing external SDCCH or TCH handover Observation counters on TCH channel allocated different causes of 08. 12. 3. 13. CELL. 2. 29 • 15 cells per BSS for PM types 10. 27. 26. 27 > Counter numbering rules: • Cyz: cumulative or inspection counters in PM types 1.25 Measurement N7 Measurement SDCCH Observations TCH measurements observations Internal Handover Observations Incoming External Handover Observations Outgoing External Handover Observations TCH Observation A Interface measurements SMS PP Measurements SCCP Measurements TCH outgoing Handover per adjency TCH incoming Handover per adjency SDCCH Handover Directed Retry measurements SMS CB Measurements Radio Measurement Statistics Change of frequency band measurements BTS Power Measurement Overview measurements Traffic Flow measurements B9 NewB9 ANNEX 6 Type definition Set of counters related to the traffic evaluation per telecom procedure Set of counters related to the availability of the CCCH. 2. 18.110.

compare networks quality 8.3 Information sources available Observation means Training exercise: find the best source of information Observation to be done : 1.localise precise location of a radio pb 5.1.Identify potential interfering cells of 1 Cells Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 29 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Best source Counters Why Type 31: RMS © Alcatel 29 . BSS and NSS coming from different providers 9.localise abnormal cells in a network 6. how to confirm ? 10.overall radio quality of 1 cell 2. one is thinking that an elevator is inducing PCM trouble.monitor user failures 3.get average network quality 4.history of network quality for several weeks 7.discriminate problems between BSS/NSS.In a building.

Alcatel © Alcatel 30 .2 GLOBAL INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004.

2 Global indicators Section presentation > Objective: to be able to explain what is a Global indicator and what are the main BSS indicators regarding GSM services provided by the Alcatel BSS > Program: • 2.2 Methodological precautions • 2.4 Description of global indicators • 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 31 .5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators • 2.3 Typical call failures • 2.6 Global indicators interpretation Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 31 All rights reserved © 2004.1 Indicators definition • 2.

2 GLOBAL INDICATORS 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 32 .1 Indicators definition All rights reserved © 2004.

1 Indicators definition Global / detailed BSS INDICATORS DEFINITION (Alcatel) > Numerical data providing information about network performance regarding: • The complete network: GLOBAL indicator • An element of the network: DETAILED indicator – TS/TRX/CELL/BTS/BSC/TC > A formulae of several counter(s) > Counters vs. Indicators • Counters: provided by the BSS equipments • Indicators: computed by BSS Monitoring equipments Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 33 All rights reserved © 2004.2. > Example: • call drop rate = Call Drop nb / Call nb = f(counters) • call drop = Call drop nb = 1 counter © Alcatel 33 . Alcatel > The indicators computation can be performed from several counters or by a simple counter mapping.

1 Indicators definition Global GLOBAL INDICATORS > Measure the performance of the complete network > Analyzed according their trend and values • Usually every day (week.2. month) > Compared with: • Competitor results if available • Contractual requirements • Internal quality requirements Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 34 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 34 .

50% 3.50% 3. can be requested by the operator to the provider on swap or network installation • Quality threshold: fixed internally by radio team management.2.00% 1.00% weekly call drop rate weekly call drop rate contractual call drop rate contractual call drop rate quality CDR quality CDR 11 55 99 13 13 17 17 21 21 25 25 29 29 33 33 37 37 week number week number Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 35 All rights reserved © 2004.50% 1.00% 0.00% CDR CDR 2.50% 2. Alcatel > The Call Drop rate at network level has to compared to: • Contractual threshold: can be requested by the operator management to the operational radio team.50% 2.00% 0.50% 1. > Quality thresholds are usually more tight than contractual ones.1 Indicators definition Thresholds EXAMPLE: Thresholds on Call Drop Rate indicator Weekly CDR "GSM" Weekly CDR "GSM" 3.50% 0.50% 0. © Alcatel 41 41 45 45 35 .00% 3.00% 1.00% 2.

LAC=234 rate of call lost due to radio pb on cell CI=14. Alcatel © Alcatel 36 .2.24 call success of 11PLMN call success of PLMN % of cells being congested today % of cells being congested today Yes Yes No No Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 36 All rights reserved © 2004.24 rate of SDCCH dropped on TRX1 of cell 12. LAC=234 call drop rate in your capital call drop rate in your capital call drop rate of the cell covering aaspecific buidling call drop rate of the cell covering specific buidling % of HO with the cause better cell (among other causes) for the network % of HO with the cause better cell (among other causes) for the network average rate of TCH dropped for all TRX of the network carrying 11SDCCH8 average rate of TCH dropped for all TRX of the network carrying SDCCH8 rate of SDCCH dropped on TRX1 of cell 12.1 Indicators definition Exercise > TRAINING EXERCISE: GLOBAL OR NOT INDICATOR DESCRIPTION INDICATOR DESCRIPTION G? G? average of call setup success rate for the network average of call setup success rate for the network rate of call lost due to radio pb on cell CI=14.

Alcatel © Alcatel 37 .2 GLOBAL INDICATORS 2.2 Methodological precautions All rights reserved © 2004.

2.2 Methodological precautions Objective METHODOLOGICAL PRECAUTIONS > Avoid typical errors regarding indicators interpretation Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 38 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 38 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 39 .2.2 Methodological precautions Global indicator value A good value for a global indicator ⇓ All network components are OK regarding this indicator > Example • A global call drop rate of 1% • Can hide some cells with 10 % of call drop rate Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 39 All rights reserved © 2004.

2 Methodological precautions Network Element aggregation cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 cell 4 cell 5 cell 6 cell 7 cell 8 cell 9 cell 10 number of calls number of call drop call drop rate 390 8 2.10% 546 29 5.00% 3 1 33.11% 432 5 1.50% 2 1 50.10% 1029 12 1.2.25% 637 20 3.11% 9.20% 321 4 1.14% 536 3 0.95% 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 40 .00% 210 4 2.10% average of cell results total nb of drop/total number of calls > The average value of an indicator for a Network • Is not the average of cell results (or any sub-part of it) • BUT the average weighted by the traffic Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 40 All rights reserved © 2004.

2 GLOBAL INDICATORS 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 41 .3 Typical call failures All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures Call Setup phasing > 4 stages for a call establishment."Alerting/connection" phase > Each phase has a specific utility and weaknesses Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 42 All rights reserved © 2004.2. 2 for a location update: 1. Alcatel © Alcatel 42 .TCH assignment 4."SDCCH phase“ then only for "Circuit Switch call" 3.Radio link establishment 2.

when the BSC is congested on the downlink. loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures. > The SCCP Connection Confirm message is conveyed on a COC chosen by the MSC which can be located on a different PCM than the one of the COC used by the BSC to send signaling messages to the MSC. > MC8B counts the number of time an MS is commanded to access an SDCCH channel in a cell. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus only be available in a detailed measurement campaign. > A LapD counter that indicates the time a LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded quality of service. This may result for example in call establishment failures. > MC8C counts the number of Channels Required received from the MS in a cell. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > The SDCCH resource allocation is performed by the BSC. > T3101 is the guard timer for the SDCCH access from the MS. • Counter: L1. Once allocated the SDCCH channel is activated by the BTS on BSC request.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . The Default value is 3 seconds. some messages are discarded. > MC02 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part of a Mobile Originating (MO) call.start T3101 MC8B <------------(AGCH)------------SABM (L3 info) -------------(SDCCH)-----------> ESTABLISH IND (L3 info) UA (L3 info) ----------------------------------------------> stop T3101 <-----------(SDCCH)------------MC02 CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO) ----------------------------------> Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase LapD CC <---------------------------------- Specific case of Call establishment failure: Loss of messages due to LapD congestion can be follow with a counter (see notes) • T3101: guard timer for SDCCH allocation (Default: 3 seconds) • CR/CC are used to exchange SCCP references – – Any further message related to this call will have one (or 2) of these 2 references K1205 can extract the call using these references (SLR. © Alcatel 43 . > MC148 counts the number of SDCCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell. > The SCCP Connection Request message is conveyed on an A interface PCM timeslot chosen by the BSC (called COC).OC success Originated Call: RLE success case MS BTS BSC MSC CHANNEL REQUEST -------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> MC8C CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) <---------------------------------------------.MC148 CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK ----------------------------------------------> IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------. > Take care than.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG • Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.2. DLR!!) 43 All rights reserved © 2004.

MC148 CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK ----------------------------------------------> IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND <---------------------------------------------.IMSI2) can be included.TMSI3. Alcatel > A paging message is broadcast by the MSC to all BSCs controlling cells belonging to the same Location Area as the one of the paged MS.TC success Terminated Call: RLE success case MS BTS PAGING REQUEST <-------------(PCH)-------------CHANNEL REQUEST -------------(RACH)------------> MSC PAGING PAGING COMMAND <---------------------------------<---------------------------------------------start T3113 MC8A CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> MC8C CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) <---------------------------------------------.TMSI2. It is up to the MSC to repeat Paging if T3113 expires (usually around 7 seconds).3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . > In case no MS is accessing the SDCCH channel (T3101 expiry) then the BSC does not repeat the Immediate Assignment since the MS may have accessed an SDCCH in another BSS.TMSI4) can be included.2. a Paging message and a Paging Command message relate to only one MS identity. • On the other hand. > MC8A counts the number of Paging Command messages sent on a cell. 3 Paging Request types can be used: • in Paging Request Type 1: up to 2 MSs (IMSI1. > Caution: • A paging Request message sent on the Air interface by the BTS may contain several MS identities. © Alcatel 44 .TMSI1.TMSI2) can be included. • in Paging Request Type 3: up to 4 MSs (TMSI1. • in Paging Request Type 2: up to 3 MSs (IMSI1. > MC01 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part of a Mobile Terminating (MT) call.Start T3101 MC8B BSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <------------(AGCH)------------SABM (PAGING RESP) -------------(SDCCH)-----------> ESTABLISH IND (PAGING RESP) UA (PAGING RESP) ----------------------------------------------> Stop T3101 <-----------(SDCCH)------------MC01 CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO) ----------------------------------> stop T3113 CC <---------------------------------- Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 44 All rights reserved © 2004.

> If not: it means that a cell is not declared in the right LA at NSS level. Alcatel > Normally all cells of the same Location Area must have the same MC8A counter value since all these cells must be paged for an MT call on an MS located in the Location Area they are included in.Paging RLE > Paging MC8A=C8A Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 45 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 45 .2.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

> RANDOM REFERENCE This is an unformatted field with a variable length (from 5 bits down to 2 bits).. Periodic. This field has a variable length (from 3 bits up to 6 bits). Establishment causes can be divided into 2 categories: • Valid causes: 5 (6 if GPRS) 000: Location Update (Normal. > Due to the fact that the NECI bit is always set to 1 in Alcatel BSS...+ │ │ CAUSE │ REFERENCE │ +-----------------------------------------------+ > ESTABLISHMENT CAUSE This information field indicates the reason for requesting the establishment of a connection.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .. > The Channel Required content corresponds to the Channel Request message sent by the MS to the BTS.2. IMSI Attach) 100: Terminating call 101: Emergency call 110: Call Re-establishment 111: Originating call (not emergency) 011: if GPRS is implemented in the cell Invalid causes: 3 (2 if GPRS) 001: 010: 011: if GPRS is not implemented in the cell • © Alcatel 46 .. Alcatel > Caution: All Channels Required (therefore RACH) are counted in MC8C: valid and invalid causes (see later). > This Channel Request message is made up of one byte with 2 Informations Elements (IEs): 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 +-----------------------------------------------+ │ ESTABLISHMENT │ RANDOM │ │ + .RACH counter RLE > RACH MC8C=C8C Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 46 All rights reserved © 2004... Indeed ghost RACHs are also counted.

Alcatel > MC02A = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Periodic LU request (IMSI Attach also counted). Also. > MC02H = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Emergency call. > MC02G = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for IMSI Detach.OC success counters split RLE > success MO split MC02x=C02x MC02A: LU MC02B: SMS MC02C: SS MC02D: LU follow-on MC02E: CR MC02F: unknown MC02G: IMSI Detach MC02H: EC or NC MC02i: LCS MC02 =MC02A+MC02B+MC02C+…….3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . > MC02F = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized in case of L3 Info (within 08. > MC02D = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for LU with follow-on bit set to 1 (means that the SDCCH phase will be followed by a TCH assignment for speech call establishment). Evaluation of The Mobiles location (see the next slides) > LCS: Location Services © Alcatel 47 . > MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purpose. > MC02C = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Supplementary Service. > MC02E = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Call Re-establishment.2.58 ESTABLISH INDICATION) unknown by the BSC but transferred to the MSC.+MC02G+MC02H+MC02i Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 47 All rights reserved © 2004. > MC02B = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Short Message Service.

Alcatel © Alcatel 48 .2.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .SDCCH congestion failure > Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SDCCH Access Failure SDCCH SDCCH Congestion Congestion SDCCH SDCCH Radio Failure Radio Failure SDCCH SDCCH BSS Problem BSS Problem Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 48 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . REJECT (immediate assignment reject) MC8D. 50 4. no answer to the MS > The MS will repeat automatically its request in case of congestion (next slides) • • Waiting for T3122 expiry in case of Immediate Assignment Reject Waiting for T3120 expiry otherwise 49 All rights reserved © 2004. 14.2. 11. and MC8B <-------------(AGCH)------------ Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > The Immediate Assignment Reject mechanism can be disabled at OMC-R level • • And is not activated for answer to paging If disabled. 25 7. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > In case of Immediate Assignment Reject: T3122 = value of Wait_Indication parameter sent by the BSC to the MS. 20 6. 8.SDCCH congestion RLE > SDCCH congestion MS BTS BSC MSC CHANNEL REQUEST -------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> MC8C No free SDCCH !! MC04 IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND <---------------------------------------------IMM. 10. 16 5. 9. 12. > Otherwise T3120 is computed by the MS as a random number of slots between: • 250 and 250+T-1 for a phase 1 MS where: T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots) • S and T+S for a phase 2 MS where: T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots) S is a parameter depending on the CCCH configuration and on the value of Tx_integer as defined in the following table: TX_integer S(CCCH Not Comb) S(CCCH Combined) 3. ASS. 32 © Alcatel 55 76 109 163 217 41 52 58 86 115 49 .

2. Alcatel © Alcatel 50 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .SDCCH congestion counter RLE > SDCCH congestion MC04=C04 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 50 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . Alcatel © Alcatel 51 . the MS will attempt a new LU request > In case of Call establishment. the MS will not re-attempt automatically.2.SDCCH cong. the MS will • • > In case of LU. it is up to the subscriber to try to set up the call again Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 51 All rights reserved © 2004. consequences RLE > SDCCH congestion MAIN CONSEQUENCES Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > The MS will try "max_retrans +1 " time before giving up • • Immediately for phase 1 MS After T3126 for phase 2 MS (still waiting for Immediate Assignment during this timer) Either try an automatic cell reselection Or do nothing > In case of "max_retrans+1" failures.

plane).2. • Solution = add a TRX or site / redesign the LA plan > High SDCCH congestion can be observed at peculiar period of the day due to a peak of LU requests generated by a big group of subscribers entering a new LA at the same time (bus. • Solution = redesign the LA plan or play on radio parameters (CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS. WI_OP) > High SDCCH congestion can be abnormally observed without real MS traffic in case a high level of noise or the proximity of a non-GSM radio transmitter. causes RLE > SDCCH congestion MAIN CAUSES Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > Too much SDCCH "normal" traffic for cell SDCCH design • Radio resource capacity not sufficient (too many calls) • Inadequate LA design (too many LUs) > "Common Transport Effect" • Difficult to avoid for small cells > Abnormal SDCCH traffic • ”Phantom" channel requests (seen in SDCCH RF failure session) • Neighboring cell barred Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 52 All rights reserved © 2004. train. • Solution = Remove the barring © Alcatel 52 .SDCCH cong.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . • Solution = change the BCCH frequency or put an RX filter > High SDCCH congestion can also be abnormally observed in a cell in case one of its neighboring cell is barred. Alcatel > SDCCH congestion can be too high because of the subscribers' traffic demand in terms of calls / LU.

change of SMS traffic model.2.SDCCH cong. > This feature is particularly useful in very dense (hierarchical) networks. > Too few SDCCH will result in SDCCH congestion. change of SMS traffic optimize the SDCCH configuration becomes more important. > With the "Dynamic SDCCH allocation" feature. a set of dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. Alcatel > "Dynamic SDCCH allocation" feature: • • • > Useful in very dense (hierarchical) networks: Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > This feature not only improves SDCCH congestion but also successful TCH assignment rates. Resolution? RLE > SDCCH congestion DYNAMIC SDCCH ALLOCATION Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > Too many SDCCHs will lead to a lack of TCH resources. TCH channels cannot be allocated and.. once again. it is possible to configure: • • a set of static SDCCH/x timeslots to handle normal SDCCH traffic. the BSS is automatically looking after varying SDCCH traffic adapted to the situations such as: change of LA. and money. SDCCH traffic varying due to LCS. or for SDCCH traffic depending on the need.. 53 All rights reserved © 2004. > At OMC-R level. which can be used for TCH traffic. the operator 's revenue decreases. the BSS is automatically looking after varying SDCCH traffic and is particularly adapted to the situations such as: change of LA. © Alcatel 53 . where the effort to optimize the SDCCH configuration becomes more important.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 54 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > SPECIFIC COUNTERS (Type 110 / Cell Level): • • • • • MC800 MC801a MC801b MC802a Average number of available dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. • C/MC320a/b/c/d/e Free TCH radio timeslots count the free TCH timeslots and the free dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. If allocation is successful. then timeslot allocationMC801a&b run dynamic SDCCH/8 algorithm. © Alcatel 54 . then reject SDCCH request (possibly using the Immediate Assignment Reject procedure). an average is done. • C39.SDCCH cong. • C/MC380a/b C/MC381a/b The Cumulated time (in second) the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR or HR) does not take care whether the TCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot or on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. C40. • C30. sometimes only 2 of them. Average number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR). MC802b Maximum number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. These four previous counters are”Inspection Counters” . then subactivate dynamic SDCCH channeland serve request BTS BSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MC802a&b If allocation was unsuccessful. • C370a. C370b. MC400 The Number of times or the Cumulated time (in second) the SDCCH sub-channels are busy does not take care whether the SDCCH sub-channels are allocated on the static or dynamic SDCCH/x timeslot. MC390.2. MC370b The Number of times the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR / HR) takes into account the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH. Example: 3 physical chanels are defined as Dyn SDCCH and the counter give the following indication: MC801a = 1.7 that means sometimes the 3 Dyn SD are allocated as TCH.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . MC29 The Number of busy radio timeslots in TCH usage takes into account the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH. sometimes 1 or 0 and the average is 1. • C/MC34 C/MC380 The Cumulated time (in second) all TCHs / SDCCHs in the cell are busy does not take care whether the TCHs / SDCCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot /SDCCH/x timeslot or on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. MC370a.7 > The FOLLOWING COUNTERS ARE IMPACTED BY the Dynamic SDCCH Allocation feature: • MC28. Average number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. Resolution? RLE > SDCCH congestion DYNAMIC SDCCH ALLOCATION MS CHANNEL REQUEST (RACH) CHANNEL REQUIRED If No free SDCCH. Maximum number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR). MC31 The Number of busy SDCCH sub-channels takes into account the SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the static and dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots. that means than the resource is checked regulary by the BSC and at the end of the period.

2.SDCCH radio failure > Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SDCCH Access Failure SDCCH SDCCH Congestion Congestion SDCCH SDCCH Radio Failure Radio Failure SDCCH SDCCH BSS Problem BSS Problem Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 55 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 55 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

start T3101 <------------(AGCH)------------MC8B IMMEDIATE ASSIGN -------(SDCCH)-----X T3101expiry->“radio failure” MC149 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 56 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 56 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . Alcatel > MC149 counts the number of SDCCH access failures due to radio problems.MC148 CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK ----------------------------------------------> IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------.2.SDCCH radio access failure RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MS BTS BSC MSC CHANNEL REQUEST -------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> MC8C CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) <---------------------------------------------.

real radio problems RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > real radio problems > Unbalanced cell power budget > Bad coverage (for example a moving car) > Interference (for example downlink) In case of radio failure. the MS will retry as for SDCCH congestion Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 57 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel AGCH RACH > Unbalanced Power Budget: Max Path Loss DL Max Path Loss UL Channel Request BTS > Bad coverage: building Access Grant RACH AGCH lost > Interference: DL interference area © Alcatel 57 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .2.

Alcatel © Alcatel 58 .Ghost RACH (1/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy ..2.. RACH" > Channel request received but not sent: 3 causes • Noise decoding • Reception of channel request sent to a neighboring cell • Reception of HO_ACCESS sent to a neighboring cell Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 58 All rights reserved © 2004.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . the establishment cause is valid (Call re-establishment) but the Access Delay (corresponding to the distance between the MS and the BTS) is high. there is possibility to filter the Channel Required received from a distance greater than a distance defined as a parameter value: RACH_TA_FILTER tunable on a per cell basis. RACH" > Example of a channel required message Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 59 All rights reserved © 2004.Ghost RACH (2/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy . > Indeed the Access Delay being equal to the Timing Advance is coded in slot unit representing a distance of 550m. > In Alcatel BSS... © Alcatel 59 .2. > Thus the Channel Required above is received from an MS located at 19km from the site. It may therefore be rather a ghost RACH than a real MS which wants re-establish a call. Caution should be taken since a too low value may reduce the network coverage. It can take values from 0 (0m) to 63 (35km). Alcatel > For this Channel Required.

2. Alcatel > Some tips: • • • Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 STRUCTURE of the MULTIFRAME in "TIME SLOT" 0 (Non(Non-combined BCCH) R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R - UPLINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 21 31 41 51 1 f s b b b b C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C .615 ms at 0. 5 valid causes over 8) will be unvalid Example of induced SDCCH traffic: (5/8*156*T3101 (3 sec))/3600 = 0.02 %: 156 dummy RACH/hour BCCH combined: 27/51 RACH/Multi-Frame > 83 dummy RACH/hour 3/8 of causes (field of channel request.08 Erlang SDCCH Dummy Rach load depends on minimum level for decoding configured in Evolium BTS During period with low real traffic (night).02 % of Rach Frame can be decoded without error without real input signal" (No impact for the system) • • • • BCCH not combined: 51 Rach/Multi Frame > (3600 * 1000) ms / 4.577 = 235ms © Alcatel 60 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .05: " 0.Ghost RACH causes (3/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom RACH" >noise decoding > GSM 05.f s (Multiframes of 51 frames) DOWNLINK f = FCCH s = SCH b = BCCH C C C C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) R = RACH (Combined BCCH) DOWNLINK FS FS B B C C FS FS C C C C FS FS D0 D0 D1 D1 FS FS D2 D2 D3 D3 FS FS A0 A2 A1 A3 - UPLINK D3 D3 F = FCCH RR RR A2 A0 A3 A1 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRR RR R RRR R RRR R RR RRRRR R C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) D0 D0 D1 D1 RR RR D2 D2 S = SCH B = BCCH R = RACH Dn/An Dn/An = SDCCH/SACCH/4 51 multiframe duration = 51 x 8 x 0. high rate of dummy RACH For dummy RACH. the channel required has a random value of TA 60 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .2.Ghost RACH causes (4/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom RACH" >noise decoding MS BTS CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) <---------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK ----------------------------------------------> IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND <---------------------------------------------BSC MSC MC8C MC148 IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <-----------. Alcatel © Alcatel 61 .(AGCH) ------------- start T3101 MC8B T3101expiry ->“radio failure MC149 > No subscriber -> no impact for subscriber > But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 61 All rights reserved © 2004.

Ghost RACH causes (5/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > MS Channel Request sent to the neighboring cell BTS B SC M SC C H A N N E L R E Q U IR E D ----------------------------------------------> C H A N N E L A C T IV A T IO N (S D C C H ) < ---------------------------------------------C H A N N E L A C T IV A T IO N A C K ----------------------------------------------> IM M E D IA T E A S S IG N C O M M A N D < ---------------------------------------------M C 8C M C 148 IM M E D IA T E A S S IG N < -----------.(A G C H ) ------------- s ta rt T 3 1 0 1 M C 8B T 3 1 0 1 e x p iry -> “ra d io fa ilu re M C 149 > Subscriber not impacted (real transaction performed elsewhere) > But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted > Usual radio planning rules are sufficient to avoid the trouble • 2 cells must not have same (BCCH.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .2. BSIC) couple 62 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > BSIC = BCC (3 bit) + NCC (3 bit) BCC: BTS Color Code NCC: Network Color Code © Alcatel 62 .

2. Alcatel © Alcatel 63 .Ghost RACH causes (6/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request due to handover > During HO. the first message sent to the target cell is HO Access > This message is an Access Burst like Channel Request > If received on BCCH. can be understood as a Channel Request (RACH) > A new case of "Phantom RACH" Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 63 All rights reserved © 2004.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

Ghost RACH causes (7/7) RLE > SDCCH RF Failure Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request due to handover This case is the most dangerous > The MS sends usually a sequence of HO Access message.2. every frame > In some cases. this can create a phantom RACH if • The frequency of the TCH is identical or adjacent to the one of interfered BCCH > Characteristics of such phantom RACH (Channel Required) • Subsequent frame number • Random.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . Alcatel © Alcatel 64 . but stable timing advance > Can block very easily SDCCH Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 64 All rights reserved © 2004.

2. Alcatel © Alcatel 65 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .BSS failure > Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SDCCH Access Failure SDCCH SDCCH Congestion Congestion SDCCH SDCCH Radio Failure Radio Failure SDCCH SDCCH BSS Problem BSS Problem Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 65 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel > BSS Problems are difficult to specify a priori.start T3101 <------------(AGCH)------------MC8B SABM (L3 info) ------------(SDCCH)------------> MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > No specific counter Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 66 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 66 .MC148 CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK ----------------------------------------------> IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND IMMEDIATE ASSIGN <---------------------------------------------.BSS problem RLE > BSS problem MS BTS BSC CHANNEL REQUEST -------------(RACH)------------> CHANNEL REQUIRED ----------------------------------------------> MC8C CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) <---------------------------------------------. It is better to deduce them from other counters which are easier to implement thus more reliable.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .2.

(MC01+MC02) .2. it will lead to the incrementation of MC149 counter and therefore counted as an SDCCH access failure due to radio. © Alcatel 67 .counters RLE counters REQUEST Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase GSM valid causes GPRS causes Radio Link Establishment Request GPRS causes GSM invalid causes GSM valid causes Congestion BSS Pb GSM/GPRS invalid causes MC8C P62C unknown unknown MC04 unknown MC148 ATTEMPT Preparation Failure Preparation SUCCESS Execution Failure Congestion BSS problem Execution Attempt Radio Access Failure BSS Pb Success Radio access failure MC149 MC148 .3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment . Alcatel > Statistically a ghost RACH can correspond to any kind of establishment cause: valid and invalid. > As ghost RACH which corresponds to a GSM valid cause will lead to an SDCCH allocation which will not be seized by an MS.MC149 MC01+MC02 BSS problem Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 67 All rights reserved © 2004.

indicators TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: RLE indicators Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SDNAFLBN SDNAFLRN SDNACGN SDNAFSUN SDNAFLR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 68 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 68 . Alcatel > Refer to BSS .2.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: > GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment Phase • SDNAUR: SDCCH assignment unsuccess rate • SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global) • SDNAFLRR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to radio • SDNAFLBR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to BSS problem > A SDCCH radio access failure due to ghost RACH occurrence is easily observed during low traffic hour (night time) since ghost RACHs are almost the only cause of failure.3 Typical call failures Radio Link Establishment .

Speech and Data) is sent in cipher mode. © Alcatel 69 . Alcatel > Transparent messages (DTAP) are used in order the NSS performs control procedures to enable the MS to set up a speech call. > Ciphering: All Information (signaling.> CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> SETUP < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALL PROCEEDING > transparent message: no dedicated counters Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 69 All rights reserved © 2004.OC success Successful SDCCH phase: OC call MS BTS BSC SDCCH Phase : Originating Call case MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. > Authentication: Checks that the Mobile Station is the required station and not an intruder.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase . > Setup/Call Processing: call is being processed between the calling Party and the Called Party.2.> AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. to avoid monitoring and intruders (who could analyze signaling data).

Alcatel > Setup/Call Confirm: the call is being processed between the Calling Party and the Called Party.> CALL CONFIRM > transparent message: no dedicated counters Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 70 All rights reserved © 2004.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase .TC success Successful SDCCH phase: TC call MS BTS BSC SDCCH Phase : Terminating Call case MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. © Alcatel 70 .> AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SETUP ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.

Alcatel > Some transparent messages are also exchanged between the MS and the network in case of a Location Update transaction.> AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.LU success Successful SDCCH phase: Location Update MS BTS BSC MSC SDCCH Phase : Location Update Case (with TMSI reallocation) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. © Alcatel 71 .> TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > transparent message: no dedicated counters Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 71 All rights reserved © 2004.> CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST < ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase .2.

© Alcatel 72 . Alcatel > Generally SDCCH handover are disabled in the network since the average SDCCH duration is only around 2 to 3 seconds.2.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase .drops SDCCH phase Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase > Loss of connection during SDCCH phase = "SDCCH drop" > 3 origins of SDCCH drop • Radio problems when connected on SDCCH • BSS problems • Call lost during an SDCCH HO (handover failure without reversion to old channel) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 72 All rights reserved © 2004.

> MC138 CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION (cause : radio link failure) --------------------------------------. Alcatel > MC138 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to radio problems. > Radio problems can be due to coverage.> CLEAR REQUEST Cause : radio interface failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 73 All rights reserved © 2004.Radio drop SDCCH phase > drop Radio > Connection lost due to Radio problem MS BTS BSC SDCCH Phase established MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Radio connection lost ---------------------------------------------------. interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is not detected as a system alarm the by O&M Fault Management application.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase . © Alcatel 73 .2.

> A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure. Alcatel > MC137 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to BSS problems.BSS drop SDCCH phase > drop BSS > Connection lost due BSS problem MS BTS BSC SDCCH Phase established MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MC137 --------------------------------------.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase .2. © Alcatel 74 . It can also be due to a problem on the Abis interface (due to Micro Wave transmission for instance).> CLEAR REQUEST Cause : O&M intervention Cause : radio interface failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 74 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase . Alcatel > MC07 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to handover failure. © Alcatel 75 .HO drop SDCCH phase > drop HO > Connection lost during Handover MS BTS BSC SDCCH Phase established MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION MC07 --------------------------------------.2.> CLEAR REQUEST Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 75 All rights reserved © 2004.

counters SDCCH phase counters SDCCH connection Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Normal release TCH assignment phase SDCCH drop SDCCH Phase SDCCH connection MC01+MC02+MC10 Drop radio Drop BSS Drop HO MC138 MC137 MC07 Drop radio SDCCH Drop Drop BSS Drop HO Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 76 All rights reserved © 2004.2.3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase . Alcatel © Alcatel 76 .

2.indicators SDCCH phase indicators Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SDCDBN SDCDRN SDCDHN SDCDR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 77 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: > GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Established phase • SDCDR: SDCCH drop rate (Global) • SDCDRR: SDCCH drop rate due to radio problem • SDCDBR: SDCCH drop rate due to BSS Problem • SDCDHR: SDCCH drop rate due to HO failure © Alcatel 77 .3 Typical call failures SDCCH phase .

• the queue for this cell is not empty. > Both counters in order to discriminate BSS problems in Preparation and Execution phases.> SABM -------------------------------------------------------.success TCH assignment success case MS BTS BSC MSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) MC140a < ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST -------------------------------------------------------. Alcatel > MC703 counts the number of TCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.Start T3107 MC140b (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND ---------------------. > MC460a is a counter for type 110: NB_TCH_EMERGENCY_HO_PRESERVATION: Definition: Number of high priority TCH requests served when: • the number of free TCH timeslots is less than or equal to NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment .> PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------.2. > MC140a counts the number of normal assignment requests for TCH establishment. MC140b and MC460 are given at Cell level © Alcatel 78 .MC703 MC460a CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) -------------------------------------------------------. > MC140b counts the number of normal assignment commands for TCH establishment.> CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> < ---------------------ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. > MC718 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed a TCH in a cell as part of a call establishment (Normal Assignment). > Both counters are implemented at TRX level.> Stop T3107 ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE MC718 ----------------------------------.> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase TCH > T3107: guard timer for TCH assignment Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 78 All rights reserved © 2004. > MC140a.

(from B8) > Therefore B6 counter MC612 is replaced by MC812 from B7.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment . > But as C612E was in restriction in B8 (always = 0) then MC812(B7) = MC612(B6) > MC612A. MC612D also exist in PM Type 110. © Alcatel 79 . B. > A TCH request is attached a Priority Level from 1 (highest priority) to 14 (lowest priority).> ASSIGNMENT FAILURE Cause No Radio Resource Available Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase No RTCH available on requested cell > 5 causes of congestion ⇒ 5 counters: C612A. MC612B. MC612C. D. MC812 = C612A+C612B+C612C+C612D+C612E of PM Type 1.2. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > C612E: Number of 08.08 ASSIGNMENT REQUEST for TCH normal assignment rejected due to congestion on the Abis interface. C.TCH congestion TCH assignment > congestion MS BTS BSC MSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) < ----------------------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST MC812 -----------------------------------------------. E whenever – – – – – Queuing is not allowed Queue is Full T11 expires RTCH request is removed from the queue due to a higher priority request to be queued No Abis-TCH resource is available 79 All rights reserved © 2004.

the MS will try to revert back to the SDCCH channel.Start T3107 (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND SABM ----(TCH)------X T3107 Expiry MC746B ----------------------------------.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment . © Alcatel 80 .> PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------.MC703 CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) -------------------------------------------------------. > In case of TCH access failure. > MC746B counter is implemented at TRX level from B7.> ASSIGNMENT FAILURE Radio interface failure Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MC140b Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 80 All rights reserved © 2004.2.> CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Whether it succeeds in reverting to the SDCCH or not the call establishment fails.radio failure TCH assignment > radio failure > Radio problem MS BTS BSC MSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) < ----------------------------------MC140a ASSIGNMENT REQUEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST -------------------------------------------------------. Alcatel > MC746B counts the number of TCH access failures due to radio problems. On the other hand some MSCs may resend the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST again.

BSS problem TCH assignment > BSS problem > BSS problem (Abis.2. (see the next slide) > B7 counters MC14b has been removed. © Alcatel 81 .MC703 CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) -------------------------------------------------------.> PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------. Alcatel > The number of TCH Assignment failures due to BSS Pb can be correctly deduced and distinguished for preparation and execution phases from B8 with the 2 counters MC140a and MC140b.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment .Start T3107 MC140b (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT COMMAND SABM ----(TCH)---. BTS/BSC HW or SW) MS BTS BSC MSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) < ----------------------------------MC140a ASSIGNMENT REQUEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST -------------------------------------------------------.> Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase No specific counter MC14B Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 81 All rights reserved © 2004.> CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

counters TCH assignment counters ATTEMPT REQUEST Preparation Failure Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase SUCCESS Radio access failure TCH Assignment Preparation Request Congestion BSS Pb Execution Attempt Radio Access Failure BSS Pb Success Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 Execution Failure Congestion BSS problem BSS problem MC140a MC812 MC140a-MC140b-MC812 MC140b MC746b MC140b-MC718-MC746b MC718 82 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 82 .2.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment .

> This will help a lot to detect bad QOS due to TRX hardware related problem.2. during the TCH assignment procedure. • TCNAAFLRR = RTCH_assign_allocated_fail_radio_rate (RNO name) = MC746B / MC703 – Rate of RTCH seizures failed during the normal assignment procedure because of radio problems in relation to all RTCHs allocated for TCH assignment procedure.3 Typical call failures TCH assignment .indicators TCH Assignment indicators Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase TCNAFLBN TCNAFLRN TCNACGN TCAHCAN TCNAUR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 83 All rights reserved © 2004.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS > GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Assignment Phase • TCNAUR: TCH assignment unsuccess rate (Global) • TCNACGR: TCH assignment failure rate due to congestion • TCNAFLRR: TCH assignment failure rate due to radio problems • TCNAFLBR: TCH assignment failure rate due to BSS Problems. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . © Alcatel 83 . > From B7.2 some indicators can be provided on a per TRX basis due to the availability of counters provided per TRX in Type 110: • TCNAEFR = RTCH_assign_efficiency_rate (RNO name) = MC718 / MC703 – Rate of successful RTCH seizures in relation to all RTCHs allocated.

> ESTABLISH IND ICATIO N ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> CONNECT < --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONNECT ACK • Transparent messages for BSS.> ALERTING --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. a call is established when the speech data exchanged is started between end users.> CONNECT ACK Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MS > TC BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase : TC case MSC --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. > For the NSS.> ASSIG NM ENT C OM PLETE Stop T3107 ----------------------------------. > Thus the Call setup phase is shorter and the Call phase is longer in the BSS.> ASSIG NM EN T CO M PLETE Call phase < --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ALERT ING < --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CO NN ECT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------> CO NNECT ACK Call phase > The Call setup phase and the Stable call phase are not corresponding between the BSS and the NSS. Alcatel MS BTS BSC M SC TC H ASSIG N MENT PH ASE (O C or TC) < ----------------------------------ASSIG NM ENT REQ UEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CO N TEXT REQ UEST -------------------------------------------------------.2. a call is established when the MS has successfully accessed a TCH channel on the Air interface.success TCH phase: MS > OC BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase (OC case) : ringing phase MSC < --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ALERTING < --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONNECT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.> SAB M < ---------------------UA Call Setup Start T3107 < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------(SDCCH ) ASSIG NM EN T CO M M AN D -------------------------------------------------------. © Alcatel 84 . > For the BSS. no specific counters • TCH DROP: any problems occurring after TCH assignment (during or after connection) cannot be discriminated Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 84 All rights reserved © 2004.3 Typical call failures TCH phase .> PHYSICAL C ON TEXT CO NFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------CHANN EL AC TIVATIO N (TCH) -------------------------------------------------------.> C HANNEL ACTIVATION AC KNO W LEDG E Call Setup TC H ---------------------. > Therefore Call Setup Success rate is worse in the NSS and the Call Drop rate is worse in the BSS.

> Cause radio link failure CLEAR REQUEST Cause radio interface failure (alcatel) BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 85 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 85 .radio drop TCH phase > drop radio > Radio problem MS Radio problem -------------------------------------------------------.2.> MC736 CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION --------------------------------------. interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is not detected as a system alarm by the O&M Fault Management application. Alcatel > MC736 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to radio problems. > MC736 counter is implemented at TRX level.3 Typical call failures TCH phase . > Radio problems can be due to coverage.

2.> MC739 CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION --------------------------------------. Alcatel > MC739 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems reported as "remote TransCoder failure". © Alcatel 86 .> Remote transcoder failure CLEAR REQUEST Equipment failure BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 86 All rights reserved © 2004. > It can usually be a bad quality of the transmission on the Abis interface (Micro Wave) or a faulty hardware component in the TransCoder or even sometimes BSS software/hardware problems. > MC739 counter is implemented at TRX level.3 Typical call failures TCH phase .remote TC drop TCH phase > drop TC > Remote TransCoder problem MS Radio problem -------------------------------------------------------.

2. © Alcatel 87 .3 Typical call failures TCH phase .BSS internal drop TCH phase > drop BSS internal > Other internal BSS problem (excluding TC) MS BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase MC14C --------------------------------------. Alcatel > MC14C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems other than the ones reported by the TransCoder. > A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure.> CLEAR REQUEST O&M intervention Radio interface failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 87 All rights reserved © 2004.

3 Typical call failures TCH phase .> CLEAR REQUEST Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 88 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 88 . > This event is also counted in the set of Handover counters as an Outgoing handover failure without reversion to the old channel.HO drop TCH phase > drop HO > Handover failure MS BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time MSC Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION MC621 --------------------------------------. > MC621 counter is implemented at TRX level. Alcatel > MC621 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to Handover failure.2.

2.3 Typical call failures TCH phase - preemption drop
TCH phase > drop preemption > TCH preempted
MS BTS BSC Alerting Connection Phase of a call with priority level pl2 and preemption vulnerability indicator pvi=1 no TCH free MSC

Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST <--------------------------------------Priority level pl1 > pl2 preemption capability indicator pci=1 MC921C --------------------------------------- > CLEAR REQUEST preemption

Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9

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> MC921C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to preemption for another call to be established. > MC921C counter exists from B7 as linked to the feature Preemption.

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2.3 Typical call failures TCH phase - counters
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase counters
TCH connection Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase

NSS abnormal release Normal release
TCH Phase
TCH connection Outgoing HO success

Outgoing HO success

Call drop

MC718+MC717A+MC717B MC712 MC736 MC739 MC14C MC621 MC921C unknown unknown

Call drop preemption

Call drop

Drop radio Drop TC Drop internal BSS Drop HO Drop preemption

Call drop radio

Call drop BSS Call drop HO

TC

Normal release NSS abnormal release

BSS internal

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2.3 Typical call failures TCH phase - call drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators > Call drop rate = call drop / RTCH success end
Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase

BSS1
Incoming internal HO+DR

BSS2
outgoing HO

Incoming external HO+DR TCH assignment

> RTCH success end = RTCH assignment success + RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success - RTCH outgoing HO
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 91 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

> QSCDN

>

> > >

= call drop = drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption = MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C TCQHCCN = RTCH success end = assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - outgoing HO = MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC712 As MC718, MC717A, MC717B and MC712 are provided per TRX, the “RTCH success end” indicator (TCAHCCN) can be computed per TRX. But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, the “call drop rate” indicator (QSCDR) can be computed per CELL only. On the other hand the following call drop indicators can be computed per TRX: • call drop radio rate (QSCDRR) = call drop radio / RTCH success end • call drop HO rate (QSCDHR) = call drop HO / RTCH success end • call drop TC rate (QSCDBTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success end

> Note: • MC718 counts the number of successful TCH assignments. • MC717A counts the number of successful internal DRs. • MC717B counts the number of successful incoming internal and external (HOs+DR) as well as the number of intra cell HOs successfully performed. • MC712 counts the number of successful outgoing internal and external HOs as well as the number of intra cell HOs successfully performed.

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2.3 Typical call failures TCH phase - RTCH drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators > RTCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success begin
Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase

BSS1
Incoming internal HO+DR IntraIntra-cell HO

BSS2
outgoing HO

Incoming external HO+DR TCH assignment

> RTCH success begin = RTCH assignment success + RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success - RTCH intra cell HO success
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 92 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

= call drop = drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption = MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C > TCQHSUBN = RTCH success begin = assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - intra cell HO = MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC662 > As MC662 is not provided per TRX, the “RTCH success begin” indicator (TCAHSUBN) cannot be computed per TRX but per CELL only. > Therefore all “RTCH drop rate” indicators can be computed per CELL only. > Note: • MC662 counts the number of successful TCH intracell HOs.

> QSCDN

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2.3 Typical call failures TCH phase - TRX TCH drop rate
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators > TRX TCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success
Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase

BSS1
Incoming internal HO+DR Intra-cell HO Intra-

BSS2
outgoing HO

Incoming external HO+DR TCH assignment

> RTCH success = RTCH assignment success + RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success

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> QSCDN

>

> > > >

= call drop = drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption = MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C TCAHSUN = RTCH success = assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success = MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) Whereas some call drop rate indicators are defined per TRX and per CELL, TRX RTCH drop rate indicators are defined at TRX level only. As MC718, MC717A, MC717B are provided per TRX, the “RTCH success” indicator (TCAHSUN) can be computed per TRX. But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, a global“TRX RTCH drop rate” indicator cannot be provided. On the other hand, the following TRX RTCH drop indicators can be computed: • TRX_RTCH_drop_radio_rate (TCAHCDRTR) = call drop radio / RTCH success • TRX_RTCH_drop_HO_rate (TCHOCDTR) = call drop HO / RTCH success • TRX_RTCH_drop_BSS_remote_TC_rate (TCTRTCDTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success

> CAUTION: Intra-cell HO being counted in MC717B and not deduced in the RTCH success computation

in order to provide the TRX RTCH drop indicators at TRX level then these indicators may be abnormally low (good) if a large amount of intra-cell HOs are performed in the cell (concentric cell, multiband cell).

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> Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS > call drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only and some of them per TRX • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call Statistics > Call drop – QSCDR: call drop rate (Global): CELL – QSCDRR: call drop rate due to radio: CELL + TRX – QSCDBIR: call drop rate due to BSS internal problem: CELL – QSCDBTR: call drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem: CELL + TRX – QSCDHR: call drop rate due to HO failure: CELL + TRX – QSCDPR: call drop rate due to preemption: CELL > RTCH drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase – QSTCCDR: RTCH drop rate – TCAHCDRR: RTCH drop rate due to radio problem – TCTRICDBR: RTCH drop rate due to BSS internal problem – TCTRTCDR: RTCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem – TCHOCDR: RTCH drop rate due to HO failure – TCPPCDR: RTCH drop rate due to preemption > TRX TCH drop indicators: all of them are available per TRX only • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase – TCAHCDRTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to radio problem – TCTRTCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem – TCHOCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to HO failure

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2.3 Typical call failures summary
TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: summary
call stage radio link establishment SDCCH phase A interface no message cause field Radio Link Establishment SDCCH Phase TCH assignment Alerting/CNX Phase related problem - SDCCH congestion - radio problem -Dummy rach - radioproblem - BSS system HW/SW pb -recovery/operator - TCH congestion - Radioproblem - radioproblem - HOfailure w/oreversion - Transcoderfailure - operator action/recovery - BSS system HW/SW pb -preemption

TCHassignment

- radio interface failure - radio interface failure - O&M intervention Assignment Failure - no radioresourceavalaible - Radio Interface Failure - radio interface failure - radio interface message failure - equipmentfailure - O&M intervention - radio interface failure preemption

ClearRequest

Alerting/connection Clear Request callestablished

LAPD counter to analyze the cause of call establishment failures
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 95 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

> When the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for example in call establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures. A LapD counter that indicates the time a LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded quality of service. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus is only available in a detailed measurement campaign. • Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG • Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.

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Alcatel © Alcatel 96 .2 GLOBAL INDICATORS 2.4 Description of global indicators All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 97 .4 Description of global indicators recall > Global Indicators are • A set of indicators selected by Alcatel • Useful to monitor the overall network > What are the user and or system impacts if a GI (Global Indicator) is bad? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 97 All rights reserved © 2004.2.

© Alcatel 98 . i.4 Description of global indicators SDCCH congestion rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT SDCCH ASSIGN CONG FAIL RATE Rate of SDCCH not allocated during radio link establishment procedure due to congestion on the Air interface Σ cell(MC04) / SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS > 5% Check SDCCH Erlang : if not critical. SDCCH availability/allocation problem. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS Number of SDCCH seizure requests during radio link establishment procedure Σcell (MC148 + MC04) This includes requests rejected due to congestion on SDCCH SDNARQN UNIT Number > (G) means that the indicator is Global. it is important to provide it at a Network level.2.e. or HO access on a nearby cell side effect or interference on the carrier handling SDCCH (the last 2 can lead to high rate of « phantom RACH ») SDNACGR % UNIT REF NAME > SDCCH CONGESTION rate: may have impact for subscriber • Call setup failure only after 3 subsequent congestions • If not. only some extra delay for call establishment – – (less than 1 second) without immediate_assign_reject Can be longer with reject (but usually short values are used for call request) 98 All rights reserved © 2004.

4 Description of global indicators SDCCH congestion rate SDCCH CONGESTION rate SDNARQN SDCGMR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 99 All rights reserved © 2004.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment phase – SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global) © Alcatel 99 .2. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .

TC.4 Description of global indicators SDCCH drop rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD > COMMENT REF NAME SDCCH DROP RATE Rate of dropped SDCCH (SDCCH is established for any transaction OC.2.etc.) Σ (MC138 + MC07 + MC137) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS cell > 4% Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop BSS SDCDR % UNIT > SDCCH DROP rate > User impact: call setup failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 100 All rights reserved © 2004. Indeed the probablity to drop a radio link when the MS is on SDCCH is less than on TCH since the SDCCH phase is shorter (less than 5 seconds) than TCH phase (several tens of seconds). LU. Alcatel INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Total number of SDCCHs successfully seized by mobile during radio link establishment procedure Σcell (MC01 + MC02) SDNASUN UNIT Number > In a dense network SDCCH drop rate should be lower than 1%. © Alcatel 100 .

the TCH assignment unsucess rate should be lower a 1%. IN D IC A T O R D E F IN IT IO N FORM ULA B8 TH R ESH O LD CO M M ENT M C 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n te r in tr o d u c e d in B 8 r e le a s e . Σ c e ll M C140a REF NAM E INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA B8 THRESHOLD COM M ENT REF NAM E TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Number of TCH successfully seized by M S for normal assignment procedure. Σ TRX (M C718) TCNASUN UNIT Number © Alcatel 101 .4 Description of global indicators TCH assign unsuccess rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA B7.2 THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE Rate of unsuccessful RTCH seizures for normal assignment purpose (congestion + HO&radio failures) (TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS – TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS) / TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS > 3% TCNAUR UNIT % > TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS rate: • congestion • radio problem • BSS problems Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 101 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > In a dense network.2. M C 1 4 0 a ( ty p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q th a t in d ic a te s th e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s ig n m e n t r e q u e s ts f o r T C H e s ta b lis h m e n t ( in H R o r F R u s a g e ) TCNARQN U N IT N um ber T C H A S S IG N R E Q U E S T S N u m b e r o f T C H s e iz u re re q u e s ts fo r n o r m a l a ss ig n m e n t p r o c e d u re .

that is over BH : of days for a week.4 Description of global indicators Global radio congestion level (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL Global radio congestion level : number or rate of cells recurrently congested COUNT_OF_CELLS (AVERAGE (MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE)) > 2%)) According to operator This indicator reports the global radio congestion rate on the network. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > This counter intends to give a measurement of the TCH congestion of the whole network. MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE) : is the peak of failures due to congestion observed during the period (the day normally). QSCGR Number UNIT REF NAME > GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL (TCH congestion rate) • • Subscriber impact: call setup failure More a management indicator: % of network which has congestion 102 All rights reserved © 2004. The number of cells can be used as indicator. See the definition of TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE in the Quality of Service chapter) AVERAGE is an averaging function of the blocking rate over the selected period.2. or the rate of cells over the total number of cells in the network or area. or over BH of weeks for a month COUNT_OF_CELL is a function counting the number of cells for which condition between () is : respected. > It is implemented on the Alcatel tools but other indicators can be defined. © Alcatel 102 . We define a specific indicator counting the number of cells that are in congestion in a recurrent manner.

2 QSCDR UNIT % > CALL DROP rate: The most important indicator • Used with call setup success rate to compare PLMN (GSM and other one) • Subscribers impact: call drop!! Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 103 All rights reserved © 2004. MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139. This new counter in B7 is per TRX.2 QSTCCDR UNIT % REF NAME > The TRX TCH drop radio rate is defined below: INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME TRX TCH DROP RADIO RATE Rate of TCHs dropped due to radio problems.4 Description of global indicators Call drop rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT CALL DROP RATE Rate of dropped calls (system +radio+ HO +preemption) over the total amount of calls with a successful end Scell (MC621 + MC14c + MC736 + MC739 + MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS END > 4% Drop system + Drop radio + Drop HO + Droppreemption TCH drops occurring after successful assignment but before speech connection are considered as call drops even if from the customer point of view it is a call setup failure MC739. per TRX (MC736) / TCH SUCCESS > 3% New from B7 MC736 derives from B6 counters C136. > The RTCH drop rate is defined below: INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT GLOBAL TCH DROP Rate of TCHs dropped (system + radio + handover + preemption) over the total amount of calls established in the cell Σcell (MC14c + MC739 + MC736 + MC621+ MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS BEGIN > 3% Drop System + Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop preemption Indicator relevant at cell level mostly. Alcatel > In a dense network. MC739. Indicator only per TRX because intracell handovers are taken into account TCAHCDRTR UNIT % © Alcatel 103 . C136 and C21.2. These new counters REF NAME are per TRX MC921c was new in B7. the Call Drop Rate should be lower than 2%. MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139. These new counters are per TRX MC921c is new in B7. C136 and C21. It should even go down to 1% or less in case Slow Frequency Hopping is used.

that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP neither by Assignment failures (1 – ( SDCCH DROP / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS ) ) * (1 TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE) REF NAME > 95% SDCCH assignment failures are not considered in CSSR as : · ghost (spurious) RACH cannot be discriminated from a real access failure · effect of re-attempts performed autonomously by the MS cannot be quantified QSCSSR % UNIT > CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate: the second most important indicator • • Used to compare PLMN Subscriber: call not established at the first attempt > Beware: call setup failures due to a lack of coverage are not taken into account in this indicator!! – No way to quantify them (as there is no initial access) 104 All rights reserved © 2004. Therefore they can lead to a high SDCCH assignment failure rate if they are too numerous. > In a dense network.2. © Alcatel 104 . > As the end user is not impacted by this phenomenon if no SDCCH congestion is induced. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Ghost Racks which correspond to a valid establishment cause are not identified by the BSS. the SDCCH assignment phase is not considered in the computation of the Call Setup Success rate provided by Alcatel tools.4 Description of global indicators Call setup success rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE (BSS view) Rate of calls going until TCH successful assignment. the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 98%. > The SDCCH congestion rate should also be considered to have a complete picture of Call Setup efficiency.

Alcatel > In a dense network. neither by Assignment Failures nor by CALL DROP (CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE) * (1 – CALL DROP RATE) < 92% QSCCR UNIT % > CALL SUCCESS rate: > 1 call success = • 1 call successfully established • Without any call drop Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 105 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 105 .2. that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP. the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 97%.4 Description of global indicators Call success rate (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME CALL SUCCESS RATE (BSS view) Rate of calls going until normal release .

2.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call statistics > Call success – QSCSSR: Call setup success rate (Global) – QSCCR: Call success rate (Global) © Alcatel 106 .4 Description of global indicators Call (setup) success rate CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate CALL SUCCESS rate TCAHSUN QSCCR QSCSSR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 106 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .

HCCCBCPR. HCMCELVDR. Level DL > 20% Interf UL > 5%. HCMCELVUR. HCSTEDIR. HCMCEBSR. Distance.2. Qual UL > 10%. HCCCELVUR. Better Cell. AMR. UL/DL Interference. HCSTEMIR. HCSTEQLDR. Interband.4 Description of global indicators Handover cause distribution (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA B7. Better Cell < 30% HCSTBPBR. HCSTEIFDR. HCSTEQLUR. UL/DL Lev. Alcatel © Alcatel 107 . HCMBBCPR. HCSTBDRR. HCSTAMR. HCMCBCPR. HCSTBTFR UNIT % > Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning /optimization Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 107 All rights reserved © 2004. HCCCELVDR.2 HO CAUSE DISTRIBUTION Distribution of Handover attempts by cause X : UL/DL Qual. HCSTEIFUR. Concentric cell. TFO causes. Traffic. Level UL > 20%. HCSTELVDR. Micro cells HO. Σ cell (MC67w or MC785x or MC586y or MC10zz or MC447 or MC461) Σcell (MC67all + MC785all + MC586all + MC10all + MC447 + MC461) MC67all = MC671+MC672+MC673+MC674+MC675+MC676+MC677+MC678+MC679 +MC670 MC785all = MC785a + MC785d + MC785e + MC785f (microcell) MC586all = MC586a + MC586b + MC586c (concentric) MC10all = MC1040 + MC1044 + MC1050 THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME Quality DL > 10%. HCSTELVUR. Interf DL > 5%.

quality too low.2 Σ cell ( (MC67x) / GLOBAL HO CAUSE STANDARD) MC67x = MC670 or MC672 or MC671 or MC673 or MC676 or MC677 or MC678 or MC674 or (MC670+MC672) or (MC671+MC673) or (MC676+M677) THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME DISTRIBUTION HO CAUSE STANDARD Distribution of Handover attempts by standard cause : Power Budget. HCSTEIFDSR. HCSTELVDSR. HCSTELVSR. HCSTEQLSR. HCSTEQLDSR. HCSTBPBSR. high interference and MS-BTS distance too long. HCSTEIFSR.4 Description of global indicators Handover standard cause distribution (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA B7.2. HCSTEDISR UNIT % > Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning / optimization > Interesting for comparing HO distribution after concentric or micro cell implementation 108 All rights reserved © 2004. HCSTEIFUSR. HCSTELVUSR. HCSTEQLUSR. level too low. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > The Global HO cause standard indicator is defined as below: • where: – MC670: Number of handover attempts cause 2: "uplink quality too low" – MC672: Number of handover attempts cause 4: ”downlink quality too low" – MC671: Number of handover attempts cause 3: "uplink level too low" – MC673: Number of handover attempts cause 5: "downlink level too low" – MC676: Number of handover attempts cause 15: "too high uplink interference level" – MC677: Number of handover attempts cause 16: "too high downlink interference level" – MC678: Number of handover attempts cause 12: "too low power budget" – MC674: Number of handover attempts cause 6: "MS-BTS distance too long" © Alcatel 108 .

Alcatel > Refer to BSS .4 Description of global indicators Handover cause distribution HANDOVER CAUSE rates HCSTEIFR HCSTEQLR HCSTELVR HCSTEDMR HCSTBPBR HCMCR HCCC TMHOSR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 109 All rights reserved © 2004.2.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • Handover statistics INDICATORS > Handover causes – HCXXYYYYR: Rate of specific HO cause xxyyyy versus all HO causes (Global) – where XX = ST (standard) or MC (micro cell) or CC (concentric cell) or MB (multi band) – and YYYY is specific to the cause © Alcatel 109 .

2 THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME OUTGOING HO SUCCESS RATE Rate of successful outgoing external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH handovers Σcell (MC646 + MC656) / Σcell (MC645a + MC655a) < 90% This indicator includes preparation and execution.4 Description of global indicators Outgoing handover success rate > Global success rate of Outgoing HO (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA B7. > From B7 MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.2. HOOREFR UNIT 110 All rights reserved © 2004. > Efficiency of Outgoing HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel change procedure during outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). HOORSUR UNIT % > Success rate of execution of Outgoing HO (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME EFFICIENCY OF OUTGOING HANDOVER EXECUTION Rate of successful outgoing external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH handovers Σcell (MC646 + MC656) /Σcell (MC650 + MC660) < 90% This indicator takes into account HO execution only (not ho preparation). Alcatel % Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Global Outgoing HO success rate: represents the global efficiency ot the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). It does not take into account the HO failures that can occur during the preparation phase when the new channel is being selected and activated. © Alcatel 110 .

© Alcatel 111 . Σcell(MC642 + MC652) /Σcell(MC820 + MC830) < 90% HOIRSUR UNIT % > Success rate of execution of Incoming HO (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME EFFICIENCY OF INCOMING HANDOVERS Rate of successful incoming external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH HOs Σcell (MC642 + MC652) /Σcell(MC821 + MC831) < 90% Excluding congestion failures and BSS preparation failures from requests. HOIREFR UNIT 111 All rights reserved © 2004.2. > Efficiency of Incoming HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel change procedure during incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). Alcatel % Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Global Incoming HO success rate: represents the global efficiency of the incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not).4 Description of global indicators Incoming handover success rate > Global success rate of Incoming HO (G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME INCOMING HANDOVER SUCCESS RATE Rate of successful incoming external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCHhandovers. It does not take into account the HO failures that can occur during the preparation phase when the new channel is being selected and activated.

2.4 Description of global indicators Call quality factor absolute
(G) INDICATOR DEFINITION CELL QUALITY FACTOR ABSOLUTE
Indicator summarizing the cell behavior and allowing the operator to sort out cell for investigation.This indicator is based on failure events. For each part of the indicator, twothresholds are used: Topt and TQoS. TQoS is the QoS warning threshold (e.g. above or belowthe threshold, a warning is generated on the cell. Topt + TQoS is the optimal value that should be acheived. Each part as a weighting factor (WF) according to the impact on the subscriber’s point of view.

FORMULA

THRESHOLD

((1 – SDCCH CONGESTION rate) - T)/ Topt * WF QoS + (CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate - QoS)/ Topt *WF T + ((1 – CALL DROP rate -QoS)/ Topt * WF T + (OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate QoS)/ Topt * WF -T + ((1 – HO QUALITY rate - T )/ Topt * WF QoS SDCCH CONGESTION rate :QoS= 0.97, opt 0.03, WF = 0.1 T T= CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate : T = 0.9, Tpt 0.09, WF = 0.2 QoS o= CALL DROP rate : T oS= 0.96, opt 0.04, WF = 0.3 T= Q T= OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate :QoS= 0.85, opt 0.12, WF = 0.15 T HO QUALITY rate : QoS= 0.85, opt 0.1, WF = 0.25 T T= QSCQAR UNIT % investigation. This indicator is based on failure events. For each part of the indicator, two

COMMENT REF NAME

> The highest, the best is the cell > But the traffic handled is not taken into account
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 112 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

> This counter intends to compute for every cell of the network a global indicator taking into account the major causes of bad Quality of Service. > Each cause is weighted according to the impact on the end user.

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2.4 Description of global indicators Call quality factor relative
(G) INDICATOR DEFINITION CELL QUALITY FACTOR RELATIVE
This indicator is the Cell Quality Factor Absolute weighted by the cell traffic.Investigation should be done in priority on the cell having a high rate of failures with high traffic (the traffic is the rate of traffic handled by the cell over the total network traffic – traffic is TCH seizure attempts) CQFA * ((MC15a + MC15b + MC703) / (MC15a + MC15b + MC703) cell network)

FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME

N/A QSCQRR UNIT %

> For optimization > Try to improve cells with the worst CQFR

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> Normalizing the previous Cell Quality Factor Absolute by the traffic of the cell will allow to compare the QoS of the cell between each other and raise the list of top worst cells candidate for analysis. > From B7, MC703 replaces MC16 of B6.

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2.4 Description of global indicators Network TCH availability
(G) INDICATOR DEFINITION FORMULA THRESHOLD COMMENT REF NAME NETWORK (TCH) AVAILABILITY Rate of TCHs able to carry traffic (upon the total number of traffic channels) (Σcell (MC250) / #Available TCH) < 95% #Available TCH : according to channel configuration TCAVAR

UNIT

%

> Management indicator, maintenance oriented, assessing
• Quantity of stability problems • Reaction time to problems

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2.4 Description of global indicators Exercise
Indicator 1- SDCCH congestion 2- Call drop 3- Call success 4- Efficiency of outgoing HO 5- Network TCH availability 6- TCH assignment failure 7- Call drop 8- SDCCH drop 9- HO cause distribution (ratio of better cell) 10- Call success 11- SDCCH drop value 10% 5% 95% 91% 94% 2,4 % 2,3 % 2% 45% 88% 1% OK ? NOK Impact difficulties to establish call

Time allowed: 10 minutes
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 115 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

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2 GLOBAL INDICATORS

2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators

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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators Objective

> Beware of traps and restrictions about some global indicators > So as to be able to provide a reliable interpretation

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2.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators Call set-up success rate / Call drop rate
> CALL SETUP SUCCESS
• The radio link establishment failure is not taken into account, because:
– – – most of failures during RLE are due to ghost RACH the MS is attempting MAX_RETRANS+1 times before giving up difficult to assess subscriber's impact, anyhow very low

> CALL DROP
• For BSS, the last stage is considered as established, although it is not the cause from a user point of view • If a TCH drop occurs during this phase
– – for the user, it is a setup failure for the OMC-R indicators, counted as a call drop
118 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

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5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators Call duration IMPACT OF CALL DURATION > The longest a call is. the result can be less accurate > Typical case: drive test > Typical call duration: 80/90 seconds in most of European countries Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 119 All rights reserved © 2004.2. the highest the risk to have a drop is > If statistics are done on abnormally long or short calls. Alcatel © Alcatel 119 .

5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators Mobility IMPACT OF MOBILITY > Most of drop problems are due to mobility • Usually 2/3 of calls are static (no HO will be done) • For example. if 40 drops are observed for 1000 calls – – 40/1000 = 4% of global call drop but most of call drops are generated by "moving calls" – 40/(1000*1/3) = 40/333 = 12 % of call drop rate for moving call – 0 % for static call > Typical trap when comparing drive tests results with OMC-R statistics Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 120 All rights reserved © 2004.2. Alcatel © Alcatel 120 .

they are lost In 1 network. risk of drop is 2 % The call setup success rate indicator will be increased due to this problem OMC-R indicator is erroneous (drive test is the reality) OK ? NOK why call duration is more than average For moving call.5 Traps and restrictions of global indicators Exercise Case global call drop : 2% In 1 BSS. call done in In 10 minutes of call are static measured Taxi in this zone will be call drop is 1.2. call setup success will be about 76 % Time allowed: a pedestrian zone.1 % In 1 network. 80 % For taxi.7 % dropped at 5.1 % Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 121 All rights reserved © 2004. OMC-R call drop indicator is giving 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 121 . drive tests are showing a general call drop of 7 %. some transcoders are faulty : as soon as TCH are established on these TC. global call setup success is 92 % conclusion for 1 call of 20 mns.

6 Global indicators interpretation All rights reserved © 2004.2 GLOBAL INDICATORS 2. Alcatel © Alcatel 122 .

6 Global indicators interpretation Exercise 1 Is this network OK? Name Name value value SDCCH congestion SDCCH congestion SDCCH drop SDCCH drop TCH assignment failure rate TCH assignment failure rate Call drop Call drop Call setup success rate Call setup success rate Call success rate Call success rate Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of incoming HO Efficiency of incoming HO 1% 1% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 96% 96% 94% 94% 92% 92% 93% 93% Time allowed: 5 minutes HO cause distribution better/level/quality 70/20/10 HO cause distribution better/level/quality 70/20/10 Network TCH availability 98% Network TCH availability 98% Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 123 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 123 .2.

6 Global indicators interpretation Exercise 2 > Can one say that : • • • all indicators are OK? the coverage of the network is 95%? the call success of all the cells are 95% (minimum)? Name Name value value SDCCH congestion SDCCH congestion SDCCH drop SDCCH drop TCH assignment failure rate TCH assignment failure rate Call drop Call drop Call setup success rate Call setup success rate Call success rate Call success rate 5% 5% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 97% 97% 95% 95% 92% 92% 92% 92% Time allowed: 5 minutes Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of incoming HO Efficiency of incoming HO HO cause distribution better/level/quality 75/15/10 HO cause distribution better/level/quality 75/15/10 Network TCH availability 98% Network TCH availability 98% 124 All rights reserved © 2004.2. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 124 .

6% 4. Alcatel 4.6 Global indicators interpretation Exercise 3 > Results of field tests on a network – Is the network better if QSCDR = 2%? Name Name value value SDCCH congestion SDCCH congestion SDCCH drop SDCCH drop TCH assignment failure rate TCH assignment failure rate Call drop Call drop Call setup success rate Call setup success rate Call success rate Call success rate Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of outgoing HO Efficiency of incoming HO Efficiency of incoming HO HO cause distribution better/level/quality HO cause distribution better/level/quality Network TCH availability Network TCH availability 125 All rights reserved © 2004.2.6% 92% 92% Time allowed: 5 minutes Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 125 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 126 . DETAILED INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004.3.

DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS document in order to get some more detailed indicators of the Alcatel BSS > Program: • 3. Alcatel © Alcatel 127 .3 Detailed indicators Session presentation > Objective: to be able to use the BSS .1 Indicator reference name • 3.2 Indicators classification Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 127 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 128 . DETAILED INDICATORS 3.3.1 Indicator reference name All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 129 .1 Indicator reference name Description > Each QOS indicator has a unique REFERENCE NAME of 10 characters Family Unit mandatory Procedure Prefix Type Joker Sub-type optional Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 129 All rights reserved © 2004.3.

2 Indicators classification All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 130 . DETAILED INDICATORS 3.3.

3. Alcatel © Alcatel 131 .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS document GSM indicators Traffic load Global QoS Handover statistics HO causes Outgoing HO Incoming HO Resource availability Densification techniques Directed retry Concentric cells Multilayer / Multiband Network Multiband SDCCH TCH SCCP SDCCH RTCH Call statistics Control Channels Intracell HO SDCCH /TCH HO repartition Couple of cells Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 131 All rights reserved © 2004.2 Indicators classification Main categories Classification in BSS .

HO). © Alcatel 132 . Alcatel > The Traffic model section includes indicators for: – number of SDCCH connection requests and successses (Immediate Assignment. > The MS penetration rate section includes the indicator for: – percentage of multiband MS SDCCH access (except LU) versus all MS SDCCH accesses. Service Call Estab Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 SDCCH Traffic MS Penetration Rate Traffic Dual Band Handover Resource Occupancy SDCCH Erlang SDCCH Mean Holding Time Handover Traffic MO LU Follow on SMS Call Re.2 Indicators classification SDCCH traffic > Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic Traffic Model Global Requests Normal Assignment Global Traffic Normal Assignment Traffic MT Loc. type of MO connections versus all MO connection types). > The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for: – SDCCH traffic in Erlang. Update IMSI Detach Sup.3. – distribution of SDCCH connection success (MO and MT connections versus all MO+MT connections. – average duration in seconds of SDCCH channel usage.stab E Other 132 All rights reserved © 2004.

– number of HOs per call. – rate of TCH HR allocations versus all TCH allocations (FR+HR).3. HR). > The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for: – RTCH traffic in Erlang (FR+HR. AMR. Alcatel > The Speech Version and Channel Type section includes indicators for: – distribution of TCH allocation requests (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA). – number of TCH FR allocations and number of TCH HR allocations. – TCH peak of blocking (TCH congestion time). AMR. DATA SUCCESS AMR / TFO HO PER CALL Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 133 All rights reserved © 2004. DR. DR/EFR. DATA REQUESTS Assign / HO / DR SUCCESS Assign/ HO/ DR ALLOCATIONS FR. – rate of TFO calls versus all speech calls. HO. FR. – distribution of TCH allocation successes (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA). FR. – rate of TCH allocation successes for HO+DR versus all TCH allocations (NA+HO+DR).2 Indicators classification TCH traffic > Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic RTCH Traffic Speech Version & Channel Type Traffic Model Resource Occupancy TCH Erlang Full Rate Erlang Full Rate Allocated Full Rate Mean TCH Time Blocking Peak TCH Multiband Occupancy Half Rate Erlang Half Rate Allocated Half Rate Mean TCH Time Ratio of HR Traffic REQUESTS FR. © Alcatel 133 . HR. – rate of TCH AMR allocation successes. EFR. DR). multiband). – average duration in seconds of RTCH channel usage (FR+HR. HR. > The Traffic model section includes indicators for: – number of TCH connection requests and successes (Normal Assignment.

2 Indicators classification SCCP resource occupancy / Control channels traffic > Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SCCP resource occupancy • SCCP traffic in Erlang > Traffic Load and Traffic Model > Control Channels traffic • PCH channel load • AGCH channel load • RACH channel load Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 134 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 134 .3.

•specific indicators for Dynamic SDCCH Allocation: Stored Indicators (see Dynamic SDCCH Allocation in the Global Indicators section) DYTROFN. TCRRDN. = MC802a DYAHCASMN. TCTRAVE. SDTRAVE >The Handover procedure section includes the indicator for the preparation of the SDCCH HO procedure: •rate of SDCCH HO failure due to SDCCH congestion >The Established phase section includes indicators for SDCCH Phase: •global SDCCH drop rate.= MC800 DYAHCATAN = MC801a DYAHCATMN = MC801b DYAHCASAN.DYTROFN. to be simpler. the general formula of these indicators are redesigned. TCRROFN.0) means that it is equal to A/B if B ≠ 0 or to 0 if B = 0 © Alcatel 135 .0) DYAHCASAR: average rate of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots Formula: tdiv (DYAHCASAN. TCAHCGUN.DYTROFN.0.2 Indicators classification QoS SDCCH > GLOBAL Quality of Service > SDCCH Assignment Phase / Handover SDCCH Established Phase Congestion Drop Rate Unsuccess Drop Radio Radio Failure Access Reject BSS Failure Drop HO Drop BSS Dynamic Allocation Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 135 All rights reserved © 2004. BSS). radio.B. BSS). TCTRAR. SDAVAR.= MC802b DYN = number of Dynamic timeslots (given by configuration file) = Cell_NB_DYN Computed indicators DYAHCATAR: average rate of busy TCH (FR of HR) allocated on dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots Formula: tdiv* (DYAHCATAN.3. TCTRTCE. •specific SDCCH access failure rate per type of problem (SDCCH congestion.0. SDRRDN.0. SDAHCGUN. TCAVAR (removed as it is the same as TCTRAR).DYTROFN. •specific SDCCH drop rate per type of problem (radio. HO.0) Impact on existing Indicators: Apart of modification due to introduction of Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot. Alcatel >The Assignment phase section includes indicators for the Radio Link Establishment procedure: •global SDCCH access failure rate. * tdiv(A.0.0) DYAHCATMR: maximum rate of busy TCH (FR of HR) allocated on dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots Formula: tdiv (DYAHCATMN. SDRROFN.

© Alcatel 136 .3. BSS). BSS). •specific RTCH outgoing HO failure rate per type of problem (congestion. Directed Retry 136 All rights reserved © 2004. radio . •specific RTCH assignment failure rate per type of problem (RTCH congestion.2 Indicators classification QoS RTCH > GLOBAL Quality of service > RTCH Assignment Phase / Handover Congestion Queuing Phase Preemption Phase Established Phase RTCH Queue Length PCI =1 Requests PVI =1 Success Drop rate Drop Radio Drop HO Global Radio Congestion Level Unsuccess Assign Queuing Fail Queue Full Assign Queued Radio Failure BSS Failure Assign Queued & Reject Timeout Higher Priority Queued Success Allocation with / without Preemption Success Drop BSS Preemption Normal Assign. Alcatel Failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 >The Assignment phase section includes indicators for the TCH Normal Assignment procedure: •global RTCH assignment failure rate (called unsuccess rate). radio. radio drop. >The Handover procedure section includes indicators for the global HO procedure (intracell+intercell internal + intercell external): •rate of RTCH incoming HO failure due to RTCH congestion. •global radio congestion level (number of cells congested in the network).Reversion Old Channel.

BSS int. © Alcatel 137 . preemption). Alcatel >The Call Drop section includes indicators for the TCH Phase: •global call drop rate. •rate of call success. >The Call Success section includes indicators for the global call procedure (speech): •rate of call setup success.3. •global cell quality factor. TransCoder. HO..2 Indicators classification QoS call statistics > GLOBAL Quality of service > Call statistics Call Statistics Call Success Call Drop Call Setup Success Rate Call Success Rate Drop Radio Cell Quality Factor Absolute Cell Quality Factor Relative Call Drop Rate Call Drop End User Rate Drop HO Drop BSS Preemption Transcoder Failure BSS Internal Failure Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 137 All rights reserved © 2004. •specific call drop rate per type of problem (radio.

HCSTEQLR. HCSTLVUR. C420b = NB_INC_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of incoming internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. power budget. C404a = NB_OUT_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of outgoing external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. C449 (type 6) in type 110 (as MC449) improves the result of all HO cause Indicators: (B8 Introduction) C449 = MC449 = number of handover attempts with cause 28 (Fast traffic handover) The Indicator TOTALHO (HCN) is impacted as well as the following indicators: HCSTBPBR.3. HCSTIFUR. C404b = NB_OUT_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of outgoing external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 >The Handover causes section includes indicators of HO causes distribution corresponding to outgoing handovers relating to a cell: •distribution of HO causes taking into account all possible HO causes (quality UL. micro cell cause. interference. HCSTAMR. HCSTELVR. distance. © Alcatel 138 . HCSTIFDR.). HCSTEDIR. level. traffic. HCSTAMHR. power budget]). HCCCR. C421a NB_OUT_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of outgoing internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. distance.2 Indicators classification Handover causes > Handover STATISTICS > Handover causes Handover causes HO causes HO causes per Adjacency Outgoing HO All HO cause distribution HO standard cause distribution HO cause category distribution Incoming HO HO cause category distribution – Fast traffic HO taken into account type of counter for dual band HO 138 All rights reserved © 2004. capture]. >The Handover causes per adjacency section includes indicators of HO causes distribution corresponding to outgoing and incoming handovers relating to a couple of serving/target cells: •distribution of HO cause categories taking into account 3 categories (emergency [quality. level UL. HCMCR. distance. quality DL. HCSTBTRFR type 32 of counter (Change of frequency band measurements) (B8 Introduction) Type 32 is defined as Standard and provides information to observe handovers between different frequency bands. HCSTQLDR. HCNTBDR. HCSTBTFR. level DL. interference DL. HCSTEDMR. HCSTLVDR. C420a = NB_INC_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of incoming internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. level DL. traffic. •distribution of HO standard causes taking into account only HO standard causes (quality UL. interference UL. better condition [power budget. HCSTQLUR. C421b NB_OUT_INT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of outgoing internal TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. power budget). etc. concentric cell cause. forced directed retry). HCSTAMFR. C403b = NB_INC_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_SUCC = Number of incoming external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover successes including a change of the (TCH) frequency band. HCSTEIFR. C403a = NB_INC_EXT_TCH_HO_NEW_BAND_ATPT = Number of incoming external TCH (in HR or FR usage) handover attempts including a change of the (TCH) frequency band.

Reversion Old Channel.2 Indicators classification Outgoing handovers > Handover STATISTICS > Outgoing handovers Intra-BSC Outgoing HO (See comments) External Intra-BSC & External Preparation Success Rate Preparation Success Rate Success Rate Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Call Drop Rate Call Drop Rate Call Drop Rate Failure With Reversion Failure With Reversion – LAPD counter to analyze the cause of delay in HO procedures 139 All rights reserved © 2004.Reversion Old Channel. >The Outgoing Intra BSC + Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of all outgoing intercell handovers relating to a cell (serving): •global efficiency ot the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells whether they belong to the same BSS or not •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells whether they belong to the same BSS or not. BSS). •distribution of outgoing inter BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (radio drop. BSS). © Alcatel 139 . •outgoing intra BSC + inter BSC intercell HO drop rate per type of problem (radio drop. radio . This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus is only available in a detailed measurement campaign. •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS. •distribution of outgoing intra BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (radio drop. loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures. radio .18: TIME_LAPD_CONG Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC. >The Outgoing Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of outgoing intercell external handovers relating to a cell (serving): •efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS.3. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 >The Outgoing Intra BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of outgoing intercell internal handovers relating to a cell (serving): •efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS. Counter: L1. >When the BSC is congested on the downlink. BSS).Reversion Old Channel. This may result for example in call establishment failures. radio . some messages are discarded. A LapD counter that indicates the time an LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded QoS. •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS.

MC922c (FAILURES) HOIMCAGN = MC821 . >The Incoming Inter BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of incoming intercell external handovers relating to a cell (target): •efficiency ot the preparation phase (target TCH allocation) of the incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells not belonging to the same BSS. •distribution of incoming inter BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (RTCH congestion.MC922a (REQUESTS) HOIMSUGN = MC642 .MC922d (ATTEMPTS) •And calculated indicators are defined: 3G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUUR = MC922b / MC922a 2G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUGR = (MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a) preparation and execution 3G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLUR = 1 -(MC922b/MC922a) preparation and execution 2G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLGR = 1 -((MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a)) © Alcatel 140 . TTCH (CIC) congestion. •distribution of incoming intra BSC intercell HO failures per type of problem (congestion. radio.2 Indicators classification Incoming handovers > Handover STATISTICS > Incoming handovers Intra-BSC Incoming HO External Intra-BSC & External Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Congestion Congestion Failure Radio Failure No CIC Failure BSS Failure Radio – – Incoming external HO 3G . so consider handovers from 2G cells as well as handovers from 3G cells. radio. BSS).> 2G Incoming external HO 2G . BSS) >Using counters introduced in B8 for 3G to 2G Incoming External Handovers.MC922b (SUCCESS) HOIMFLGN = MC643 . MC922a: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_REQ (REQUESTS) MC922b: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_SUCC (SUCCESS) MC922c: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_EXEC_FAIL_MS_ACC (FAILURES) MC922d: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_ATPT (ATTEMPTS) •4 stored indicators based on the 4 counters: HOIMRQUN= MC922a HOIMSUUN = MC922b HOIMFLRRUN = MC922c HOIMCAUN = MC922d As existing PM counters related to incoming handovers keep a global view.> 2G only 140 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Failure BSS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 >The Incoming Intra BSC intercell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of incoming intercell internal handovers relating to a cell (target): •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells belonging to the same BSS.3. The pure 2G-2G results can then be obtained by comparing them with the new introduced counters: •4 stored indicators for incoming external handover 2G -2G only: HOIMRQGN = MC820 .

MC922f (type 110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_REQ that indicates the number of 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR) handover requests. Alcatel >Using counters introduced in B8 for 3G to 2G Incoming External Handovers. with emergency cause.2 Indicators classification Incoming handovers B9 > In B9 it was introduced more counters for UMTS to GSM handover monitoring.MC922c (FAILURES) HOIMCAGN = MC821 .MC922b (SUCCESS) HOIMFLGN = MC643 . This counters differs from MC922d by the fact it just count TCH handovers.3.MC922a (REQUESTS) HOIMSUGN = MC642 . • • • Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 141 All rights reserved © 2004. MC922g (type 110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_PREP_FAIL_3GCONG that indicates the number of 3G to 2G handover failures in preparation phase due to 3G high load in target cell. so consider handovers from 2G cells as well as handovers from 3G cells. MC922h (type 110): TIME_3G_HOReject_HL that indicates the cumulative time (in seconds) during which the cell is in 3G high load state.MC922d (ATTEMPTS) •And calculated indicators are defined: 3G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUUR = MC922b / MC922a 2G-2G HO Success rate: HOIMSUGR = (MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a) preparation and execution 3G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLUR = 1 -(MC922b/MC922a) preparation and execution 2G-2G HO failure rate HOIMFLGR = 1 -((MC642-MC922b) / (MC820-MC922a)) © Alcatel 141 . The pure 2G-2G results can then be obtained by comparing them with the new introduced counters: •4 stored indicators for incoming external handover 2G -2G only: HOIMRQGN = MC820 . The new counters were introduced in MC922 family: • MC922e (type110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_EMERGENCY_REQ that indicates the number 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR) handover requests. MC922a: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_REQ (REQUESTS) MC922b: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_SUCC (SUCCESS) MC922c: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_EXEC_FAIL_MS_ACC (FAILURES) MC922d: NB_INC_EXT_3G_2G_HO_ATPT (ATTEMPTS) •4 stored indicators based on the 4 counters: HOIMRQUN= MC922a HOIMSUUN = MC922b HOIMFLRRUN = MC922c HOIMCAUN = MC922d As existing PM counters related to incoming handovers keep a global view.

© Alcatel 142 . radio drop. BSS). radio Reversion Old Channel. Alcatel >The Intracell section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of intracell handovers performed within a cell: •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the intracell handovers performed within a cell.3.2 Indicators classification Intra-cell handovers > Handover STATISTICS > Intracell handovers Efficiency Intracell HO B9 Congestion Call Drop Rate > New B9 counters: HO Cause 30 • • NB_TCH_HO_REQ_30_ReturnCSZone =MC480 (Type 110) NB_TCH_HO_ATPT_30_ReturnCSZone =MC481 (Type 110) CDR Radio CDR BSS Failure BSS Failure With Reversion Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 142 All rights reserved © 2004. •distribution of intracell HO failures per type of problem (congestion.

•efficiency ot the preparation phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming intercell handovers performed between two cells (serving/target). •efficiency ot the execution phase (old to new TCH channel change) of the incoming intercell handovers performed between two cells (serving/target). © Alcatel 143 .2 Indicators classification Handover statistics per couple of cells > Handover STATISTICS > Handover statistics per couple of cell HO statistics per Couple of Cell Preparation Success Rate Efficiency Success Rate HO Success Distribution Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 143 All rights reserved © 2004. •distribution per couple of (serving/target) cells of the incoming intercell handovers performed to a cell from any of its neighboring cells whether they belong to the same BSS or not.3. Alcatel >The Indicators with counters type 180 section includes indicators corresponding to the efficiency of incoming internal+external intercell SDCCH+TCH handovers performed between two cells (serving/target): •global efficiency of the incoming intercell handovers performed between two cells (serving/target).

4 HANDOVER INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 144 .

2 Internal handover indicators per cell • 4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell • 4. Alcatel © Alcatel 145 .4 Handover indicators Session presentation > Objective: to be able to explain what are the main Handover counters and indicators provided by the Alcatel BSS in order to monitor the quality of handovers > Program: • 4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 145 All rights reserved © 2004.3 External handover indicators per cell • 4.

4 HANDOVER INDICATORS 4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 146 .

Alcatel TCH/(SDCCH) Handover > Synchronous • • • • between 2 cells sharing the same clocks collocated usually 2 sectors of the same BTS – tunable at OMC-R level > Asynchronous • • not synchronous for any reason no dedicated monitoring for synchronous/asynchronous HO as considering the target cell as considering the serving cell > External • • • > Incoming • • > Outgoing Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 147 . CASES > HO Reminder > Intra-Cell: Handover between two TCHs of the same cell > Internal • • • between two cells of the same BSC also called intra BSC and not using the forced external handover mode between two cells of different BSCs also called inter BSC or between two cells of the same BSC when using the forced external handover mode 147 All rights reserved © 2004.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Handover types HO FAIL.4.

4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - success
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO > successful case
MS MEAS REPORT -----------------------------> BTS BSC MSC MEASUREMENT RESULT --------------------------------------------------------------> PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel) <-------------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel) --------------------------------------------------------------> CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel) <-------------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel) --------------------------------------------------------------> ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel) <-------------------------------------------------------------ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel) --------------------------------------------------------------> ASSIGNMENT COMPLET(new channel) --------------------------------------------------------------> MC870

ASSIGNMENT CMD <----------------------------SABM -----------------------------> UA <----------------------------ASSIGNMENT CMP ----------------------------->

MC871 start T3107

stop T3107 MC662 HANDOVER PERFORMED ------------------->

RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel) <-------------------------------------------------------------RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel) -------------------------------------------------------------->

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> Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together. > The T3107 timer is also used as the guard timer of the channel change procedure during an intra cell handover. The Default value for T3107 is 14 seconds.

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - failures
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failures > Handover Preparation:
• congestion • BSS problem (no specific counter)

> Handover Execution:
• reversion to old channel • drop radio • BSS problem (no specific counter)

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - congestion
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failure: Congestion
MS Serving BTS Serving BSC MSC

MC561TCH+MC101SDCCH

MEAS REPORT ----------------------------->

MEASUREMENT RESULT --------------------------------------------------------------> MC870 No free TCH MC561

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> From B7, MC561 replaces MC61of B6. > As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: • MC61(B6) = MC561(B7)

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - radio failure ROC
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Reversion Old Channel
MS Serving BTS Serving BSC MC871 MSC ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel) <----------------------------- <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10) start T200 SABM (new channel) -----------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel) -----------------------------------------------------------------> UA (new channel) X- - - - - -------------------SABM (new channel) -----------------------------> UA (new channel) X- - - - - -------------------SABM (old channel) -----------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION (old channel) UA (old channel) -----------------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------------ASSIGNMENT FAIL ASSIGNMENT FAILURE -----------------------------> -----------------------------------------------------------------> stop T3107 MC667 PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (new channel) <----------------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (new channel) -----------------------------------------------------------------> RF CHANNEL RELEASE (new channel) <----------------------------------------------------------------RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (new channel) ----------------------------------------------------------------->

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - radio failure drop
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Radio drop
MS Serving BTS Serving BSC MC871 MSC

MC663=C63TCH+C103SDCCH

ASSIGNMENT CMD <-----------------------------

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel) <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10) MC663 T3107 expiry

Release of old and new channels

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - BSS problem
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: BSS drop > no specific counter
MS Serving BTS Serving BSC MC871 MSC

ASSIGNMENT CMD <-----------------------------

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel) <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)

--------------------------------------- > CLEAR REQUEST O&M intervention Radio interface failure

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> Intra cell HO failures due to BSS problems are deduced from other counters.

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4.1 Intra-cell handover indicators per cell Intracell HO - counters
HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO counters
REQUEST

ATTEMPT

Preparation Failure

SUCCESS
INTRACELL Handover Preparation
Request Congestion BSS Pb MC870

Execution Failure

CONGESTION BSS PB

MC561+MC101 MC870-MC871-(MC561+MC101) MC871

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL

Execution

Attempt

Reversion old channel MC667 Drop radio MC663 BSS Pb MC871-MC662-MC667-MC663 Success MC662
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DROP RADIO BSS PB

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Alcatel © Alcatel 155 .2 Internal handover indicators per cell All rights reserved © 2004.4 HANDOVER INDICATORS 4.

start T3103 MC831. MC656 The same inter-cell handover procedure leads to an incrementation of two sets of counters: incoming HO counters for the target cell: MC830.4.SABM ---------------------------> stop T3105 <-------------------------. MC652.success HO FAIL. MC660 start T3124 HANDOVER ACCESS -------------------------------------------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------. In HO_PERFORMED MESSAGE >Target cell (CI. MC660.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Internal HO . MC831. MC655A CHANNEL ACTIVATION <---------------------------------CHAN ACTIV ACK ----------------------------------> HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------. etc.ESTABLISH INDICATION stop T200 ----------------------------------> HANDOVER COMPLETE HO CMP stop T3103 -------------------------------------------------------------> ----------------------------------> HO PERFORMED ------------------------> Release of old TCH MC652. © Alcatel 156 .UA ----------------------------. MC656.LAC) >"cause" of HO Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 156 All rights reserved © 2004. CASES > internal HO > success case MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC MEAS REP -----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC830. outgoing HO counters for the serving cell: MC655A.start T3105 stop T3124 start T200 -----------------------. Alcatel > Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------. etc.

2 Internal handover indicators per cell Incoming internal HO . CASES > Incoming internal HO failures: > Handover procedure from the target cell point of view > Handover Preparation: • congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell – does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > Handover Execution: • radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel – the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 157 All rights reserved © 2004.4.failures HO FAIL. Alcatel © Alcatel 157 .

4. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: congestion MS Serving Cell Serving BSC MSC MC551TCH+MC91SDCCH MEAS REPORT -----------------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT --------------------------------------------------------------> MC830 No free TCH MC551 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 158 All rights reserved © 2004. MC551 replaces MC51of B6. Alcatel > From B7.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Incoming internal HO . > As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: • MC51(B6) = MC551(B7) © Alcatel 158 .congestion HO FAIL.

4. Alcatel > All incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter MC653...radio failure HO FAIL.start T3103 MC660 SABM -----------x T3103 expiry MC653 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 159 All rights reserved © 2004..start T3103 HANDOVER ACCESS MC660 -------------------------------------------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Incoming internal HO . © Alcatel 159 .-X MS serving cell target cell BSC SABM MEAS REP -----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION MEASUREMENT RESULT UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------> -----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE <--------------------------------------------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC653 CHANNEL ACTIV ACK Release of new channel ----------------------------------> MSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.start T3105 SABM -------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------. > Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------.stop T3105 HANDOVER COMPLETE ----------------------------------------------------.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: MS access problem MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.

2 Internal handover indicators per cell Incoming internal HO . Alcatel BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 160 .counters HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO counters REQUEST ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS INCOMING INTERNAL Handover Preparation Request Congestion BSS Pb Execution Attempt Radio (MS access problem) BSS Pb Success MC830 Execution Failure CONGESTION BSS PB MC551+MC91 MC830-MC831-(MC551+MC91) MS ACCESS PB MC831 MC653 MC831-MC652-MC653 MC652 160 All rights reserved © 2004.4.

indicators HO FAIL. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Intra BSC – HOIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal HO execution – HOIBCGR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to congestion – HOIBPFR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the preparation phase – HOIBFLRR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems – HOIBFLBR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the execution phase © Alcatel 161 .4. CASES > Incoming internal HO indicators HOIBFLBN HOIBFLRN HOIBCGN HOIBSUN HOIBFLR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 161 All rights reserved © 2004.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Incoming internal HO .

CASES > Outgoing internal HO failures > Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view > Handover Preparation: • congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > Handover Execution: • radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel • radio problem: the MS drops • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 162 All rights reserved © 2004.failures HO FAIL.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Outgoing internal HO .4. Alcatel © Alcatel 162 .

<-----------------------------------------------------------------------.start T3105 SABM -------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.4..2 Internal handover indicators per cell Outgoing internal HO .-X SABM -----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE -----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC657 Release of new channel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 163 All rights reserved © 2004.stop T3105 HANDOVER COMPLETE ----------------------------------------------------.start T3103 HANDOVER ACCESS MC660 -------------------------------------------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.. CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: Reversion old channel MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.. Alcatel © Alcatel 163 .radio failure ROC HO FAIL.

Alcatel © Alcatel 164 . CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: drop MS serving cell target cell BSC MSC MEAS REP -----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC655A CHANNEL ACTIVATION <---------------------------------CHAN ACTIV ACK ----------------------------------> HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Outgoing internal HO . the cause is "radio interface message failure" (for Alcatel) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 164 All rights reserved © 2004.start T3103 MC660 SABM ----------x T3103 expiry MC658 Clear_request ------------------------> Clear_command Release of old and new TCH <------------------------ • clear_request: ask the MSC to release the connection • In case of call drop due to HO.radio failure drop HO FAIL.4.

4. Alcatel REVERSION OLD CHANNEL DROP RADIO BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 165 .2 Internal handover indicators per cell Outgoing internal HO .counters HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO counters REQUEST ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS OUTGOING INTERNAL Handover Execution Failure CONGESTION BSS PB Preparation Request Any preparation failure Execution Attempt Reversion old channel Drop radio BSS Pb Success MC655A MC655A-MC660 MC660 MC657 MC658 MC660-MC656-MC657-MC658 MC656 165 All rights reserved © 2004.

– HOOBCDRR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with drop.2 Internal handover indicators per cell Outgoing internal HO .4.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Intra BSC – HOOBRQR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO preparation. – HOOBCDR: rate of incoming internal HO failures with drop (radio + BSS).indicators HO FAIL. – HOOBOCR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with Reversion Old Channel. CASES > Outgoing internal HO indicators HOOBSUN HOOBCDRN HOOBCDBN HOOBOCN HOOBCDR HOOBOCR SUCCESS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 166 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 166 . Alcatel > Refer to BSS . – HOOBEFR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO execution.

3 External handover indicators per cell All rights reserved © 2004.4 HANDOVER INDICATORS 4. Alcatel © Alcatel 167 .

CHANNEL_ACT_ACK------------<----.HO_COMPLETE ---------------------------------------<--.MEAS_REPORT -> ------.PHYSICAL_INFO --> <--.ESTABLISH_INDICATION ---- MC462C Release of TCH <---. • MC463c (equivalent of MC642 for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry successes: HANDOVER COMPLETE received from the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.3 External handover indicators per cell External HO .MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A MC462A -----.Start T9113 (HO_COMMAND) MC821 MC463B <-----.CLEAR_COMMAND -----MC646 Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL Stop T8 <----------. • MC463b (equivalent of MC821 for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry attempts: HANDOVER REQUEST ACK sent by the target BSC containing the HANDOVER COMMAND for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell. > From B7.HO_COMPLETE --------------. © Alcatel 168 .HO_ACCESS ----<---.4. CASES > External HO > successful case MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .CC -----------------------.success HO FAIL.SABM ------------------.CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------> <. > 6 counters provide information for "Inter-PLMN HO" (Incoming and Outgoing) (From B8) • MC462a (equivalent of MC645A for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry requests: HANDOVER REQUIRED sent to the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell. • MC462b (equivalent of MC650 for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry attempts: HANDOVER COMMAND sent to the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell. MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.HO_REQUEST_ACK -------. • MC463a (equivalent of MC820 for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry requests: HANDOVER REQUEST received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell. • MC462c (equivalent of MC646 for intra PLMN external HO) Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry successes: CLEAR COMMAND with Cause "Handover successful" received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell. Only Outgoing inter PLMN HO is allowed.HO_DETECTION-------------<-.HO_REQUIRED ----------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820 MC463A <--------.Stop T9113 MC642 MC463C Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 168 All rights reserved © 2004.HO_ACCESS ----- <----.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------------MC650 Start T8 MC462B <---.---.UA --------------> <------------------------. This is leading to a more accurate computation of the External outgoing HO success rate. > MC645a is only counting HANDOVER REQUIRED messages that are linked to a handover trial and not those that are linked to the update of the candidate cell list for handover / directed retry. Alcatel > Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.HO_DETECTION ---------------. > Note than all other (previous) counters related to HO continue to be based on Intra PLMN only.

4. Alcatel © Alcatel 169 .3 External handover indicators per cell External HO .failures HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO failures > Handover procedure from the target cell point of view > Handover Preparation: • congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell OR no TTCH available on the A interface – does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > Handover Execution: • radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel – the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 169 All rights reserved © 2004.

CASES > Incoming external HO fail: Air/Abis cong.HO_FAILURE --------------Cause: no radio resource available MC820 MC541A ( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 170 All rights reserved © 2004.RTCH congestion HO FAIL.4. Alcatel > From B7. > As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: • MC41A(B6) = MC541A(B7) © Alcatel 170 . MC541A replaces MC41A of B6.3 External handover indicators per cell Incoming external HO . MC541ATCH+MC81SDCCH MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .HO_REQUIRED -------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> <----.MEAS_REPORT -> ------.MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A -----.

MEAS_REPORT -> > ------. MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .HO_FAILURE --------------Cause: terrestrial circuit already allocated Requested terrestrial resource unaivalable BSS not equiopoed ( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-) MC820 MC41B MC41B Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 171 All rights reserved © 2004.3 External handover indicators per cell Incoming external HO . Alcatel © Alcatel 171 .HO_REQUIRED -------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> <----.4.TTCH congestion HO FAIL.MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A -----. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: A int. cong.

X ----. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: MS access problem MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .CC --------------------------------------.HO_REQUIRED -------> ----.radio failure HO FAIL.HO-COMMAND) included° MC821 Start T8 X --.MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A ---.SABM --.ESTABLISH_INDICATION-> MS ----.CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113 <----.SABM --------> <--.3 External handover indicators per cell Incoming external HO .CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.CC --------------------------------------.MEAS_REPORT -> ------.Start T9113 (HO-COMMAND) included MC821 <-------------------------..HO_ACCESS --------.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8 ----.HO_REQUIRED -------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> MC820 <-------.X ----.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.4.CLEAR_COMMAND ----------------------> Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> MC820 <-------.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A ---.SABM --. > Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.SABM --.CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.HO_ACCESS ----- -..HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------.HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) serving_cell .HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------. Alcatel > All incoming external HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter MC643.Start T9113 <-------------------------.CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----.MEAS_REPORT -> BSC ------------------------------------------> MSC BSC MC643 Release of connection target_cell MS ------.X T9113 expiry MC643 Release of connection Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 172 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 172 .UA ------------X --.

3 External handover indicators per cell Incoming external HO .4. Alcatel MS ACCESS PB BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 173 .counters HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO counters Inter PLMN HO REQUEST Intra PLMN HO REQUEST ATTEMPT SUCCESS RATIO ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS INCOMING EXTERNAL Handover Preparation Request Congestion BSS Pb Execution Attempt Radio (MS access problem) BSS Pb Success MC820 Execution Failure CONGESTION BSS PB MC541+MC81 MC820-MC821-(MC541+MC81) MC821 MC643 MC821-MC642-MC643 MC642 173 All rights reserved © 2004.

DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Inter BSC – HOIMEFR: efficiency of the incoming external HO execution. – HOIMAMR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to CIC congestion (A TCH).indicators HO FAIL.3 External handover indicators per cell Incoming external HO . – HOIMFLBR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the execution phase. these indicators show: – the success rate of incoming inter-PLMN HOs.4. – HOIMPFR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the preparation phase. – REQUESTS – ATTEMPTS – SUCCESS • In addition. – HOIMFLRR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio problems. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . © Alcatel 174 . CASES > Incoming external HO indicators HOIMFLBN HOIMFLRN HOIMCGN HOIMSUN HOIMFLR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 174 All rights reserved © 2004. – the ratio of incoming inter-PLMN HO to incoming intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO. – HOIMCGR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio congestion (Air or Abis TCH). > Inter PLMN Incoming External HO Indicators(from B8) • An indicator is created for each counter.

failures HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO failures > Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view > Handover Preparation: • congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > Handover Execution: • radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel • radio problem: the MS drops • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 175 All rights reserved © 2004.4. Alcatel © Alcatel 175 .3 External handover indicators per cell Outgoing external HO .

UA ------------.-.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.3 External handover indicators per cell Outgoing external HO .SABM --------> <--.MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A ---.CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----.ESTABLISH_INDICATION-> ----.HO_REQUIRED -------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> <-------.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8 MC650 ----.HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------.MEAS_REPORT -> ------. Alcatel © Alcatel 176 .CLEAR_COMMAND ----------------------> Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel X --.4.radio failure ROC HO FAIL.HO_ACCESS ----- Release of connection Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 176 All rights reserved © 2004.Start T9113 (HO-COMMAND) included <-------------------------.HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------> MC647 ----..CC --------------------------------------. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: reversion old channel MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .

Alcatel © Alcatel 177 .MEAS_REPORT -> ------.CLEAR_REQUEST -> MC648 Radio interface message fail Release of connection X --.SABM --.3 External handover indicators per cell Outgoing external HO .HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8 MC650 ----.HO_REQUIRED -------> ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> <-------. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: drop MS serving_cell BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS .MEAS_RESULT --------> MC645A ---.SABM --.HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------.CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----.X T8 expiry ----.radio failure drop HO FAIL.HO_ACCESS ----- Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 177 All rights reserved © 2004.X ----.4.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.X ----.Start T9113 (HO-COMMAND) included <-------------------------.SABM --..CC --------------------------------------.

Alcatel REVERSION OLD CHANNEL DROP RADIO BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 178 .3 External handover indicators per cell Outgoing external HO . CASES > Outgoing external HO counters Inter PLMN HO REQUEST Intra PLMN HO REQUEST ATTEMPT SUCCESS RATIO ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS OUTGOING EXTERNAL Handover Preparation Request Any preparation failure Execution Attempt Reversion old channel Drop radio BSS Pb Success MC645A Execution Failure CONGESTION BSS PB MC645A-MC650 MC650 MC647 MC648 MC650-MC646-MC647-MC648 MC646 178 All rights reserved © 2004.counters HO FAIL.4.

– HOOMEFR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO execution. © Alcatel 179 .3 External handover indicators per cell Outgoing external HO .4. – HOOMCDRR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with drop.indicators HO FAIL. – HOOMCDR: rate of incoming external HO failures with drop (radio + BSS). CASES > Outgoing external HO indicators HOOMSUN HOOMCDRN HOOMCDBN HOOMOCN HOOMCDR HOOMOCR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 179 All rights reserved © 2004. > Inter PLMN Outgoing External HO Indicators (From B8) • An indicator is created for each counter. – HOOMOCR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with Reversion Old Channel. – the ratio of outgoing inter-PLMN HO to outgoing intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS RELEASE: • Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Inter BSC – HOOMRQR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO preparation. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . – REQUESTS – ATTEMPTS – SUCCESS • In addition these indicators show: – the success rate of outgoing inter-PLMN HOs.

4 HANDOVER INDICATORS 4.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 180 .

MC831(T). MC820(T). attempted and successfully performed to cell T.d) C402(S.4.b) a d e C40i(f. MC821(T).b) C401(S. MC830(T).T) = MC820(T) + MC830(T) • ∑ C401(Sn.T) = MC642(T) + MC652(T) – where – – – Sn are the serving cells considering the incoming adjacencies to cell T. target) cells: • permanently through PM type 180 counters 3 counters for each (Serving. MC646(T) are the counters relating to the incoming internal handovers requested.T): Incoming handovers attempted to cell T from cell S c C40i(c.T): Incoming handovers requested to cell T from cell S C40i(c. © Alcatel 181 .4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 180 counters > Some handover indicators available per couple of (serving.T): Incoming handovers successfully performed to cell T from cell S b C40i(a. MC642(T) are the counters relating to the incoming external handovers requested. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > According to the definition of C40i counters: • ∑ C400(Sn. attempted and successfully performed to cell T.Target) adjacency: C400(S.T) = MC821(T) +MC831(T) • ∑ C402(Sn.d) f both internal and external inter cell handovers are counted both SDCCH and TCH handovers are counted 181 All rights reserved © 2004.

– They will also allow to identify the handover relationships which should be deleted since no (or very few) handover is observed.T) Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell S HOOAEFR = C402(S.T) / C401(S.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 180 – These indicators can also be to check if a recently handover relationship is generating handover as expected. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .T) > Ease the diagnosisnof the bad handover performance of a cell • • • Efficiency of the incoming handover preparation to cell T from cell S HOOACAR = C401(S.T) Global efficiency of incoming handovers to cell T from cell S HOOASUR = C402(S.T) / ∑ C402(Sn.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 180 indicators The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 180 counters in order to > Detect the most important neighboring cells as per their traffic • Distribution of incoming handovers performed to cell T from serving cells Sn = C402(Sx.T) / C400(S.4.T) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 182 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 182 .T) / C400(S.

Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from Tf cell S to cell Tx with drop Tb Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 183 All rights reserved © 2004. > 40 cells at the same time since B8.4. target) cells: • on demand for all outgoing adjacencies of a serving cell through PM type 26 (40 cells since B8) Counters for each (Serving.Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from cell S to cell Tx Target a Tc C721(S.Target x) adjacency: C720(S. • C725(S. Alcatel > Other counters are provided: • C724(S.Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a forced directed retry cause.Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for an emergency cause.Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a better cell cause. • C728(S.Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a traffic cause. • C727(S.Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from C72i(S.Tc) performed from cell S to cell Tx Serving C722(S. © Alcatel 183 . > Previously the set of Type 26 counters could be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once.Tx): Outgoing handovers successfully C72i(S.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 26 counters > Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving.Te) cell S to cell Tx with Reversion Old Channel Te C723(S.

Tx) • Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from S to Tx with drop HOOXCDRR = C723(S.Tx) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 184 All rights reserved © 2004. these type 26 counters are available for several cells at once (40 cells).4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 26 indicators The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 26 counters (40 cells since B8) in order to: > ease the diagnosis of the bad outgoing handover performance of a cell • Efficiency of the outgoing handover execution from cell S to cell Tx HOOXSUR = C721(S.Tx) • Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to BSS problems from S to Tx HOOXCDBR = [C720(S.Tx)-C722(S.Tx) • Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from S to Tx with Reversion Old Channel HOOXOCR = C722(S. • From B8.Tx) / C720(S.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 26.Tx) / C720(S.4.Tx)] / C720(S. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .Tx)-C721(S. © Alcatel 184 .Tx)-C723(S.Tx) / C720(S.

target) cells: • on demand for all incoming adjacencies of a target cell through PM type 27 counters for each (Serving.T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a traffic cause. • C737(Sx.T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for an emergency cause.Target x) adjacency: C730(Sx.T) Se Sf Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 185 All rights reserved © 2004.T) C733(S. • C735(Sx.4.T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a better cell cause. Alcatel > Other counters are provided: • C734(Sx. • C738(Sx.T): Incoming handovers successfully performed to cell T from cell Sx Serving a Sc C73i(Sc.T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a forced directed retry cause.Tx): Incoming handovers failed due to Target MS radio access problems to cell T from cell Sx C73i(Se. > The set of Type 27 counters can be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once. © Alcatel 185 .4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 27 counters > Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving.T): Incoming handovers attempted to cell T from cell Sx Sb C731(Sx.

T) • Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to BSS problems to cell T from cell Sx HOIXCDBR= [C730(Sx.T)] / C730(Sx.4 Handover indicators per couple of cells Type 27 indicators The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 27 counters in order to > Ease the diagnosis of the bad incoming handover performance of a cell • Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell Sx HOIXSUR = C731(Sx. Alcatel > Refer to BSS .T)-C731(Sx.T) • Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to MS radio access problems to cell T from cell Sx HOIXCDRR = C733(Sx.4.T) / C730(Sx.T)-C733(Sx.T) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 186 All rights reserved © 2004.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 27 © Alcatel 186 .T) / C730(Sx.

5 DIRECTED RETRY INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 187 .

1 Directed Retry definition Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 188 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 188 .5 Directed retry indicators Session presentation > Objective: to be able to describe the counters and indicators used for monitoring the efficiency of the directed retry feature > Program: • 5.

5 DIRECTED RETRY INDICATORS 5.1 Directed Retry definition All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 189 .

Alcatel > The queuing of TCH requests is also performed for incoming external TCH handovers but not for incoming internal TCH handovers. waiting for a TCH to be released in this cell > With default BSS tuning: the call establishment fails if no TCH has been freed after T11 seconds > but an optional mechanism can be activated … Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 190 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 190 .1 Directed Retry definition Queuing is mandatory > When there is no TCH available in a cell for TCH normal assignment: > Queuing: TCH request is put in a queue.5.

Alcatel © Alcatel 191 .5.1 Directed Retry definition Normal and Forced Directed Retry Directed Retry (DR): When a TCH request is in queue. the BSC tries to establish the TCH connection on a neighboring cell if: > the normal handover condition is met (Normal DR) > specific directed retry conditions are met (Forced DR): • the MS receives a sufficient signal level from a neighboring cell • the number of free TCHs in this neighboring cell is sufficient Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 191 All rights reserved © 2004.

5. Alcatel > There is no Intracell Directed Retry contrary to HO: > An Intracell Directed is a Call Setup !! !-) > Please refer to Annex for Directed Retry counters details © Alcatel 192 .1 Directed Retry definition Directed Retry types DR FAIL. CASES > DR Reminder DR as an SDCCH to TCH handover can be > Internal • • • • between two cells of the same BSC also called intra BSC between two cells of different BSCs also called inter BSC ANNEX 3 > Synchronous • • • • between 2 cells sharing the same clocks collocated usually 2 sectors of the same BTS – tunable at OMC-R level > External > Asynchronous • not synchronous for any reason no dedicated monitoring for synchronous/asynchronous HO > Incoming • • as considering the target cell as considering the serving cell • > Outgoing Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 192 All rights reserved © 2004.

6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 193 .

4 Call quality statistics per TRX 6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS 6.6 Radio Measurement Statistics indicators Session presentation > Objective: to be able to describe the RMS indicators used for radio quality assessment of a TRX or cell and to use them in the detection of some typical radio problems > Program: • • • • • • • • 6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX 6. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 194 .1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives 6.6 C/I statistics 6.8 Additional information 194 All rights reserved © 2004.3 RMS data 6.7 RMS indicators usage 6.

1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6. Alcatel © Alcatel 195 .

6.1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives RMS objectives > Assess the quality of cell coverage > Assess the radio link quality of a TRX / a cell > Assess Carrier/Interference ratio of a TRX / a cell > Estimate of the voice quality of a TRX / a cell In order to: • Optimize the neighborhood & frequency planning • Improve the network coverage • Detect faulty hardware components responsible for bad QoS • Help logical parameters fine tuning Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 196 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 196 . VQ data are now needed since the Call Drop rate is not sufficient to have a clear picture of the QoS in a network using Slow Frequency Hopping as a densification technique. Alcatel > The RMS feature provides statistics on Voice Quality. > The RMS feature is a "plus" providing additional information to help radio engineer in their Fault detection and Network optimization tasks.

Alcatel > Today's solutions for Radio Measurements are limited and very expensive: • drive tests: provide a mobile user with the perception of the network but cannot be done on the whole network and on an very day basis since: – they are costly (tool+car+manpower).6. – they need to be post-processed. – they are limited to part of the network. – they are limited to a few cells at once per analyzer. © Alcatel 197 .1 Radio Measurement Statistics objectives RMS objectives > Provide Radio Measurement Statistics • On all the network elements (all TRXs/cells) • Permanently through the PM type 31 – RMS results available every day (after a specific period) In order to • Reduce the cost of Radio Network Optimization Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 197 All rights reserved © 2004. – they need to be post-processed. – they are available on the DownLink path only. • Abis interface traces: provide a complete Uplink and Downlink radio quality assessment of a cell but cannot be done on the whole network and on an every day basis since: – they are costly (protocol analyzer+manpower).

Alcatel © Alcatel 198 .6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.2 RMS implementation in the BSS All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel > The cell profile can be: micro. multiband. Consecutive frame erasure. etc. > Templates parameters define the intervals or Received level. Radio link counter.6. C/I …for which RMS counters are provided.2 RMS implementation in the BSS RMS management > RMS results are reported permanently (once a day) by the BSS as a PM Type 31 counters to the OMC-R > The RMS job is defined and activated on a per BSS basis > RMS job parameters are managed through RMS templates • RMS templates provide means to tune RMS parameters according to Cell Planning (cell profile. indoor. rural rapid (covering express railway). cell class) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 199 All rights reserved © 2004. etc. urban. Path balance. > The cell class can be: rural. © Alcatel 199 .

6. Alcatel © Alcatel 200 .2 RMS implementation in the BSS RMS configuration in the OMC-R RMS with OMC-R only Templates Templates RMS in binary files PM > Templates are defined on the OMC-R > RMS results are retrieved once a day from the BSC > Binary files can be exported for post-processing Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 200 All rights reserved © 2004.

rural rapid (covering express railway). etc. > The cell class can be: rural. multiband. © Alcatel 201 .2 RMS implementation in the BSS RMS configuration in RNO RMS with OMC-R. indoor. Alcatel > The cell profile can be: micro. urban. etc.6. NPA & RNO > Templates are defined on RNO > RMS results are retrieved once a day from the BSC > Binary files are transferred to NPA > RMS warnings on NPA > RMS QoS reports on RNO > RMS reports used in RNO • • • • Check QoS follow-up Diagnosis Tuning Benefit to whole RNO Templates Compute experience matrix PM > The Experience matrix can be generated for network planning > Excel export is adapted to RMS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 201 All rights reserved © 2004.

> The Experience Matrix generated by RNO is an interference matrix computed from C/I measurements provided through RMS counters. © Alcatel 202 . etc. • RNO manages the frequencies to monitor through MAFA jobs depending on the neighborhood and the frequency bands. • NPA manages some warnings on RMS indicators (path balance). averages.).2 RMS implementation in the BSS RMS data flow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RNO defines and sends RMS templates to the OMC-R BSS The OMC-R activates an RMS campaign in the BSS 3 PM 2 RMS counters are transferred to the OMC RMS counters are 4 PM OMC-R stored in NPA NPA RMS indicators QOS 5 requested by RNO 1 RMS QOS report 6 RNP Template displayed 7 QOS RNO calculates and exports the Experience matrix Experience matrix to RNP A9156 RNO 202 All rights reserved © 2004. class. Reference values for templates available. • The tuning function of RNO defines a preferred RMS template depending on cell characteristics (type. > NPA • NPA stores RMS jobs measurements. Extra editor in the administration tool to modify templates: – a given value or a reference one. at Cell & TRX levels (15 days).6. > RNO • • • is a reference for RMS templates: 16 templates stored in the RNO database.). etc. • NPA makes some consolidations (voice quality. capacity. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > RNO is able to define the templates for the RMS jobs and helps in defining the MAFA frequencies.

Alcatel © Alcatel 203 .2 RMS implementation in the BSS RMS data presentation > In all this chapter • System parameters (user tuneable or not) will always be written in BLUE BOLD FONT • Indicators and counters will be typed in ITALIC and underline Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 203 All rights reserved © 2004.6.

Alcatel © Alcatel 204 .6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.3 RMS data All rights reserved © 2004.

6. TRX.3 RMS data RMS data presentation > 3 main RMS statistics types • Call Quality Statistics which qualify calls according to coverage/interference criteria – B9 based on samples corresponding to measurement results averaged over a number of SACCH multi-frames • Radio Quality Statistics: – – – – UL/DL level. UL/DL qual CFE AMR (Analyse the coded values) Timing Advance B9 B9 • C/I Statistics on neighboring freq/MAFA freq – last 2 statistics types based on samples corresponding to measurement results Annex 1 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 205 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 205 . > additional information • Measurement results. > CFE: Consecutive Frame Erasure > 1 SACCH multi-frame (SACCH mfr) corresponds to 4 consecutive sequences of 26 TDMA frames during which. > The two others are based on TRX/Cell. a measurement report message is received by the BTS from the MS. Alcatel > The first RMS Statistics type is based on calls. BS/MS max power > MAFA = Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation is a GSM Phase 2+ feature allowing to request a mobile to measure and report through Extended Measurement Report message a C/I value for each frequency specified in an Extended Measurement Order message. in the uplink.

Alcatel © Alcatel 206 .4 Call quality statistics per TRX All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

Alcatel © Alcatel 207 .4 Call quality statistics per TRX 6.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.1 Generalities All rights reserved © 2004.4.

In this case RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice Quality as perceived by the end user.1 Generalities Voice Quality problem Suspecting a Voice Quality problem > Percentage of Noisy calls Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 208 All rights reserved © 2004. > FER measurements are available for the uplink path only. > These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX. per Cell: • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on the uplink path RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined • Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate > Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering from VQ problems on the dowlink path. Alcatel > The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true when using Slow Frequency Hopping.6. © Alcatel 208 . • Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate • Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate • Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate – This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call as Noisy.4.

the portion of the call over which level and quality have been measured. i. The resulting averages represent the level and quality of the corresponding Call Quality Sample.1 Generalities Call Quality measurements SACCH meas. > AV_RXLEV_xx_VQ = Average xx level measured over a Call Quality Sample (VQ_AVERAGE SACCH) > AV_RXQUAL_xx_VQ = Average xx quality measured over a Call Quality Sample (VQ_AVERAGE SACCH) © Alcatel 209 .6.4. Alcatel > CQS: Call Quality Sample > VQ_AVERAGE = Number of consecutive SACCH measurements from which the reported Level and Quality notes (UL and DL) are averaged. quality and FER of a Call Quality Sample Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 209 All rights reserved © 2004. begin CALL 480ms end CQS1 CQS2 CQS3 CQS4 CQS5 CQS6 CQS7 CQS8 CQS9 CQS10 CQS11 CQS12 CQS CQS CQS CQS 13 14 15 16 CQS375 VQ_AVERAGE = 4 SACCH 1 measurement report ⇔ 1 SACCH mfr AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ = (RxlevUL1+RxlevUL2+RxlevUL3+RxlevUL4) / 4 AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ = (RxlevDL1+RxlevDL2+RxlevDL3+RxlevDL4) / 4 AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ = (RxqualUL1+RxqualUL2+RxqualUL3+RxqualUL4) / 4 AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ = (RxqualDL1+RxqualDL2+RxqualDL3+RxqualDL4) / 4 AV_RXFER_UL_VQ = (Nb of speech frames wrongly decoded (BFI=1) / Total nb of speech frames of the CQS) Average level.e.

1 Generalities Classification of a CQS and Noisy Call identification How to qualify the quality of a call? By looking at the repartition of the CQS!: quality 7 bad quality & level bad coverage CQS bad quality + good level interfered CQS CQS VQ_RXQUAL 0 -110 VQ_RXLEV 210 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Level (dBm) -47 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > VQ_RXLEV = radio level threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.4. > A call is classify as: • Noisy xx Interference if Ratio of xx interfered CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD • Noisy xx Coverage if Ratio of xx bad coverage CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD • Noisy xx Undefined if Ratio of (xx interfered CQS + xx bad coverage CQS) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD © Alcatel 210 . > VQ_RXQUAL = radio quality threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.6. > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD = Ratio of bad CQS (interference or bad coverage) to classify a Call as Noisy.

Alcatel © Alcatel 211 .4.4 Call quality statistics per TRX 6.2 Call quality parameters All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

6.2 Call quality parameters RMS parameters Call Quality Statistics: Parameters used to determine if a call is noisy (according to RXQUAL) and of bad voice quality (according to FER) > VQ_AVERAGE: averaging window size on measurement results to obtain Call Quality Samples (CQSs) (0 SACCH mfr to 128 Smf) > VQ_RXLEV: radio level threshold to specify a bad coverage CQS for noisy call statistics (-110 to -65 dBm) > VQ_RXQUAL: radio quality threshold to specify a bad quality (RXQUAL) CQS for noisy call statistics (0 to 7) > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER: radio quality threshold to specify a bad or a good quality CQS correlated to bad or good FER measurements for noisy call statistics (0 to 7) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 212 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpc = PAR_VQ_AVERAGE • RMSpd = PAR_VQ_RXLEV • RMSpe = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL • RMSpf = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER > Call Quality Sample (A CQS) will be qualified as “of bad level” if the Average RxLevel is lower than VQ_RXLEV > A CQS will be qualified as “of bad quality” if the Average RxQuality is greater than VQ_RXQUAL > For FER counters. © Alcatel 212 . > Note: For CQS. the averaging process is non-sliding. VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER is used instead of VQ_RXQUAL to qualify a CQS as “of bad quality” if the Average FER is also checked (compared to VQ_xx_RXFER).4.

4.6.2 Call quality parameters RMS parameters Call Quality Statistics > VQ_GOOD_RXFER: Frame Erasure Rate threshold to specify a good FER CQS for noisy call statistics (0 to 20%) > VQ_BAD_RXFER: FER threshold to specify a bad FER CQS for noisy call statistics (0 to 20%) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to characterize a call as noisy (0 to 100%) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to characterize a call as “of bad or good” voice quality (0 to 100%) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 213 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpg = PAR_VQ_GOOD_RXFER • RMSph = PAR_VQ_ BAD_RXFER • RMSpi = PAR_VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD • RMSpj = PAR_VQ_FER_THRESHOLD © Alcatel 213 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 214 .4 Call quality statistics per TRX 6.3 Call quality counters All rights reserved © 2004.4.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

4. Alcatel > Call Quality Statistics counters are related only to speech channels.6.3 Call quality counters RMS counters (1/4) > VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10 Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the uplink path > VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD • with INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times where AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 215 All rights reserved © 2004. Considering: AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the call on the considered TRX © Alcatel 215 .

3 Call quality counters RMS counters (2/4) > VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10 Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the uplink path > VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE = RMS11 Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the downlink path > VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE = RMS12 Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the uplink path > VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE = RMS13 Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the downlink path Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 216 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > RMS10 = VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV considering AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the call on the considered TRX > RMS11 = VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV considering AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_DL AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_DL NUM_DL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on DL measurements during the call on the considered TRX > RMS12 = VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV > RMS13 = VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV © Alcatel 216 .4.6.

Alcatel > RMS14 = VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL > RMS15 = VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD with BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL © Alcatel 217 .3 Call quality counters RMS counters (3/4) > VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED = RMS14 Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference and bad coverage on the uplink path • These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE or VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE > VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED = RMS15 Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference and bad coverage on the downlink path • These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE or VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 217 All rights reserved © 2004.4.6.

Alcatel > RMS16 = VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD with BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and AV_RXFER_UL_VQ > VQ_BAD_RXFER considering AV_RXFER_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of FER > RMS17 = VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD and 100*(BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD with BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and AV_RXFER_UL_VQ <= VQ_GOOD_RXFER > RMS18 = VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD with FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ < VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ<VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and AV_RXFER_UL_VQ>VQ_BAD_RXFER © Alcatel 218 .4.3 Call quality counters RMS counters (4/4) > VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER = RMS16 Number of calls with bad quality measurements and with bad FER measurements on the uplink path • Bad quality means bad RXQUAL whatever RXLEV is > VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER = RMS17 Number of calls with bad quality measurements but with good FER measurements on the uplink path > VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER = RMS18 Number of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 218 All rights reserved © 2004.6.

Alcatel © Alcatel 219 .6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX All rights reserved © 2004.

5.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX 6. Alcatel © Alcatel 220 .1 Generalities All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

5.6. Alcatel > These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX.1 Generalities TRX hardware problem Suspecting a TRX hardware problem > Average Path Balance Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 221 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 221 . per Cell: • Vector of the Number of Measurement Results per Path Balance band RMPBV = RMS_PathBalance_sample • Average Path Balance value RMPBAN = RMS_PathBalance_avg > A Templates modification is needed to have more details.

Alcatel > The vector counter system is used to provide: • Path balance repartition • Radio Link counter (Consecutive Frame Erasure) repartition • C/I repartition • AMR FR/HR/DL/UL usage repartition • TA repartition (improved) © Alcatel 222 .5.1 Generalities Vector counter RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE > The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance is in PATH BALANCE band j is equal to: • S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254 • TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 222 All rights reserved © 2004.6.

should also be considered to know the proportion of calls which are experiencing a low signal level. per Cell: • Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample • Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib • Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib © Alcatel 223 . > If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can be one only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the aerials should be suspected. > If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage problem shall be suspected. > To confirm the distribution of samples per RXLEV band.6. Alcatel > A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering from both low level and bad quality (RxQual). > These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX.5.1 Generalities Cell coverage problem Suspecting a cell coverage problem > Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band > Distribution of samples per RxLev band Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 223 All rights reserved © 2004.

RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254 • TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i.5. Alcatel > This counter RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a matrix – represented on the left side > This counter RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a vector – represented on the right side > The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j.1 Generalities Matrix counter TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 224 All rights reserved © 2004. is equal to : • S(RXQUAL i.6.j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254 © Alcatel 224 .

6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.2 Radio quality parameters All rights reserved © 2004.5.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX 6. Alcatel © Alcatel 225 .

TA statistics No parameters needed for AMR measurements (counters.6. Alcatel > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpt5 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_LEV = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_LEVi • RMSpt4 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_PATH_BALANCE = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_PATH_BALi > The Path Balance is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference between: • Path loss on the uplink: received level by the BTS . Path Balance.BS power level – where the BTS power level is computed as the BTS nominal power minus by the BTS power relative level. so they must be considered when interpreting the RMS results. – RXLEV_DL is the received signal levels measured by the MS on the downlink path (in dBm).2 Radio quality parameters RMS parameters (1/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics: Parameters used to define intervals for RXLEV. see later) B9 > MEAS_STAT_LEV1 to MEAS_STAT_LEV9: 9 thresholds on the received radio level value defining 10 RXLEV bands -110 ≤ MEAS_STAT_LEV(i+1) ≤ MEAS_STAT_LEV(i) < -47 dBm > MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL1 to MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL9: 9 thresholds on the radio signal propagation loss difference between UL and DL defining 10 Path Balance bands -110< MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i) ≤ MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i+1) ≤ +110 dB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 226 All rights reserved © 2004.[BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER . > Therefore the Path balance is computed as follows: • Path Balance = (RXLEV_UL . – BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER is the maximum power of the BTS after Combiner (in dBm).MS_TXPWR) .(RXLEV_DL . © Alcatel 226 .abs(BS_TXPWR)]) – where – RXLEV_UL is the received signal levels measured by the BTS on the uplink path (in dBm).5. Radio Link Counter and Consecutive Frame Erasure. – BS_TXPWR is the BTS transmitted power offset defined relatively to the maximum absolute output power of the BTS (negative value in dB). – MS_TXPWR is the MS transmitted power converted by the BTS from the MS power level into dBm value according to the frequency band of the TRX. > NOTE: Additional asymetric DL loss (external combiner) or UL gain (TMA) are not taken into account in the computation.MS power level • Path loss on the downlink: received level by the MS .

a radio link recovery is triggered (BTS and MS power increased at their maximum). a counter “S” called Radio Link Counter is: – – decremented by 1 by the BTS each time an SACCH measurement from the mobile cannot be decoded (SACCH_BFI=1). © Alcatel 227 . • Therefore the value of S gives a measure of the “quality” of the radio uplink. a Radio Link Failure is triggered (channel drop). if S reaches 0.5.6. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpt3 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_S = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_Si • RMSpb = PAR_TA_STAT • RMSpt6 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_TA = Table of value for 9 parameters: MEAS_STAT_TA1 to TA9 a threshold on Timing Advance measurement to define bands used for RMS B9 > Recall on the Uplink Radio Link Supervision procedure: • For each active dedicated radio channel in a cell. • Initial value of S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS (cell parameter) – – if S reaches N_BSTXPWR_M. incremented by 2 by the BTS each time a valid SACCH measurement is received from the mobile (SACCH_BFI=0).2 Radio quality parameters RMS parameters (2/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics > TA_STAT: threshold on the timing advance value defining a priori the range of the cell (0 to 64 bits) B9 > MEAS_STAT_TA1 to MEAS_STAT_ TA9: 9 thresholds for the timing advance to define 10 TA Bands > MEAS_STAT_S1 to MEAS_STAT_S9: 9 thresholds on the BTS Radio Link Counter S value defining 10 S bands 0 < MEAS_STAT_S(i) ≤ MEAS_STAT_S(i+1) ≤ 128 SACCH mfr – – – – S: counter managed by the BTS on a per call basis S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS if good radio conditions S decremented if bad radio conditions The BSS triggers a call drop when S = 0 227 All rights reserved © 2004.

a BFI relates to a speech frame. SACCH_BFI should be used. As the TC will erase speech frames for which a Bad Frame Indicator flag (BFI) has been set to the value 1 by the BTS. Alcatel > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpt2 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_BFI = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_BFIi > Consecutive Frame Erasure (CFE): • MEAS_STAT_BFIi parameters define 9 intervals of cumulated numbers of consecutive speech frames which have a Bad Frame Indicator value set to 1 (it means that the speech frame is considered as erroneous by the BTS). • Note: By default. © Alcatel 228 .2 Radio quality parameters RMS parameters (4/4) Radio Quality Statistics: > MEAS_STAT_BFI1 to MEAS_STAT_BFI9: 9 thresholds on the number of consecutive speech frames with BFI set to 1 defining 10 BFI bands 0 < MEAS_STAT_BFI(i) ≤ MEAS_STAT_BFI(i+1) ≤ 25 speech frame > The BTS decodes 24 speech frames (sf) from 1 uplink SACCH multiframe: TDMA: 4. a BFI is used in the RMS counters description whereas the CFE is used in the RMS indicators defined in the RNO tool.616ms T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H S A C C H SACCH mfr T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H S A C C H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H S A C C H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H S A C C H T T T T T T T T T T T T C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H Sf 1 Sf 2 Sf 3 Sf 4 Sf 5 Sf 6 Sf 7 Sf 8 Sf 9 Sf 10 Sf 11 Sf 12 Sf 13 Sf 14 Sf 15 Sf 16 Sf 17 Sf 18 Sf 19 Sf 20 Sf 21 Sf 22 Sf 23 Sf 24 and 1 SACCH frame (or block) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 228 All rights reserved © 2004.6. When considering SACCH measurement.5.

Alcatel © Alcatel 229 .3 Radio quality counters All rights reserved © 2004.5.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.5 Radio quality statistics per TRX 6.

each element is made up of: • Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j • MS PWR levelij: average value of MS power (in dBm) from pwr levels reported in these samples • Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples > TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements ULRXQUAL(RXLEV band j). Alcatel RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j.5.6. is equal to: S(RXQUAL i. RXLEV band j).j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254 © Alcatel 230 .3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (1/7) Radio Quality Statistics > TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 8x10 elements UL(RXQUAL i. each element is made up of: • the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which UL RxQual is equal to i (i=0 to 7) and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 230 All rights reserved © 2004. RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254 TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i.

each element is made up of: • the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which DL RxQual is equal to i (i=0 to 7) and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 231 All rights reserved © 2004. each element is made up of: • Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in which DL RxQual is equal to i and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j • BS PWR levelij: average value of BS power (in dBm) from pwr levels reported in these samples • Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples > TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: vector of 10 elements DLRXQUAL(RXLEV band j).3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (2/7) Radio Quality Statistics > TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: matrix of 8x10 elements DL(RXQUAL i. RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254 TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(j) / 254 TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(i.j) x TMR_ _DL_RXLEV_DL(j) © Alcatel 231 .5.6. Alcatel RMS4a=TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL RMS4b=TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL The real number of Measurement Results in which DL RxQual is equal to i and DL RxLev is in RXLEV band j. is equal to: S(RXQUAL i. RXLEV band j).

is equal to: S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254 TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254 © Alcatel 232 .3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (3/7) Radio Quality Statistics > TPR_PATH_BALANCE: vector of 10 elements UL/DL(PATH BALANCE band j). Alcatel RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance is in PATH BALANCE band j. each element is made up of: • the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the computed Path Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j > MAX_PATH_BALANCE: • the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed Path Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j (j=1 to 10) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 232 All rights reserved © 2004.6.5.

is equal to: S(S band j) x Max / 254 TPR_RADIO_LINK(j) x MAX_RADIO_LINK / 254 © Alcatel 233 .5.6.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (4/7) Radio Quality Statistics > TPR_RADIO_LINK: vector of 10 elements UL(S band j). Alcatel RMS6a=TPR_RADIO_LINK RMS6b=MAX_RADIO_LINK The real number of Measurement Results in which Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S band j. each element is made up of: • the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S band j > MAX_RADIO_LINK: • the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S band j (j=1 to 10) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 233 All rights reserved © 2004.

RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254 TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i.6.j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254 © Alcatel 234 .5. each element is made up of: • the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of SACCH multiframes in which the number of consecutive speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i (i=0 to 9) and UL RxLev reported in the corresponding measurement results is in RXLEV band j Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 234 All rights reserved © 2004. each element is made up of: • the norm of number of SACCH multi-frames in which the number of consecutive speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev reported in the corresponding measurement results is in RXLEV band j > TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements ULBFI(RXLEV band j). Alcatel RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j. is equal to: S(BFI i. RXLEV band j).3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (5/7) Radio Quality Statistics > TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 10x10 elements UL(BFI i.

110 + INT[(10+11+9+12+12+11+11+10+3+2+0+8+9+5+3+7+2+1+2+7+3+8+2+3+5)/25] = -104 dBm Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 235 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 235 .6.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters (6/7) Radio Quality Statistics > The BTS increments the BFI (or CFE) counter as soon as consecutive speech frames cannot be decoded • isolated speech frames with BFIs set to 1 are not counted • sequences of not decoded speech frames are cumulated SACCH mfr 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 BFI 0 Sf 1 Sf 2 Sf 3 Sf 4 Sf 5 Sf 6 Sf 7 Sf 8 Sf 9 Sf 10 Sf 11 Sf 12 Sf 13 Sf 14 Sf 15 Sf 16 Sf 17 Sf 18 Sf 19 Sf 20 Sf 21 Sf 22 Sf 23 Sf 24 SACCH f. CFE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 RxLev UL 10 11 9 12 12 11 11 10 3 2 0 8 9 5 3 7 2 1 2 7 3 8 2 3 5 Av_RxLev_UL= .5.

• AMR FR codec used in uplink (TRX based) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 236 All rights reserved © 2004. > MAX_AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44b that indicates the maximum number of bad speech frames received in uplink in one FR codec.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (1/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics To provide a better tool to dimensioning the AMR thresholds. Alcatel © Alcatel 236 .6. B9 introduce a new set of RMS counters to verify the use of different speech codecs: For Full Rate and Uplink: > AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44a that has 8 cells (1 for each FR codec) with the relative number of bad speech frames received in uplink.5.

3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (2/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics AMR thresholds. Alcatel © Alcatel 237 .5. • AMR HR codec used in uplink (TRX based) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 237 All rights reserved © 2004.6. > MAX_AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45b that indicates the maximum number of bad speech frames received in uplink in one HR codec. different speech codecs: For Half Rate and Uplink: > AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45a that has 8 cells (1 for each HR codec) with the relative number of bad speech frames received in uplink.

Alcatel > AMR-FR codec usage compared to RXLEV > RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows : © Alcatel 238 . > MAX_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47b that has a table of 10 maximum results. UL & DL > AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46a that has a table (8x10) with relative number of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR FR codec (8 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands). different speech codecs: For Full Rate. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in RMS47a.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (3/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics AMR Table. > AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47a that has a table (8x10) with relative number of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR FR codec (8 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands). > MAX_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46b that has the 10 maximum results.6.5. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in RMS46a. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 238 All rights reserved © 2004.

> MAX_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49b that has a table of 10 maximum results.6. different speech codecs: For Half Rate. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 239 All rights reserved © 2004. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in RMS49a. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in RMS48a. UL & DL > AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48a that has a table (5x10) with relative number of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR HR codec (5 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for AMR Monitoring (4/4) B9 Radio Quality Statistics AMR Table. Alcatel > AMR-HR codec usage compared to RXLEV > RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows : © Alcatel 239 . > MAX_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48b that has a table of 10 maximum results.5. > AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49a that has a table (5x10) with relative number of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR HR codec (5 codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).

5.6. Alcatel > Corresponding RMS counter numbers: • RMS36 = PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT • RMS37 = MAX_TA © Alcatel 240 .3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for Timing Advance (1/3) Radio Quality Statistics > PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT: • percentage of measurement results reported with a Timing Advance value > TA_STAT parameter > MAX_TA: • maximum value of Timing Advance among all TA values reported in the measurement results used for RMS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 240 All rights reserved © 2004.

these counters are sent to the BSC in a coded format. © Alcatel 241 . • TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS51 that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of uplink rxlev in corresponding timing advance band.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for Timing Advance (2/3) B9 > A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis.6.5. • TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS52 that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of downlink rxlev in corresponding timing advance band. tunable on a cell basis. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 241 All rights reserved © 2004. N1 to N10. TRX Based. To save on the memory resources. Alcatel > The distribution of number of measurement reports for which the value of timing advance is in TA band X is described below: > There are 10 TA bands which are defined through 9 thresholds parameters. using the RMS_parameters_template : TA band 1 is defined by: 0 <= TA < Meas_STAT_TA_1 TA band 2 is defined by: MEAS_STAT_TA_1 <= TA < MEAS_STAT_TA_2 • … TA band 10 is defined by: MEAS_STAT_TA_9 <= TA < 63 > The TRE counts for each TA band the number of measurement results. • MAX_TIMING_ADVANCE = RMS50b that has the greatest number of measurements in one Timing advance band. (Rxlev for UL and DL) • TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE= RMS50a that has 10 cells(1 for each timing advance band) with relative number of measurements in each Timing advance band.

01. Alcatel > TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53 Table of 10 results. .). Downlink: • TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54 Table of 10 results that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of uplink rxqual in corresponding timing advance band. Averaged Rxqual is given with a precision of 2 digits after the comma (step size for coding = 0..10 TA band i is defined by : MEAS_STAT_TA_ (i-1)<= Timing Advance < MEAS_STAT_TA_i MEAS_STAT_TA_0 = 0 bper.6. 0 coded 0.01 coded 1.... Each cell (i) of the table contains : average value of UpLink Rxqual of reports in TA band i. © Alcatel 242 . 0. i = 1. MEAS_STAT_LEV_10 = 63 bper.3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for Timing Advance (3/3) Uplink: B9 > A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 242 All rights reserved © 2004.5. • TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53: Table of 10 results that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of uplink rxqual in corresponding timing advance band. > TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54 Table of 10 results same for Downlink.

attenuation required by the OMC_R. The power takes into account the different losses (cables. internal combiners) and the internal/ external leveling but it does not take into account the BS-TXPWR-MAX. for the TRE on which is mapped that TRX).5.6. • The power takes into account the different losses (cables. © Alcatel 243 . If the feature “unbalancing TRX output power per BTS sector" is activated (parameter “EnUnbalanced-Output-Power” set to 1).3 Radio quality counters RMS counters for Timing Advance (3/3) B9 > MAX_POWER_PER_TRX Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna output connector in dBm. the counter is set by the BTS to the power required by the BSC for the corresponding TRE (i. Alcatel > MAX_POWER_PER_TRX= RMSPw3 Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna output connector in dBm.e. internal combiners) • TRX Based Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 243 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 244 .6 C/I statistics All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

6.6 C/I statistics 6. Alcatel © Alcatel 245 .6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.1 C/I Generalities All rights reserved © 2004.

6. the "vector method" already seen for previous RMS statistics will be used for C/I counters > C/I expressed in logarithmic scale (dB) • (C/I)dB = CdBm .10 log10(ImW) = 10 log10(C/I)mW Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 246 All rights reserved © 2004.1 C/I Generalities Storage and computation methods > In order to provide an efficient storage.IdBm = 10 log10(CmW) .6. Alcatel © Alcatel 246 .

6 C/I statistics 6.6. Alcatel © Alcatel 247 .6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.2 C/I Parameters All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel Annex 2 > All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters: • RMSpt1 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_C/I = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_C_Ii • RMSpa = PAR_EN_BALANCED_CI • RMSp80 = NEIGB_CELL_ID • RMSp90 = Frequency ARFCN > For C/I statistics per neighboring cell: • The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference between: – the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the serving TCH channel = C (dBm) – the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the neighboring BCCH channel = I (dBm) • Two computation formulae may be used taking into account a corrective factor in case DL Power Control is used in the serving cell: – If EN_BALANCED_CI = False – then C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL (dBm) .BS_TXPWR_MAX)) can be seen as a kind of normalized received power level in case the BTS would always have used the maximum allowed transmit power level on the TCH channel.6.BS_TXPWR_MAX) .6. > For C/I statistics per MAFA frequency: • The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Extended Measurement Report message in the same way as the C/I ratio per neighboring cell. © Alcatel 248 .2 C/I parameters RMS parameters C/I statistics: parameters defining intervals for C/I statistics > MEAS_STAT_C_I1 to MEAS_STAT_C_I9: 9 thresholds on the Carrier/Interference ratio defining 10 C/I bands -63 < MEAS_STAT_C_I(i) ≤ MEAS_STAT_C_I(i+1) ≤ +63 dB > EN_BALANCED_CI: boolean indicating if the C/I value reported by the BTS is balanced or not > NEIGB_CELL_ID: (BCCH.RXLEV_NCELL (dBm) – else C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR .BSIC) of the neighboring cell for which the C/I statistics per neighboring cell are reported > Frequency ARFCN: ARFCN of the frequency for which the C/I statistics per MAFA frequency are reported Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 248 All rights reserved © 2004.RXLEV_NCELL – The expression (RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR .

6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.6 C/I statistics 6.3 C/I Counters All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 249 .6.

the related overflow indicator is set accordingly. their BSIC matches what is expected at the BSC side) but some of them are unknown (their BSIC does not match). each element is made up of: • the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j > MR_CIN: • maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10) TPR_CIN and MR_CIN counters are provided for up to 42 neighboring cells Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 250 All rights reserved © 2004. the identification of this cell shall be done as follows: BCCH_ARFCN and BSIC. The list of frequencies to be monitored by the mobile is limited to 33 but due to ‘resurgence’. In the result report. Alcatel RMS8a=TPR_CIN RMS8b=TMR_CIN For each reported neighboring cell (BCCH/BSIC): the Real number of Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j. The RMS results report shall include all reported neighboring cells.e. © Alcatel 250 . If the number of reported cells is above the dimensioning limit (maximum 42 CI-vectors are reported). the extra new reported frequencies are not taken into account anymore. the same frequency can be reported several times (each time with a different BSIC). However.6.3 C/I counters RMS counters C/I statistics per neighboring cell > TPR_CIN: vector of 10 elements C/In(C/I band j). the BTS will handle the same for both cases. is equal to: S(C/I band j) x Max / 254 TPR_CIN(j) x TMR_CIN / 254 For each declared/reported neighboring cell. The BCCH ARFCN is deduced in the BTS from the BCCH frequency index and the list of indexed frequencies (sent by the BSC at the beginning of the RMS job).6. Some of them correspond to known cells at the BSS level (i.

The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM (=21). is equal to: S(C/I band j) x Max / 254 TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254 For each reported MAFA frequency. The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list. only the first 21 are reported. no BSIC is required: the frequency ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. When in exceptional cases. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS at the beginning of the RMS job.6. Alcatel RMS9a=TPR_CIF RMS9b=TMR_CIF For each reported MAFA frequency (ARFCN): computed the Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j. © Alcatel 251 . Hence the maximum in the report is 21 also. The ARFCN value of the frequency is deduced in the BTS from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_ MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered frequency list in the Extended Measurement Order.3 C/I counters RMS counters C/I statistics per MAFA frequency > TPR_CIF: vector of 10 elements C/If(C/I band j). the identification of this frequency shall be done as follows: Frequency ARFCN . more results are available (future expansion in GSM). In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting.6. each element is made up of: • the norm of number of Extended Measurement Results samples for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j > MR_CIF: • maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10) TPR_CIF and MR_CIF counters are provided for up to 21 frequencies (serving cell BCCH + 20 MAFA frequencies) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 251 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 252 .7 RMS indicators usage All rights reserved © 2004.6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS 6.

© Alcatel 253 .6. RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice Quality as perceived by the end user. > These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX. interference or with an undefined cause > FER is more reliable than RXQUAL to assess VQ > Noisy calls indicators can also be computed from FER measurements • Noisy calls with bad or good FER • Calls not detected as noisy but with bad FER Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 253 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel > The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true when using Slow Frequency Hopping. In this case.7 RMS indicators usage Voice quality problem Suspecting a Voice Quality problem > Percentage of Noisy calls Voice Quality indicators are based on calls Noisy calls are associated with a cause of bad coverage. • Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate • Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate • Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate – This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call as Noisy. > FER measurements are available for the uplink path only. per Cell: • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference • Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on the uplink path RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined • Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate > Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering of VQ problems on the dowlink path.

> If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage problem shall be suspected. > If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can be one only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the aerials should be suspected. > These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX. Alcatel > A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering from both low level and bad quality (RxQual). per Cell: • Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample • Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib • Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib © Alcatel 254 . should be also considered to know the proportion of calls which are experiencing a low signal level.6. > To confirm the distribution of samples per RXLEV band.7 RMS indicators usage Cell coverage problem Suspecting a cell coverage problem > Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band Not acceptable coverage limit: Too low level Too bad quality > Distribution of samples per RxLev band Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 254 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel > In order to know if the coverage problem is due to a big amount of traffic at the cell border or rather to indoor calls.6. the average TA value per RXQUAL value and RXLEV band as well as the Percentage of TA values over the TA threshold should be observed. • Matrix of Average TA per UL RxQual value and per UL RxLev band RMQLUTAM = RMS_UL_RxQuality_RxLevel_TimingAdvance • Rate of Measurements Results whose TA is greater than the TA threshold RMTAGTR = RMS_TimingAdvance_greater_threshold_rate • Maximum TA value of all values reported in Measurement Results RMTAMXN = RMS_TimingAdvance_max © Alcatel 255 .7 RMS indicators usage Cell coverage problem Suspecting a cell coverage problem > Average TA values per RxQual value and RxLev band Not acceptable coverage limit: Too low level Too bad quality Acceptable coverage limit: Sufficient level and good quality % of TA value over TA threshold has also to be considered Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 255 All rights reserved © 2004.

6.7 RMS indicators usage RMS Exercise 1 > Give the list of the RMS counters and parameters used in the 3 previous slides Time allowed: 10 minutes Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 256 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 256 .

6.7 RMS indicators usage RMS exercise 2 Time allowed: 10 minutes > What does this graph represent? > Interpret this graph 257 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 257 .

6.7 RMS indicators usage Cell interference problem
Suspecting a cell interference problem > Number of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band

Average DL RxQuality = 0.34

RMS results show no problem of radio link quality in this cell
Average RxQual value per RxLev band has also to be considered
Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 258 All rights reserved © 2004, Alcatel

> These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell: • Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample • Vector of Average DL RxQual per RxLev band RMQLDQUAV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg_per_RxLevel • Average DL RxQuality RMQLDQUAN = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg

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6.7 RMS indicators usage RMS exercise 3

Average DL RxQuality = 2.81

Average RxQual value per RxLev band has also to be considered
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> Interpret this graph

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6.7 RMS indicators usage RMS exercise 4

Time allowed: 15 minutes

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6.7 RMS indicators usage RMS exercise 5

Time allowed: 10 minutes

> Interpret this graph
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6 RADIO MEASUREMENT STATISTICS INDICATORS

6.8 Additional information

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6.8 Additional information RMS counters (1/3)
Counters used for: > post-processing the RMS results provided per TRX
• • • • • • TOT_SEIZ_TCH: number of TCH channels successfully seized by the MS TOT_MEAS: number of Measurement Results used for RMS TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO: number of Measurement Results used for RMS statistics for which Layer 1 info is present but Layer 3 is missing TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS statistics for which DTX UL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS statistics for which DTX DL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr TOT_EMR: number of Extended Measurement Results used for RMS statistics

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> Corresponding RMS counter numbers: • RMS31 = TOT_SEIZ_TCH • RMS32 = TOT_MEAS • RMS33 = TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO • RMS34 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL • RMS35 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL • RMS38 = TOT_EMR > Note: • If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL =1), the counters on consecutive BFIs (RMS5a, RMS5b) shall not be incremented and the corresponding measurement result shall not be taken into account in these RMS counters. • If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL = 1), the FER measurement does not take place.

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6.8 Additional information RMS counters (2/3)
Counters used for: > interpreting the RMS results provided per TRX
• TRE_BAND: frequency band of the TRX • BS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the BTS on any channel of the TRX as an offset from the maximum absolute output power (in dB) • MS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the MS using any channel of the TRX (in dBm) • IND_TRE_OVERLOAD: boolean indicating if the TRE handling the TRX function has experienced a data loss due to a processor overload during the RMS campaign • IND_RMS_RESTARTED: boolean indicating if the RMS job has been restarted on the concerned TRE during the RMS campaign due to a modification of the RMS parameter values or a TRE reset

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> Corresponding RMS counter numbers: RMS20 = TRE_BAND • RMSpw1 = BS_TX_PWRMAX • RMSpw2 = MS_TX_PWRMAX • RMS21 = IND_TRE_OVERLOAD • RMS22 = IND_RMS_RESTARTED

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BSIC) has not been taken into account in RMS statistics) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 265 All rights reserved © 2004.6. Alcatel > Corresponding RMS counter numbers: • RMS23 = IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION • RMS24 = IND_CI_OVERFLOW © Alcatel 265 .8 Additional information RMS counters (3/3) Counters used for: > interpreting the C/I RMS results provided per TRX • IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION: made up of 2 booleans indicating that: – – C/In computation has been restarted due to the modification of the list of neighboring cells during the RMS campaign C/If computation has been restarted due to the modification of the list of MAFA frequencies during the RMS campaign • IND_CI_OVERFLOW: boolean indicating that the upper limit of 42 C/I sets of counters has been exceeded (each new reported neighboring cell (BCCH.

7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 266 .

4 Resource occupancy indicators • 7.6 Preemption indicators Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 267 All rights reserved © 2004.1 Call mix definition • 7.7 Traffic indicators Section presentation > Objective: to be able to describe BSS traffic indicators used for radio resource dimensioning > Program: • 7.2 Basis of traffic theory • 7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators • 7.5 Traffic model indicators • 7. Alcatel © Alcatel 267 .

1 Call mix definition All rights reserved © 2004.7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7. Alcatel © Alcatel 268 .

SDCCH and SCCP • Originated Call: RACH. there are a lot of different transactions : • location update: periodic.1 Call mix definition GSM transactions > In a GSM Network. TCH and SCCP • Terminated Call: PCH. RACH. etc. SMS-CB. TCH and SCCP • Handover: TCH. Alcatel > In a GSM network. AGCH. SDCCH. AGCH. new updating.) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 269 All rights reserved © 2004. SDCCH. AGCH. etc. ~imsi_attach. SCCP • etc. • and so on (data. internal.) • SMS (Short Message Service. originating or terminating) • SS (Supplementary Service) (I.e: number presentation) • Paging • and also Originating and Terminating calls. external.7. telecom procedures involve different kinds of resource in the BSS: • Location Update: RACH. ~imsi_detach • Hand Over (intra-cell. etc. © Alcatel 269 .

The duration of a call from call setup to call release is an NSS notion. > Caution: Call duration means here TCH duration. Alcatel > A Call mix can be defined through: • data given by the Marketing team. a Call Mix is measured from the real traffic. for one cell. 450 external) • 100 SMSs • 5 SSs • 6000 pagings • With the following characteristics • mean call duration on TCH: 50 seconds • mean SDCCH duration: 3.1 Call mix definition GSM transactions > One can quantify the number of each transaction per hour > For example. • data measured from the living network. > After commercial opening. 300 OCs) • 3600 LUs (any type) • 1350 HOs (900 internal. © Alcatel 270 .2 seconds Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 270 All rights reserved © 2004. one can measure: • 900 calls (600 TCs.7. > Before network design. a Call Mix is assessed from Marketing Studies or observations from other networks.

2 seconds > After commercial opening. 1/3 11 % 5% 6000 90 seconds 4. > Usually the Marketing team will provide: • on a per geographical area or morphostructure basis: – the traffic per km2 (in Erlang). – the traffic per subscriber (in mErl). Alcatel : : : : : : : : 900 (2/3 TC) 4 1.1 Call mix definition Example > Set of such measurements is called "call mix" • sometimes improperly called "traffic model" > Usually presented in the following way: • Calls /hour • LU/call • HO/Call external) • SMS/Call • SS/call • Paging/hour • mean call duration on TCH • mean SDCCH duration Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 271 All rights reserved © 2004.5 (2/3 internal. © Alcatel 271 .7. • the number of calls per hour. the number of calls per hour will be measured from traffic counters.

Alcatel > On some university campus.7. © Alcatel 272 .1 Call mix definition Variation > A call mix is varying a lot: • from a cell to another – – – – TCH traffic (induced by subscribers) number of LU/call and HO/call (induced by network design) by default: busy hour modification of traffic intensity and distribution • from one hour to another • from one year to another Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 272 All rights reserved © 2004. an SMS/call is often higher than the average.

TTCH. > When the network is in operation. DTC load too many calls: TCH congestion too many paging: DTC processor load. TRXs per site. Alcatel > A Call Mix will be used at Radio Network Design and Radio Network Planning stages in order to define the capacity of the network (number of sites. a Call Mix is used in order to anticipate network extension or redimensioning. BSC and MSC CPU processor too many LU/Calls: SDCCH congestion. MSC overload too many HO/calls: speech quality. SDCCH. BTS. © Alcatel 273 . call drop. A-PCM).7. PCH congestion • Some examples of "risky" call mix Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 273 All rights reserved © 2004.1 Call mix definition Usage > Interests of call mix: Input data for dimensioning • Cell and BSC resources dimensioning – – – – – RTCH. TCU load. radio configuration. number of Abis-PCM.

Alcatel © Alcatel 274 .1 Call mix definition Advises > Some advises • LU/CALL: 1 is "good". 4 and more can be dangerous – beware of the Network or BSC averages which can hide critical cells 2 or 3 is not a direct problem.7. 2 is "bad". but the trend has to be monitored • HO/Call: less critical (1 is good) – • Call: to be checked with an Erlang table (seen in next session) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 274 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 275 .7.1 Call mix definition Exercise > Compute the call mix of a cell according the following information • 256 call/hour • 1300 LU/hour • 450 HO/hour > Is it complete? > What are the risks of such a call mix? Time allowed: 15 minutes Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 275 All rights reserved © 2004.

7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7. Alcatel © Alcatel 276 .2 Basis of traffic theory All rights reserved © 2004.

2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang definition > ERLANG: unit used to quantify traffic (intensity) T = (resource usage duration) / (total observation duration) [ERLANG] > Example: • For 1 TCH. observed during 1 hour • one can observe 2 calls: 1 of 80 seconds and 1 of 100 seconds T = (80+100)/3600 = 0.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 277 .05 ERLANG Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 277 All rights reserved © 2004.

5 seconds • Computation of Carried Erlang TCH = (350*85)/3600: 8.75 Erlang Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 278 All rights reserved © 2004.7.26 ERLANGS SDCCH = [ (350+350*3) * 4.2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang from call mix CALL MIX => ERLANG > Call mix example: • 350 call/hour • 3 LU/call • TCH mean call duration: 85 seconds • SDCCH mean duration: 4.5 ] / 3600 = 1. Alcatel © Alcatel 278 .

the call arrival frequency is ruled by the POISSON law > Erlang B law: relationship between: • offered traffic • number of resources • blocking rate Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 279 All rights reserved © 2004.2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang B law > In a Telecom system.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 279 .

© Alcatel 280 . Alcatel > The Erlang B law is not fully accurate since it assumes that: • the subscriber requests are not queued which is not always the case (TCH queued in the BSC). which is almost never the case. > The Erlang C law modelizes better the TCH resource usage of the BSS since it takes into account the queuing. > However the Erlang C law is never used since parameters like size of the queue and time spent into the queue have to be tuned. > Therefore the higher the blocking rate the worse is the approximation of the Erlang B law.2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang B law > The call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable number of resources = average number of requests * mean duration is sometimes not sufficient => probability of blocking => Erlang B law • Pblock: blocking probability • N: number of resources • E: offered traffic [Erlang] Offered Rejected Carried Telecom system > Good approximation when the blocking rate is low (< 5 %) E P block = N N! ∑ N k =0 E k k! Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 280 All rights reserved © 2004. • the subscriber does not repeat his call request if rejected.7.

Pblock) Channels = f (T. Pblock) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 281 All rights reserved © 2004. Nc) Offered = f (Nc.2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang B formulae > There are two different ways to use this law • Using Abacus • Using SW (here Excel) – – – Pblock = f (T.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 281 .

2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang B abacus Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 282 All rights reserved © 2004.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 282 .

with 60 TCH channels Maximum blocking rate: 2 % • Erlang law: 50 Offered Erlang • 83 % of TCH resources used to reach 2% of blocking Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 283 All rights reserved © 2004.2 Basis of traffic theory Erlang B example > Example: 1 cell with 8 TRXs.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 283 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 284 . the Erlang B law is not linear: • If we use for example a combined BCCH with a micro BTS. 1 SDCCH stolen for CBCH – – 3 SDCCH. Pblock = 2% => T = 1. – – 4 SDCCHs.1 E 25% resources used to reach 2% blocking • if we decide to provide SMSCB (Cell Broadcast information).7.2 Basis of traffic theory Non linearity of Erlang B > But be careful.6 E 50 % Traffic less!! Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 284 All rights reserved © 2004. Pblock = 2% 25 % resources less => => T = 0.

Alcatel > The Erlang B law is less relevant for SDCCH dimensioning since SDCCH traffic cannot be modelized like TCH traffic. some typical configurations are used according to the number of TRXs in the cell. > For SDCCH dimensioning.7. compute the number of TRXs (and SDCCH) needed to carry it => What is the accepted blocking rate? > default blocking rate • RTCH: 2 % • SDCCH: 0. etc. SMS. © Alcatel 285 . the LA plan.2 Basis of traffic theory Cell dimensioning > Given an Offered traffic. IMSI Detach.1%) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 285 All rights reserved © 2004. Indeed SDCCH is not only due to subscriber traffic but also to Location Update.5 % • (for BSC TTCH: 0.

2 SDCCHs/8 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 286 All rights reserved © 2004. 21 TCHs. then the number of TRXs Channels (12. Alcatel © Alcatel 286 .2%) = 19 example: 3 TRXs. 1 BCCH.2 Basis of traffic theory Dimensioning "a priori" > Cell dimensioning from call mix (bid.7. architecture) • to handle an offered traffic of 12 Erlangs (RTCH). compute the number of channels.

2 Basis of traffic theory Dimensioning "a posteriori" > Cell dimensioning from measurement (re-planning) • one is measuring a traffic of 15 Erlangs.2%) -> 25 TCHs -> 4 TRXs needed Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 287 All rights reserved © 2004.7. Alcatel © Alcatel 287 . with a blocking rate of 10 % • how to dimension the cell? Offered traffic = 15 / (1-10%) = 16.7.7 Erlangs!!!! Channels (16.

one must compute regularly the date when the traffic of a cell will become critical > Critical traffic • critical traffic: when the offered traffic will induce 2% of blocking • traffic capacity of a cell = critical traffic of this cell Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 288 All rights reserved © 2004.7.2 Basis of traffic theory Forecast / Critical traffic > Forecast traffic • traffic forecasting must be computed according to the offered traffic – not directly on the measured traffic • In order to plan the necessary actions soon enough. Alcatel © Alcatel 288 .

1 Erlang TCH .2 Basis of traffic theory Exercise Training exercise: complete the form to get less than 2% of blocking cell 12. Alcatel © Alcatel 289 .675 12.> 20 TCH mean TCH call duration : 80 increase 3 TRX sec blocking rate TCH : 0. 743 call mix info Erlang TCH Offered traffic traffic forecast proposed config 450 call/hour 10.865 30 % offered traffic increase Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 289 All rights reserved © 2004.7.08 Erlang TCH 30 % offered traffic 13.8% 330 call/hour mean TCH call duration 129 sec blocking rate 4% 600 call/hour mean TCH call duration 96 sec blocking rate 8 % 30 % offered traffic increase 12.

Alcatel © Alcatel 290 .7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7.3 TCH resource allocation indicators All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 291 . frequency band (G1 or GSM/DCS)) selecting the TCH pool in which the TCH should be chosen according to: – the requested channel rate (FR or HR) – the radio capability of the mobile – the TRE DR capability and the TRE band selecting the best TCH resource among the available TCH channels of this pool according to several criteria • Allocating dedicated TCH radio resources by: – – Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 291 All rights reserved © 2004.3 TCH resource allocation indicators Radio Allocation and Management > Radio resource allocation and management (RAM) aims at: • Managing pools of TCH radio resources by: – – defining TCH radio timeslots as a function of the cell radio configuration from the operator sorting these TCH TS according to their radio capabilities (FR or DR.7.

the counters needed for these indicators are added to type 110.3 TCH resource allocation indicators MS access > MS access types distribution (NA only) Accessibility in type 110 since B8 • TCH requests from FR only MS TCNARQMN= MC701A • TCH requests from DR MS TCNARQBN= MC701B • TCH requests from DR+EFR MS TCNARQTN= MC701C • TCH requests from AMR MS TCNA3RQTN= MC701D • TCH requests from Data calls TCNARQDN= MC701E Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 292 All rights reserved © 2004.7. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . The following indicators are also computed: – Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from FR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types = TCNARQMTO = MC701A / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E) – Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types = TCNARQBTO = MC701B / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E) – Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR+EFR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types = TCNARQTTO = MC701C / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E) – Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from AMR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types = TCNA3RQTTO = MC701D / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E) – Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests for Data calls over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types = TCNARQDTO = MC701E / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E) – Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 27: quality" on a TCH channel = HCSTAMFN = MC448B Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 26: quality" on a TCH channel = HCSTAMHN = MC448A "FR to HR channel adaptation due to a good radio – "HR to FR channel adaptation due to a bad radio © Alcatel 292 .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type • • • These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7. From B8.

• From B8. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . • The following indicators are also computed: – Ratio of TCH allocations with FR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNACAFTO = MC702A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Ratio of TCH allocations with HR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNACAHTO = MC702B / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Ratio of TCH allocations with EFR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNACAETO = MC702C / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR FR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNA3CAFTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR HR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNA3CAHTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Ratio of TCH allocations for Data calls over all TCH allocations during normal assignment = TCNACADTO = MC705 / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705) – Rate of successful TCH allocations with AMR SV over all AMR MS requests = TCNA3SUR = (MC704A+MC704B) / MC701D © Alcatel 293 .3 TCH resource allocation indicators Speech coding version > Speech coding Version capabilities distribution (NA only) Accessibility in type 110 since B8 • TCH allocations with FR SV1 TCNACAFN= MC702A • TCH allocations with HR SV1 TCNACAHN= MC702B • TCH allocations with FR SV2 (EFR) TCNACAEN= MC702C • TCH allocations with FR SV3 (AMR FR) TCNA3CAFN= MC704A • TCH allocations with HR SV3 (AMR HR) TCNA3CAHN= MC704B • TCH allocations for data call TCNACADN= MC705 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 293 All rights reserved © 2004. the counters needed for these Indicators are added to type 110.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type • These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7.7.

– MC15A = Number of TCH allocations for Internal Directed Retry. external). Alcatel > Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy – MC370A = Number of FR TCH allocations (FR+EFR+AMR FR) – MC370B = Number of HR TCH allocations (HR+AMR HR) – MC703 = Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment.7. internal. – MC15B = Number of TCH allocations for Handover (intra cell.3 TCH resource allocation indicators Distributions > FR/HR calls distribution (NA+HO) • FR TCH allocation ratio TCAHCAFO = MC370A / (MC370A+MC370B) • HR TCH allocation ratio TCAHCAHO = MC370B / (MC370A+MC370B) > NA/HO distribution • Normal Assignment TCH allocation ratio TCNACAO = MC703 / (MC703 + [MC15A+MC15B]) • Handover TCH allocation ratio TCHOCAO = [MC15A+MC15B] / (MC703 + [MC15A+MC15B]) > TCH allocation distribution per TRX • Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment TCNACAN = MC703 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 294 All rights reserved © 2004. • Some of these indicators are also available for SDCCH: – SDCCH allocation distribution per TRX through the number of SDCCH allocations – SDAHCAN = MC390 – SDCCH Assignment/HO distribution through the ratio of SDCCH allocations for Assignment – SDNACAO = MC148 / MC390 © Alcatel 294 . – TCNACAN indicator is also available as the MAX value of the day on the A9156 RNO tool.

7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7. Alcatel © Alcatel 295 .4 Resource occupancy indicators All rights reserved © 2004.

DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy – – MC380A = Cumulated FR TCH duration per TRX MC380B = Cumulated HR TCH duration per TRX • The following indicators can also be computed: – TCTRME = Multiband MS TCH traffic in Erlang = MC381 / 3600 – TCTRSE = Single band MS TCH traffic in Erlang = ([MC380A+MC380B] . Alcatel > Refer to BSS .4 Resource occupancy indicators TCH resource > TCH resource occupancy • TCH traffic in Erlang TCTRE= (MC380A+MC380B) / 3600 • TCH mean holding time (TCH average duration) TCTRMHT= (MC380A+MC380B) / (MC370A+MC370B) • FR TCH traffic in Erlang TCTRE= MC380A / 3600 • FR TCH mean holding time TCTRFMHT= MC380A/ MC370A • HR TCH traffic in Erlang TCTRE= MC380B / 3600 • HR TCH mean holding time TCTRHMHT= MC380B/ MC370B Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 296 All rights reserved © 2004. in B8.7. to make the distinction between traffic in different frequency bands: here after the corresponding stored indicators (type 110): – – – – TCTRFTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the GSM frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380C TCTRHTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the GSM frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380D TCTRFTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380E TCTRHTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380F © Alcatel 296 .MC381) / 3600 – MC381 = Cumulated (FR+HR) TCH duration of Multiband mobiles per TRX A split of counters (MC380a and MC380b) is added.

© Alcatel 297 .4 Resource occupancy indicators SDCCH / ACH resource > SDCCH resource occupancy • SDCCH traffic in Erlang SDTRE= MC400 / 3600 • SDCCH mean holding time (SDCCH average duration) SDTRMHT= MC400 / MC390 > ACH resource occupancy • ACH traffic in Erlang C750 / 3600 • ACH mean holding time (ACH average duration) QSTRN =C750 / C751 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 297 All rights reserved © 2004.7.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Resource occupancy – MC400 = Cumulated SDCCH duration per TRX – MC380 = Number of SDCCH allocations per TRX > C750 and C751 are 2 counters introduced from B7 in type 18. Alcatel > Refer to BSS . Both are provided per TTCH (A channel): • C750 = TIME_A_CHANNEL_BUSY: Time (in seconds) during which the A channel is busy (allocated). • C751 = NB_A_CHANNEL_ALLOC: Number of allocations of the A channel.

5 Traffic model indicators All rights reserved © 2004.7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7. Alcatel © Alcatel 298 .

Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Traffic model • SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS = Total number of SDCCH establishments for network access = MC01 + MC02 • These indicators allow to get call mix data from the network. © Alcatel 299 .7. follow-on) TMMOLUR = MC02A (resp. MC02D) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of IMSI detach TMMOLUDR= MC02G / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of Short Message Service TMMOSMSR= MC02B / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of Supplementary Service TMMOSSR= MC02C / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of Call re-establishment TMMOCRR= MC02E / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS 299 All rights reserved © 2004.5 Traffic model indicators SDCCH establishment > SDCCH establishment cause distribution • • • • • • • Ratio of MT calls TMMTO= MC01 / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of MO normal and emergency calls TMMTO= MC02H / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS Ratio of LU normal (resp.

7.DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > MS penetration rate • Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type – [MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G] = Total number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update) – MC706 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update) of MS supporting the E-GSM band – MC850 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update) of MS supporting two frequency bands (ex: GSM900 and DCS1800) – MC703 = Total number of TCH allocations (FR+HR) for Normal Assignment – MC704A = Number of TCH allocations (FR) for Normal Assignment of AMR mobiles only – MC704B = Number of TCH allocations (HR) for Normal Assignment of AMR mobiles only – MC704 (Allocation AMR FR+HR) is removed in B8 – MC170 = Number of TCH calls for which a TFO has been successfully established © Alcatel 300 .internal.external) per Normal Assignment TMHOCO = (MC717A+MC717B) / MC718 300 All rights reserved © 2004.5 Traffic model indicators Mobiles penetration > E-GSM mobiles penetration • Ratio of E-GSM MS access over all MS accesses (except LU) TMMSEGR = MC706 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G]) Ratio of Multiband MS access over all MS accesses (except LU) TMMSMBR = MC850 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G]) Ratio of TCH allocation for AMR MS over all TCH allocations TCTR3CATTO = MC704A+ MC704B / MC703 Ratio of successful TFO establishment over all TCH allocations QSTRCCTR = MC170 / MC703 Number of Handovers (intra cell. Alcatel > Multiband mobiles penetration • > AMR mobiles penetration • > TFO calls ratio • > Handover per Call • Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 > Refer to BSS .

Alcatel © Alcatel 301 .7 TRAFFIC INDICATORS 7.6 Preemption indicators All rights reserved © 2004.

© Alcatel 302 . 2. the on-going call is released and the freed TCH is served to the new request. If no preemption is possible: – If queuing is possible: the TCH request is queued and either a Directed Retry or a Fast Traffic HO can be performed. – If queuing is not possible: the TCH request is rejected and an ASSIGNMENT or HANDOVER FAILURE "no radio resource available" message is sent to the MSC. In this case. The TCH is established through Preemption if a lower priority level on-going call is preemptable.6 Preemption indicators Preemption principle > Preemption attributes (in Assignment or HO Request): • pci : preemption capability indication indicates if the call can preempt another call (pci=1) or not • pvi : preemption vulnerability indication indicates if the call is preemptable (pvi=1) or not • priority level: 1=highest priority / 14=lowest priority > Preemption rules: • A TCH request with pci=1 and priority level=p1 will preempt an on-going call with pvi=1 and priority level=p2.7. one of them with pci bit set to 0 is preferred Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 302 All rights reserved © 2004. p2 lower than p1 (whatever pci value) • the on-going call with the lowest priority level value shall be elected first and if several calls have the same lowest p2 value. Alcatel > On Preemption capable TCH Request occurrence: 1.

6 Preemption indicators Preemption counters > MC921A = Number of TCH Requests with the capability to preempt another call with lower priority (pci=1) > MC921B = Number of preemption capable TCH Requests (pci=1) served with TCH resource (with or without using the preemption feature). Alcatel > Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS: • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature © Alcatel 303 .7. > MC921C = Number of preempted calls > MC921D = Number of preemption capable TCH Request (pci=1) successfully served in a neighboring cell with the help of the directed retry procedure > MC921E = Number of preemptable calls successfully established (pvi=1) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 303 All rights reserved © 2004.

DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature © Alcatel 304 . Alcatel > Refer to BSS .7.6 Preemption indicators > Preemption capable TCH Request rejection rate • TCPPFLCR = (MC921A-MC921B-MC921D) / MC921A > Ratio of preemption capable TCH Request which led to a successful Directed Retry • TCPPDSUCR = MC921D / MC921A > Ratio of preemptable calls established over all calls • TCPPSUVO = MC921E / (MC718+MC717A+MC717B) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 304 All rights reserved © 2004.

in order to quantify the efficiency and the reason for HO Directed retry indicators. in order to detect / identify / locate the main malfunctions Handover indicators. in order to detect/predict overload and compute adequate cell dimensioning as well as to understand how RTCH resources are used in the network 305 All rights reserved © 2004.Introduction to QoS and Traffic Load monitoring / B9 Evaluation > Objective: to be able to interpret: – – – – Global indicators. in order to assess the general quality of the network Detailed indicators. Alcatel Thank you for – answering the objectives sheet – Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 305 . in order to quantify the efficiency of a directed retry Indicators provided by the new RMS feature to ease radio optimization and fault detection Traffic indicators.

Alcatel © Alcatel 306 .CASE STUDIES All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 307 .CASE STUDIES Section presentation > Objective: to be able to analyse with the KPI QOS some typical problems. > Program: • 1 Congestion • 2 Sector problem • 3 QSCSSR • 4 Quality • 5 RMS Level / Hardware problem • 6 Interference • 7 BSS Problem Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 307 All rights reserved © 2004.

CASE STUDIES 1 CASE STUDIES 1 Congestion All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 308 .

Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 309 .CASE STUDIES 1 > From this RNO table: What is the worst SDCCH congested cell? > Choose 2 other interesting indicators to continue your analysis? – – – – – – Call Drop % SDCCH Assignment Failure % Outgoing Handover Success % SDCCH Drop % Downlink TBF drop % RTCH assign fail % 309 All rights reserved © 2004.

CASE STUDIES 2 CASE STUDIES 2 Sector problem All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 310 .

CASE STUDIES 2 > In this trisectorised site. Alcatel © Alcatel 311 . give the worst sector? > What can you propose to do? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 311 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 312 .CASE STUDIES 3 CASE STUDIES 3 QSCSSR All rights reserved © 2004.

SDCCH_drop_%) * ( 1 . Alcatel © Alcatel 313 . SDCCH drops during any outgoing SDCCH handover SDCCH drops in SDCCH established phase due to BSS problem SDCCH assign success for Mobile Terminating procedure SDCCH assign success for Mobile Originating procedure normal assignment requests for TCH establishment (HR or FR) TCH normal assignment successes (HR or FR) Paris_Tower_S1 9 0 1 43 663 88 84 Paris_City_S3 4 0 2 924 1352 1455 1430 QSCSSR=? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 313 All rights reserved © 2004.RTCH_assign_unsuccess_% ) With: SDCCH_drop_% = SDCCH_drop / SDCCH_assign_success RTCH_ass_Un_%= RTCH_assign_unsuccess / RTCH_assign_request Counter MC138 MC07 MC137 MC01 MC02 MC140a MC718 Definition SDCCH drops on SDCCH established phase due to Radio Link Fail.CASE STUDIES 3 > Write the formula using the reference name (MCx) and compute the CSSR for this 2 cells: ( 1 .

CASE STUDIES 4 CASE STUDIES 4 Quality All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 314 .

23% 20. Alcatel © Alcatel 315 .00% 2054 2286 2108 1802 1996 1857 1891 1289 Does it seem to be a good HO causes repartition? What can we check to analyse the problem ? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 315 All rights reserved © 2004.30% 1.68% 2.93% 25.68% 27.22% 1.54% 14.64% 55 51 433 263 338 466 1053 348 2.59% 16.76% 3.27% 3.09% 55.94% 1.12% 2.CASE STUDIES 4 Analyse the table below: Repartition HO Quality DL_QUAL % DL_QUAL UL_QUAL % UL_QUAL Nber of HO 22/01/2003 23/01/2003 24/01/2003 25/01/2003 27/01/2003 28/01/2003 29/01/2003 30/01/2003 64 63 69 58 26 36 32 34 3.69% 2.

Alcatel © Alcatel 316 .CASE STUDIES 5 CASE STUDIES 5 RMS Level All rights reserved © 2004.

CASE STUDIES 5 > Find the 2 worst cells in the table? Try to propose a solution! Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 317 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 317 .

CASE STUDIES 6 CASE STUDIES 6 Interference All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 318 .

CASE STUDIES 6 > Find 1 bad cell with some HO problem? What can you propose to do? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 319 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 319 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 320 .CASE STUDIES 7 CASE STUDIES 7 BSS Problem All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 321 .CASE STUDIES 7 > What is the worst cell? Propose some probable solutions? Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 321 All rights reserved © 2004.

www.com © Alcatel 322 .alcatel.

ANNEX All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 323 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 324 .ANNEX 1 Radio Measurement Reporting ANNEX 1 Radio Measurement Reporting All rights reserved © 2004.

the MS reports to the serving cell: measurement report message – – Received level of 6 best cells (which can change) DL level and quality of serving cell Meast Report Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 325 All rights reserved © 2004.ANNEX 1 Radio Measurement Reporting > Radio measurement mechanisms • MS connected (TCH or SDCCH) • The serving cell gives to the MS the list of the neighboring cells to listen • Every SACCH. Alcatel © Alcatel 325 .

ANNEX 1 Radio Measurement Reporting > Radio measurement mechanisms • For each MS connected to the BTS (TCH or SDCCH) Meast Report Meast Result BSC DL measurements UL+DL measurements – – – – The UL received level and quality are measured every SACCH The Timing advance (TA) is computed The UL information is gathered into a measurement report this is the message result sent by the BTS to the BSC 326 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 326 .

Besides the mobile may report a BCCH index / BSIC which does not correspond to a neighboring cell. > MS TXPOWER CONF: what is the actual power emitted by the MS. > SUB frames correspond to the use of DTX • if the mobile is in DTX.ANNEX 1 Radio Measurement Reporting > Measurement Result message L1 Info L3 Info Measurement Report From the MS Back Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 327 All rights reserved © 2004. 2 values 0 or 1. • Uplink measurements performed by the BTS. • else rxlevfull is used that is to say all TSs are measured. it gives the index of the BCCH frequency in the BA list instead of BCCH ARFCN due to the length in case of 1800 frequency coding. > How the neighboring cells are coded: • BCCH1 index in BA list /BSIC1. Of course the BSC will not trigger any handover except if this BCCH index / BSIC couple correspond to a neighboring cell. When it reports the radio measurements. > TOA is the timing advance. This message contains the downlink measurements and neighboring cell measurements. BCCH2 index in BA list/BSIC2. it does not receive LAC/CI (too long) but the list of BCCH frequencies of the neighboring cells (in Band Allocation: BA list). Alcatel > Basically. the MEASUREMENT RESULT message is composed of: • L1 info: SACCH Layer 1 header containing MS_TXPWR_CONF and TOA. the rxlevsub or rxqualsub is used to avoid measuring the ts where there is nothing to transmit in order not to false measurements. 0 means that the BTS succeeded in decoding the measurement report from the MS. © Alcatel 327 . Why? Because when the mobile is connecting to a new cell. > SACCH BFI: bad frame indicator. • BTS power level used. • L3 info: MEASUREMENT REPORT from the MS.

ANNEX 2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA) ANNEX 2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA) All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 328 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 329 .ANNEX 2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA) > The Extended Measurement Reporting is a feature allowing the BSS to request an MS to measure and report up to 21 frequencies of the band that are not included in its BA list > Such phase 2+ mobiles must support the optional MAFA feature (Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 329 All rights reserved © 2004.

> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE --------TCH---------> ASSIGNT COMPLETE <------SACCH---------------SACCH------> <------SACCH---------------SACCH------> <-------SACCH-------EMO (MAFA freq. The ‘EXTENDED_MEASUREMENT_RESULT’ is NOT forwarded to the BSC. instead a ‘MEASUREMENT_RESULT’ with indication ‘no_MS_results’ is sent to the BSC. . The other frequencies will be considered in the same way as BCCH frequency of neighboring cells: they will be linked to the neighboring level and C/I statistics. after the 2nd SYSINFO 6 after the reception of SABM.> PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) (EMO included) -------------------------------------------------------. i. the BTS shall resume the sending of this system information by the replaced one. 5ter or 6 by this information. 5bis. > Then. This guarantees the MS has received a complete set. RxLev) <------SACCH---------------SACCH------> • Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 330 All rights reserved © 2004. the BTS shall identify the level of the BCCH frequency of the serving cell (which shall always be part of the frequencies to monitor) and apply it as the RXLEV_DL in the Radio Measurement Statistics. > The EMO shall be sent after 2 complete sets of SYS_INFO5 and 6.> CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE . TCH establishment. it shall replace the sending of system information 5. > In particular.ANNEX 2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA) Extended Measurement Reporting mechanisms MS BTS BSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) MSC < ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST -------------------------------------------------------. Alcatel > When the BTS receives a CHANNEL ACTIVATION with the Extended Measurement Order (EMO) included. it shall send this information on the SACCH to the corresponding mobile only once. the BTS normally receives from the MS an EXTENDED MEASUREMENT RESULT with the level of the frequencies to monitor. List) --------SACCH------> EMR (MAFA freq. after having decoded them.e. At the next SACCH multi-frame.> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE • The Extended Measurement Order includes the MAFA frequencies the MS is asked to measure EMO sent once to the MS on SACCH after TCH seizure Extended Measurement Results include the average signal level measured on each MAFA frequency over one SACCH mf duration EMR received once per call on SACCH Back • • ----------------------------------. The BTS shall make the correlation between these levels and the frequencies contained in the latest EMO information. © Alcatel 330 . according to the order of the ARFCN. > When the BTS has to send this information. ------------------------------------------------------. .

Alcatel © Alcatel 331 .ANNEX 3: Directed Retry Indicators ANNEX 3 Directed Retry Indicators All rights reserved © 2004.

C144c. C142d. > outgoing DR counters for the serving cell: MC144E. – MC153: incoming internal DR requests. > Standard type from B8. MC142e > DR FAIL. MC142E. C145a. CASES > internal DR > success case > The same internal DR procedure leads to an incrementation of two sets of counters: > incoming DR counters for the target cell: MC153.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------. (TCH) <---------------------------------. – C144C: normal outgoing internal DR requests. C144a. MC144e. etc. – MC607: outgoing internal+external DR attempts. C143e. > MCx counters belong to Standard Type 110 reported permanently > Cx counters belong to Detailed Type 29 reported on demand. C142b. C152. MC13A IDR condition met MC153. C154. C143g. > All the counters here and in the next slides concerning directed retry and relative to type 29 can be activated for all cells of the BSC at once from B8. MC607 start T3124 C145A+C145C HANDOVER ACCESS ------------------------(TCH)----------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------. C145d.SABM --------------------------> stop T3105 <-------------------------. MC151.UA ----------------------------. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 332 All rights reserved © 2004.ESTABLISH INDICATION stop T200 ----------------------------------> HANDOVER COMPLETE HO CMP stop T3103 -------------------------------------------------------------> ----------------------------------> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ------------------------> Release of old SDCCH MC151. – MC15A: TCH allocations for incoming internal DR. – C145A: forced outgoing internal DR attempts. < ----------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST Queuing allowed CHANNEL ACTIV. > The following DR counters are provided in Type 29 (this type becomes a standard type in B8) • for the target cell: – C153: incoming internal DR requests.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Internal DR . C145c. C145b. C143h. C151. C143c. C143a. C143b. (Type 29 becomes a standard type in B8): C142a. • for the serving cell: – C144A: forced outgoing internal DR requests.start T3105 stop T3124 start T200 -----------------------.success case MS serving cell target cell TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) BSC MSC No free TCH TCH request queued Start T11 ----------------------. C144d. – C151: incoming internal DR successes. – MC142E: outgoing internal DR successes.start T3103 (SDCCH) C154. etc.MC15A CHAN ACTIV ACK ----------------------------------> HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <---------------------. – MC717A: incoming internal DR successes per TRX.C153. Alcatel > The following DR counters are provided in Type 110 • for the target cell: – MC13A: TCH requests for Normal Assignment that are put into the queue. C143f. – C142C: normal outgoing internal DR successes. – C154: incoming internal DR attempts. C142c. – C145C: normal outgoing internal DR attempts. C143d. – C142A: forced outgoing internal DR successes. • for the serving cell: – MC144E: outgoing internal DR requests. – MC151: incoming internal DR successes per cell.> QUEUING_INDIC.MC717A. C144b. C555 © Alcatel 332 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 333 . CASES > Incoming internal DR failures: Directed Retry procedure from the target cell point of view > DR Preparation: • congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell – does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > DR Execution: • radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel – the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 333 All rights reserved © 2004.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Incoming internal DR .failures DR FAIL.

MC144e. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: congestion MS serving cell No free TCH In serving cell target cell BSC MSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) < ---------------------------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST Queuing allowed Start T11 --------------------------------------------------.MC607 MC555 MC555=C155 Standard Type Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 334 All rights reserved © 2004. © Alcatel 334 .congestion DR FAIL. Alcatel > C155 is available in Type 29. MC13A IDR condition met No free TCH In target cell MC153.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Incoming internal DR .> QUEUING_INDIC.

start T3103 HANDOVER ACCESS C154 -------------------------------------------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.. > This counter is provided in Type 29 > Both radio failures with Reversion Old SDCCH Channel and radio drop are counted together.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: MS access problem MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.start T3103 C154 SABM -----------x T3103 expiry C152 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 335 All rights reserved © 2004..ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Incoming internal DR .stop T3105 HANDOVER COMPLETE ----------------------------------------------------.-X MS serving cell target cell BSC SABM MEAS REP -----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION -----------------------> MEASUREMENT RESULT UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE <--------------------------------------------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> C152 CHANNEL ACTIV ACK ----------------------------------> Release of new channel MSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <----------------------.start T3105 SABM -------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------. Alcatel > All incoming internal DR failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter C152.radio failure DR FAIL.. © Alcatel 335 .<-----------------------------------------------------------------------.

ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Incoming internal DR . © Alcatel 336 .counters DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR counters REQUEST ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS Execution Failure CONGESTION INCOMING INTERNAL Directed Retry Preparation Request Congestion BSS Pb Execution Attempt Radio (MS access problem) BSS Pb Success MC153. C155 C153-C154-C155 C154 BSS PB BSS PB MS ACCESS PB C152 C154-C151-C152 MC151. C153 MC555. > All Cxxx counters are available in Type 29. Alcatel > All MCxxx counters are available in Type 110. > Type 29 counters becomes a standard in B8. C151 Type 29 counters becomes a standard (PMC) 336 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 All rights reserved © 2004.

> Refer to BSS .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Incoming DR – DRIBCAR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR preparation = MC15A/MC153 – DRIBCNR: rate of incoming internal DR failures due to congestion = MC155/MC153 – DRIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR execution = MC717A/MC153 • Other indicators can be computed from Type 110 counters: – DRIBSUR: global efficiency of incoming internal DR = MC717A/MC153 = MC151/MC153 from Type 29 counters – rate of incoming internal DR preparation failures due to BSS problems = (C153-C154-C155)/C153 – rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems = (C154-C151-C152)/C154 – rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to radio access problems = C152/C154 © Alcatel 337 .

CASES > Outgoing internal DR failures Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view > DR Preparation: • congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > DR Execution: • radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel • radio problem: the MS drops • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 338 All rights reserved © 2004.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing internal DR .failures DR FAIL. Alcatel © Alcatel 338 .

. C143A: Forced DR C144C.. Alcatel © Alcatel 339 .-X SABM -----------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ------------------------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------HO FAILURE HANDOVER FAILURE -----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> Release of new channel start T3103 MC144E C144A or C144C C144A.C143E: Normal DR C143A or C143E Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 339 All rights reserved © 2004..<-----------------------------------------------------------------------HANDOVER ACCESS ----------------------TCH--------------------------------> -------------------------------------------------------------> HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing internal DR . CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: reversion old channel MS Serving cell Target Cell BSC HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND <-------SDCCH----.stop T3105 HANDOVER COMPLETE ----------------------------------------------------.start T3105 SABM -------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION UA ----------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------.radio failure ROC DR FAIL.

C143B: Forced DR C144C. Alcatel > Counters C144A. CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: drop MS serving cell target cell BSC M SC HO CM D H AN DO VER C OM MAN D <----------------------. © Alcatel 340 . C143F are type 29. C144C.<-----------------------------------------------------------------------.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing internal DR . C143B.radio failure drop DR FAIL.C143F: Normal DR T 3103 expiry C 143B or C 143F ------------------------> ASSIG NM EN T FAILUR E “R adio interface m essage failure” R elease of SDC CH and TCH Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 340 All rights reserved © 2004.start T3103 M C 144E SABM C 144A or C 144C ----------x C144A.

ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing internal DR . Alcatel DROP RADIO BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 341 .(C145A+C145C) C145A+C145C C143A+C143E C143B+C143F (C145A+C145C) . CASES > Outgoing internal DR counters REQUEST ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS Execution Failure CONGESTION OUTGOING INTERNAL Directed Retry Preparation Request Any preparation failure Execution Attempt Reversion old channel Drop radio BSS Pb Success MC144E.counters DR FAIL. C144A+C144C BSS PB REVERSION OLD CHANNEL (C144A+C144C) . C142A+C142C 341 All rights reserved © 2004.(C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F) MC142E.

(C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F)] / (C145A+C145C) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old channel = (C143A+C143E) / (C145A+C145C) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop = (C143B+C143F) / (C145A+C145C) type 29 counters are defined: – DRFOSUIN C142a – DRFOSUEN C142b – DROBSUIN C142c – DROMSUEN C142d – DRFORDIN C144a – DRFORDEN C144b – DROBRDIN C144c – DROMRDEN C144d – DROBRQIN C145c – DROMRQEN C145d NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_SUCC NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_SUCC NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_SUCC NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_SUCC NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_REQ NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_REQ NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_REQ NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_REQ NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_ATPT NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_ATPT © Alcatel 342 .DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR – DROBSUR: global efficiency of outgoing internal DR = MC142E/MC144E • Other indicators can be computed from Type 29 counters: – efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation = (C145A+C145C)/(C144A+C144C) – efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution = (C142A+C142C)/(C145A+C145C) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems = [(C145A+C145C) .> Refer to BSS .

PHYSICAL_INFO --> <--.---.CLEAR_COMMAND -----MC142F Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL Stop T8 <----------.HO_ACCESS ----C145B+C145D Start T8 <-----.HO_COMPLETE --------------. – C144D: normal outgoing external DR requests.HO_DETECTION-------------<-. CASES > External DR > successful case MS serving_cell BSC MSC <------ASSIGNT REQUEST------TCH request queued BSC target_cell MS EDR condition met -----.UA --------------> <----.CC -----------------------.HO_ACCESS ----<---. © Alcatel 343 . – C145D: normal outgoing external DR attempts. MC821.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators External DR . – MC142F: outgoing external DR successes. Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 343 All rights reserved © 2004.ESTABLISH_INDICATION ---- Release of SDCCH <---.CHANNEL_ACT_ACK------------<----. > As for internal DR. – C142B: forced outgoing external DR successes.HO_DETECTION ---------------.CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------> <.Start T9113 (HO_COMMAND) MC821 <------------------------. outgoing external DR counters for the serving cell: MC144F. – C145B: forced outgoing external DR attempts. Alcatel > The following DR counters are provided in Type 110 • for the serving cell: – MC144F: outgoing external DR requests.HO_COMPLETE ---------------------------------------<--.Stop T9113 MC642 The same external DR procedure leads to an incrementation of two sets of counters: incoming external HO counters for the target cell: MC820.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------------<---.success DR FAIL. > The following DR counters are provided in Type 29 • for the serving cell: – C144B: forced outgoing external DR requests.HO_REQUEST_ACK -------. etc. Therefore incoming external DRs are counted together with incoming external HOs in the related counters. MC142F.SABM ------------------.HO_REQUIRED ----------> MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820 <--------. external DR Counters are available permanently > No counter is provided for the target cell for an external DR since an incoming DR cannot always be discriminated from an incoming external HO. – C142D: normal outgoing external DR successes. etc.

Alcatel © Alcatel 344 .failures DR FAIL.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing external DR . CASES > Outgoing external DR failures Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view > DR Preparation: • congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell) • BSS problem (no specific counter) > DR Execution: • radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel • radio problem: the MS drops • BSS problem (no specific counter) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 344 All rights reserved © 2004.

CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.CLEAR_COMMAND ----------------------> Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel Release of connection C145B.-.HO_ACCESS ----- BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS ASSIGNT REQUEST ---------------------> <-------------------------.CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----.HO_REQUIRED -------> MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> <-------. Alcatel © Alcatel 345 .Start T9113 (HO-COMMAND) included X --.C143G: Normal DR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 345 All rights reserved © 2004.C143C: Forced DR C145D.CC --------------------------------------.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing external DR ..HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8 C145B+C145D ----.HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------> C143C+C143G ----.UA ------------.radio failure ROC DR FAIL.SABM --------> <--.HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: reversion old channel MS serving_cell TCH request queued EDR condition met ---.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.ESTABLISH_INDICATION-> ----.

.HO_ACCESS ----- BSC MSC BSC target_cell MS ASSIGNT REQUEST ---------------------> <-------------------------.SABM --.CLEAR_REQUEST -> C143D+C143H Radio interface message fail Release of connection C145B.HO_REQUIRED -------> MC144F ----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> <-------. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: drop MS serving_cell TCH request queued EDR condition met ---.HO_ACCESS ----X ---.HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------. Alcatel © Alcatel 346 .CHANNEL_ACT ----------> <--.X T8 expiry ----.X ----.C143D: Forced DR C145D.radio failure drop DR FAIL.X ----.CC --------------------------------------.ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing external DR .SABM --.SABM --.CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----.Start T9113 (HO-COMMAND) included X --.HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8 C145B+C145D ----.C143H: Normal DR Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 346 All rights reserved © 2004.

C142B+C142D 347 All rights reserved © 2004.counters DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR counters REQUEST ATTEMPT Preparation Failure SUCCESS Execution Failure CONGESTION OUTGOING EXTERNAL Directed Retry Preparation Request Any preparation failure Execution Attempt Reversion old channel Drop radio BSS Pb Success MC144F.(C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H) MC142F.(C145B+C145D) C145B+C145D BSS PB REVERSION OLD CHANNEL DROP RADIO C143C+C143G C143D+C143H (C145+C145D) . Alcatel BSS PB Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 347 .ANNEX 3:Directed Retry Indicators Outgoing external DR . C144B+C144D (C144B+C144D) .

DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS • Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR – DROMSUR: global efficiency of outgoing external DR = MC142F/MC144F • Other indicators can be computed from Type 29 counters: – efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation = (C145B+C145D)/(C144B+C144D) – efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution = (C142B+C142D)/(C145B+C145D) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems = [(C145B+C145D) .(C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H)] / (C145B+C145D) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old channel = (C143C+C143G) / (C145B+C145D) – rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop = (C143D+C143H) / (C145B+C145D) • Interesting indicator: – TCQUSUDSR: rate of outgoing internal and external directed retries (forced + normal) successfully performed over all RTCH requests queued during normal assignment.> Refer to BSS . © Alcatel 348 .

ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 349 .

ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > Signaling Links MSC BSC BTS BSC A-Interface MT-Link signaling #7 System with SCCP BSC BTS MS OMC-R Abis Interface RSL with LAPD Protocol Air-Interface (CCCH/SACCH/FACCH) with LAPDm Protocol OML Link with X25 connection LAPB Protocol Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 350 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 350 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 351 .ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > The reference Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 User of Transport Service Network Service Transport Service 351 All rights reserved © 2004.

ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > Layer 1 • Physical. Responsible for the transparent transmission of information across the physical medium (HDB3. LAPD. Responsible for providing a reliable transfer between the terminal and the network (#7. Alcatel © Alcatel 352 . responsible for setting up and maintaining the connection across a network (CM.) > Layer 3 • Network. Message routing. MM.etc. PCM. etc.) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 352 All rights reserved © 2004. RR. AMI) > Layer 2 • Data Link.

responsible for the control of quality of service (Layer of information) > Layer 5 • Session. provides user interface to lower levels (Operating System) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 353 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 353 . ASCII) > Layer 7 • Application. responsible for ensuring that the information is presented to the eventual user in a meaningful way (Type format. Ex. Handles the coordination between the user processes (Set up transfer of information) > Layer 6 • Presentation.ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > Layer 4 • Transport.

F Intfc CM MM RR BSSAP RR BTSM SCCP LAPDm LAPDm LAPD LAPD MTP BSSAP CM MM BSSAP LAYER 3 RR SCCP MTP LAYER 2 digit radio digit radio 64 kb/s 64 kb/s 64 kb/s 64 kb/s LAYER 1 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 354 All rights reserved © 2004..ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > BSS protocol stacks MS BTS BSC MSC PSTN ISDN Air Intfc Abis Intfc A Intfc B . Alcatel © Alcatel 354 .

: HLR) NSS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 355 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 355 .ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > BSS protocol stacks (detailed) (SMS) SS CC (Relay) MM DTAP BSS MAP DTAP BSS MAP SS (SMS) CC SS (SMS) (Relay MM MAP SSGT SSCS SSTM 3 SSTM 2 PCM TS (D) MAP SSGT SSCS SSTM 3 SSTM 2 PCM TS RR RR 3 RR' BTSM BTSM SSCS SSTM 3 SSTM 2 PCM TS A SSCS SSTM 3 SSTM 2 PCM TS 2 1 LAPDm Phycal Layer LAPDm Phycal Layer LAPD 64 kbit/s or LAPD 64 kbit/s Um PCM TS A bis or PCM TS BSC MS BTS MSC / VLR (ex.

Alcatel © Alcatel 356 .ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > Signaling on the A Interface • Uses #7 with Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) with a new Application Base Station Application Part (BSSAP). BSSAP is divided into Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) and Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part (BSSMAP) BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP SCCP User Data Layer 1-3 MTP 1-3 Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 356 All rights reserved © 2004.

Reset > DTAP • Messages which are exchanged between an NSS and an MS transparent. which are exchanged as RR (Radio Resource Management Services between the MSC. the BSC transfers the messages without evaluation transparent. In this case. which are exchanged between the BSC and the MSC and which are evaluated from the BSC. • Example: Paging. BSC and MS). Also control Information concerning the MSC and BSC. Alcatel © Alcatel 357 .ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > BSSMAP • Contains the messages. • In fact all the messages. HND_CMD. Mainly Messages from Mobility Management (MM) and Call control (CC) Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 357 All rights reserved © 2004.

CC. RR Call Control (CC) DTAP MS Radio Resource (RR) BSS MSC BSSMAP Back Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 358 All rights reserved © 2004. BSSMAP. Alcatel © Alcatel 358 . MM.ANNEX 4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks > Relationship between DTAP.

Alcatel © Alcatel 359 .ANNEX 5 LCS ANNEX 5 LCS All rights reserved © 2004.

> Finally. These assistance data can be either broadcast on the CBCH (using SMSCB function) or provided by the BSS in a point to point connection (either spontaneously or on request from the MS). • On MS request to know its own location (MC02 impacted. Network computes Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 360 All rights reserved © 2004. In this case the network provides the MS with the additional information such as BTS coordinates and the RTD values. see the previous slide) • On network request (especially during Emergency calls) • On external request (LCS Client) > Positioning methods provided can be: • Cell-ID or Cell-ID + TA (Timing Advance) • Conventional (standalone) GPS • Assisted GPS (with the help of A-GPS server to compute location) – – MS based (MB): MS is able to perform a pre computation MS assisted (MA): MS sends info. © Alcatel 360 . > These counters are located in the MFS and can be used in RNO (cartographic part).ANNEX 5 LCS LCS function (linked to MC02i) and other counters … > LCS allows to access the MS location provided by the BSS. 4 methods are possible for positioning: • Cell ID+ TA • Conventional (MS equipped with GPS System) • A-GPS MS Based • A-GPS MS Assisted > These 4 Methods induce a set of counters (2 per method) to give the average latitude and longitude of mobiles in the cell. • With – OTD: Observed Time Difference: the time interval that is observed by an MS between the receptions of signals (bursts) from two different BTSs. • Mobile-assisted: The MS performs and reports OTD signal measurements to the network and the network computes the MS location estimate. Alcatel > Assisted GPS Method: • Mobile-based: The MS performs OTD signal measurements and computes its own location estimate. – RTD: Real Time Difference: This means the relative synchronization difference in the network between two BTSs.

> In all cases. Alcatel > In case of MS requests for its location. © Alcatel 361 . success.ANNEX 5 LCS > LCS function: Architecture 2 Where is the accident? Emergency call Where am I? BTS 1 Abis BSC A MSC Lg GMLC Le External LCS client Where is my son? Lb MS GPS reference network OSP Lh 3 Abis BTS SMLC SAGI MFS 1 MS Request 2 Network Request 3 External Request A-GPS server HLR SMLC function integrated in MFS: .Schedules all the necessary actions to get MS location .Computes MS location . failures) • see the next slide.Provides the result back to the GMLC LCS: Location Services SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center GMLC: Gateway Mobile Location Center A-GPS: Assisted GPS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 361 All rights reserved © 2004.receives the loc. MC02 is impacted: • MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purpose. Request from the GMLC through the MSC/BSC . some counters related to LCS provide specific information (attempts.

> See the next slide. © Alcatel 362 . • Rate of successes on LCS requests. location requests rejected by the SMLC. MS-Based A-GPS) and for different Error causes. location aborts received from the MSC in CS domain.ANNEX 5 LCS Example: Mobile terminated location request failure / success (External request) MS BTS BSC SMLC MSC GMLC HLR LCS Client LCS Service Request Send_Routing_Info rqst Send_Routing_Info resp Provide_Subscriber_Location Paging . Authentication + Ciphering BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request MC923a BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request Adequat positionning method chosen by SMLC BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response (failure) MC923c Failure MC923d BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response (failure) BSSMAP Perform_Location_Abort BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response Success MC923b BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response Provide_Subscriber_Location Result LCS Service Response BSSMAP Clear Command and Release Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 362 All rights reserved © 2004. successful location requests performed in a BSS. • Rate of failures on LCS requests. • Rate of LCS requests aborted. • Rate of SDCCH seizures for Location Services. Alcatel > Four • • • • counters MC923a MC923b MC923c MC923d NB_LCS_REQ NB_LCS_SUCC NB_LCS_FAIL_LB NB_LCS_ABORT Number Number Number Number of of of of location requests received from the MSC in CS domain. Conventional GPS. > Other counters in SMLC (MFS) provide details by type of positioning (CI+TA. > Calculated indicators based on BSC counters: • Number of failures on LCS requests due to BSS problem. MS-Assisted A-GPS.

P819: NB_LCS_FAILURE_INTERNAL Number of failed LCS procedures due internal problem detected by the MFS/SMLC. P813: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with MS-Based A-GPS. P821: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with Conventional GPS PCF.> LCS Counters in MFS: • QOS FOLLOW UP: Number of received LCS requests for MS positioning received from the BSC Number of received LCS requests for GPS assistance data (initially requested by the MS) received from the BSC. P807: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with TA positioning PCF. P802: NB_ASSIST_DATA_SUCC Number of successful GPS assistance data delivery (initially requested by the MS) responses sent to the BSC. P817: NB_LCS_FAILURE_RRLP Number of failed LCS procedures due to RRLP problem. P809: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with Conventional GPS PCF. P820: NB_UNKNOWN_LCS_REQ Number of LCS requests rejected because not supported by the SMLC. P816: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTER_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to inter-BSC handover. P808: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with TA positioning PCF. P814: NB_LCS_PROTOCOL_ERROR Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS protocol error. P811: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_SUCC Number of location calculations successfully performed with MS Assisted A-GPS PCF. P804: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using Conventional GPS positioning method. P818: NB_LCS_FAILURE_TIMER_EXPIRY Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS guard timer expiry. P800: NB_LOC_REQ P801: NB_ASSIST_DATA_REQ PCF: Positioning Calculation Function • POSITION AVERAGE USED ON RNO: Values are given in minutes – LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES: P822: AV_TA_LAT Average of latitudes for TA Method P823: AV_TA_LONG Average of longitudes for TA Method P824: AV_CONV_GPS_LAT Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method P825: AV_CONV_GPS_LONG Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method P826: AV_MA_AGPS_LAT Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method P827: AV_MA_AGPS_LONG Average of longitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method P828: AV_MB_AGPS_LAT Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method P829: AV_MB_AGPS_LONG Average of longitudes for MS-Based A-GPS Method STANDARD DEVIATION: standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion around the average point P830: ST_DEV_TA_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with TA Method P831: ST_DEV_TA_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with TA Method P832: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with Conventional GPS Method P833: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with Conventional GPS Method P834: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method P835: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method P836: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LAT Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method P837: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LONG Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted A-GPS Method – © Alcatel 363 . P805: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using MS-Assisted A-GPS positioning method. P812: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Based A-GPS PCF. P806: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_SUCC Number of successful location response sent to the BSC using MS-Based A-GPS positioning method. P810: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_REQ Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Assisted A-GPS PCF. P803: NB_LOC_TA_SUCC Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using TA positioning method. P815: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTRA_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to intra-BSC handover.

Alcatel © Alcatel 364 .ANNEX 6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME) ANNEX 6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME) All rights reserved © 2004.

ANNEX 6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME) B9 > The goal of this feature is to make easier evaluating power issues in BTSs • Recording of power emission of BTS per cell and frequency band > Triggering of warning reports based on threshold fixed by the operator to get the real emission of antennas (at BTS antenna output port) OMC-R BSC • Take care of Environmental regulations BTS Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 365 All rights reserved © 2004. Alcatel © Alcatel 365 .

ANNEX 6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME) > GSM antennas are widely in living and working places B9 > Lack of information provided to people on their exposure to EM fields and the risks they are running > People concerned about their health. Alcatel © Alcatel 366 . risk of complaints > Some European directives/recommendations are already applicable or will be very soon Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 366 All rights reserved © 2004.

ANNEX 6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME) > 2 new counters (Hourly from NPA for RNO reports) • EME_PWR_GSM (850/900) (Short Name: E01) • EME_PWR_DCS (1800/1900) (Short Name: E02) – Power with 0. DTX and unused TS are taken into account • Loss due to stages (Any. Alcatel > Measurements: • Only with Evolium BTS • DL power data are collected by each TRE for each band (2 considered bands: 850/900 and 1800/1900) • Recording of power effectively transmitted to the antenna in Watt • Power control.1 Watt steps B9 > Performance Measurement type • New Type: Type 33 • Permanent type (PMC) with a fixed accumulation period: 1 hour • Counters available in MPM and NPA Back Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 367 All rights reserved © 2004. AN) and cables between TRE output and BTS antenna output connector taken into account • Measurements averaged every hour per cell and per frequency band > 2 new cell parameters: threshold values • EME_PWR_MAX_GSM (frequency band 850/900) • EME_PWR_MAX_DCS (frequency band 1800/1900) • Possible massively updated through an OMC Java script © Alcatel 367 .

Alcatel © Alcatel 368 .ANNEX 7 B8 Improvements summary ANNEX 7 B8 Improvements summary All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 © Alcatel 369 .ANNEX 7 B8 Improvements summary > Location Services (LCS) > SDDCH Dynamic allocation > Counters Improvement • • • • • Inter PLMN HO 3G to 2G HO (and 2G to 2G only) Dual band HO (New type: 32) LapD congestion counter QOS Follow-up – – – – – – TCH assignment failure BSS PB now detailed HO Attempts for Fast Traffic added in type 110 AMR counters added in type 110 MS penetration (per speech version and channel type) was type 1 counters now available in type 110 HO Causes: type 26 extended from 1 to 40 cells Directed retry: type 29 becomes a standard (for PMC) 369 All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 370 .ANNEX 8 B9 Improvements summary ANNEX 8 B9 Improvements summary All rights reserved © 2004.

Alcatel © Alcatel 371 .ANNEX 8 B9 Improvements summary > Type 31: New RMS counters • For AMR monitoring • For Timing Advance analysis • For BTS Power level B9 > Type 33: Power at the BTS for Electromagnetic Environment Monitoring (EME) (Annex6) > Type 110: more counters for UMTS to GSM handover monitoring. • The new counters were introduced in MC922 family > 2 New counters for HO Cause 30: PS return to CS Zone Introduction to Quality of the Service and Traffic Load Monitoring BSS Release B9 371 All rights reserved © 2004.