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Although their studies are related to the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete with different kinds of fibers. and nuclear power plant. In addition.nchu. © 2008 Elsevier B. The steel fibers have high elastic modulus and stiffness so they can improve compressive strength and toughness of concrete [1]. ∗ Corresponding author. the gravel having a maximum size 2. glass fibers and polypropylene fibers [6]. 1. The staple fibers have good fineness and dispersion so they can restrain the cracks in primary stage. doi:10. and tensile strength is 550 MPa. 6 kg/m3 .edu. respectively. this study proposed that the coarse synthetic monofilament polypropylene fibers could be a potential replacement for steel fibers. proper mixture of these two complementary fibers can make better mechanical properties of concrete. The monofilament fibers have high elastic modulus and stiffness. Song b a b Department of Civil Engineering. All rights reserved. Tel. fax: +886 4 22155523.S.6 kg/m3 with coarse synthetic monofilament fibers at 3 kg/m3 . Recently. and 9 kg/m3 to Mechanical properties of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete Machine Hsie a. P. There are two forms of polypropylene fibers including coarse monofilament. and dispersion so they can restrain the plastic cracks [16]. The diameter of monofilament fibers is 1 mm. many researches have an orientation to discuss the mechanical properties of the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete.54 (M.elsevier. or carbon fibers and glass fibers to concrete [7. splitting tensile strength.8]. and the content of the latter is at 0.Author's personal copy Materials Science and Engineering A 494 (2008) 153–157 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Materials Science and Engineering A journal homepage: www. All rights reserved. The staple fibers have a various length between 10 mm and 25 mm. it may have the safety problem [17]. they can take more stress during destruction. no single fiber-reinforced concrete has the perfect mechanical properties. On the other hand. flexural properties.05. The experimental results show that the compressive strength. and the river sand having a fineness modulus of 2. elastic modulus is 4. the majority of the researches focus on the steel–polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete [9–15].037 . and staple fibers.1016/j. and flexural properties of the polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete are better than the properties of single fiber-reinforced concrete.88 GPa. but the fiber content must be high. and they are bond with mixture well. hybrid fibers disperse throughout concrete. Introduction There are many kinds of fibers. It increases structure weight of concrete and has balling effect during mixing so the workability will be lowered. Hualien 971. high-speed railway systems.2008. 2. it is similar to the function of steel fiber.V. Materials The materials used for the nonfibrous control concrete mixture consisted of the normal Type I Portland cement.msea.5. 6 kg/m3 . so the polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete can effectively decrease drying shrinkage strain. and they are showed in Fig. Taichung 402. Therefore. Experimental program 2. National Chung Hsing University. widely used in concrete engineering for their advantages [1–4]. splitting tensile strength. Dahan Institute of Technology. Therefore.2 GPa.∗ . In addition. Taiwan a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t This paper investigates the mechanical properties of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. When the monofilament fiber content is high enough. and the tensile strength is 320 MPa. The content of the former is at 3 kg/m3 . the elastic modulus is 5. Chijen Tu a . These two forms of fibers work complementarily. compressive strength. steel fibers easily basset and rust.86. It explores the properties of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. such as a proper proportion between carbon fibers and polypropylene fibers [5]. Hsie). such as workability. the length is 60 mm. The mix proportion of cement:water:gravel:sand was 300:192:850:1050 kg/m3 . Article history: Received 8 November 2007 Received in revised form 3 April 2008 Accepted 13 May 2008 Keywords: Polypropylene Hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete Toughness index 1. Taiwan Department of Civil Engineering.6 kg/m3 . The additives are coarse monofilament fibers and staple fibers. denier is 2. the polypropylene fibers have good ductility.1. and 9 kg/m3 . The experiment mixes staple fibers at 0. In order to overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages. and it also has the problem of conductive electric and magnetic fields.: +886 4 22155523. 0921-5093/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier B. fineness. In fact. no matter metallic or polymeric. E-mail address: d9162403@mail. If steel fiber- reinforced concrete is used in the runway of airport. and drying shrinkage strain.V. Adding steel fibers to concrete can improve the properties of concrete.

The testing machine ran to increase the deflection at a constant rate.2. The slump changed due to the different fiber content and form. In this study. 9.H. and 9 kg/m3 can increase 4. followed the ASTM C1018 test for flexural toughness and first-crack strength of fiber-reinforced concrete [20]. which restrain mixture from segregation and flow. 3. The flexural strength (MOR) test. Compressive strength–effectiveness of polypropylene hybrid fiberreinforced concretes. and then added water and mixed for 2 min. the specified amount of fibers was added to the wet concrete. 2.2 cm. The continuous load was increased at a rate of 0. respectively. / Materials Science and Engineering A 494 (2008) 153–157 Fig.60%.1 cm. and the increase of the viscosity of mixture makes the slump loss [11]. After the former process. For pure concrete.8 cm. and the specimens were allowed to cure in a water cabinet at 23 ± 1 ◦ C. respectively. conducted using test beam under third-point loading. splitting tensile strength.9 cm. Compressive strength Table 1 presents the compressive strength. Property tests were performed after the samples had cured for 28 days. Test methods The ASTM C39 test method was used to determine the compressive strength of cylindrical specimens [18].60% to 17.3% to 15. and 13. the slump is 16. Because of the high content and large surface area of fibers. 6 kg/m3 .31%.24%. Results and discussion 3. the fresh concrete was filled in 100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm drying shrinkage test molds. The strengths improved to different extents in response to the fiber content. Hsie et al. After that. and 13.Author's personal copy 154 M. The former is for the tests of compressive and spilt tensile strengths. The improved percentages of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete are 14. The mid-span deflection was the average of the ones detected by the transducers through contact with brackets attached to the beam specimen. The mixture was mixed for 3 min to ensure that the fibers can evenly disperse throughout the concrete. 15.4 cm. The ASTM C157 method was used to test drying shrinkage [21]. 13. . The mold was removed after 24 h. 2 shows the increase of compressive strength of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. adding monofilament fibers at 3 kg/m3 . The cylindrical specimens were placed in an all-purpose hydraulic testing machine. and the load was increased at a rate of 0. Photos of polypropylene fiber. Comparing with pure concrete. 14. 2. the dry mixing kept for another 1 min.6 kg/m3 .65%. The compressive strength improvement of polypropylene hybrid fiberreinforced concrete ranged from 14. and modulus of rupture of polypropylene hybrid fiberreinforced concrete.3 MPa/s until the specimens failed. the load–deflection relation recorded using an X–Y plotter.12%.5 cm.3. Fig. The reason of lower slump is that adding hybrid fibers can form a network structure in concrete. Mixing and curing The mixing process started with the dry mixing of the coarse and fine aggregates for 1 min.15%. 3. and 17. and the slump losses were 14. The slump of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete deceased more than the other specimens. and the latter is for modulus of rupture (MOR) and toughness index. When adding monofilament fibers at 3 kg/m3 . the slump slightly decreased to 15. Fig.9 MPa/s until the specimens failed.1.89% for steel–polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete [22]. 1. respectively. 2. comparable to the augmentations of 12. The ASTM C496 test method was used to measure the splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens [19]. When adding staple fibers at 0. the improved percentage is 3. and 12. 6 kg/m3 . and 9 kg/m3 .2. The fresh concrete was filled in 150 mm × 300 mm cylinder molds and 150 mm × 150 mm × 530 mm rectangle molds. fibers are sure to absorb more cement paste to wrap around. and initial values of test specimens were measured. the specimens were placed in cabinets maintaining conditions of 23 ◦ C and 50%R. the slump fell down to 15. every test result consisted of the average of six replicate tests.31%. In addition. Adding staple fibers at 0. Both molds were removed after 24 h.24%. The polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete has better compressive strength increase.6 kg/m3 . Shrinkage strain was measured after the specimens had been cured for 40 days. Slump Table 1 shows the slump of the fiber-reinforced concrete.9 cm. The cement was added.6 cm.

. which are coarser and stronger. the hybrid fiberreinforced concrete increases more splitting tensile strength than the single fiber-reinforced concrete does. therefore they may withstand more resistant to compression capacities. Polypropylene fiber is US$6. Compared with the pure concrete.9 14.237 32.6 0.3. and 13.678 28.6 16. When the tensile stress kept ruins the specimens.59%.35%.05 3.65 9.6 12.08 2.995 5. Hsie et al.8 27.583 4.30 8.70 58. 3.92 4. there are numerous staple fibers bridging the microcracks and preventing the expansion.87 23.677 2.5 15. 3. The order of the increase of Measured (MPa) Strength–effectiveness (%) Measured (MPa) P2* (kg/m3 ) P1* (kg/m3 ) Table 1 Strength test results and strength–effectiveness on hybrid polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete Compressive strength Slump (cm) Fiber dosage Mixture no.1 15. 4.403 5. the splitting tensile strength of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete rises by 8. 3.31 2.2 13.10 2. Strength–effectiveness (%) = [(strength of polypropylene fiber concrete−strength of pure concrete)/strength of pure concrete] × 100%. Also.425 2.816 – 4.6 0. 11. they can easily form the network structure.53 8.45 per kilogram. Splitting strength–effectiveness of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes. the stress was transferred to the monofilament fibers. Splitting tensile strength Fig.35 38.399 2.974 29.869 5.4 14.57 61.504 4.710 Fig.719 Fig.60 – 19. The increased labor fee is negligible because the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete can be mixed at regular concrete batching plants. Modulus of rupture of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes.90 24. / Materials Science and Engineering A 494 (2008) 153–157 Increased costs 155 per cubic meter (US$) Strength–effectiveness (%) Measured (MPa) Modulus of rupture – 6.15 14.699 4.612 2.502 2.463 2.855 32. similar to effectiveness of function the steel fiber.227 5.6 0. Splitting tensile strength Strength–effectiveness (%) – 1.35 The reason is monofilament fiber has the high Young’s modulus and stiffness for the rough shape.88 11.22 42.60 15.06 20.601 2. the staple fibers have good fineness and various lengths.88%. P2*: staple polypropylene fiber.24 14.525 31.12 13.9 13.4.67 8. so it can arrest the propagating macrocracks and substantially improve the splitting tensile strength. P1*: monofilament polypropylene fiber. 3 shows the increase of splitting tensile strength of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. and lower the concrete stress concentration at the cracks tip and thus increase compressive strength [23].058 32.Author's personal copy M. 4 shows the increase of modulus of rupture of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete.42 4.24 3.24 17. respectively.275 30. as the fiber content increases. M-0 M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 M-7 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 0 0 0 0. Moreover.99 17. and when these fibers are at high content. As it mixes with monofilament fibers. In primary stage of cracking of concrete.59 13. Modulus of rupture Fig.

Hsie et al.48 1.79 3. and thus it increases more toughness index.871 0.867. and 24. Therefore. M-0 M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 M-7 I5 1. The values are slightly increased comparing with the toughness index of pure concrete. MOR is staple fibers. 6 shows the load–deflection curves including the additions of monofilament fibers at 9 kg/m3 . being the area under a load–deflection curve in three-point bending. Because the monofilament fibers have high elastic modulus and stiffness.867 0. and hybrid fibers. 6 kg/m3 .00 10. Table 2 shows the values of toughness index of fiber-reinforced concrete. coarse monofilament fibers can keep bridging and disperse the stress of macrocracks until they cannot sustain. indicating that the addition of polypropylene fibers really changed the toughness and hybrid fibers provided the larger toughness. the more destructive energy can absorb.00 4.99%.26 12. 1. When fine staple fibers fail. When the load put on the beams.00 2. The three toughness indexes of staple fiber-reinforced concrete are 1.86 5. and 15.68 6. When the fiber content is at 3 kg/m3 . assuming that the nonfibrous-reinforced concrete matrix is elastic-brittle. and I30 are 3. Fracture faces of polypropylene fiber-reinforced concretes.15 2. . I10 .27 2. and 2.862.50. staple fibers.889 0. and hybrid fibers. When the monofilament fiber content is at 9 kg/m3 . For the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. for the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete.58 I10 1.57 4. hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete has higher MOR.871. the more the fiber content is. The monofilament fiber-reinforced concrete and hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete have greater index values.6. 3. 0.57. They point out that the monofilament fibers have potential improve the toughness of concrete.871 0.23 I30 at 15.91 I30 1.58.26 1. 5. and 9 kg/m3 . the hybrid fibers can withstand the tensile stress in the tensile zone below the neutral axis. Drying shrinkage strain Table 3 shows the drying shrinkage strain of hybrid fiberreinforced concrete.5.5ı.44 5. the augmented percentages of MOR of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete are 8.30 4.47 3. the material demonstrated its brittleness. the decrease trends were flatter (curve 2). and Table 2 Toughness index of hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes Mixture no. This indicates that the Table 3 Drying shrinkage strain of hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes Mixture no.06 15.23.91. monofilament fibers. and 0. 5 shows the fiber distribution on the fracture surface of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete specimen. It was found that for the pure concrete. respectively. 3. The toughness indexes of pure concrete are I5 at 3ı.15. the values of I5 . the major parts of fibers are pulled out. and the value of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete is the smallest. 6. 6. / Materials Science and Engineering A 494 (2008) 153–157 Fig.5ı [24]. The load–deflection curves of polypropylene fiber-reinforced concretes. respectively.51 13.879 0. All these three indexes reached unity. The values of all the fiber-reinforced concrete are below 1.90%. 17. the values are 0.60%.50 11. The value of pure concrete is set to 1.76 3. Comparing with pure concrete. Fig.36 2. the load decreases rapidly with increase of specimen deflection after peak load (curve 1). M-0 M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 M-7 Drying shrinkage strain (×10−6 ) 596 554 530 524 519 519 517 514 Relative drying shrinkage 1 0.Author's personal copy 156 M.930 0. This fracture model is similar to steel fiber on concrete. Fig. However. Toughness index Toughness index is used to measure the energy absorbed in deflecting a beam at specified amount. I10 at 5.36 14.862 Fig.

31 (1) (2000) 63–69. X. Mobasher. Stroeven. modulus of rupture did by 8. Annual Book ASTM Standards. Mater. 4 (04. Mater. respectively. Z. Concr. 4 (04. Concr. Wu. Constr. and 15. Kakemi. Hwang.02). 8 (1) (2005) 71–76. H. Dai.02). P. and the performance of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete is better than that of single fiber-reinforced concrete. El-Shiekh. I10 . Li. Adv. Concr. Mech. Cem. Armaghani. 4. Zhou. Annual Book ASTM Standards. C. T. P. Cem. Res. 35 (8) (2005) 1546–1550. D. Lian. S. M.S. Sci.Y.88–13. 25 (1) (2003) 3–9. Y. Res. Conclusions Polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete utilizes two complementary fibers to improve the properties of concrete. 35 (5) (2005) 913–917. Perez-Pena. Bayasi. Gysel. Cem. K. ASTM C 157. M. B. the splitting tensile strength did by 8. Wu. Mater. 18 (1) (1996) 61–66. Eng. Mobasher. J. Jianzhu Cailiao Xuebao/J. B. 2002. N.X. Song. Concr.Q. Song. Construct. Comparing with the strengths of pure concrete. Concr. Hwang. C. ACI Mater. the lower the drying shrinkage strain is.99–24. 41 (3) (2002) 455–464. Cem. 2002. 6. and the more the fiber content is. M. Build. Concr. Hua. 99 (4) (2002) 337–344. Ruiz. P. P. Annual Book ASTM Standards. R. W. Abbas.91. Kamel. Res. 4 (04. W. 18 (9) (2004) 669–673. A 434 (1) (2006) 347–351. Hwang. Nandakumar. Res. Stroeven. Concr. J. . 24 (6) (1994) 1121–1132.60%. Chen.Y. Compos. A.S. Cem. H. A. S. Cem.C. 96 (2) (1999) 226–233. / Materials Science and Engineering A 494 (2008) 153–157 157 more the fiber content is. B. Cem. Hsie et al. Adding monofilament fibers at 9 kg/m3 to hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. Int. In addition. S. H. ASTM C 1018.X. Mater. and I30 are 3. A. Sun.862 to 0. Eng. Compos. 2002.871. Because the hybrid fibers can be properly distributed throughout the mortar matrix. around the coarse aggregate particles. Song. Sheu. Concr. 22 (8) (1996) 695–704. K. Qian. Build. Standard test method for length change hardened hydrauliccement mortar and concrete. polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete also can lower drying shrinkage strain and ranged from 0.C. B. Res. 19 (1) (2005) 1–9. and even in boundary layers of concrete elements. Mclntyre.23. Wu. ACI Committee 544. R. this can effectively hinder drying shrinkage strain. S. J.02). 4 (5) (1982) 9–30. J. Eng.C.S. 31 (4) (2001) 595–601. Cem. State of the art report of fiber-reinforced concrete. J. Annual Book ASTM Standards. 16 (3) (2004) 115–122. B. C. Taerwe.60–17. Compos. the compressive strength of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete increased by 14. the higher toughness index is. J. Wang. Yao. 33 (1) (2003) 27–30. P. 2002. Sheu. Adding polypropylene hybrid fibers to concrete can increase toughness index. Res. the values of I5 . Qian. Banthia. ACI Mater. Qian. Constr. 22 (4) (2000) 343–351. Cem. J. Alex.Author's personal copy M. Luo. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] L. Res. J. Tawfig.V. W.02). Concr. ASTM C 39. P.58. E. 93 (3) (1996) 284–292. ASTM C 496. Chen. El-Rafey. Sukontasukkul. Cem. Concr. Build. N. 4 (04. ACI Mater. J. Liu. Li. J.35%. Hannant.: Des.31%.

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