DYNAMICS of

SECOND ORDER
RATIONAL DIFFERENCE
EQUATIONS
With Open Problems and Conjectures

CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC
DYNAMICS of
SECOND ORDER
RATIONAL DIFFERENCE
EQUATIONS
M. R. S. Kulenovi´c
G. Ladas
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.
With Open Problems and Conjectures

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International Standard Book Number 1-58488-275-1
Library of Congress Card Number 20010370
Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kulenovi´ c, M.R.S. (Mustafa R.S.)
Dynamics of second order rational difference equations : with
open problems and conjectures / M.R.S. Kulenovi´ c, G. Ladas.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-58488-275-1
1. Difference equations—Numerical solutions. I. Ladas, G.E.
II. Title.
QA431 .K84 2001
515



.625—dc21 20010370


disclaimer Page 1 Monday, June 18, 2001 9:53 AM
Contents
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
Introduction and Classification of Equation Types 1
1 Preliminary Results 5
1.1 Definitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Limiting Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.6 The Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.7 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2 Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals 29
2.1 Equilibrium Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? . . . . . . . . . 33
2.5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When
C = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.8 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.9 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3 (1, 1)-Type Equations 47
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
v
vi Contents
4 (1, 2)-Type Equations 53
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
A+Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
- Pielou’s Equation . . . . . . 57
4.5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.7.1 The Case p < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.7.2 The Case p = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.7.3 The Case p > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.8 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5 (2, 1)-Type Equations 69
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Cx
n−1
- Lyness’ Equation . . . . . . . 70
5.3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
6 (2, 2)-Type Equations 77
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.2 The Case γ = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
- Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.3 The Case γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.4 The Case γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.4.2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.4.3 Global Stability and Boundedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.5 The Case β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.5.1 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.5.2 The Case q < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.5.3 The Case q > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
6.6 The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.6.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . . . . . . . . 93
6.6.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.6.3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.6.4 Global Behavior of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.7 The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.7.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.7.2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.7.3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1 . . . . . . 105
6.7.4 Global Attractivity When q < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Contents vii
6.7.5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.8 The Case α = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.8.1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6.8.2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
6.9 The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.9.1 Existence of a Two Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.9.2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.9.3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.9.4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6.10 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7 (1, 3)-Type Equations 131
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.2 The Case β = γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.3 The Case α = γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.4 The Case α = β = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
7.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8 (3, 1)-Type Equations 137
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.2 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
9 (2, 3)-Type Equations 141
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
9.2 The Case γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
9.2.1 Boundedness of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.2.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.2.3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.2.4 Global Asymptotic Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.3 The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.3.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . . . . . . . . 150
9.3.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.3.3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
9.3.4 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.3.5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q +
q
2
r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.4 The Case α = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
9.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
9.4.2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
9.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
viii Contents
10 (3, 2)-Type Equations 167
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.2 The Case C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
10.2.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
10.2.2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
10.3 The Case B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
10.3.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.3.2 Global Stability When p ≥ r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.3.3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
10.4 The Case A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
10.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
10.4.2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
10.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
11 The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
183
11.1 Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
11.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
11.3 Convergence Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
11.3.1 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
11.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations 201
Bibliography 211
Index 217
Preface
In this monograph, we present the known results and derive several new ones on the
boundedness, the global stability, and the periodicity of solutions of all rational difference
equations of the form
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1)
where the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C and the initial conditions x
−1
and x
0
are nonneg-
ative real numbers.
We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own
right and furthermore we believe that these results offer prototypes towards the devel-
opment of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference
equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results which we develop in
this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in ana-
lyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other
applications.
It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains, as special cases, a large number of equations
whose dynamics have not been thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge
for further investigation. To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjec-
tures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding
of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations.
Chapter 1 contains some basic definitions and some general results which are used
throughout the book. In this sense, this is a self-contained monograph and the main
prerequisite that the reader needs to understand the material presented here and to be
able to attack the open problems and conjectures is a good foundation in analysis. In an
appendix, at the end of this monograph, we present some global attractivity results for
higher order difference equations which may be useful for extensions and generalizations.
In Chapter 2 we present some general results about periodic solutions and invariant
intervals of Eq(1). In particular we present necessary and sufficient conditions for Eq(1)
to have period-two solutions and we also present a table of invariant intervals.
In Chapters 3 to 11 we present the known results and derive several new ones on the
various types of equations which comprise Eq(1).
Every chapter in this monograph contains several open problems and conjectures
related to the particular equation which is investigated and its generalizations.
ix
Acknowledgements
This monograph is the outgrowth of lecture notes and seminars which were given at the
University of Rhode Island during the last five years. We are thankful to Professors R.
D. Driver, E. A. Grove, J. Hoag, W. Kosmala, L. F. Martins, O. Merino, S. Schultz,
and W. S. Sizer and to our graduate students A. M. Amleh, W. Briden, E. Camouzis,
C. A. Clark, K. Cunningham, R. C. DeVault, H. El-Metwally, J. Feuer, C. Gibbons, E.
Janowski, C. Kent, L. McGrath, M. Predescu, N. Prokup, M. Radin, I. W. Rodrigues,
C. T. Teixeira, S. Valicenti, and K. P. Wilkinson for their enthusiastic participation and
useful suggestions which helped to improve the exposition.
xi
To
Senada and Theodora
Introduction and Classification of
Equation Types
In this monograph, we present the known results and derive several new ones on the
boundedness, the global stability, and the periodicity of solutions of all rational difference
equations of the form
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1)
where the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C are nonnegative real numbers and the initial con-
ditions x
−1
and x
0
are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
> 0 for all n ≥ 0.
We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own
right and furthermore we believe that these results offer prototypes towards the devel-
opment of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference
equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results which we develop in
this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in ana-
lyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other
applications.
It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains as special cases, a large number of equa-
tions whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. To this end we pose
several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further
interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional
generalizations.
Eq(1) includes among others the following well known classes of equations:
1. The Riccati difference equation when
γ = C = 0.
This equation is studied in many textbooks on difference equations, such as [1], [21],
[41], [42], etc. See Section 1.6 where, in addition to the basic description of the solutions
1
2 Introduction and Classification
of the Riccati equation, we introduce the forbidden set of the equation. This is the
set F of all initial conditions x
0
∈ R through which the equation
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A + Bx
n
(2)
is not well defined for all n ≥ 0. Hence the solution {x
n
} of Eq(2) exists for all n ≥ 0,
if and only if x
0
/ ∈ F.
The problem of existence of solutions for difference equations is of paramount
importance but so far has been systematically neglected. See [13], [18], [32], [69], and
Section 1.6 for some results in this regard.
Throughout this monograph we pose several open problems related to the existence
of solutions of some simple equations with the hope that their investigation may throw
some light into this very difficult problem.
An example of such a problem is the following:
Open Problem Find all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R×R through which the equa-
tion
x
n+1
= −1 +
x
n−1
x
n
is well defined for all n ≥ 0. See [13].
2. Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model when
α = γ = B = 0.
See ([42], p. 75), [55], [66], [67], and Section 4.4.
We believe that the techniques which we develop in this monograph to understand
the dynamics of Eq(1) will also be of paramount importance in analyzing the equations
in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. For
example, it is interesting to note the similarities of the dynamics of the population model
x
n+1
= α + βx
n−1
e
−x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and the rational equation
x
n+1
=
α + αx
n
+ βx
n−1
1 + x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
See [24] and Sections 2.7 and 10.2.
3. Lyness’ equation when
γ = A = B = 0.
See [42], [44], [49], [57], and Section 5.2. This is a fascinating equation with many
interesting extensions and generalizations. A characteristic feature of this equation is
that it possesses an invariant which can be used to understand the character of its
Introduction and Classification 3
solutions. Without the use of this invariant we are still unable to show, for example,
that every positive solution of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
α + x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
where α ∈ (0, ∞), is bounded.
It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains, as special cases, a large number of equations
whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet.
For convenience we classify all the special cases of Eq(1) as follows.
Let k and l be positive integers from the set {1, 2, 3}. We will say that a special case
of Eq(1) is of (k, l)-type if the equation is of the form of Eq(1) with k positive parameters
in the numerator and l positive parameters in the denominator.
For example the following equations
x
n+1
=
x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
γ + x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
are of types (1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 1), and (2, 3) respectively.
In this sense, Eq(1) contains 49 equations as follows:
9 equations of type (1, 1)
9 equations of type (1, 2)
9 equations of type (2, 1)
9 equations of type (2, 2)
3 equations of type (1, 3)
3 equations of type (3, 1)
3 equations of type (2, 3)
3 equations of type (3, 2)
1 equation of type (3, 3).
Of these 49 equations, 21 are either trivial, or linear, or of the Riccati type. The
remaining 28 are quite interesting nonlinear difference equations. Some of them have
been recently investigated and have led to the development of some general theory about
difference equations. See [7], [15], [28], [29], [42], [43], [45] and [52]-[54]. However to this
day, many special cases of Eq(1) are not thoroughly understood yet and remain a great
challenge for further investigation.
Our goal in this monograph is to familiarize readers with the recent techniques and
results related to Eq(1) and its extensions, and to bring to their attention several Open
Research Problems and Conjectures related to this equation and its functional
generalization.
Chapter 1
Preliminary Results
In this chapter we state some known results and prove some new ones about difference
equations which will be useful in our investigation of Eq(1).
The reader may just glance at the results in this chapter and return for the details
when they are needed in the sequel. See also [1], [4], [16], [21], [22], [33], [34], [41], [63],
and [68].
1.1 Definitions of Stability and Linearized Stability
Analysis
Let I be some interval of real numbers and let
f : I ×I →I
be a continuously differentiable function.
Then for every set of initial conditions x
0
, x
−1
∈ I, the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.1)
has a unique solution {x
n
}

n=−1
.
A point x ∈ I is called an equilibrium point of Eq(1.1) if
x = f(x, x);
that is,
x
n
= x for n ≥ 0
is a solution of Eq(1.1), or equivalently, x is a fixed point of f.
Definition 1.1.1 Let x be an equilibrium point of Eq(1.1).
5
6 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
(i) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called locally stable if for every ε > 0, there
exists δ > 0 such that for all x
0
, x
−1
∈ I with |x
0
−x| +|x
−1
−x| < δ,
we have
|x
n
−x| < ε for all n ≥ −1.
(ii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called locally asymptotically stable if it is
locally stable, and if there exists γ > 0 such that for all x
0
, x
−1
∈ I with |x
0
−x| +
|x
−1
−x| < γ,
we have
lim
n→∞
x
n
= x.
(iii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called a global attractor if for every x
0
, x
−1
∈ I
we have
lim
n→∞
x
n
= x.
(iv) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called globally asymptotically stable if it is
locally stable and a global attractor.
(v) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called unstable if it is not stable.
(vi) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called a source, or a repeller, if there exists r > 0
such that for all x
0
, x
−1
∈ I with 0 < |x
0
−x| +|x
−1
−x| < r, there exists N ≥ 1
such that
|x
N
−x| ≥ r.
Clearly a source is an unstable equilibrium.
Let
p =
∂f
∂u
(x, x) and q =
∂f
∂v
(x, x)
denote the partial derivatives of f(u, v) evaluated at the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1).
Then the equation
y
n+1
= py
n
+ qy
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.2)
is called the linearized equation associated with Eq(1.1) about the equilibrium point x.
Theorem 1.1.1 (Linearized Stability)
(a) If both roots of the quadratic equation
λ
2
−pλ −q = 0 (1.3)
lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1, then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is locally
asymptotically stable.
1.2. The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane 7
(b) If at least one of the roots of Eq(1.3) has absolute value greater than one, then the
equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is unstable.
(c) A necessary and sufficient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to lie in the open
unit disk |λ| < 1, is
|p| < 1 −q < 2. (1.4)
In this case the locally asymptotically stable equilibrium x is also called a sink.
(d) A necessary and sufficient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value
greater than one is
|q| > 1 and |p| < |1 −q| .
In this case x is a repeller.
(e) A necessary and sufficient condition for one root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value
greater than one and for the other to have absolute value less than one is
p
2
+ 4q > 0 and |p| > |1 −q| .
In this case the unstable equilibrium x is called a saddle point.
(f ) A necessary and sufficient condition for a root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value
equal to one is
|p| = |1 −q|
or
q = −1 and |p| ≤ 2.
In this case the equilibrium x is called a nonhyperbolic point.
Definition 1.1.2 (a) A solution {x
n
} of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with period p
if
x
n+p
= x
n
for all n ≥ −1. (1.5)
(b) A solution {x
n
} of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with prime period p, or a
p-cycle if it is periodic with period p and p is the least positive integer for which
(1.5) holds.
1.2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane
Let T be a diffeomorphism in I × I, i.e., one-to-one, smooth mapping, with smooth
inverse.
Assume that p ∈ I ×I is a saddle fixed point of T, i.e., T(p) = p and the Jacobian
J
T
(p) has one eigenvalue s with |s| < 1 and one eigenvalue u with |u| > 1.
8 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Let v
s
be an eigenvector corresponding to s and let v
u
be an eigenvector correspond-
ing to u.
Let S be the stable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose forward orbits
(under iteration by T)
p, T(p), T
2
(p), . . .
converge to p.
Let U be the unstable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose backward
orbits (under iteration by the inverse of T)
p, T
−1
(p), T
−2
(p), . . .
converge to p. Then, both S and U are one dimensional manifolds (curves) that contain
p. Furthermore, the vectors v
s
and v
u
are tangent to S and U at p, respectively.
The map T for Eq(1.1) is found as follows:
Set
u
n
= x
n−1
and v
n
= x
n
for n ≥ 0.
Then
u
n+1
= x
n
and v
n+1
= f(v
n
, u
n
) for n ≥ 0
and so
T

u
v

=

v
f(v, u)

.
Therefore the eigenvalues of the Jacobian J
T

x
x

at the equilibrium point x of Eq(1.1)
are the roots of Eq(1.3).
In this monograph, the way we will make use of the Stable Manifold Theorem in our
investigation of the rational difference equation
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.6)
is as follows:
Under certain conditions the positive equilibrium of Eq(1.6) will be a saddle point
and under the same conditions Eq(1.6) will have a two cycle
. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (1.7)
which is locally asymptotically stable. Under these conditions, the two cycle (1.7) cannot
be a global attractor of all non-equilibrium solutions. See, for example, Sections 6.6 and
6.9.
1.3. Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium 9
1.3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equi-
librium
When zero is an equilibrium point of the Eq(1.6), which we are investigating in this
monograph (with β > 0), then the following theorem will be employed to establish
conditions for its global asymptotic stability. Amazingly the same theorem is a powerful
tool for establishing the global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium of several
biological models. See, for example, [31] and [48].
Theorem 1.3.1 ([31]. See also [48], and [70]) Consider the difference equation
x
n+1
= f
0
(x
n
, x
n−1
)x
n
+ f
1
(x
n
, x
n−1
)x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.8)
with nonnegative initial conditions and
f
0
, f
1
∈ C[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), [0, 1)].
Assume that the following hypotheses hold:
(i) f
0
and f
1
are non-increasing in each of their arguments;
(ii) f
0
(x, x) > 0 for all x ≥ 0;
(iii) f
0
(x, y) + f
1
(x, y) < 1 for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞).
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(1.8) is globally asymptotically stable.
1.4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium
Unfortunately when it comes to establishing the global attractivity of the positive equi-
librium of the Eq(1.6) which we are investigating in this monograph, there are not
enough results in the literature to cover all various cases. We strongly believe that the
investigation of the various special cases of our equation has already played and will
continue to play an important role in the development of the stability theory of general
difference equations of orders greater than one.
The first theorem, which has also been very useful in applications to mathematical
biology, see [31] and [48], was really motivated by a problem in [35].
Theorem 1.4.1 ([31]. See also [35], [48], and ([42], p. 53). Let I ⊆ [0, ∞) be some
interval and assume that f ∈ C[I ×I, (0, ∞)] satisfies the following conditions:
(i) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;
(ii) Eq(1.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x ∈ I and the function f(x, x)
satisfies the negative feedback condition:
(x −x)(f(x, x) −x) < 0 for every x ∈ I −{x}.
Then every positive solution of Eq(1.1) with initial conditions in I converges to x.
10 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
The following theorem was inspired by the results in [55] that deal with the global
asymptotic stability of Pielou’s equation (see Section 4.4), which is a special case of
the equation that we are investigating in this monograph.
Theorem 1.4.2 ([42], p. 27) Assume
(i) f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)];
(ii) f(x, y) is nonincreasing in x and decreasing in y;
(iii) xf(x, x) is increasing in x;
(iv) The equation
x
n+1
= x
n
f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.9)
has a unique positive equilibrium x.
Then x is globally asymptotically stable.
Theorem 1.4.3 ([27]) Assume
(i) f ∈ C[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), (0, ∞)];
(ii) f(x, y) is nonincreasing in each argument;
(iii) xf(x, y) is nondecreasing in x;
(iv) f(x, y) < f(y, x) ⇐⇒x > y;
(v) The equation
x
n+1
= x
n−1
f(x
n−1
, x
n
), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.10)
has a unique positive equilibrium x.
Then x is a global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(1.10).
The next result is known as the stability trichotomy result:
Theorem 1.4.4 ([46]) Assume
f ∈ C
1
[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), [0, ∞)]
is such that
x

∂f
∂x

+ y

∂f
∂y

< f(x, y) for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). (1.11)
Then Eq(1.1) has stability trichotomy, that is exactly one of the following three cases
holds for all solutions of Eq(1.1):
(i) lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞ for all (x
−1
, x
0
) = (0, 0) .
(ii) lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0 for all initial points and 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.1).
(iii) lim
n→∞
x
n
= x ∈ (0, ∞) for all (x
−1
, x
0
) = (0, 0) and x is the only positive equi-
librium of Eq(1.1).
1.4. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium 11
Very often the best strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(1.1) is
to work in the regions where the function f(x, y) is monotonic in its arguments. In this
regard there are four possible scenarios depending on whether f(x, y) is nondecreasing
in both arguments, or nonincreasing in both arguments, or nonincreasing in one and
nondecreasing in the other.
The next two theorems are slight modifications of results which were obtained in [54]
and were developed while we were working on a special case of the equation that we are
investigating in this monograph. (See Section 6.9.) The first theorem deals with the case
where the function f(x, y) is non-decreasing in x and non-increasing in y and the second
theorem deals with the case where the function f(x, y) is non-increasing in x and non-
decreasing in y. Theorems 1.4.8 and 1.4.7 below are new and deal with the remaining
two cases relative to the monotonic character of f(x, y). See Sections 6.4 and 6.8 where
these theorems are utilized. See also the Appendix, at the end of this monograph, which
describes the extension of these results to higher order difference equations.
Theorem 1.4.5 ([54]) Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in x ∈ [a, b] for each y ∈ [a, b], and f(x, y) is non-
increasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
f(m, M) = m and f(M, m) = M,
then m = M.
Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-
verges to x.
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(M
i−1
, m
i−1
) and m
i
= f(m
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
1
≤ M
0
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 2i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
12 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Then
M ≥ limsup
i→∞
x
i
≥ liminf
i→∞
x
i
≥ m (1.12)
and by the continuity of f,
m = f(m, M) and M = f(M, m).
Therefore in view of (b),
m = M
from which the result follows. 2
Theorem 1.4.6 ([54]) Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y) is non-increasing in x ∈ [a, b] for each y ∈ [a, b], and f(x, y) is non-
decreasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x ∈ [a, b];
(b) The difference equation Eq(1.1) has no solutions of prime period two in [a, b].
Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) converges
to x.
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, M
i−1
) and m
i
= f(M
i−1
, m
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
1
≤ M
0
,
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 2i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then clearly (1.12) holds and by the continuity of f,
m = f(M, m) and M = f(m, M).
In view of (b),
m = M
from which the result follows. 2
1.4. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium 13
Theorem 1.4.7 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y) is non-increasing in each of its arguments;
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
f(m, m) = M and f(M, M) = m,
then m = M.
Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-
verges to x.
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
) and m
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
1
≤ M
0
,
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 2i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then clearly (1.12) holds and by the continuity of f,
m = f(M, M) and M = f(m, m).
In view of (b),
m = M = x
from which the result follows. 2
Theorem 1.4.8 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;
(b) The equation
f(x, x) = x,
has a unique positive solution.
Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-
verges to x.
14 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
) and m
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
1
≤ M
0
,
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 2i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then clearly the inequality (1.12) is satisfied and by the continuity of f,
m = f(m, m) and M = f(M, M).
In view of (b),
m = M = x,
from which the result follows. 2
1.5 Limiting Solutions
The concept of limiting solutions was introduced by Karakostas [37] (see also [40]) and
is a useful tool in establishing that under certain conditions a solution of a difference
equation which is bounded from above and from below has a limit.
In this section we first give a self-contained version of limiting solutions the way we
will use them in this monograph.
Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J ×J, J], and let k ≥ 1 be a positive
integer. Assume that {x
n
}

n=−1
is a solution of Eq(1.1) such that
A ≤ x
n
≤ B for all n ≥ −1,
where A, B ∈ J. Let L be a limit point of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
(For example L is the
limit superior S or the limit inferior I of the solution). Now with the above hypotheses,
we will show that there exists a solution {L
n
}

n=−k
of the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n ≥ −k + 1, . . . (1.13)
1.5. Limiting Solutions 15
such that
L
0
= L
and for every N ≥ −k, the term L
N
is a limit point of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
.
The solution {L
n
}

n=−k
is called a limiting solution of Eq(1.13) associated with the
solution {x
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(1.1).
Karakostas takes k = ∞and calls the solution {L
n
}

n=−∞
a full limiting sequence
of the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), (1.14)
associated with the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(1.1). (See Theorem 1.5.2 below.)
We now proceed to show the existence of a limiting solution {L
n
}

n=−k
.
Clearly there exists a subsequence {x
n
i
}

i=1
of {x
n
}

n=−1
such that
lim
i→∞
x
n
i
= L.
Next the subsequence {x
n
i
−1
}

i=1
of {x
n
}

n=−1
also lies in interval [A, B] and so it has a
further subsequence {x
n
i
j
}

j=1
which converges to some limit which we call L
−1
. There-
fore,
lim
i→∞
x
n
i
j
= L and lim
i→∞
x
n
i
j
−1
= L
−1
.
Continuing in this way and by considering further and further subsequences we obtain
numbers L
−2
, L
−3
, . . . , L
−k
and a subsequence {x
n
j
}

n=−1
such that
lim
j→∞
x
n
j
= L
lim
j→∞
x
n
j
−1
= L
−1
. . .
lim
j→∞
x
n
j
−k
= L
−k
.
Let {
n
}

n=−k
be the solution of Eq(1.13) with
−k
= L
−k
and
−k+1
= L
−k+1
.
Then clearly,

−k+2
= f(
−k+1
,
−k
) = f(L
−k+1
, L
−k
)
= lim
j→∞
f(x
n
j
−k+1
, x
n
j
−k
) = lim
j→∞
x
n
j
−k+2
= L
−k+2
.
It follows by induction that the sequence
L
−k
, L
−k+1
, . . . , L
−1
, L
0
= L =
0
, L
1
=
1
, . . .
satisfies Eq(1.13) and every term of this sequence is a limit point of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
.
The following result, which is a consequence of the above discussion, is stated in the
way we will use it in this monograph:
16 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Theorem 1.5.1 Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J ×J, J], and let k ≥ 1
be a positive integer. Suppose that {x
n
}

n=−1
is a bounded solution of Eq(1.1) with limit
inferior I and limit superior S, with I, S ∈ J. Then Eq(1.13) has two solutions {I
n
}

n=−k
and {S
n
}

n=−k
with the following properties:
I
0
= I, S
0
= S
and
I
n
, S
n
∈ [I, S] for n ≥ −k.
We now state the complete version of full limiting sequences, as developed by Karakostas.
Theorem 1.5.2 ([37]) Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J
ν+1
, J], and let
{x
n
}

n=−ν
be a bounded solution of the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, . . . , x
n−ν
), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.15)
with
I = liminf
n→∞
x
n
, S = limsup
n→∞
x
n
and with I, S ∈ J.
Let Z denote the set of all integers {. . . , −1, 0, 1, . . .}. Then there exist two solutions
{I
n
}

n=−∞
and {S
n
}

n=−∞
of the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, . . . , x
n−ν
) (1.16)
which satisfy the equation for all n ∈ Z, with
I
0
= I, S
0
= S, I
n
, S
n
∈ [I, S] for all n ∈ Z
and such that for every N ∈ Z, I
N
and S
N
are limit points of {x
n
}

n=−ν
.
Furthermore for every m ≤ −ν, there exist two subsequences {x
r
n
} and {x
l
n
} of the
solution {x
n
}

n=−ν
such that the following are true:
lim
n→∞
x
r
n
+N
= I
N
and lim
n→∞
x
l
n
+N
= S
N
for every N ≥ m.
The solutions {I
n
}

n=−∞
and {S
n
}

n=−∞
of the difference equation (1.16) are called
full limiting solutions of Eq(1.16) associated with the solution {x
n
}

n=−k
of Eq(1.15).
See [23] and [25] for an application of Theorem 1.5.2 to difference equations of the form
x
n+1
=
k

i=0
A
i
x
n−i
, n = 0, 1, . . .
which by the change of variables x
n
=
1
y
n
reduce to rational difference equations of the
form
y
n+1
=
1

k
i=0
A
i
y
n−i
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
1.6. The Riccati Equation 17
1.6 The Riccati Equation
A difference equation of the form
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.17)
where the parameters α, β, A, B and the initial condition x
0
are real numbers is called a
Riccati difference equation.
To avoid degenerate cases, we will assume that
B = 0 and αB −βA = 0. (1.18)
Indeed when B = 0, Eq(1.17) is a linear equation and when αB − βA = 0, Eq(1.17)
reduces to
x
n+1
=
βA
B
+ βx
n
A + Bx
n
=
β
B
for all n ≥ 0.
The set of initial conditions x
0
∈ R through which the denominator A+Bx
n
in Eq(1.17)
will become zero for some value of n ≥ 0 is called the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17).
One of our goals in this section is to determine the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17). It
should be mentioned here that there is practically nothing known about the forbidden
set of Eq(1) (when the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C and the initial conditions x
−1
, x
0
are
all real numbers) other than the material presented here, which is extracted from [32].
(See also [13] and [69].)
The other goal we have is to describe in detail the long- and short-term behavior of
solutions of Eq(1.17) when x
0
/ ∈ F.
The first result in this section addresses a very special case of Eq(1.17) regarding
period-two solutions. The proof is straightforward and will be omitted.
Theorem 1.6.1 Assume that (1.18) holds and that Eq(1.17) possesses a prime period-
two solution. Then
β + A = 0. (1.19)
Furthermore when (1.19) holds every solution of Eq(1.17) with
x
0
=
β
B
(1.20)
is periodic with period two.
In the sequel, in addition to (1.18), we will assume that
β + A = 0. (1.21)
18 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Now observe that the change of variable
x
n
=
β + A
B
w
n

A
B
for n ≥ 0 (1.22)
transforms Eq(1.17) into the difference equation
w
n+1
= 1 −
R
w
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.23)
where
R =
βA −αB
(β + A)
2
is a nonzero real number, called the Riccati number of Eq(1.17).
It is interesting to note that the four parameters of Eq(1.17) have been reduced to
the single parameter R of Eq(1.23). If we set
y = g(w) = 1 −
R
w
then we note that the two asymptotes
x = −
A
B
and y =
β
B
of the function
y = f(x) =
α + βx
A + Bx
have now been reduced to the two asymptotes
w = 0 and y = 1
of the function
y = 1 −
R
w
.
Also note that the signum of R is equal to the signum of the derivative
f

(x) =
βA −αB
(A + Bx)
2
.
For the remainder of this section we focus on Eq(1.23) and present its forbidden set F
and the character of its solutions. Similar results can be obtained for Eq(1.17) through
the change of variables (1.22).
From Eq(1.23) it follows that when
R <
1
4
1.6. The Riccati Equation 19
Eq(1.23) has the two equilibrium points w

and w
+
with
w

=
1 −

1 −4R
2
<
1 +

1 −4R
2
= w
+
and
|w

| < w
+
.
Also
w

< 0 if R < 0
and
w

> 0 if R ∈ (0,
1
4
).
When
R =
1
4
,
Eq(1.23) has exactly one equilibrium point namely,
w =
1
2
.
Finally, when
R >
1
4
,
Eq(1.23) has no equilibrium points.
Now observe that the change of variables
w
n
=
y
n+1
y
n
for n = 0, 1, . . .
with
y
0
= 1 and y
1
= w
0
reduces Eq(1.23) to the second order linear difference equation
y
n+2
−y
n+1
+ Ry
n
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.24)
which can be solved explicitly.
The forbidden set of Eq(1.23) is clearly the set of points where the sequence {y
n
}

n=0
vanishes.
The next two theorems deal with the cases R <
1
4
and R =
1
4
, respectively, where
the characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) are real numbers. Note that in these two cases the
characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) are the equilibrium points of Eq(1.23).
20 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Theorem 1.6.2 Assume
R <
1
4
.
Then
w

=
1 −

1 −4R
2
and w
+
=
1 +

1 −4R
2
are the only equilibrium points of Eq(1.23).
The forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points
f
n
=

w
n−1
+
−w
n−1

w
n
+
−w
n

w
+
w

for n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.25)
When w
0
/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by
w
n
=
(w
0
−w

)w
n+1
+
−(w
+
−w
0
)w
n+1

(w
0
−w

)w
n
+
−(w
+
−w
0
)w
n

, n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.26)
It is now clear from Theorem 1.6.2 that
lim
n→∞
f
n
= w

,
and
f
n
< w

if R > 0
while
(f
n
−w

)(f
n+1
−w

) < 0 if R < 0.
The equilibrium w
+
is a global attractor as long as
w
0
/ ∈ F ∪ {w

}
and the equilibrium w

is a repeller.
Theorem 1.6.3 Assume
R =
1
4
.
Then
w =
1
2
is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.23).
The forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points
f
n
=
n −1
2n
for n = 1, 2, . . . , (1.27)
1.6. The Riccati Equation 21
which converges to the equilibrium from the left.
When w
0
/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by
w
n
=
1 + (2w
0
−1)(n + 1)
2 + 2(2w
0
−1)n
for n = 0, 1, . . . . (1.28)
From Theorem 1.6.3 it follows that the equilibrium w =
1
2
of Eq(1.23) is a global
attractor for all solutions with w
0
/ ∈ F but is locally unstable, more precisely, it is a sink
from the right and a source from the left.
Finally consider the case
R >
1
4
.
The characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) in this case are
λ
±
=
1
2
±i

4R −1
2
with

±
| =

R.
Let
φ ∈ (0,
π
2
)
be such that
cos φ =
1
2

R
and sin φ =

4R −1
2

R
.
Then
y
n
= R
n
2
(C
1
cos(nφ) + C
2
sin(nφ)), n = 0, 1, . . .
with
C
1
= y
0
= 1
and

R(C
1
cos φ + C
2
sin φ) = y
1
= w
0
.
It follows that
C
1
= 1 and C
2
=
2w
0
−1

4R −1
.
Hence
w
n
=

R

4R −1 cos(n + 1)φ + (2w
0
−1) sin(n + 1)φ

4R −1 cos(nφ) + (2w
0
−1) sin(nφ)
, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.29)
22 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
as long as the denominator is different from zero, that is,
w
0
=
1
2


4R −1
2
cot(nφ) for n = 1, 2, . . . .
The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.
Theorem 1.6.4 Assume that
R >
1
4
and let φ ∈ (0,
π
2
) be such that
cos φ =
1
2

R
and sin φ =

4R −1
2

R
.
Then the forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points
f
n
=
1
2


4R −1
2
cot(nφ) for n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.30)
When w
0
/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by (1.29).
Clearly when R >
1
4
the character of the solution {w
n
} and the forbidden set F
depends on whether or not the number φ ∈ (0,
π
2
) is a rational multiple of π.
Let θ ∈ (−
π
2
,
π
2
) be such that
cos θ =

4R −1
r
and sin θ =
2x
0
−1
r
where
r =

(4R −1)
2
+ (2x
0
−1)
2
.
Then we obtain,
w
n
=

R
cos(nφ + φ −θ)
cos(nφ −θ)
=

R
cos(nφ −θ) cos φ −sin(nφ −θ) sin φ
cos(nφ −θ)
=

R(cos φ −sin φtan(nφ −θ))
and so
w
n
=
1
2


4R −1
2
tan(nφ −θ), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.31)
from which the character of the solutions of Eq(1.23), when R >
1
4
, can now be easily
revealed.
For example, assume φ is a rational multiple of π, that is,
φ =
k
N
π ∈ (0,
π
2
) (1.32)
1.6. The Riccati Equation 23
for some
k, N ∈ {1, 2, . . .} with 2k < N.
Then
w
N
=
1
2


4R −1
2
tan(kπ −θ) =
1
2


4R −1
2
tan(−θ) = w
0
and so every solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic with period N.
Equivalently assume that
A =
1
4 cos
2
φ
with φ =
k
N
π
where
k, N ∈ {1, 2, . . .} and 2k < N,
then every solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic with period N.
The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.
Theorem 1.6.5 Assume that
φ =
k
p
π ∈ (0,
π
2
)
where k and p are positive comprimes and suppose that
cos φ =
1
2

R
and sin φ =

4R −1
2

R
,
or equivalently
4Rcos
2
(
k
p
π) = 1.
Then every solution of Eq(1.23) with
w
0
=
sin(n
k
p
π) −

4R −1 cos(n
k
p
π)
2 sin(n
k
p
π)
for n = 1, 2, . . . , p −1
is periodic with period p.
When the number φ in Theorem 1.6.5 is not a rational multiple of π, then the
following result is true:
Theorem 1.6.6 Assume that the number φ in Theorem 1.6.5 is not a rational multiple
of π. Then the following statements are true:
(i) No solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic.
(ii) The set of limit points of a solution of Eq(1.23) with w
0
/ ∈ F is dense in R.
24 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
Proof. Statement (i) is true because,
w
k
= w
l
if and only if
tan(kφ −θ) = tan(lφ −θ)
if and only if for some integer N
kφ −θ −(lφ −θ) = Nπ
if and only if
(k −l)φ = Nπ
that is,
φ is a rational multiple of π.
The proof of statement (ii) is a consequence of the form of the solution of Eq(1.23) and
the fact that when φ is not a rational multiple of π, then the values
(nφ −θ)(mod π) for n = 0, 1, . . .
are dense in the interval (−
π
2
,
π
2
). 2
1.7 Semicycle Analysis
We strongly believe that a semicycle analysis of the solutions of a scalar difference equa-
tion is a powerful tool for a detailed understanding of the entire character of solutions
and often leads to straightforward proofs of their long term behavior.
In this section, we present some results about the semicycle character of solutions of
some general difference equations of the form
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.33)
under appropriate hypotheses on the function f.
First we give the definitions for the positive and negative semicycle of a solution of
Eq(1.33) relative to an equilibrium point x.
A positive semicycle of a solution {x
n
} of Eq(1.1) consists of a “string” of terms
{x
l
, x
l+1
, . . . , x
m
}, all greater than or equal to the equilibrium x, with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞
and such that
either l = −1, or l > −1 and x
l−1
< x
and
either m = ∞, or m < ∞ and x
m+1
< x.
1.7. Semicycle Analysis 25
A negative semicycle of a solution {x
n
} of Eq(1.33) consists of a “string” of terms
{x
l
, x
l+1
, . . . , x
m
}, all less than the equilibrium x, with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such
that
either l = −1, or l > −1 and x
l−1
≥ x
and
either m = ∞, or m < ∞ and x
m+1
≥ x.
Definition 1.7.1 (Oscillation)
(a) A sequence {x
n
} is said to oscillate about zero or simply to oscillate if the terms
x
n
are neither eventually all positive nor eventually all negative. Otherwise the
sequence is called nonoscillatory. A sequence {x
n
} is called strictly oscillatory
if for every n
0
≥ 0, there exist n
1
, n
2
≥ n
0
such that x
n
1
x
n
2
< 0.
(b) A sequence {x
n
} is said to oscillate about x if the sequence x
n
− x oscillates.
The sequence {x
n
} is called strictly oscillatory about x if the sequence x
n
−x
is strictly oscillatory.
The first result was established in [28] while we were working on a special case of the
equation we are investigating in this monograph. (See Section 6.5.)
Theorem 1.7.1 ([28]) Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:
f(x, y) is decreasing in x for each fixed y, and f(x, y) is increasing in y for each fixed
x.
Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then except possibly for the first semi-
cycle, every solution of Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length one.
Proof. Let {x
n
} be a solution of Eq(1.33) with at least two semicycles. Then there
exists N ≥ 0 such that either
x
N−1
< x ≤ x
N
or
x
N−1
≥ x > x
N
.
We will assume that
x
N−1
< x ≤ x
N
.
All other cases are similar and will be omitted. Then by using the monotonic character
of f(x, y) we have
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) < f(x, x) = x
and
x
N+2
= f(x
N+1
, x
N
) > f(x, x) = x.
Thus
x
N+1
< x < x
N+2
26 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
and the proof follows by induction. 2
The next result applies when the function f is decreasing in both arguments.
Theorem 1.7.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞)×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that f(x, y) is decreas-
ing in both arguments.
Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then every oscillatory solution of
Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length at most two.
Proof. Assume that {x
n
} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x
N−1
and x
N
in a positive semicycle
x
N−1
≥ x and x
N
≥ x
with at least one of the inequalities being strict. The proof in the case of negative
semicycle is similar and is omitted. Then by using the decreasing character of f we
obtain:
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) < f(x, x) = x
which completes the proof. 2
The next result applies when the function f is increasing in both arguments.
Theorem 1.7.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞)×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that f(x, y) is increas-
ing in both arguments.
Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then except possibly for the first semi-
cycle, every oscillatory solution of Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length one.
Proof. Assume that {x
n
} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x
N−1
and x
N
in a positive semicycle
x
N−1
≥ x and x
N
≥ x,
with at least one of the inequalities being strict. The proof in the case of negative
semicycle is similar and is omitted. Then by using the increasing character of f we
obtain:
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) > f(x, x) = x
which shows that the next term x
N+1
also belongs to the positive semicycle. It follows by
induction that all future terms of this solution belong to this positive semicycle, which
is a contradiction. 2
The next result applies when the function f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing
in y.
1.7. Semicycle Analysis 27
Theorem 1.7.4 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:
f(x, y) is increasing in x for each fixed y, and f(x, y) is decreasing in y for each fixed
x.
Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33).
Then, except possibly for the first semicycle, every oscillatory solution of Eq(1.33)
has semicycles of length at least two.
Furthermore, if we assume that
f(u, u) = x for every u (1.34)
and
f(x, y) < x for every x > y > x (1.35)
then {x
n
} oscillates about the equilibrium x with semicycles of length two or three, except
possibly for the first semicycle which may have length one. The extreme in each semicycle
occurs in the first term if the semicycle has two terms, and in the second term if the
semicycle has three terms.
Proof. Assume that {x
n
} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x
N−1
and x
N
such that
x
N−1
< x ≤ x
N
.
Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) > f(x, x) = x
which shows that the next term x
N+1
also belongs to the positive semicycle. The proof
in the case
x
N−1
≥ x > x
N
,
is similar and is omitted.
Now also assume that {x
n
} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms
x
N−1
and x
N
such that
x
N−1
> x
N
≥ x and x
N−2
< x.
Then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.34) we obtain
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) < f(x
N
, x
N
) = x
which shows that the positive semicycle has length two. If
x
N
> x
N−1
> x
then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.34) we obtain:
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) > f(x
N
, x
N
) = x
28 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results
and by using Condition (1.35) we find
x
N+1
= f(x
N
, x
N−1
) < x
N
and the proof is complete.
2
Condition (1.34) is not enough to guarantee the above result. If, instead of Condition
(1.35), we assume
f(x, y) > x for every x > y > x. (1.36)
then Eq(1.33) has monotonic solutions.
Theorem 1.7.5 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:
f(x, y) is increasing in x for each fixed y, and f(x, y) is decreasing in y for each fixed
x.
Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Assume that f satisfies Conditions (1.34)
and (1.36).
Then if x
0
> x
−1
> x, the corresponding solution is increasing.
If, on the other hand, f satisfies Condition (1.34), and
f(x, y) < x for every x < y < x (1.37)
then if x
0
< x
−1
< x, the corresponding solution is decreasing.
Proof. First, assume that Condition (1.36) is satisfied and that x
0
> x
−1
> x. Then
by the monotonic character of f and (1.34), we obtain
x
1
= f(x
0
, x
−1
) > f(x
−1
, x
−1
) = x.
In view of Condition (1.36) we get
x
1
= f(x
0
, x
−1
) > x
0
.
and the proof follows by induction.
The proof of the remaining case is similar and will be omitted. 2
Chapter 2
Local Stability, Semicycles,
Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
2.1 Equilibrium Points
Here we investigate the equilibrium points of the general equation
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
+γx
n−1
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.1)
where
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞) with α +β + γ, B +C ∈ (0, ∞) (2.2)
and where the initial conditions x
−1
and x
0
are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such
that the right hand side of Eq(2.1) is well defined for all n ≥ 0.
In view of the above restriction on the initial conditions of Eq(2.1), the equilibrium
points of Eq(2.1) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation
x =
α + (β +γ)x
A + (B +C)x
(2.3)
or equivalently
(B +C)x
2
−(β + γ −A)x −α = 0. (2.4)
Zero is an equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) if and only if
α = 0 and A > 0. (2.5)
When (2.5) holds, in addition to the zero equilibrium , Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium
if and only if
β +γ > A.
29
30 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
In fact in this case the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.1) is unique and is given by
x =
β +γ −A
B +C
. (2.6)
When
α = 0 and A = 0
the only equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) is positive and is given by
x =
β +γ
B +C
. (2.7)
Note that in view of Condition (2.2), when α = 0, the quantity β +γ is positive.
Finally when
α > 0
the only equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) is the positive solution
x =
β +γ −A +

(β + γ −A)
2
+ 4α(B + C)
2(B +C)
(2.8)
of the quadratic equation (2.4).
If we had allowed negative initial conditions then the negative solution of Eq(2.4)
would also be an equilibrium worth investigating. The problem of investigating Eq(2.1)
when the initial conditions and the coefficients of the equation are real numbers is of
great mathematical importance and, except for our presentation in Section 1.6 about
the Riccati equation
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
A +Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . ,
there is very little known. (See [13], [18], [32], and [69] for some results in this regard.)
In summary, it is interesting to observe that when Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium
x, then x is unique, it satisfies Eqs(2.3) and (2.4), and it is given by (2.8). This ob-
servation simplifies the investigation of the local stability of the positive equilibrium of
Eq(2.1).
2.2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium
Here we investigate the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1).
Set
f(u, v) =
α +βu + γv
A +Bu + Cv
and observe that
f
u
(u, v) =
(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)v
(A +Bu +Cv)
2
(2.9)
2.2. Stability of the Zero Equilibrium 31
and
f
v
(u, v) =
(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)u
(A +Bu +Cv)
2
. (2.10)
If x denotes an equilibrium point of Eq(2.1), then the linearized equation associated
with Eq(2.1) about the equilibrium point x is
z
n+1
−pz
n
−qz
n−1
= 0
where
p = f
u
(x, x) and q = f
v
(x, x).
The local stability character of x is now described by the linearized stability Theorem
1.1.1.
For the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1) we have
p =
β
A
and q =
γ
A
and so the linearized equation associated with Eq(2.1) about the zero equilibrium point
is
z
n+1

β
A
z
n

γ
A
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
For the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1), in addition to the local stability The-
orem 1.1.1, we have the luxury of the global stability Theorem 1.3.1. As a consequence
of these two theorems we obtain the following global result:
Theorem 2.2.1 Assume that A > 0. Then the zero equilibrium point of the equation
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
is globally asymptotically stable when
β + γ ≤ A
and is unstable when
β +γ > A.
Furthermore the zero equilibrium point is
a sink when A > β +γ
a saddle point when A < β +γ < A + 2β
a repeller when β +γ > A + 2β.
32 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
2.3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium
As we mentioned in Section 2.1, Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium when either
α = 0 and β +γ > A
or
α > 0.
In these cases the positive equilibrium x is unique, it satisfies Eqs(2.3) and (2.4), and it
is given by (2.8). By using the identity
(B +C)x
2
= (β + γ −A)x +α,
we see that
p = f
u
(x, x) =
(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)x
(A + (B +C)x)
2
=
(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)x
A
2
+ α(B +C) + (B +C)(A +β + γ)x
and
q = f
v
(x, x) =
(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)x
(A + (B +C)x)
2
=
(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)x
A
2
+α(B +C) + (B +C)(A +β +γ)x
.
Hence the conditions for the local asymptotic stability of x are (see Theorem 1.1.1) the
following:
|p| < 1 −q (2.11)
and
q > −1. (2.12)
Inequalities (2.11) and (2.12) are equivalent to the following three inequalities:
¸
A +β + γ + 2
βC −γB
B + C
¸
x > −α −
A
2
+ (βA −αB) −(γA −αC)
B +C
(2.13)
(A +β +γ)x > −α −
A
2
−(βA −αB) −(γA −αC)
B + C
(2.14)
¸
A +β + γ −
βC −γB
B +C
¸
x > −α −
A
2
+ (γA −αC)
B +C
. (2.15)
Out of these inequalities we will obtain explicit stability conditions by using the following
procedure:
First we observe that Inequalities (2.13)-(2.15), are equivalent to some inequalities
of the form
x > ρ
2.4. When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? 33
and/or
x < σ
for some ρ, σ ∈ [0, ∞).
Now if we set
F(u) = (B +C)u
2
−(β +γ −A)u −α,
it is clear that
F(x) = 0
and that
x > ρ if and only if F(ρ) < 0
while
x < σ if and only if F(σ) > 0.
2.4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same
Period?
The following four special examples of Eq(2.1)
x
n+1
=
1
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.16)
x
n+1
=
1
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.17)
x
n+1
=
1 +x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.18)
x
n+1
=
x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.19)
are remarkable in the sense that all positive solutions of each of these four nontrivial
equations are periodic with periods 2, 4, 5, and 6 respectively.
The following result characterizes all possible special cases of equations of the form
of Eq(2.1) with the property that every solution of the equation is periodic with the
same period. (See also [75], [73], and [74].)
Theorem 2.4.1 Let p ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that every positive solution
of Eq(2.1) is periodic with period p. Then the following statements are true:
(i) Assume C > 0. Then A = B = γ = 0.
(ii) Assume C = 0. Then γ(α +β) = 0.
34 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
Proof. Consider the solution with
x
−1
= 1 and x
0
∈ (0, ∞).
Then clearly
x
0
= x
p
and x
p−1
= x
−1
= 1
and so from Eq(2.1)
x
p
=
α +β + γx
p−2
A + B +Cx
p−2
= x
0
.
Hence
(A +B)x
0
+ (Cx
0
−γ)x
p−2
= α +β. (2.20)
(i) Assume that C > 0. Then we claim that
A = B = 0. (2.21)
Otherwise A +B > 0 and by choosing
x
0
> max

α +β
A +B
,
γ
C
¸
we see that (2.20) is impossible. Hence (2.21) holds. In addition to (2.21) we now
claim that also
γ = 0. (2.22)
Otherwise γ > 0 and by choosing
x
0
< min

α +β
A +B
,
γ
C
¸
we see that (2.20) is impossible. Thus (2.22) holds .
(ii) Assume C = 0 and, for the sake of contradiction, assume that
γ(α +β) > 0.
Then by choosing x
0
sufficiently small, we see that (2.20) is impossible.
The proof is complete. 2
Corollary 2.4.1 Let p ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Assume that every positive solution of Eq(2.1)
is periodic with period p. Then up to a change of variables of the form
x
n
= λy
n
Eq(2.1) reduces to one of the equations (2.16)-(2.19) .
2.5. Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions 35
2.5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions
In this section we give necessary and sufficient conditions for Eq(2.1) to have a prime
period-two solution and we exhibit all prime period-two solutions of the equation. (See
[50].)
Furthermore we are interested in conditions under which every solution of Eq(2.1)
converges to a period-two solution in a nontrivial way according to the following con-
vention.
Convention Throughout this book when we say that “every solution of a certain
difference equation converges to a periodic solution with period p” we mean that every
solution converges to a, not necessarily prime, solution with period p and furthermore
the set of solutions of the equation with prime period p is nonempty.
Assume that
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2.1). Then
φ =
α +βψ +γφ
A +Bψ + Cφ
and
ψ =
α + βφ +γψ
A +Bφ +Cψ
from which we find that
C(φ +ψ) = γ −β −A (2.23)
and when
C > 0 (2.24)
we also find that
(B −C)φψ =
αC +β(γ −β −A)
C
. (2.25)
One can show that when
C = 0 and B > 0 (2.26)
Eq(2.1) has a prime period-two solution if and only if
γ = β + A. (2.27)
Furthermore when (2.26) and (2.27) hold
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2.1) if and only if
α + β(φ +ψ) = Bφψ with φ, ψ ∈ [0, ∞) and φ = ψ
36 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
or equivalently
φ >
β
B
, φ =
β +

β
2
+ αB
B
, and ψ =
α + βφ
−β +Bφ
. (2.28)
Next assume that (2.24) holds and that Eq(2.1) possesses a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .
Then it follows from (2.23) and (2.25) that one of the following three conditions must
be satisfied:
B = C, α = β = 0, and φψ = 0; (2.29)
γ > β + A and B = C, α = β = 0, and φψ ≥ 0; (2.30)
B > C, α + β > 0, and φψ > 0. (2.31)
When (2.29) holds, the two cycle is
. . . , 0,
γ −A
C
, 0,
γ −A
C
, . . . .
When (2.30) holds, the two cycle is
. . . , φ,
γ −A
C
−φ, φ,
γ −A
C
−φ, . . . with 0 ≤ φ <
γ −A
C
.
Finally when (2.31) holds, the values φ and ψ of the two cycle are given by the two roots
of the quadratic equation
t
2

γ −β −A
C
t +
αC +β(γ −β −A)
C(B −C)
= 0
and we should also require that the discriminant of this quadratic equation be positive.
That is,
α <
(γ −β −A)[B(γ −β −A) −C(γ + 3β −A)]
4C
2
. (2.32)
2.6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle
Let
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
be a two cycle of the difference equation (2.1).
Set
u
n
= x
n−1
and v
n
= x
n
for n = 0, 1, . . .
2.6. Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle 37
and write Eq(2.1) in the equivalent form:
u
n+1
= v
n
v
n+1
=
α+βv
n
+γu
n
A+Bv
n
+Cu
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Let T be the function on [0, ∞) ×[0, ∞) defined by:
T

u
v

=

v
βv+γu+α
Bv+Cu+A

.
Then

φ
ψ

is a fixed point of T
2
, the second iterate of T. Furthermore
T
2

u
v

=

g(u, v)
h(u, v)

where
g(u, v) =
α +βv + γu
A + Bv +Cu
and h(u, v) =
α +β
α+βv+γu
A+Bv+Cu
+γv
A +B
α+βv+γu
A+Bv+Cu
+ Cv
.
The two cycle is locally asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix
J
T
2, evaluated at

φ
ψ

lie inside the unit disk.
By definition
J
T
2

φ
ψ

=

¸
¸
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
¸

.
By computing the partial derivatives of g and h and by using the fact that
φ =
α +βψ + γφ
A +Bψ +Cφ
and ψ =
α +βφ + γψ
A + Bφ +Cψ
we find the following identities:
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) =
(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)ψ
(A +Bψ +Cφ)
2
,
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ) =
(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)φ
(A +Bψ +Cφ)
2
,
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ) =
[(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)ψ][(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)ψ]
(A +Bφ +Cψ)
2
(A + Bψ +Cφ)
2
,
38 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) =
[(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)ψ][(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)φ]
(A + Bφ +Cψ)
2
(A +Bψ + Cφ)
2
+
(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)φ
(A +Bφ + Cψ)
2
.
Set
S =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) +
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
and
D =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) −
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ).
Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 (c) that both eigenvalues of J
T
2

φ
ψ

lie inside the
unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if
|S| < 1 +D and D < 1.
See Sections 6.6, 6.9, and 7.4 for some applications.
Definition 2.6.1 (Basin of Attraction of a Two Cycle)
Let
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
be a two cycle of Eq(2.1). The basin of attraction of this two cycle is the set B of all
initial conditions (x
−1
, x
0
) through which the solution of Eq(2.1) converges to the two
cycle.
2.7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When
C = 0
In this section we consider the equation
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
+γx
n−1
A +Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.33)
where
α, β, γ, A, B ∈ [0, ∞) with α + β +γ, A +B ∈ (0, ∞)
and nonnegative initial conditions and obtain a signum invariant for its solutions which
will be used in the sequel (See Sections 4.7, 6.5, 6.7, and 10.2) to obtain conditions on
α, β, γ, A and B so that every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-two solution.
That is, every solution converges to a (not necessarily prime) period-two solution and
2.7. Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C = 0 39
there exist prime period-two solutions. (See also Section 10.2 where we present the
complete character of solutions of Eq(2.33).)
Now before we see that when B > 0 every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-
two solution if and only if (2.27) holds, we need the following result, the proof of which
follows by straightforward computations.
Lemma 2.7.1 Assume that (2.27) holds, and let {x
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(2.33).
Set
J
n
= α +β(x
n−1
+x
n
) −Bx
n−1
x
n
for n ≥ 0. (2.34)
Then the following statements are true:
(a)
J
n+1
=
β +A
A +Bx
n
J
n
for n ≥ 0.
In particular, the sign of the quantity J
n
is constant along each solution.
(b)
x
n+1
−x
n−1
=
J
n
A +Bx
n
for n ≥ 0.
In particular, one and only one of the following three statements is true for each solution
of Eq(2.33):
(i)
x
n+1
−x
n−1
= 0 for all n ≥ 0;
(ii)
x
n+1
−x
n−1
< 0 for all n ≥ 0;
(iii)
x
n+1
−x
n−1
> 0 for all n ≥ 0.
Clearly (i) holds, if and only if, (β + A)J
0
= 0. In this case, the solution {x
n
} is
periodic with period-two.
Statement (ii) holds if and only if J
0
< 0 and β+A > 0. In this case the subsequences
{x
2n
}

n=0
and {x
2n−1
}

n=0
of the solution {x
n
}

n=0
are both decreasing to finite limits and
so in this case the solution converges to a period-two solution.
Finally (iii) holds, if and only if J
0
> 0 and β +A > 0. In this case the subsequences
{x
2n
}

n=0
and {x
2n−1
}

n=0
of the solution {x
n
}

n=0
are both increasing and so if we can
show that they are bounded, the solution would converge to a period-two solution.
Now observe that
x
n+1
−x
n−1
=
β +A
A +Bx
n
(x
n
−x
n−2
) for n ≥ 1
40 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
and so
x
n+1
−x
n−1
= (x
1
−x
−1
)
n
¸
k=1
β +A
A + Bx
k
. (2.35)
We will now employ (2.35) to show that the subsequences of even and odd terms of
the solution are bounded. We will give the details for the subsequence of even terms.
The proof for the subsequence of odd terms is similar and will be omitted. To this end
assume, for the sake of contradiction, that the subsequence of even terms increases to
∞. Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that
ρ =
A +β
A + Bx
2N+1
A +β
A +Bx
2N
< 1.
Clearly for all n > N,
A +β
A +Bx
2n+1
A + β
A +Bx
2n
<
A + β
A +Bx
2N+1
A +β
A +Bx
2N
= ρ.
Set
K = |x
2N
−x
2N−2
|.
Then
|x
2N+2
−x
2N
| =
A + β
A +Bx
2N+1
A +β
A +Bx
2N
|x
2N
−x
2N−2
| < Kρ
|x
2N+4
−x
2N+2
| =
A + β
A + Bx
2N+3
A + β
A + Bx
2N+2
|x
2N+2
−x
2N
| < Kρ
2
and by induction
|x
2N+2m
−x
2N+2(m−1)
| < Kρ
m
for m = 1, 2, . . . .
But then
x
2N+2m
≤ |x
2N+2m
−x
2N+2m−2
| +. . . +|x
2N+2
−x
2N
| +x
2N
≤ K
m
¸
i=1
ρ
i
+x
2N
<

1 −ρ
+x
2N
which contradicts the hypothesis that the subsequence of even terms is unbounded.
In summary we have established the following result.
Theorem 2.7.1 Assume B > 0. Then the following statements hold:
(a) Eq(2.33) has a prime period-two solution if and only if (2.27) holds.
(b) When (2.27) holds all prime period-two solutions
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
of Eq(2.33) are given by (2.28).
(c) When (2.27) holds every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-two solution.
2.8. Invariant Intervals 41
2.8 Invariant Intervals
An invariant interval for Eq(2.1) is an interval I with the property that if two con-
secutive terms of the solution fall in I then all the subsequent terms of the solution also
belong to I. In other words I is an invariant interval for the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (2.36)
if x
N−1
, x
N
∈ I for some N ≥ 0, then x
n
∈ I for every n > N.
Invariant intervals for Eq(2.36) are determined from the intervals where the function
f(x, y) is monotonic in its arguments.
For Eq(2.1) the partial derivatives are given by (2.9) and (2.10) and are
f
x
(x, y) =
L +My
(A +Bx + Cy)
2
and f
y
(x, y) =
N −Mx
(A +Bx + Cy)
2
,
where
L = βA −αB, M = βC −γB, and N = γA −αC.
The following table gives the signs of f
x
and f
y
in all possible nondegenerate cases.
Case L M N Signs of derivatives f
x
and f
y
1 + + +
f
x
> 0
f
y
> 0 if x <
N
M
; f
y
< 0 if x >
N
M
2 + + 0 f
x
> 0 and f
y
< 0
3 + + − f
x
> 0 and f
y
< 0
4 + 0 + f
x
> 0 and f
y
> 0
5 + 0 0 f
x
> 0 and f
y
= 0
6 + − +
f
x
> 0 if y < −
L
M
; f
x
< 0 if y > −
L
M
f
y
> 0
7 0 + 0 f
x
> 0 and f
y
< 0
8 0 + − f
x
> 0 and f
y
< 0
9 0 − + f
x
< 0 and f
y
> 0
10 0 − 0 f
x
< 0 and f
y
> 0
11 − + −
f
x
> 0 if y > −
L
M
; f
x
< 0 if y < −
L
M
f
y
< 0
12 − 0 0 f
x
< 0 and f
y
= 0
13 − 0 − f
x
< 0 and f
y
< 0
14 − − + f
x
< 0 and f
y
> 0
15 − − 0 f
x
< 0 and f
y
> 0
16 − − −
f
x
< 0
f
y
> 0 if x >
N
M
; f
y
< 0 if x <
N
M
Using this table, we obtain the following table of invariant intervals for Eq(2.1).
42 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
Case Invariant intervals
1
[0,
N
M
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
<
N
M
[
N
M
,
(β−A)M−CN+

((β−A)M−NC)
2
+4BM(αM+γN)
2BM
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
>
N
M
and B > 0
[
N
M
,
αM+γN
(A−β)M+CN
] if B = 0 and (A−β)M +CN > 0
2
[0,
β−A+

(β−A)
2
+4Bα
2B
] if B > 0
[0,
α
A−β
] if B = 0, α > 0 and A > β
3
[0,
β−A+

(β−A)
2
+4Bα
2B
] if B > 0
[0,
α
A−β
] if B = 0, α > 0 and A > β
4 [0,
β+γ−A+

(β+γ−A)
2
+4α(B+C)
2(B+C)
] if B +C > 0
5
[
α
A
,
β−A+

(β−A)
2
+4αB
2B
] if B > 0
[
α
A
,
α
A−β
] if B = 0 and A > β
6
[0, −
L
M
] if
αM−(β+γ)L
AM−(B+C)L
< −
L
M
[−
L
M
,
(A−γ)M−BL+

((A−γ)M−BL)
2
+4CM(αM−βL)
−2CM
] if C = 0 and
βMK+αM−γL
BMK+AM−CL
> −
L
M
[−
L
M
,
βL−αM
(γ−A)M+BL
] if C = 0, (γ −A)M +BL > 0 and −(βM +BL)K ≥ αM +AL
7
[
γ
C
,
β
B
] if B > 0
[
γ
C
,
γ
2
C(γ−β)
] if B = 0 and β < γ
8
[0,
β
B
] if B = 0
[
γ
C
,
αC+γ
2
γ−βC
] if B = 0 and γ > βC
9
[0,
γ
C
] if C > 0
[k, K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α +βk + (γ −A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α +βK −Ak
10
[
β
B
,
γ
C
] if C > 0
[
β
B
,
β
2
B(β−γ)
] if C = 0 and β > γ
11
[
αM−L(β+γ)
AM−L(B+C)
, −
L
M
] if
αM−L(β+γ)
AM−L(B+C)
< −
L
M
[−
L
M
,
(β−A)M+LC+

((β−A)M+LC)
2
+4BM(αM−γL)
2BM
] if
αM−βL+γMK
AM−BL+CMK
> −
L
M
12
[
α(A+β)
A
2
+Bα
,
α
A
] if A > 0
[
β
B
,
β
B
+
α
β
] if A = 0 and β > 0
13
[0,
α
A
] if A > 0
[k, K] if A = 0 where k and K satisfy
α+(β+γ)k
B+C
≤ kK ≤
α+(β+γ)K
B+C
14
[0,
γ
C
] if C > 0
[k, K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α +βk + (γ −A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α +βK −Ak
15
[0,
γ
C
] if C > 0
[
β
B
,
αB+β
2
B(β−γ)
] if A = 0 and β > γ
16
[
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
,
N
M
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
<
N
M
[
N
M
,
(γ−A)M−BN+

((γ−A)M−BN)
2
+4BM(αM+βN)
2CM
] if
αM+βK+γNM
AM+BK+CNM
>
N
M
2.9. Open Problems and Conjectures 43
2.9 Open Problems and Conjectures
What is it that makes all solutions of a nonlinear difference equation periodic with the
same period?
For a linear equation, every solution is periodic with period p ≥ 2, if and only if
every root of the characteristic equation is a pth root of unity.
Open Problem 2.9.1 Assume that f ∈ C
1
[(0, ∞) × (0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that every
positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (2.37)
is periodic with period p ≥ 2.
Is it true that the linearized equation about a positive equilibrium point of Eq(2.37)
has the property that every one of its solutions is also periodic with the same period p?
What is it that makes every positive solution of a difference equation converge to a
periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 ?
Open Problem 2.9.2 Let f ∈ C
1
[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, ∞)] and let p ≥ 2 be an integer.
Find necessary and sufficient conditions so that every nonnegative solution of the differ-
ence equation (2.37) converges to a periodic solution with period p. In particular address
the case p = 2.
Open Problem 2.9.3 Let p ≥ 2 be an integer and assume that every positive solution
of Eq(2.1) with
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞)
converges to a solution with period p . Is it true that
p ∈ {2, 4, 5, 6}?
Open Problem 2.9.4 It is known (see Sections 2.7, 4.7, 6.5, and 6.7) that every pos-
itive solution of each of the following three equations
x
n+1
= 1 +
x
n−1
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.38)
x
n+1
=
1 +x
n−1
1 + x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.39)
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ 2x
n−1
1 + x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.40)
44 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
converges to a solution with (not necessarily prime) period-two:
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . . (2.41)
In each case, determine φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x
−1
and x
0
.
Conversely, if (2.41) is a period-two solution of Eq(2.38) or Eq(2.39) or Eq(2.40), de-
termine all initial conditions (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ (0, ∞)×(0, ∞) for which the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
converges to the period-two solution (2.41).
Conjecture 2.9.1 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(2.1) is bounded.
Open Problem 2.9.5 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B ∈ (0, ∞) and γ > β +A.
Determine the set of initial conditions x
−1
and x
0
for which the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
of
Eq(2.33) is bounded.
(See Sections 2.7, 4.7, 6.5, 6.7, and 10.2.)
Conjecture 2.9.2 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)
and that Eq(2.1) has no period-two solution. Show that the positive equilibrium is globally
asymptotically stable.
Conjecture 2.9.3 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)
and that Eq(2.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. Show that the positive equi-
librium of Eq(2.1) is a saddle point.
2.9. Open Problems and Conjectures 45
Open Problem 2.9.6 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞).
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the coefficients so that every
positive solution of Eq(2.1) is bounded.
Conjecture 2.9.4 Assume that
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞).
Show that Eq(2.1) cannot have a positive prime two cycle which attracts all positive
non-equilibrium solutions.
Open Problem 2.9.7 Assume f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and sufficient
conditions on f for every solution of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
f(x
n
)
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
to be bounded.
(See Section 5.2).
Open Problem 2.9.8 Assume f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and sufficient
conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
= 1 +
f(x
n−1
)
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
to converge to a period-two solution.
(See Section 4.7).
Open Problem 2.9.9 Extend Theorem 2.7.1 to third order difference equations
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
+δx
n−2
A +Bx
n−1
+ Dx
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that
γ = β +δ +A.
What additional conditions should the parameters satisfy?
46 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals
Open Problem 2.9.10 Extend the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 to third order dif-
ference equations
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, x
n−2
), n = 0, 1, . . . . (2.42)
For the equation
λ
3
+aλ
2
+ bλ +c = 0
one can see that all roots lie inside the unit disk |λ| < 1 if and only if
|a +c| < 1 +b
|a −3c| < 3 −b
b +c
2
< 1 +ac

.
But how about necessary and sufficient conditions for the equilibrium of Eq(2.42) to
be a repeller, or a saddle point, or nonhyperbolic?
Extend these results to fourth order difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, x
n−2
, x
n−3
), n = 0, 1, . . . .
Chapter 3
(1, 1)-Type Equations
3.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1, 1)-type:
x
n+1
=
α
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.1)
x
n+1
=
α
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.2)
x
n+1
=
α
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.3)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.4)
x
n+1
=
β
B
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.5)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.6)
47
48 Chapter 3. (1, 1)-Type Equations
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.7)
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.8)
and
x
n+1
=
γ
C
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.9)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
Of these nine equations, Eqs(3.1), (3.5), and (3.9) are trivial. Eqs (3.4) and (3.7)
are linear difference equation. Every solution of Eq(3.2) is periodic with period two and
every solution of Eq(3.4) is periodic with period four. The remaining two equations,
namely, Eqs(3.6) and (3.8), are treated in the next two sections.
3.2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 1)-type Eq(3.6) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
β
C
y
n
reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.10)
It is easy to see that every positive solution of Eq(3.10) is periodic with period six.
Indeed the solution with initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
is the six-cycle:
y
−1
, y
0
,
y
0
y
−1
,
1
y
−1
,
1
y
0
,
y
−1
y
0
, . . . .
It is interesting to note that except for the equilibrium solution y = 1, every other
solution of Eq(3.10) has prime period six.
3.3. The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
49
3.3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
This is the (1, 1)-type Eq(3.8) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
B
e
y
n
reduces to the linear equation
y
n+1
+ y
n
−y
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.11)
The general solution of Eq(3.11) is
y
n
= C
1

−1 +

5
2

n
+ C
2

−1 −

5
2

n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
from which the behavior of solutions is easily derived.
3.4 Open Problems and Conjectures
Of the nine equations in this chapter we would like to single out the two nonlinear
equations, (3.2) and (3.6), which possess the property that every positive nontrivial
solution of each of these two equations is periodic with the same prime period, namely
two and six, respectively. Eq(3.3) also has the property that every nontrivial positive
solution is periodic with prime period four but this equation is really a variant of Eq(3.2).
Also every solution of Eq(3.7) is periodic with period two but this is a linear equation.
Eq(3.2) is of the form
x
n+1
= f(x
n
), n = 0, 1, . . . (3.12)
where
f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)], (3.13)
while Eq(3.6) is of the form
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (3.14)
where
f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. (3.15)
What is it that makes every solution of a nonlinear difference equation periodic with the
same period? We believe this is a question of paramount importance and so we pose the
following open problems.
50 Chapter 3. (1, 1)-Type Equations
Open Problem 3.4.1 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3.13) holds.
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.12)
is periodic with period k.
Open Problem 3.4.2 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3.15) holds.
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.14)
is periodic with period k. In particular address the cases
k = 4, 5, 6.
Open Problem 3.4.3 Let k be a positive integer and assume that
α, β, γ ∈ (−∞, ∞).
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on α, β, γ so that every solution of the equa-
tion
x
n+1
= α|x
n
| + βx
n−1
+ γ, n = 0, 1, . . .
with real initial conditions is periodic with period k. In particular address the cases:
k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
(See [10], [17], and [59].)
Conjecture 3.4.1 Let f ∈ C
1
[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial so-
lution of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
f(x
n
)
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.16)
is periodic with prime period six. Show that
f(x) = x.
Conjecture 3.4.2 Let f ∈ C
1
[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial so-
lution of the difference equation (3.16) is periodic with prime period five. Show that
f(x) = 1 + x.
3.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 51
Open Problem 3.4.4 Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f ∈ C[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)]
such that every positive nontrivial solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
f(x
n
)
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.17)
is periodic with prime period three.
Open Problem 3.4.5 Let {p
n
}

n=0
be a sequence of nonzero real numbers. In each of
the following cases investigate the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the
difference equation
x
n+1
=
p
n
x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.18)
(i) {p
n
}

n=0
converges to a finite limit;
(ii) {p
n
}

n=0
converges to ±∞;
(iii) {p
n
}

n=0
is periodic with prime period k ≥ 2.
Chapter 4
(1, 2)-Type Equations
4.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1, 2)-type:
x
n+1
=
α
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.1)
x
n+1
=
α
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.2)
x
n+1
=
α
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.3)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.4)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.5)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.6)
53
54 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.7)
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.8)
and
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.9)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
Two of these equations, namely Eqs(4.1) and (4.4) are Riccati-type difference equa-
tions. (See Section 1.6 in the Preliminary Results). Also Eqs(4.2) and (4.8) are essen-
tially Riccati equations. Indeed if {x
n
} is a solution of Eq(4.2), then the subsequences
{x
2n−1
} and {x
2n
} satisfy the Riccati equation of the form of Eq(4.1). Similarly, if {x
n
}
is a solution of Eq(4.8), then the subsequences {x
2n−1
} and {x
2n
} satisfy the Riccati
equation
y
n+1
=
γy
n
A + Cy
n
n = 0, 1, . . . .
It is also interesting to note that the change of variables
x
n
=
1
y
n
reduces the Riccati equation (4.4) to the linear equation
y
n+1
=
A
β
y
n
+
B
β
, n = 0, 1, . . .
from which the global behavior of solutions is easily derived.
In view of the above, Eqs(4.2), (4.4), and (4.8) will not be discussed any further in
this chapter.
4.2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
A+Bx
n
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.1) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
4.3. The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
55
reduces to the Riccati equation
y
n+1
=
p
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.10)
where
p =
αB
A
2
.
The Riccati number associated with this equation (see Section 1.6) is
R = −p < 0
and so the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.6.2.
Theorem 4.2.1 The positive equilibrium
y =
−1 +

1 + 4p
2
of Eq(4.10) is globally asymptotically stable.
4.3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.3) which by the change of variables
x
n
=

α
y
n
(4.11)
is transformed to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
B
y
n
+
C
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.12)
Eq(4.12) was investigated in [65]. (See also [12].)
We will first show that every solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded and then we will use
the method of “limiting solutions” to show that every solution of Eq(4.12) converges to
its equilibrium

B + C.
Theorem 4.3.1 Every solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded and persists.
Proof. It is easy to see that if a solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded from above then it is
also bounded from below and vice-versa. So if the theorem is false there should exist a
solution {y
n
}

n=−1
which is neither bounded from above nor from below. That is,
limsup
n→∞
y
n
= ∞ and liminf
n→∞
y
n
= 0.
56 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
Then clearly we can find indices i and j with 1 ≤ i < j such that
y
i
> y
n
> y
j
for all n ∈ {−1, . . . , j −1}.
Hence
y
j
=
B
y
j−1
+
C
y
j−2
>
B + C
y
i
and
y
i
=
B
y
i−1
+
C
y
i−2

B + C
y
j
.
That is ,
B + C < y
i
y
j
≤ B + C
which is impossible. 2
Theorem 4.3.2 The equilibrium y =

B + C of Eq(4.12) is globally asymptotically
stable.
Proof. The linearized equation of Eq(4.12) about the equilibrium y =

B + C is
z
n+1
= −
B
B + C
z
n

C
B + C
z
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.13)
and by Theorem 1.1.1, y is locally asymptotically stable for all positive values of B and
C.
It remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(4.12). To
this end, let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.12). Then by Theorem 4.3.1 , {y
n
}

n=−1
is
bounded and persists. Therefore there exist positive numbers m and M such that
m ≤ y
n
≤ M for n ≥ −1.
Let
I = liminf
n→∞
y
n
and S = limsup
n→∞
y
n
.
We will show that
I = S.
By the theory of limiting solutions (see Section 1.5) there exist two solutions {I
n
}

n=−3
and {S
n
}

n=−3
of the difference equation
y
n+1
=
B
y
n
+
C
y
n−1
, n = −3, −2, . . .
with the following properties:
I
0
= I, S
0
= S
4.4. The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
- Pielou’s Equation 57
and
I
n
, S
n
∈ [I, S] for n ≥ −3.
Then
S =
B
S
−1
+
C
S
−2

B + C
I
and
I =
B
I
−1
+
C
I
−2

B + C
S
.
Hence
B + C = SI.
Thus
B
S
−1
+
C
S
−2
= S =
B + C
I
=
B
I
+
C
I
from which it follows that
S
−1
= S
−2
= I. (4.14)
Therefore
B
S
+
C
S
= I = S
−1
=
B
S
−2
+
C
S
−3
from which it follows that
S = S
−2
. (4.15)
From (4.14) and (4.15) we conclude that
S = I
and the proof is complete. 2
4.4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
- Pielou’s
Equation
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.5) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
C
y
n
,
reduces to Pielou’s difference equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.16)
where
p =
β
A
.
58 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
This equation was proposed by Pielou in her books ([66], p.22) and ([67], p.79) as a
discrete analogue of the delay logistic equation
dN
dt
= rN(t)

1 −
N(t −τ)
P

, t ≥ 0
which is a prototype of modelling the dynamics of single-species.
Eq(4.16) was investigated in [55]. (See also ([42], p.75).)
When
p ≤ 1,
it follows from Eq(4.16) that every positive solution converges to 0.
Furthermore, 0 is locally asymptotically stable when p ≤ 1 and unstable when p > 1.
So the interesting case for Eq(4.16) is when
p > 1. (4.17)
In this case the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is unstable and Eq(4.16) possesses the
unique positive equilibrium
y = p −1,
which is locally asymptotically stable.
In fact by employing Theorem 1.4.2, it follows that when (4.17) holds, x is globally
asymptotically stable.
We summarize the above discussion in the following theorem.
Theorem 4.4.1 (a) Assume
p ≤ 1.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume y
0
∈ (0, ∞) and
p > 1.
Then the positive equilibrium y = p −1 of Eq(4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.
4.5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.6) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
β
B + Cy
n
,
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n
p + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.18)
4.6. The Case α = β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
59
where
p =
B
C
.
Eq(4.18) was investigated in ([42] Corollary 3.4.1 (e), p. 73) where it was shown that
its equilibrium one is globally asymptotically stable .
4.6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.7) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
B
y
n
,
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
p + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.19)
where
p =
A
γ
∈ (0, ∞).
Eq(4.19) was investigated in [28].
The following local result is a straightforward application of the linearized stability
Theorem 1.1.1.
Lemma 4.6.1 (a) Assume
p > 1.
Then 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.19) and it is locally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume
p < 1.
Then 0 and y = 1 − p are the only equilibrium points of Eq(4.19) and they are both
unstable. In fact, 0 is a repeller and y = 1 −p is a saddle point equilibrium.
The oscillatory character of the solutions of Eq(4.19) is a consequence of Theorem
1.7.1. That is, except possibly for the first semicycle, every solution of Eq(4.19) has
semicycles of length one.
It follows directly from Eq(4.19) (see also Section 2.5) that
y
n+1
<
1
p
y
n−1
for n ≥ 0
and so when
p > 1
60 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.19) is globally asymptotically stable. On the other hand
when
p = 1,
y
n+1
< y
n−1
for n ≥ 0
and so every positive solution of Eq(4.19) converges to a period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .
Furthermore we can see that
φψ = 0
but whether there exists solutions with
φ = ψ = 0
remains an open question.
Finally when
p < 1
by invoking the stable manifold theory one can see that there exist nonoscillatory solu-
tions which converge monotonically to the positive equilibrium 1−p. It follows from the
identity
y
n+1
−y
n−1
=
(1 −p) −y
n
p + y
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
that every oscillatory solution is such that the subsequences of even and odd terms
converge monotonically one to ∞ and the other to 0.
4.7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.9) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
By
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
= p +
y
n−1
y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.20)
where
p =
C
B
∈ (0, ∞).
This equation was investigated in [7] where it was shown that the following statements
are true:
4.7. The Case α = β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
61
(i) p ≥ 1 is a necessary and sufficient condition for every solution of Eq(4.20) to be
bounded;
(ii) When p = 1, every solution of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution;
(iii) When p > 1, the equilibrium y = p + 1 of Eq(4.20) is globally asymptotically
stable.
We now proceed to establish the above results.
Clearly the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.20) is y = p + 1.
The linearized equation of Eq(4.20) about the equilibrium point y = p + 1 is
z
n+1
+
1
p + 1
z
n

1
p + 1
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.21)
As a simple consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following
result:
Theorem 4.7.1 The equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4.20) is locally asymptotically
stable when p > 1 and is an unstable saddle point when p < 1.
The next result about semicycles is an immediate consequence of some straightfor-
ward arguments and Theorem 1.7.1.
Theorem 4.7.2 (a) Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20) which consists of at least
two semicycles. Then {y
n
}

n=−1
is oscillatory. Moreover, with the possible excep-
tion of the first semicycle, every semicycle has length one.
(b) Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20) which consists of a single semicycle. Then
{y
n
}

n=−1
converges monotonically to y = p + 1.
4.7.1 The Case p < 1
Here we show that there exist solutions of Eq(4.20) which are unbounded. In fact the
following result is true.
Theorem 4.7.3 Let p < 1, and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20) such that 0 <
y
−1
≤ 1 and y
0

1
1−p
. Then the following statements are true:
1. lim
n→∞
y
2n
= ∞.
2. lim
n→∞
y
2n+1
= p.
Proof. Note that
1
1−p
> p + 1, and so y
0
> p + 1. It suffices to show that
y
1
∈ (p, 1] and y
2
≥ p + y
0
and use induction to complete the proof.
62 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
Indeed y
1
= p +
y
1
y
0
> p. Also,
y
1
= p +
y
−1
y
0
≤ p +
1
y
0
≤ 1,
and so y
1
∈ (p, 1]. Hence y
2
= p +
y
0
y
1
≥ p + y
0
. 2
4.7.2 The Case p = 1
The following result follows from Lemma 2.7.1 and some straightforward arguments. See
also Section 2.5.
Theorem 4.7.4 Let p = 1, and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20). Then the
following statements are true.
(a) Suppose {y
n
}

n=−1
consists of a single semicycle. Then {y
n
}

n=−1
converges mono-
tonically to y = 2.
(b) Suppose {y
n
}

n=−1
consists of at least two semicycles. Then {y
n
}

n=−1
converges to
a prime period-two solution of Eq(4.20).
(c) Every solution of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1.
4.7.3 The Case p > 1
Here we show that the equilibrium point y = p+1 of Eq(4.20) is globally asymptotically
stable. The following result will be useful.
Lemma 4.7.1 Let p > 1, and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20). Then
p +
p −1
p
≤ liminf
n→∞
y
n
≤ limsup
n→∞
y
n

p
2
p −1
.
Proof. It follows from Theorem 4.7.2 that we may assume that every semicycle of
{y
n
}

n=−1
has length one, that p < y
n
for all n ≥ −1, and that p < y
0
< p + 1 < y
−1
.
We shall first show that limsup
n→∞
y
n

p
2
p−1
. Note that for n ≥ 0,
y
2n+1
< p +
y
2n−1
p
.
So as every solution of the difference equation
y
m+1
= p +
1
p
y
m
, m = 0, 1, . . .
4.7. The Case α = β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
63
converges to
p
2
p−1
, it follows that limsup
n→∞
y
n

p
2
p−1
.
We shall next show that p +
p−1
p
≤ liminf
n→∞
y
n
. Let > 0. There clearly exists
N ≥ 0 such that for all n ≥ N,
y
2n−1
<
p
2
+
p −1
.
Let n ≥ N. Then
y
2n
= p +
y
2n−2
y
2n−1
> p + p
p −1
p
2
+
=
p
3
+ p + p(p −1)
p
2
+
.
So as is arbitrary, we have
liminf
n→∞
y
n

p
3
+ p(p −1)
p
2
= p +
p −1
p
.
2
We are now ready for the following result.
Theorem 4.7.5 Let p > 1. Then the equilibrium y = p + 1 is globally asymptotically
stable.
Proof. We know by Theorem 4.7.1 that y = p + 1 is a locally asymptotically stable
equilibrium point of Eq(4.20). So let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(4.20). It suffices to
show that
lim
n→∞
y
n
= p + 1.
For x, y ∈ (0, ∞), set
f(x, y) = p +
y
x
.
Then f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] , f is decreasing in x ∈ (0, ∞) for each y ∈ (0, ∞),
and f is increasing in y ∈ (0, ∞) for each x ∈ (0, ∞). Recall that by Theorem 4.7.4,
there exist no solutions of Eq(4.20) with prime period two. Let > 0, and set
a = p and b =
p
2
+
p −1
.
Note that
f

p
2
+
p −1
, p

= p + p
p −1
p
2
+
> p
and
f

p,
p
2
+
p −1

=
p
3
+ p
p
2
−p
=
p
2
+
p −1
.
Hence
p < f(x, y) <
p
2
+
p −1
for all x, y ∈

p,
p
2
+
p −1

.
64 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
Finally note that by Lemma 4.7.1,
p < p +
p −1
p
≤ liminf
n→∞
y
n
≤ limsup
n→∞
y
n

p
2
p −1
<
p
2
+
p −1
and so by Theorem 1.4.6,
lim
n→∞
y
n
= p + 1.
2
4.8 Open Problems and Conjectures
Conjecture 4.8.1 Consider the difference equation
x
n+1
=
A
x
n−k
+
B
x
n−l
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.22)
where
A, B ∈ (0, ∞) and k, l ∈ {0, 1, . . .} with k < l.
and where the initial conditions x
−l
, . . . , x
0
are arbitrary positive real numbers.
Show that every solution of Eq(4.22) converges, either to the equilibrium or to a
periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 and that what happens and the exact value of p are
uniquely determined from the characteristic roots of the linearized equation
λ
l+1
+
A
A + B
λ
l−k
+
B
A + B
= 0.
(See [19], [23], [25], [60], and [61].)
Open Problem 4.8.1 Let
. . . , φ
1
, φ
2
, . . . , φ
p
, . . .
be a given prime period p solution of Eq(4.22). Determine the set of all positive initial
conditions x
−l
, . . . , x
0
such that {x
n
}

n=−l
converges to this periodic solution.
Open Problem 4.8.2 (see [18]) Assume that A, B ∈ (0, ∞).
(a) Find all initial conditions y
−1
, y
0
with
y
−1
y
0
< 0
for which the equation
y
n+1
=
A
y
n
+
B
y
n−1
, (4.23)
is well defined for all n ≥ 0.
(b) Assume that the initial conditions y
−1
, y
0
are such that y
−1
y
0
< 0 and such that
Eq(4.23) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Investigate the global behavior of the solution
{y
n
}. Is it bounded? Does lim
n→∞
y
n
exist? When does {y
n
} converge to a two cycle?
4.8. Open Problems and Conjectures 65
Conjecture 4.8.2 Assume that p = 1. Show that Eq(4.19) has a solution which con-
verges to zero.
Open Problem 4.8.3 Assume that p < 1. Determine the set of initial conditions
y
−1
, y
0
∈ (0, ∞)
for which the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(4.19) is bounded.
Open Problem 4.8.4 Determine the set G of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
1 + y
n
is well defined for all n ≥ 0 and, for these initial points, investigate the global character
of {y
n
}

n=−1
.
Conjecture 4.8.3 Show that Eq(4.20) possesses a solution {y
n
}

n=−1
which remains
above the equilibrium for all n ≥ −1.
Open Problem 4.8.5 (a) Assume p ∈ (0, ∞). Determine all initial conditions y
−1
, y
0

R such that the equation (4.20) is well defined for all n ≥ 0.
(b) Let y
−1
, y
0
∈ R be such that Eq(4.20) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. For such an
initial point, investigate the boundedness, the asymptotic behavior, and the periodic
nature of the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(4.20).
(c) Discuss (a) and (b) when p < 0.
Open Problem 4.8.6 (See [13]) Find the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R ×R
through which the equation
x
n+1
= −1 +
x
n−1
x
n
(4.24)
is well defined for all n ≥ 0.
Conjecture 4.8.4 Assume that (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R is such that the equation (4.24) is
well defined for all n ≥ 0 and bounded. Show that {x
n
}

n=−1
is a three cycle.
66 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 4.8.7 Let f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and sufficient con-
ditions on f for every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
f(x
n
)
x
n
+ x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
to be bounded.
Open Problem 4.8.8 Let a, a
i
∈ (0, ∞) for i = 0, . . . , k. Investigate the global asymp-
totic stability of the equilibrium points of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
x
n
a + a
0
x
n
+ . . . + a
k
x
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . .
with positive initial conditions.
Conjecture 4.8.5 (See [27]) Assume r ∈ (0, ∞). Show that every positive solution of
the population model
J
n+1
= J
n−1
e
r−(J
n
+J
n−1
)
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution.
Conjecture 4.8.6 (Pielou’s Discrete Logistic Model; see [55], [66], and [67].) As-
sume
α ∈ (1, ∞) and k ∈ {0, 1, . . .}.
Show that the positive equilibrium of Pielou’s discrete logistic model
x
n+1
=
αx
n
1 + x
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . .
with positive initial conditions is globally asymptotically stable if and only if
α −1
α
< 2 cos

2k + 1
.
Open Problem 4.8.9 (See [5]) For which initial values x
−1
, x
0
∈ (0, ∞) does the se-
quence defined by
x
n+1
= 1 +
x
n−1
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to two?
4.8. Open Problems and Conjectures 67
(See also Section 4.7)
Open Problem 4.8.10 (See [31]) Consider the difference equation
y
n+1
= y
n−1
e
−y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.25)
with nonnegative initial conditions.
One can easily see that every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(4.25) converges to a period-two
solution
. . . , , 0, , 0, . . . .
More precisely, each of the subsequences {y
2n
}

n=0
and {y
2n+1
}

n=−1
is decreasing and
[ lim
n→∞
y
2n
][ lim
n→∞
y
2n+1
] = 0.
(a) Find all initial points y
−1
, y
0
∈ [0, ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(4.25)
converge to zero. In other words, find the basin of attraction of the equilibrium of
Eq(4.25).
(b) Determine the limits of the subsequences of even and odd terms of every solution
of Eq(4.25), in terms of the initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
of the solution.
Open Problem 4.8.11 Assume p ∈ (0, 1).
(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions y
−1
, y
0
∈ (0, ∞) such that the solutions
{y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(4.20) are bounded.
(b) Let y
−1
, y
0
∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y
n
}

n=−1
.
Open Problem 4.8.12 Let {p
n
}

n=0
be a convergent sequence of nonnegative real num-
bers with a finite limit,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following difference equations:
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
+
1
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.26)
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.27)
68 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ y
n
p
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.28)
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
p
n
+ y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.29)
y
n+1
= p
n
+
y
n−1
y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.30)
Open Problem 4.8.13 Let {p
n
}

n=0
be a periodic sequence of nonnegative real numbers
with period k ≥ 2. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of each of
Eqs(4.26) - (4.30).
Open Problem 4.8.14 For each of the following difference equations determine the
“good” set G ⊂ R × R of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R × R through which the
equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Then for every (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ G, investigate the long
term behavior of the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
:
y
n+1
=
y
n
1 −y
n−1
, (4.31)
y
n+1
=
1 + y
n
1 −y
n−1
, (4.32)
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
1 −y
n
, (4.33)
y
n+1
= −1 +
y
n−1
y
n
. (4.34)
For those equations from the above list for which you were successful, extend your result
by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.
Chapter 5
(2, 1)-Type Equations
5.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2, 1)-type:
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.1)
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.2)
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.3)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.4)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.5)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.6)
69
70 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.7)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.8)
and
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (5.9)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
Of these nine equations, Eqs(5.1), (5.4) and (5.7) are linear. Eq(5.2) is a Riccati
equation and Eq(5.6) is essentially like Eq(5.2).
The change of variables
x
n
=
γ
B
y
n
,
reduces Eq(5.8) to Eq(4.20) with p =
β
γ
, which was investigated in Section 4.7.
Finally the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
+
β
C
y
n
,
reduces Eq(5.9) to Eq(4.18) with p =
γ
β
, which was investigated in Section 4.5.
Therefore there remain Eqs(5.3) and (5.5), which will be investigated in the next two
sections.
5.2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Cx
n−1
- Lyness’
Equation
This is the (2, 1)-type Eq(5.3) which by the change of variables reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.10)
5.2. The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Cx
n−1
- Lyness’ Equation 71
where
p =
αC
β
2
.
The special case of Eq(5.10) where
p = 1
was discovered by Lyness in 1942 while he was working on a problem in Number Theory.
(See ([42], p. 131) for the history of the problem.) In this special case, the equation
becomes
y
n+1
=
1 + y
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.11)
every solution of which is periodic with period five. Indeed the solution of Eq(5.11) with
initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
is the five-cycle:
y
−1
, y
0
,
1 + y
0
y
−1
,
1 + y
−1
+ y
0
y
−1
y
0
,
1 + y
−1
y
0
, . . . .
Eq(5.10) possesses the invariant
I
n
= (p + y
n−1
+ y
n
)

1 +
1
y
n−1

1 +
1
y
n

= constant (5.12)
from which it follows that every solution of Eq(5.10) is bounded from above and from
below by positive constants.
It was shown in [30] that no nontrivial solution of Eq(5.10) has a limit.
It was also shown in [44] by using KAM theory that the positive equilibrium y of
Eq(5.10) is stable but not asymptotically stable. This result was also established in [49]
by using a Lyapunov function.
Concerning the semicycles of solutions of Eq(5.10) the following result was established
in [43]:
Theorem 5.2.1 Assume that p > 0. Then the following statements about the positive
solutions of Eq(5.10) are true:
(a) The absolute extreme in a semicycle occurs in the first or in the second term.
(b) Every nontrivial semicycle, after the first one, contains at least two and at most
three terms.
There is substantial literature on Lyness’ Equation. See [11], [42], [43], [57]-[59], [71],
and [72] and the references cited therein.
72 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations
5.3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
This is the (2, 1)-type Eq(5.5) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
B
y
n
reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n−1
y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.13)
where
p =
αB
γ
2
.
Eq(5.13) was investigated in [28].
By the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 one can see that the unique equilibrium
point
y =
1 +

1 + 4p
2
of Eq(5.13) is a saddle point.
By Theorem 1.7.1 one can see that except possibly for the first semicycle, every
oscillatory solution of Eq(5.13) has semicycles of length one.
Concerning the nonoscillatory solutions of Eq(5.13) one can easily see that every
nonoscillatory solution of Eq(5.13) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y.
The global character of solutions of Eq(5.13) is a consequence of the identity
y
n+1
−y
n−1
=
y
n−1
−y
n−2
y
n
for n ≥ 1.
From this it follows that a solution of Eq(5.13) either approaches the positive equilibrium
y monotonically or it oscillates about y with semicycles of length one in such a way that
{y
2n
} and {y
2n+1
} converge monotonically one to zero and other to ∞.
5.4 Open Problems and Conjectures
By using the invariant (5.12), one can easily see that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5.10)
is bounded from above and from below by positive numbers. To this day we have not
found a proof for the boundedness of solutions of Eq(5.10) without using essentially the
invariant.
Open Problem 5.4.1 Show that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5.10) is bounded without
using the invariant (5.12).
5.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 73
Open Problem 5.4.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suffi-
cient conditions in terms of f so that every positive solution of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
f(x
n
)
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.14)
is bounded.
What is it that makes Lyness’ equation possess an invariant? What type of difference
equations possess an invariant? Along these lines, we offer the following open problems
and conjectures.
Open Problem 5.4.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suffi-
cient conditions in terms of f so that the difference equation (5.14) possesses a (non-
trivial) invariant.
Conjecture 5.4.1 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that the difference equation
(5.14) possesses a unique positive equilibrium point x and a nontrivial invariant. Show
that the linearized equation of Eq(5.14) about x does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| < 1
and does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| > 1.
When we allow the initial conditions to be real numbers the equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n
y
n−1
(5.15)
may not even be well defined for all n ≥ 0. To illustrate, we offer the following open
problems and conjectures.
Open Problem 5.4.4 (See [26].) Assume p ∈ (−∞, ∞). Determine the set G of all
initial conditions y
−1
, y
0
∈ (−∞, ∞) through which Eq(5.15) is well defined for all n ≥ 0.
Conjecture 5.4.2 Let G be the set of initial conditions defined in the Open problem
5.4.4. Show that the subset of G through which the solutions of Eq(5.15) are unbounded
is a set of measure zero.
74 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations
Conjecture 5.4.3 Assume p ∈ (−∞, ∞). Show that the set of points (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈
(−∞, ∞) × (−∞, ∞) through which Eq(5.15) is not well defined for all n ≥ 0, is a
set of points without interior.
Open Problem 5.4.5 Determine all positive integers k with the property that every
positive solution of the equation
y
n+1
=
1 + . . . + y
n−k
y
n−k−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
is periodic.
Conjecture 5.4.4 Show that every positive solution of the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
y
n−1
+
y
n−4
y
n−3
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-six solution.
Conjecture 5.4.5 (See [20]) Show that every positive solution of the equation
y
n+1
=
1
y
n
y
n−1
+
1
y
n−3
y
n−4
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-three solution.
Conjecture 5.4.6 Show that the equation
y
n+1
=
1 + y
n−1
y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
has a nontrivial positive solution which decreases monotonically to the equilibrium of the
equation.
Open Problem 5.4.6 Find the set G of all initial points (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R × R through
which the equation
y
n+1
=
1 + y
n−1
y
n
is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Determine the periodic character and the asymptotic
behavior of all solutions with (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ G.
5.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 75
Conjecture 5.4.7 (May’s Host Parasitoid Model; see [59]) Assume α > 1. Show
that every positive solution of May’s Host Parasitoid Model
x
n+1
=
αx
2
n
(1 + x
n
)x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
is bounded.
Conjecture 5.4.8 (The Gingerbreadman Map; see [59]) Let A ∈ (0, ∞). Show that
every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
max{x
2
n
, A}
x
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.16)
is bounded.
Note that the change of variables
x
n
=







A
1+y
n
2
if A > 1
e
y
n
2
if A = 1
A
−1+y
n
2
if A < 1
reduces Eq(5.16) to
y
n+1
= |y
n
| −y
n−1
+ δ, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.17)
where
δ =





1 if A < 1
0 if A = 1
−1 if A > 1.
When δ = 1, Eq(5.17) is called the Gingerbreadman Map and was investigated
by Devaney [17].
Chapter 6
(2, 2)-Type Equations
6.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2, 2)-type:
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.1)
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.2)
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.3)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.4)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.5)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.6)
77
78 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.7)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.8)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.9)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
Eq(6.5) is essentially similar to Eq(6.1). In fact if {x
n
}

n=−1
is a positive solution of
Eq(6.5) then {x
2n
}

n=0
and {x
2n−1
}

n=0
are both solutions of the Riccati equations
z
n+1
=
α + γz
n
A + Cz
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
with
z
n
= x
2n
for n ≥ 0
and
z
n+1
=
α + γz
n
A + Cz
n
, n = −1, 0, . . .
with
z
n
= x
2n+1
for n ≥ −1,
respectively.
Therefore we will omit any further discussion of Eq(6.5).
6.2 The Case γ = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
- Riccati
Equation
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.1) which is in fact a Riccati equation. See Section 1.6.
To avoid a degenerate situation we will assume that
αB −βA = 0.
6.3. The Case γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
79
The Riccati number associated with this equation is
R =
βA −αB
(β + A)
2
and clearly
R <
1
4
.
Now the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.6.2:
Theorem 6.2.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6.1) is globally asymptotically stable.
6.3 The Case γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.2) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
C
y
n
reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.10)
where
p =
αC
A
2
and q =
β
A
.
(Eq(6.10) was investigated in [42] and [43]. See also [36].)
Eq(6.10) has the unique positive equilibrium y given by
y =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p
2
.
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result.
Lemma 6.3.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.10) is locally asymptotically stable for all val-
ues of the parameters p and q.
Eq(6.10) is a very simple looking equation for which it has long been conjectured
that its equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. To this day, the conjecture has
not been proven or refuted.
The main results known about Eq(6.10) are the following:
Theorem 6.3.1 Every solution of Eq(6.10) is bounded from above and from below by
positive constants.
80 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Proof. Let {y
n
} be a solution of Eq(6.10). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from
above by a constant M, then
y
n+1

p
1 + M
and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the
solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y
1+n
k
}

k=0
such
that
lim
k→∞
n
k
= ∞, lim
k→∞
y
1+n
k
= ∞, and y
1+n
k
= max{y
n
: n ≤ n
k
} for k ≥ 0.
From (6.10) we see that
y
n+1
< qy
n
+ p for n ≥ 0
and so
lim
k→∞
y
n
k
= lim
k→∞
y
n
k
−1
= ∞.
Hence, for sufficiently large k,
0 ≤ y
1+n
k
−y
n
k
=
p + [(q −1) −y
n
k
−1
]y
n
k
1 + y
n
k
−1
< 0
which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. 2
The oscillatory character of solutions for Eq(6.10) is described by the following result:
Theorem 6.3.2 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.10). Then the following
statements are true:
(i) Every semicycle, except perhaps for the first one, has at least two terms.
(ii) The extreme in each semicycle occurs at either the first term or the second. Fur-
thermore after the first, the remaining terms in a positive semicycle are strictly
decreasing and in a negative semicycle are strictly increasing.
(iii) In any two consecutive semicycles, their extrema cannot be consecutive terms.
(iv) Assume
q ≤ p.
Then, except possibly for the first semicycle, every semicycle contains two or three
terms. Furthermore, in every semicycle, there is at most one term which follows
the extreme.
Proof. We present the proofs for positive semicycles only. The proofs for negative
semicycles are similar and will be omitted.
6.3. The Case γ = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Cx
n−1
81
(i) Assume that for some N ≥ 0,
y
N−1
< y and y
N
≥ y.
Then
y
N+1
=
p + qy
N
1 + y
N−1
>
p + qy
1 + y
= y.
(ii) Assume that for some N ≥ 0, the first two terms in a positive semicycle are y
N
and y
N+1
. Then
y
N
≥ y, y
N+1
> y
and
y
N+2
y
N+1
=
1
y
N+1
p + qy
N+1
1 + y
N
=
p
y
N+1
+ q
1 + y
N
<
p
y
+ q
1 + y
= 1.
(iii) We consider the case where a negative semicycle is followed by a positive one. The
opposite case is similar and will be omitted. So assume that for some N ≥ 0 the
last two terms in a negative semicycle are y
N−1
and y
N
with
y
N−1
≥ y
N
.
Then
y
N+1
=
p + qy
N
1 + y
N−1
<
p + qy
N+1
1 + y
N
= y
N+2
.
(iv) Assume that for some N ≥ 0, the terms y
N
, y
N+1
, and y
N+2
are all in a positive
semicycle. Then
y
N+3
=
p + qy
N+2
1 + y
N+1
<
p + qy
N+1
1 + y
N+1
<
p + qy
1 + y
= y.
2
Theorem 6.3.3 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6.10) is globally asymptotically stable if
one of the following two conditions holds:
(i)
q < 1;
(ii)
q ≥ 1
and
either p ≤ q or q < p ≤ 2(q + 1).
82 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Proof.
(i) In view of Lemma 6.3.1, it remains to show that every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.10)
tends to y as n →∞. To this end, let
i = liminf
n→∞
y
n
and s = limsup
n→∞
y
n
which by Theorem 6.3.1 exist and are positive numbers. Then Eq(6.10) yields
i ≥
p + qi
1 + s
and s ≤
p + qs
1 + i
.
Hence
p + (q −1)i ≤ is ≤ p + (q −1)s
and so because q < 1,
i ≥ s
from which the result follows.
(ii) The proof when
p < q
follows by applying Theorem 1.4.2. This result was first established in [43].
For the proof when
1 ≤ q ≤ p ≤ 2(q + 1)
see ([42], Theorem 3.4.3 (f), p. 71).
2
6.4 The Case γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.3) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
β
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ p
y
n
+ qy
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.11)
where
p =
αB
β
2
and q =
C
B
.
Eq(6.11) was investigated in [15].
The following result is a consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1.
6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
83
Theorem 6.4.1 The unique positive equilibrium point
y =
1 +

1 + 4p(q + 1)
2(q + 1)
of Eq(6.11) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q.
6.4.1 Invariant Intervals
The following result establishes that the interval I with end points 1 and
p
q
is an invari-
ant interval for Eq(6.11) in the sense that if, for some k ≥ 0, two consecutive values
y
k−1
and y
k
of a solution lie in I, then y
m
∈ I for all m > k.
Lemma 6.4.1 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements
are true:
(a) Assume p < q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0,
y
k−1
, y
k

¸
p
q
, 1
¸
.
Then
y
n

¸
p
q
, 1
¸
for all n > k.
(b) Assume p > q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0,
y
k−1
, y
k

¸
1,
p
q
¸
.
Then
y
n

¸
1,
p
q
¸
for all n > k.
Proof.
(a) The basic ingredient behind the proof is the fact that when u, v ∈ [
p
q
, ∞), the
function
f(u, v) =
u + p
u + qv
is increasing in u and decreasing in v. Indeed,
y
k+1
=
y
k
+ p
y
k
+ qy
k−1

y
k
+ p
y
k
+ q
p
q
= 1,
y
k+1
=
y
k
+ p
y
k
+ qy
k−1

p
q
+ p
p
q
+ q
>
p
q
and the proof follows by induction.
(b) The proof is similar and will be omitted. 2
84 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.4.2 Semicycle Analysis
Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then observe that the following identities are
true:
y
n+1
−1 = q
p
q
−y
n−1
y
n
+ qy
n−1
for n ≥ 0, (6.12)
y
n+1

p
q
=
(q −p) + pq(1 −y
n−1
)
q(y
n
+ qy
n−1
)
for n ≥ 0, (6.13)
and
y
n
−y
n+4
=
(y
n
−1)[qy
n
y
n+3
+ y
n+1
y
n+3
] + qy
n+1
(y
n

p
q
)
q(p + y
n+1
) + y
n+3
(y
n+1
+ qy
n
)
for n ≥ 0. (6.14)
First we will analyze the semicycles of the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
under the assumption
that
p > q. (6.15)
The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.15):
Lemma 6.4.2 Assume that (6.15) holds and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.11).
Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
<
p
q
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
=
p
q
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
>
p
q
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
≥ 1, then y
N+1
<
p
q
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
≤ 1, then y
N+1
> 1;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
N+4
< y
N
;
(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
N+4
> y
N
;
(viii) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ y
N−1

p
q
, then 1 ≤ y
N+1

p
q
;
(ix) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ y
N−1
, y
N

p
q
, then y
n
∈ [1,
p
q
] for n ≥ N. That is [1,
p
q
] is
an invariant interval for Eq(6.11);
(x)
1 < y <
p
q
.
6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
85
The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.2, states that when (6.15)
holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11), which lies in the interval
[1,
p
q
], oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one or two.
Theorem 6.4.2 Assume that Eq(6.11) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory
solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [1,
p
q
], oscillates about y with semicycles
of length one or two.
Next we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {y
n
}

n=−1
under the assumption
that
q = p. (6.16)
In this case, Eq(6.11) reduces to
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ p
y
n
+ py
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.17)
with the unique equilibrium point
y = 1.
Also identities (6.12)-(6.14) reduce to
y
n+1
−1 = p
1 −y
n−1
y
n
+ py
n−1
for n ≥ 0 (6.18)
and
y
n
−y
n+4
= (y
n
−1)
py
n+1
+ py
n
y
n+3
+ y
n+1
y
n+3
p(p + y
n+1
) + y
n+3
(y
n+1
+ py
n
)
for n ≥ 0. (6.19)
and so the following results follow immediately:
Lemma 6.4.3 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.17). Then the following statements
are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
< 1, then y
N+1
> 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
= 1, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
> 1, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
< 1, then y
N
< y
N+4
< 1;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
> 1, then y
N
> y
N+4
> 1.
Corollary 6.4.1 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.17). Then {y
n
}

n=−1
oscillates about the equilibrium 1 and, except possibly for the first semicycle, the following
are true:
86 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
(i) If y
−1
= 1 or y
0
= 1, then the positive semicycle has length three and the negative
semicycle has length one.
(ii) If (1 −y
−1
)(1 −y
0
) = 0, then every semicycle has length two.
Finally we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {y
n
}

n=−1
under the assumption
that
p < q. (6.20)
The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.14) and (6.20).
Lemma 6.4.4 Assume that (6.20) holds and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.11).
Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
<
p
q
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
=
p
q
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
>
p
q
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1
≤ 1, then y
N+1
>
p
q
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N−1

p
q
, then y
N+1
>
p
q
;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≥ 1, then y
N+4
< y
N
;
(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
N+4
> y
N
;
(viii) If for some N ≥ 0,
p
q
≤ y
N−1
≤ 1, then
p
q
≤ y
N+1
≤ 1;
(ix) If for some N ≥ 0,
p
q
≤ y
N−1
, y
N
≤ 1, then y
n
∈ [
p
q
, 1] for n ≥ N. That is, [
p
q
, 1] is
an invariant interval for Eq(6.11);
(x)
p
q
< y < 1.
The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.4, states that when (6.20)
holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval
[
p
q
, 1], after the first semicycle, oscillates with semicycles of length at least two.
Theorem 6.4.3 Assume that (6.20) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solu-
tion of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [
p
q
, 1], after the first semicycle, oscillates with
semicycles of length at least two.
6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
87
How do solutions which do not eventually lie in the invariant interval behave?
First assume that
p > q
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution which does not eventually lie in the interval I = [1,
p
q
].
Then one can see that the solution oscillates relative to the interval [1,
p
q
], essentially in
one of the following two ways:
(i) Two consecutive terms in (
p
q
, ∞) are followed by two consecutive terms in (0, 1),
are followed by two consecutive terms in (
p
q
, ∞), and so on. The solution never visits
the interval (1,
p
q
).
(ii) There exists exactly one term in (
p
q
, ∞), which is followed by exactly one term in
(1,
p
q
), which is followed by exactly one term in (0, 1), which is followed by exactly one
term in (1,
p
q
), which is followed by exactly one term in (
p
q
, ∞), and so on. The solution
visits consecutively the intervals
. . . ,

p
q
, ∞

,

1,
p
q

, (0, 1),

1,
p
q

,

p
q
, ∞

, . . .
in this order with one term per interval.
The situation is essentially the same relative to the interval [
p
q
, 1] when
p < q.
6.4.3 Global Stability and Boundedness
Our goal in this section is to establish the following result:
Theorem 6.4.4 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(6.11) is globally asymptotically stable
when
q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.21)
(b) Assume that
q > 1 + 4p.
Then every solution of Eq(6.11) lies eventually in the interval

p
q
, 1

.
Proof.
(a) We have already shown that the equilibrium y is locally asymptotically stable so
it remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of
Eq(6.11).
Case 1 Assume p = q. It follows from (6.19) that each of the four subsequences
{y
4n+i
}

n=0
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4
88 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
is either identically equal to one or else it is strictly monotonically convergent. Set
L
i
= lim
n→∞
y
4n+i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
Thus clearly
. . . , L
1
, L
2
, L
3
, L
4
, . . . (6.22)
is a periodic solution of Eq(6.11) with period four. By applying (6.19) to the
solution (6.22) we see that
L
i
= 1 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4
and so
lim
n→∞
y
n
= 1.
Case 2 Assume p = q. First, we assume that p > q.
Recall from Lemma 6.4.2 that [1,
p
q
] is an invariant interval. In this interval the
function
f(u, v) =
u + p
u + qv
is decreasing in both variables and so it follows by applying Theorem 1.4.7 that
every solution of Eq(6.11) with two consecutive values in [1,
p
q
] converges to y. By
using an argument similar to that in the case p = q, we can see that if a solution is
not eventually in [1,
p
q
], it converges to a periodic solution with period-four which
is not the equilibrium. By applying (6.14) to this period four solution we obtain a
contradiction and so every solution of Eq(6.11) must lie eventually in [1,
p
q
].
Hence for every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.11)
lim
n→∞
y
n
= y
and the proof is complete.
Now, assume that p < q.
As in Case 2 we can see that every solution of Eq(6.11) must eventually lie in the
interval [
p
q
, 1]. In this interval the function
f(u, v) =
u + p
u + qv
is increasing in u and decreasing in v. Under the assumption that q ≤ 1 + 4p,
Theorem 1.4.5 applies and so every solution of Eq(6.11) converges to y.
(b) The proof follows from the discussion in part (a).
2
6.5. The Case β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
89
6.5 The Case β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.4) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.23)
where
p =
αB
A
2
and q =
γ
A
.
(Eq(6.23) was investigated in [28].)
The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.23) is
y =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p
2
and by applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result:
Theorem 6.5.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.23) is locally asymptotically stable when
q < 1,
and is an unstable saddle point when
q > 1.
Concerning prime period-two solutions, the following result is a consequence of the
results in Section 2.7.
Theorem 6.5.2 (a) Eq(6.23) has a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.24)
if and only if
q = 1. (6.25)
(b) Assume (6.25) holds. Then the values φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions
(6.24) are given by
{φ, ψ ∈ (0, ∞) : φψ = p}.
(c) Assume that (6.25) holds. Then every solution of Eq(6.23) converges to a period
two solution.
90 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.5.1 Semicycle Analysis
Our results on the semicycles of solutions for Eq(6.23) are as follows:
Theorem 6.5.3 Let {y
n
} be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.23) and let y denote the
unique positive equilibrium of Eq(6.23). Then the following statements are true:
(a) After the first semicycle, an oscillatory solution {y
n
} of Eq(6.23) oscillates about
the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.
(b) Assume p ≥ q. Then every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.23) converges mono-
tonically to the equilibrium y.
Proof. (a) This follows immediately from Theorem 1.7.1
(b) Let {y
n
} be a nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.23). We will assume that there exists
a positive integer K such that y
n−1
≥ y for every n ≥ K. The case where y
n−1
< y for
n ≥ K is similar and will be omitted. It is sufficient to show that {y
n
} is a decreasing
sequence for n ≥ K. So assume for the sake of contradiction that for some n
0
≥ K,
y
n
0
> y
n
0
−1
.
Clearly, the condition p ≥ q implies that the function
f(x) =
p + qx
1 + x
is decreasing. Then
y
n
0
+1
=
p + qy
n
0
−1
1 + y
n
0
= f(y
n
0
, y
n
0
−1
) < f(y
n
0
, y
n
0
) < f(y, y) = y,
which is impossible. 2
6.5.2 The Case q < 1
The main result in this section is the following:
Theorem 6.5.4 Assume that
q < 1.
Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.23) is globally asymptotically stable.
Proof. Clearly
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n−1
1 + y
n
< p + qy
n−1
, n ≥ 0. (6.26)
Set
M =
p
1 −q
+ ,
6.5. The Case β = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
91
where is some positive number.
From Eq(6.26) and Eq(6.23), it now follows that every solution of Eq(6.23) lies
eventually in the interval [0, M].
Set
f(x, y) =
p + qy
1 + x
, a = 0, and b =
p
1 −q
+ .
Then clearly,
a ≤ f(x, y) ≤ b,
for all (x, y) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b]. By applying Theorem 1.4.6 it follows that y is a global at-
tractor of all solutions of Eq(6.23). The local stability of y was established in Theorem
6.5.1. The proof is complete. 2
6.5.3 The Case q > 1
In this case we will show that there exist solutions that have two subsequences, one of
which is monotonically approaching 0 and the other is monotonically approaching ∞.
In fact this is true for every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
whose initial conditions are such that the
following inequalities are true:
y
−1
< q −1 and y
0
> q −1 +
p
q −1
.
To this end observe that
y
1
=
p + qy
−1
1 + y
0
<
p + q(q −1)
1 + y
0
< q −1
and
y
2
=
p + qy
0
1 + y
1
>
p + qy
0
q
= y
0
+
p
q
and by induction,
y
2n−1
< q −1 and y
2n
> y
0
+ n
p
q
for n ≥ 1.
Hence
lim
n→∞
y
2n
= ∞
and
lim
n→∞
y
2n+1
= lim
n→∞
p + qy
2n−1
1 + y
2n
= 0
and the proof is complete.
92 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.6 The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.6) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n−1
qy
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.27)
where
p =
αC
γ
2
and q =
B
C
.
(Eq(6.27) was investigated in [45].)
Eq(6.27) has the unique positive equilibrium
y =
1 +

1 + 4p(1 + q)
2(1 + q)
.
The linearized equation associated with Eq(6.27) about y is
z
n+1
+
q
1 + q
z
n

qy −p
(y + p)(1 + q)
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.28)
By employing Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when
(q −1)y < 2p (6.29)
and unstable (a saddle point) when
(q −1)y > 2p. (6.30)
Clearly the equilibrium y is the positive solution of the quadratic equation
(1 + q)y
2
−y −p = 0.
If we now set
F(u) = (1 + q)u
2
−u −p,
it is easy to see that (6.29) is satisfied if and only if either
q ≤ 1
or
q > 1 and F

2p
q −1

> 0.
6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
93
Similarly (6.30) is satisfied if and only if
q > 1 and F

2p
q −1

< 0.
The following result is now a consequence of the above discussion and some simple
calculations:
Theorem 6.6.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.27) is locally asymptotically stable when
q < 1 + 4p (6.31)
and unstable, and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium, when
q > 1 + 4p. (6.32)
6.6.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles
Let
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
be a period-two cycle of Eq(6.27). Then
φ =
p + φ
qψ + φ
and ψ =
p + ψ
qφ + ψ
.
It now follows after some calculations that the following result is true:
Theorem 6.6.2 Eq(6.27) has a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if
q > 1 + 4p.
Furthermore when (6.32) holds, the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ
and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation
t
2
−t +
p
q −1
= 0.
94 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
To investigate the local stability of the two cycle
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
we set
u
n
= y
n−1
and v
n
= y
n
, for n = 0, 1, . . .
and write Eq(6.27) in the equivalent form:
u
n+1
= v
n
v
n+1
=
p+u
n
qv
n
+u
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) defined by:
T

u
v

=

v
p+u
qv+u

.
Then

φ
ψ

is a fixed point of T
2
, the second iterate of T. By a simple calculation we find that
T
2

u
v

=

g(u, v)
h(u, v)

where
g(u, v) =
p + u
qv + u
and h(u, v) =
p + v
qg(u, v) + v
.
Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the
Jacobian matrix J
T
2, evaluated at

φ
ψ

lie inside the unit disk.
We have
J
T
2

φ
ψ

=

¸
¸
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
¸

where,
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) =
qψ −p
(qψ + φ)
2
,
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ) = −
(p + φ)q
(qψ + φ)
2
,
6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
95
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ) = −
q(p + ψ)(qψ −p)
(qφ + ψ)
2
(qψ + φ)
2
,
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) =
q
2
(p + φ)(p + ψ)
(qφ + ψ)
2
(qψ + φ)
2
+
qφ −p
(qφ + ψ)
2
.
Set
S =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) +
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
and
D =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) −
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ).
Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 that both eigenvalues of J
T
2

φ
ψ

lie inside the
unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if
|S| < 1 +D < 2. (6.33)
Inequality (6.33) is equivalent to the following three inequalities:
S < 1 +D (6.34)
−1 −D < S (6.35)
D < 1. (6.36)
First we will establish Inequality (6.34).
To this end observe that (6.34) is equivalent to
(qψ −p)(qφ + ψ)
2
+ (qφ −p)(qψ + φ)
2
+ q
2
(p + ψ)(p + φ) −(qψ −p)(qφ −p)
< (qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
which is true if and only if
p
q −1
(q
3
+ 2q
2
−4qp + 2q
2
p + 2p −3q) + q −p + q
2
p
2
+ qp −p
2
< (qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
which is true if and only if
−q
3
p + 7q
2
p −8qp
2
+ 4q
2
p
2
+ 4p
2
−7qp + 2q
2
−q + p −q
3
< 0
which is true if and only if
−(p + 1)(q −1)(q −
p
p + 1
)[q −(1 + 4p)] < 0
which is true because q > 1 + 4p.
96 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Next we will establish Inequality (6.35). Observe that (6.35) is equivalent to
−(qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
< (qψ −p)(qφ + ψ)
2
+ (qφ −p)
2
(qψ + φ)
2
+ q
2
(p + ψ)(p + φ) + (qψ −p)(qφ −p)
which is true if and only if
−(qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
<
p
q −1
(q
3
+ 4q
2
−4qp + 2q
2
p + 2p −3q) −p + q
2
p
2
which is true if and only if
q
2
+ 2pq + 2p
2
q
2
−p
2
+ qp
2
−q
3
−3q
3
p −2q
3
p
2
−p < 0
which is true if and only if
p
2
(−2q
3
+ 2q
2
+ q −1) + p(−3q
3
+ 2q −1) −q
3
+ q
2
< 0
which is true because q > 1.
Finally, we establish Inequality (6.36). Observe that (6.36) is true if and only if
(qψ −p)(qφ −p) < (qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
which is true if and only if
p
q −1
[q
2
−(q −1)(q −p)] < (pq −p + q)
2
which is true if and only if
q(pq −p + q)(pq −2p + q −1) > 0
which is true because q > 1 + 4p.
6.6.2 Invariant Intervals
Here we show that the interval I with end points one and
p
q
is an invariant interval for
Eq(6.27). More precisely we show that the values of any solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.27)
either remain forever outside the interval I or the solution is eventually trapped into I.
Theorem 6.6.3 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements
are true.
(a) Assume that p ≤ q and that for some N ≥ 0,
p
q
≤ y
N
≤ 1.
Then
p
q
≤ y
n
≤ 1 for all n ≥ N.
6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
97
(b) Assume that p ≥ q and that for some N ≥ 0,
1 ≤ y
N

p
q
.
Then
1 ≤ y
n

p
q
for all n ≥ N.
Proof.
(a) Indeed we have
y
N+1
=
p + y
N−1
qy
N
+ y
N−1

p + y
N−1
p + y
N−1
= 1
and
y
N+1
=
p + y
N−1
qy
N
+ y
N−1
=
p + y
N−1
q
p
(py
N
+
p
q
y
N−1
)

p
q

p + y
N−1
p + y
N−1
=
p
q
and the proof follows by induction.
(b) Clearly,
y
N+1
=
p + y
N−1
qy
N
+ y
N−1

p + y
N−1
p + y
N−1
= 1
and
y
N+1
=
p + y
N−1
qy
N
+ y
N−1
=

p
q

p + y
N−1
py
N
+
p
q
y
N−1

p
q

p + y
N−1
p + y
N−1
=
p
q
and the proof follows by induction.
2
6.6.3 Semicycle Analysis
Here we present a thorough semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.27) relative to
the equilibrium y and relative to the end points of the invariant interval of Eq(6.27).
Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then observe that the following identities
are true:
y
n+1
−1 = q
p
q
−y
n
qy
n
+ y
n−1
for n ≥ 0, (6.37)
y
n+1

p
q
=
qy
n−1
(1 −
p
q
) + pq(1 −y
n
)
q(qy
n
+ y
n−1
)
for n ≥ 0, (6.38)
y
n
−y
n+2
=
qy
n−1
(y
n

p
q
) + (y
n
−1)(y
n−1
y
n
+ qy
2
n
)
q(p + y
n−1
) + y
n
(qy
n
+ y
n−1
)
for n ≥ 0. (6.39)
98 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
When
p = q
that is for the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n−1
py
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.40)
the above identities reduce to the following:
y
n+1
−1 = p
1 −y
n
py
n
+ y
n−1
for n ≥ 0 (6.41)
and
y
n
−y
n+2
= (y
n
−1)
py
n−1
+ y
n−1
y
n
+ py
2
n
p(p + y
n−1
) + y
n
(py
n
+ y
n−1
)
for n ≥ 0. (6.42)
The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of (6.37)-(6.42).
Lemma 6.6.1 Assume that
p > q
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
p
q
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
p
q
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
p
q
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≥ 1, then y
N+1
<
p
q
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
N+2
< y
N
;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
N+2
> y
N
;
(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
n
∈ [1,
p
q
] for n ≥ N. In particular [1,
p
q
] is an
invariant interval for Eq(6.27);
(viii)
1 < y <
p
q
.
Lemma 6.6.2 Assume that
p = q
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
< 1, then y
N+1
> 1;
6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
99
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
= 1, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
> 1, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
< 1, then y
N
< y
N+2
< 1;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
> 1, then y
N
> y
N+2
> 1.
Lemma 6.6.3 Assume that
p < q
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
p
q
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
p
q
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
p
q
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
N+1
>
p
q
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
N+1
≥ 1;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≥ 1, then y
N+2
< y
N
;
(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N

p
q
, then y
N+2
> y
N
;
(viii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
n
∈ [
p
q
, 1] for n ≥ N. In particular [
p
q
, 1] is an
invariant interval for Eq(6.27);
(ix)
p
q
< y < 1.
Note that the function
f(u, v) =
p + v
qu + v
is always decreasing in u but in v it is decreasing when u <
p
q
and increasing when u >
p
q
.
The following result is now a consequence of Theorems 1.7.1 and 1.7.2 and Lemmas
6.6.1-6.6.3:
100 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Theorem 6.6.4 Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(6.27). Let I be the closed interval
with end points 1 and
p
q
and let J and K be the intervals which are disjoint from I and
such that
I ∪ J ∪ K = (0, ∞).
Then either all the even terms of the solution lie in J and all odd terms lie in K, or
vice-versa, or for some N ≥ 0,
y
n
∈ I for n ≥ N. (6.43)
When (6.43) holds, except for the length of the first semicycle of the solution, if
p < q
the length is one, while if
p > q
the length is at most two.
6.6.4 Global Behavior of Solutions
Recall that Eq(6.27) has a unique equilibrium y which is locally stable when (6.31) holds.
When (6.32) holds, and only then, Eq(6.27) has a “unique” prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.44)
with
φ + ψ = 1 and φψ =
p
q −1
. (6.45)
Also recall that a solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.27) either eventually enters the interval I
with end points 1 and
p
q
and remains there, or stays forever outside I.
Now when
q ≤ 1 + 4p
there are no period-two solutions and so the solutions must eventually enter and remain
in I and, in view of Theorems 1.4.6 and 1.4.7, must converge to y.
On the other hand when (6.32) holds, any solution which remains forever outside the
interval I = [
p
q
, 1] must converge to the two cycle (6.44)-(6.45). But this two cycle lies
inside the interval I. Hence, when (6.32) holds, every solution of Eq(6.27) eventually
enters and remains in the interval I.
The character of these solutions remains an open question.
The above observations are summarized in the following theorem:
Theorem 6.6.5 (a) Assume
q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.46)
Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6.27) is global attractor.
6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
101
(b) Assume
q > 1 + 4p.
Then every solution of Eq(6.27) eventually enters and remains in the interval [
p
q
, 1].
6.7 The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
This is the (2, 2)-type equation Eq(6.7) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.47)
where
p =
β
A
and q =
γ
A
.
(Eq(6.47) was investigated in [52].)
The equilibrium points of Eq(6.47) are the solutions of the equation
y =
py + qy
1 + y
.
So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point, and when
p + q > 1,
y = p + q −1 is the only positive equilibrium point of Eq(6.47).
The following result follows from Theorem 1.3.1 and the linearized stability Theorem
1.1.1:
Theorem 6.7.1 (a) Assume
p + q ≤ 1.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume
p + q > 1.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is unstable. More precisely it is a saddle
point when
1 −p < q < 1 + p
and a repeller when
q > 1 + p.
102 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
(c) Assume
1 −p < q < 1 + p.
Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6.47) is locally asymptotically
stable.
(d) Assume
q > 1 + p.
Then the positive equilibrium y = p+q −1 of Eq(6.47) is an unstable saddle point.
Concerning prime period-two solutions it follows from Sections 2.5 that the following
result is true:
Theorem 6.7.2 Eq(6.47) has a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if
q = 1 + p. (6.48)
Furthermore when (6.48) holds, the values of φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions
are given by:
{φ, ψ ∈ (p, ∞) : ψ =

φ −p
= 2p}.
6.7.1 Invariant Intervals
The main result here is the following theorem about Eq(6.47) with q = 1. The case
q = 1 (6.49)
is treated in Section 6.7.3.
Theorem 6.7.3 (a) Assume that
q < 1. (6.50)
Then every solution of Eq(6.47) eventually enters the interval (0,
p
q
]. Furthermore,
(0,
p
q
] is an invariant interval for Eq(6.47). That is, every solution of Eq(6.47)
with initial conditions in (0,
p
q
], remains in this interval.
(b) Assume that
q > 1. (6.51)
Then every solution of Eq(6.47) eventually enters the interval [
p
q
, ∞). Further-
more, [
p
q
, ∞) is an invariant interval for Eq(6.47).
6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
103
The proof of the above theorem is an elementary consequence of the following lemma,
whose proof is straightforward and will be omitted.
Lemma 6.7.1 (a) Assume that (6.50) holds. Then for any k, m ∈ N,
y
k

p
q
=⇒y
k+2
≤ p <
p
q
and
y
k+2

p
q
m
=⇒y
k
>
p
q
m+1
> p.
(b) Assume that (6.51) holds. Then for any k, m ∈ N,
y
k

p
q
=⇒y
k+2
≥ p >
p
q
and
y
k+2

p
q
m
=⇒y
k
>
p
q
m+1
> p.
6.7.2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1
Here we discuss the behavior of the semicycles of solutions of Eq(6.47) when
p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1.
Hereafter, y refers to the positive equilibrium p + q −1 of Eq(6.47).
Let f : [0, ∞) ×[0, ∞) →[0, ∞) denote the function
f(x, y) =
px + qy
1 + x
.
Then f satisfies the negative feedback condition; that is,
(x −x)(f(x, x) −x) < 0 for x ∈ (0, ∞) −{x}.
Consider the function g : [0, ∞) →[0, ∞) defined by
g(x) =
(p + q)x
1 + x
.
Observe that g(y) = y and that g increases on [0, ∞).
Theorem 6.7.4 Suppose
p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1.
Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(6.47). Then the following statements are true
for every n ≥ 0:
104 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
(a) If y ≤ y
n−1
, y
n
, then y ≤ y
n+1
≤ max{y
n−1
, y
n
}.
(b) If y
n−1
, y
n
≤ y, then min{y
n−1
, y
n
} ≤ y
n+1
< y.
(c) If y
n−1
< y ≤ y
n
, then y
n−1
< y
n+1
< y
n
.
(d) If y
n
< y ≤ y
n−1
, then y
n
< y
n+1
< y
n−1
.
(e) If y < y
k
<
y
2−q
, for every k ≥ −1, then {y
n
} decreases to the equilibrium y.
Proof.
(a) Suppose y ≤ y
n−1
, y
n
. Then
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n

(p + q) max{y
n−1
, y
n
}
1 + y
= max{y
n−1
, y
n
}.
Since the function
px + qx
1 + x
,
is increasing for y <
p
q
, which is equivalent to q ≤ 1, we obtain
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n

py
n
+ qy
1 + y
n
≥ g(y) = y.
Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that y
n−1
> y or y
n
> y.
(b) Suppose y
n−1
, y
n
≤ y. Then in view of the previous case
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n

py
n
+ qy
1 + y
n
< g(y) = y
and
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n

(p + q) min{y
n−1
, y
n
}
1 + y
= min{y
n−1
, y
n
}.
Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that y
n−1
< y or y
n
< y.
(c) Suppose y
n−1
< y ≤ y
n
. Then
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
<
(p + q)y
n
1 + y
n
=
(1 + y)y
n
1 + y
n
< y
n
.
Since q ≤ 1 and y
n−1
< y,
p −qy
n−1
> p −qy = (1 −q)(p + q) ≥ 0.
Thus
px+qy
n−1
1+x
increases in x and so
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
>
py
n−1
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n−1
= g(y
n−1
) > y
n−1
.
The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property.
6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
105
(d) Suppose y
n
< y ≤ y
n−1
. Then
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
>
py
n
+ qy
n
1 + y
n
= g(y
n
) > y
n
by the negative feedback property.
To see that y
n+1
< y
n−1
, we must consider two cases:
Case 1. Suppose p −qy
n−1
≥ 0. Then
px+qy
n−1
1+x
increases in x and so
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n

py
n−1
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n−1
< y
n−1
.
The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property.
Case 2. Suppose p −qy
n−1
< 0. Then
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
<
qy
n−1
(y
n
+ 1)
1 + y
n
≤ y
n−1
.
(e) Observe that
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ qy
n−1
1 + y
n
> y = p + q −1
and so
y
n−1
≥ qy
n−1
> y + (q −1)y
n
> y
n
from which the result follows.
2
6.7.3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.47) when
q = 1.
Here the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is
y = p.
Theorem 6.7.5 Suppose that q = 1 and let y
−1
+ y
0
> 0. Then the equilibrium y of
Eq(6.47) is globally asymptotically stable. More precisely the following statements are
true.
(a) Assume y
−1
≥ p and y
0
≥ p. Then y
n
≥ p for all n > 0 and
lim
n→∞
y
n
= p. (6.52)
(b) Assume y
−1
≤ p and y
0
≤ p. Then y
n
≤ p for all n > 0 and (6.52) holds.
(c) Assume either y
−1
< p < y
0
or y
−1
> p > y
0
. Then {y
n
}

n=−1
oscillates about the
equilibrium p with semicycles of length one and (6.52) holds.
106 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Proof. (a) The case where y
−1
= y
0
= p is trivial. We will assume that y
−1
≥ p and
y
0
> p. The case y
−1
> p and y
0
≥ p is similar and will be omitted. Then
y
1
=
py
0
+ y
−1
1 + y
0

py
0
+ p
1 + y
0
= p,
and
y
2
=
py
1
+ y
0
1 + y
1
>
py
1
+ p
1 + y
1
= p.
It follows by induction that y
n
≥ p for all n > 0. Furthermore, y
−1
≥ p implies that
py
0
+ y
−1
≤ y
−1
y
0
+ y
−1
and so
y
1
=
py
0
+ y
−1
1 + y
0

y
−1
y
0
+ y
−1
1 + y
0
= y
−1
.
Similarly, we can show that y
2
< y
0
and by induction
y
−1
≥ y
1
≥ y
3
≥ . . . ≥ p
and
y
0
> y
2
> y
4
> . . . > p.
Thus, there exist m ≥ p and M ≥ p such that
lim
k→∞
y
2k+1
= m and lim
k→∞
y
2k
= M.
As Eq(6.47) has no period-two solutions when q = 1, it follows that m = M = p and
the proof of part (a) is complete.
It is interesting to note that
y
−1
= p ⇒y
2k+1
= p for k ≥ 0 and y
0
= p ⇒y
2k
= p for k ≥ 0.
(b) The proof of (b) is similar to the proof of (a) and will be omitted.
(c) Assume y
−1
< p < y
0
. The proof when y
0
< p < y
−1
is similar and will be
omitted.
y
1
=
py
0
+ y
−1
1 + y
0
<
py
0
+ p
1 + y
0
= p,
and
y
2
=
py
1
+ y
0
1 + y
1
>
py
1
+ p
1 + y
1
= p.
It follows by induction that the solution oscillates about p with semicycles of length one.
Next, we claim that the subsequence {y
2k+1
}

k=−1
is increasing, and so convergent. In
fact, since y
−1
+ py
0
> y
−1
+ y
−1
y
0
then
y
1
=
py
0
+ y
−1
1 + y
0
> y
−1
6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
107
and the claim follows by induction. In a similar way we can show that the subsequence
{y
2k
}

k=0
is decreasing, and so convergent. Thus, there exist m ≤ p and M ≥ p such
that
lim
k→∞
y
2k+1
= m and lim
k→∞
y
2k
= M
and as in (a), m = M. 2
6.7.4 Global Attractivity When q < 1
Here we consider the case where
1 −p < q < 1,
and we show that the equilibrium point y = p + q −1 of Eq(6.47) is global attractor of
all positive solutions of Eq(6.47).
Theorem 6.7.6 Assume
1 −p < q < 1.
Then every positive solution of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium y.
Proof. Observe that the consistency condition y ≤
p
q
is equivalent to the condition
q ≤ 1. By Theorem 6.7.3 (a) we may assume that the initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
lie
in the interval I = (0,
p
q
]. Now clearly the function
f(x, y) =
px + qy
1 + x
satisfies the hypotheses of Theorem 1.4.5 in the interval I from which the result follows.
2
6.7.5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.47) when
q > 1
which is equivalent to
y >
p
q
.
In this case, every positive solution of Eq(6.47) lies eventually in the interval [p, ∞).
Concerning the long-term behavior of solutions of Eq(6.47) we may assume, without
loss of generality, that
y
−1
, y
0
∈ [p, ∞).
108 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Then the change of variable
y
n
= u
n
+ p,
transforms Eq(6.47) to the equation
u
n+1
=
p(q −1) + qu
n−1
1 + p + u
n
(6.53)
where u
n
≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.
The character of solutions of Eq(6.53) was investigated in Section 6.5. By apply-
ing the results of Section 6.5 to Eq(6.53), we obtain the following theorems about the
solutions of Eq(6.47) when q > 1:
Theorem 6.7.7 After the first semicycle, an oscillatory solution of Eq(6.47) oscillates
about the positive equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.
Theorem 6.7.8 (a) Assume
q = 1 + p.
Then every solution of Eq(6.47) converges to a period-two solution.
(b) Assume
1 < q < 1 + p.
Then every positive solution of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium of
Eq(6.47).
(c) Assume
q > 1 + p.
Then Eq(6.47) has unbounded solutions.
6.8. The Case α = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
109
6.8 The Case α = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.8) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−1
q + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.54)
where
p =
β
γ
and q =
A
γ
.
(Eq(6.54) was investigated in [53].)
The equilibrium points of Eq(6.54) are the solutions of the equation
y =
py + y
q + y
.
So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point of Eq(6.54) and when
p + 1 > q,
Eq(6.54) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p + 1 −q.
The following result follows from Theorems 1.1.1 and 1.3.1.
Theorem 6.8.1 (a) Assume
p + 1 ≤ q.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume
p + 1 > q. (6.55)
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.54) is unstable and the positive equilibrium
y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.54) is locally asymptotically stable. Furthermore the zero
equilibrium is a saddle point when
1 −p < q < 1 + p
and a repeller when
q < 1 −p.
In the remainder of this section we will investigate the character of the positive
equilibrium of Eq(6.54) and so we will assume without further mention that (6.55) holds.
Our goal is to show that when (6.55) holds and y
−1
+ y
0
> 0, the positive equilibrium
y = p + 1 −q of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.
110 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.8.1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis
Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following identities are easily
established:
y
n+1
−1 = p
y
n

q
p
q + y
n−1
for n ≥ 0, (6.56)
y
n+1

q
p
=
p
2
[y
n

q
p

2
] + (p −q)y
n−1
p(q + y
n−1
)
for n ≥ 0, (6.57)
and
y
n+1
−y
n
=
(p −q)y
n
+ (1 −y
n
)y
n−1
q + y
n−1
for n ≥ 0. (6.58)
Note that the positive equilibrium
y = p + 1 −q
of Eq(6.54) is such that:
y is

< 1 if p < q < p + 1
= 1 if p = q
> 1 if p > q.
When
p = q
that is for the difference equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−1
p + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.59)
the identities (6.56)-(6.58) reduce to the following:
y
n+1
−1 = (y
n
−1)
p
p + y
n−1
for n ≥ 0 (6.60)
and
y
n+1
−y
n
= (1 −y
n
)
y
n−1
p + y
n−1
for n ≥ 0. (6.61)
The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of the above identities.
Lemma 6.8.1 Assume that
p < q (6.62)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are
true:
6.8. The Case α = B = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
111
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
q
p
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
q
p
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
q
p
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>

q
p

2
, then y
N+1
<
q
p
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
N+1
< 1;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≥ 1, then y
N+1
< y
N
.
Lemma 6.8.2 Assume that
p = q (6.63)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are
true:
(i) If y
0
< 1, then for n ≥ 0, y
n
< 1 and the solution is strictly increasing;
(ii) If y
0
= 1, then y
n
= 1 for n ≥ 0;
(iii) If y
0
> 1, then for n ≥ 0, y
n
> 1 and the solution is strictly decreasing.
Lemma 6.8.3 Assume that
p > q (6.64)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are
true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
q
p
, then y
N+1
< 1;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
q
p
, then y
N+1
= 1;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
q
p
, then y
N+1
> 1;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>

q
p

2
, then y
N+1
>
q
p
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≤ 1, then y
N+1
> y
N
;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
≥ 1, then y
N+1
>
q
p
and y
N+2
> 1.
112 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.8.2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium
When (6.62) holds, it follows from Lemma 6.8.1 that if a solution {y
n
}

n=−1
is such that
y
n
≥ 1 for all n ≥ 0
then the solution decreases and its limit lies in the interval [1, ∞). This is impossible
because y < 1. Hence, by Lemma 6.8.1, every positive solution of Eq(6.54) eventually
enters and remains in the interval (0, 1). Now in the interval (0, 1) the function
f(u, v) =
pu + v
q + v
is increasing in both arguments and by Theorem 1.4.8, y is a global attractor.
When (6.63) holds, it follows from Lemma 6.8.2 that every solution of Eq(6.54)
converges to the equilibrium y = 1.
Next, assume that (6.64) holds. Here it is clear from Lemma 6.8.3 that every solu-
tion of Eq(6.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (1, ∞). Without loss of
generality we will assume that
y
n
> 1 for n ≥ −1.
Set
y
n
= 1 + (q + 1)u
n
for n ≥ −1.
Then we can see that {u
n
}

n=−1
satisfies the difference equation
u
n+1
=
p−q
(q+1)
2
+
p
q+1
u
n
1 + u
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.65)
with positive parameters and positive initial conditions. This (2, 2)-type equation was
investigated in Section 6.3 where we established in Theorem 6.3.3 that every solution
converges to its positive equilibrium
u =
p −q
q + 1
.
From the above observations and in view of Theorem 6.8.1 we have the following
result:
Theorem 6.8.2 Assume that p + 1 > q and that y
−1
+ y
0
> 0. Then the positive
equilibrium y = p + 1 −q of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.
6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
113
6.9 The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.9) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−1
qy
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.66)
where
p =
β
γ
and q =
B
C
.
To avoid a degenerate situation we will also assume that
p = q.
(Eq(6.66) was investigated in [54].)
The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.66) is
y =
p + 1
q + 1
and the linearized equation of Eq(6.66) about y is
z
n+1

p −q
(p + 1)(q + 1)
z
n
+
p −q
(p + 1)(q + 1)
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result:
Theorem 6.9.1 (a) Assume that
p > q.
Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.66) is locally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume that
p < q.
Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.66) is locally asymptotically stable when
q < pq + 1 + 3p (6.67)
and is unstable (and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium) when
q > pq + 1 + 3p. (6.68)
114 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
6.9.1 Existence of a Two Cycle
It follows from Section 2.5 that when p > q, Eq(6.66) has no prime period-two solutions.
On the other hand when
p < q
and
q > pq + 1 + 3p,
Eq(6.66) possesses a unique prime period-two solution:
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.69)
where the values of φ and ψ are the (positive and distinct) solutions of the quadratic
equation
t
2
−(1 −p)t +
p(1 −p)
q −1
= 0. (6.70)
In order to investigate the stability nature of this prime period-two solution, we set
u
n
= y
n−1
and v
n
= y
n
for n = 0, 1, . . .
and write Eq(6.66) in the equivalent form:
u
n+1
= v
n
v
n+1
=
pv
n
+u
n
qv
n
+u
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) defined by:
T

u
v

=

v
pv+u
qv+u

.
Then

φ
ψ

is a fixed point of T
2
, the second iterate of T. One can see that
T
2

u
v

=

g(u, v)
h(u, v)

where
g(u, v) =
pv + u
qv + u
and h(u, v) =
p
pv+u
qv+u
+ v
q
pv+u
qv+u
+ v
.
The prime period-two solution (6.69) is asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the
Jacobian matrix J
T
2, evaluated at

φ
ψ

lie inside the unit disk. One can see that
J
T
2

φ
ψ

=

¸
¸
¸

(p−q)ψ
(qψ+φ)
2
(p−q)φ
(qψ+φ)
2

(p−q)
2
ψ
2
(qψ+φ)
2
(qφ+ψ)
2
(p−q)φ
(qφ+ψ)
2

(p−q)ψ
(qψ+φ)
2
−1

¸

.
6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
115
Set
P =
p −q
(qψ + φ)
2
and Q =
p −q
(qφ + ψ)
2
.
Then
J
T
2

φ
ψ

=

−Pψ Pφ
−PQψ
2
PQφψ −Qφ

and its characteristic equation is
λ
2
+ (Pψ + Qφ −PQφψ)λ + PQφψ = 0.
By applying Theorem 1.1.1 (c), it follows that both eigenvalues of
J
T
2

φ
ψ

lie inside the unit disk if and only if
|Pψ + Qφ −PQφψ| < 1 + PQφψ < 2
or equivalently if and only if the following three inequalities hold:
Pψ + Qφ + 1 > 0 (6.71)
Pψ + Qφ < 1 + 2PQφψ (6.72)
and
PQφψ < 1. (6.73)
Observe that
φ > 0, ψ > 0, P < 0 and Q < 0
and so Inequality (6.72) is always true.
Next we will establish Inequality (6.71). We will use the fact that
φ + ψ = 1 −p, φψ =
p(1 −p)
q −1
φ =
pψ + φ
qψ + φ
and ψ =
pφ + ψ
qφ + ψ
.
Inequality (6.71) is equivalent to
(p −q)ψ
(qψ + φ)
2
+
(p −q)φ
(qφ + ψ)
2
+ 1 > 0
which is true if and only if
(q −p)[(qφ + ψ)
2
ψ + (qψ + φ)
2
φ] < (qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
116 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
if and only if
(q −p)[(qφ + ψ)(pφ + ψ) + (qψ + φ)(pψ + φ)] < [(qφ + ψ)(qψ + φ)]
2
. (6.74)
Now observe that the lefthand side of (6.74) is
I = (q −p)[(qp + 1)(φ
2
+ ψ
2
) + 2(p + q)φψ]
= (q −p)[(qp + 1)(φ + ψ)
2
−2φψ(qp + 1 −p −q)]
= (q −p)[(qp + 1)(1 −p)
2
−2
p(1 −p)
q −1
(p −1)(q −1)]
= (q −p)(1 −p)
2
(qp + 1 + 2p).
The righthand side of (6.74) is
II = [(qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)]
2
= [(q
2
+ 1)ψφ + q(φ
2
+ ψ
2
)]
2
= [q(φ + ψ)
2
+ (q −1)
2
φψ]
2
= [q(1 −p)
2
+ (q −1)p(1 −p)]
2
= (1 −p)
2
(q −p)
2
.
Hence, Inequality (6.71) is true if and only if (6.68) holds.
Finally, Inequality (6.73) is equivalent to
(p −q)
2
φψ < (qψ + φ)
2
(qφ + ψ)
2
which is true if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)
if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (q
2
+ 1)φψ + q(φ
2
+ ψ
2
)
if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (q
2
+ 1)φψ + q[(φ + ψ)
2
−2φψ]
if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (q −1)
2
φψ + q(φ + ψ)
2
if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (q −1)
2
p(1 −p)
q −1
+ q(1 −p)
2
if and only if
(q −p)

φψ < (1 −p)(q −p)
6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
117
if and only if
p(1 −p)
q −1
< (1 −p)
2
if and only if q > pq + 1 which is clearly true.
In summary, the following result is true about the local stability of the prime period-
two solution (6.69) of Eq(6.66):
Theorem 6.9.2 Assume that Condition (6.68) holds. Then Eq(6.66) posseses the prime
period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
where φ and ψ are the two positive and distinct roots of the quadratic Eq(6.70). Fur-
thermore this prime period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable.
6.9.2 Semicycle Analysis
In this section, we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.66).
Theorem 6.9.3 Let {y
n
} be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.66). Then the following state-
ments are true:
(a) Assume p > q. Then {y
n
} oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of
length two or three, except possibly for the first semicycle which may have length one.
The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the first term if the semicycle has two terms
and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms.
(b) Assume p < q. Then either {y
n
} oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles
of length one, after the first semicycle, or {y
n
} converges monotonically to y.
Proof. (a) The proof follows from Theorem 1.7.4 by observing that the condition p > q
implies that the function
f(x, y) =
px + y
qx + y
is increasing in x and decreasing in y. This function also satisfies Condition (1.35).
(b) The proof follows from Theorem 1.7.1 by observing that when p < q, the function
f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. 2
6.9.3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q
The main result in this section is the following
Theorem 6.9.4 Assume that
p < q
and (6.67) holds. Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6.66) is globally asymptotically
stable.
118 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Proof. Set
f(x, y) =
px + y
qx + y
,
and note that f(x, y) is decreasing in x for each fixed y, and increasing in y for each
fixed x. Also clearly,
p
q
≤ f(x, y) ≤ 1 for all x, y > 0.
Finally in view of (6.67), Eq(6.66) has no prime period-two solution. Now the conclusion
of Theorem 6.9.4 follows as a consequence of Theorem 1.4.6 and the fact that y is locally
asymptotically stable. 2
The method employed in the proof of Theorem 1.4.6 can also be used to establish
that certain solutions of Eq(6.66) converge to the two cycle (6.69) when instead of (6.67),
(6.68) holds.
Theorem 6.9.5 Assume that (6.68) holds. Let φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . ., with φ < ψ, denote the
two cycle of Eq(6.66). Assume that for some solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.66) and for
some index N ≥ −1,
y
N
≥ ψ and y
N+1
≤ φ. (6.75)
Then this solution converges to the two cycle φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . ..
Proof. Assume that (6.75) holds. Set
f(x, y) =
px + y
qx + y
.
Then clearly,
y
N+2
= f(y
N+1
, y
N
) ≥ f(φ, ψ) = ψ,
y
N+3
= f(y
N+2
, y
N+1
) ≤ f(ψ, φ) = φ
and in general
y
N+2k
≥ ψ and y
N+2k+1
≤ φ for k = 0, 1, . . . .
Now as in the proof of Theorem 1.4.6
limsup
n→∞
y
n
= ψ and liminf
n→∞
y
n
= φ
from which we conclude that
lim
k→∞
y
N+2k
= ψ and lim
k→∞
y
N+2k+1
= φ.
2
Next we want to find more cases where the conclusion of the last theorem holds. We
consider first the case where eventually consecutive terms y
i
, y
i+1
lie between m and M.
6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
119
Lemma 6.9.1 Suppose that for some i ≥ 0,
m ≤ y
i
, y
i+1
≤ M.
Then y
k
∈ [m, M] for every k > i.
Proof. Using the monotonic character of the function f we have
m = f(M, m) ≤ f(y
i+1
, y
i
) = y
i+2
≤ f(m, M) = M,
and the result follows by induction. 2
If we never get two successive terms in the interval [m, M] and if we never get two
successive terms outside of the interval [m, M] (that is, for every i, either y
i
> M and
y
i+1
< m or y
i
< m and y
i+1
> M), then we have one of the following four cases:
(A) y
2n
> M and M ≥ y
2n+1
> m for every n;
(B) y
2n+1
> M and M ≥ y
2n
> m for every n;
(C) y
2n
< m and m ≤ y
2n+1
< M for every n;
(D) y
2n+1
< m and m ≤ y
2n
< M for every n.
Lemma 6.9.2 In all cases (A)-(D) the corresponding solution {y
n
} converges to the
two cycle
. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .
Proof. Since the proofs are similar for all cases we will give the details in case (A). By
our earlier observation we have that M ≥ limsup
i→∞
y
i
, and so
M ≥ limsup
n→∞
y
2n
≥ liminf
n→∞
y
2n
≥ M.
Hence lim
n→∞
y
2n
= M. From Eq(6.66) we have
y
2n+1
=
y
2n
−y
2n
y
2n+2
qy
2n+2
−p
.
and so
lim
n→∞
y
2n+1
=
M −M
2
qM −p
.
On the other hand by solving the equation
M = f(m, M) =
pm + M
qm + M
for m we find
m =
M −M
2
qM −p
.
Thus, lim
n→∞
y
2n+1
= m and the proof is complete. 2
Since the case in which the solution lies outside of the interval [m, M] is answered by
Theorem 6.9.5, we are left with the case in which the solution lies eventually in [m, M].
120 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Lemma 6.9.3 Suppose M ≥ y
i+2
≥ y
i
≥ y ≥ y
i+1
≥ y
i+3
≥ m and not both y
i+2
and
y
i+3
are equal to y. Then {y
n
} converges to the two cycle
. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .
Proof. Here we have
y
i+4
= f(y
i+3
, y
i+2
) ≥ f(y
i+1
, y
i
) = y
i+2
and
y
i+5
= f(y
i+4
, y
i+3
) ≤ f(y
i+2
, y
i+1
) = y
i+3
.
Induction on i then establishes the monotonicity of the two sequences. Thus, the se-
quence {y
i+2k
} is non decreasing and bounded above by M, and the sequence {y
i+2k+1
}
is a non increasing sequence and bounded below by m. Therefore, both subsequences
converge and their limits form a two cycle. In view of the uniqueness of the two cycle
and the fact that at least one of y
i
, y
i+1
is different from y, the proof is complete.The
case M ≥ y
i+3
≥ y
i+1
≥ y ≥ y
i
≥ y
i+2
≥ m is handled in a similar way. 2
Using a similar technique one can prove that if
M ≥ y
i
≥ y
i+2
≥ y ≥ y
i+3
≥ y
i+1
≥ m
or
M ≥ y
i+1
≥ y
i+3
≥ y ≥ y
i+2
≥ y
i
≥ m
we would get convergence to y , but this situation cannot occur, as the following results
show. Let us consider the first case. The second case can be handled in a similar way.
In this case we need to know more about the condition y
i+2
= f(y
i+1
, y
i
) ≤ y
i
, so we are
led to the general equation
f(x, y) = y. (6.76)
It makes sense to consider this equation only for y ∈ (
p
q
, 1), in which case Eq(6.76) has a
unique positive solution for x, which of course depends on y. We denote this value by y

.
Thus f(y

, y) = y. The correspondence between y and y

has the following properties:
Lemma 6.9.4 (1) f(x, y) > y if and only if x < y

.
(2) x > y if and only if x

< y

.
(3) For y < y < M, f(y, y

) < y

and y > y

, and for m < y < y, f(y, y

) > y

and y

> y.
Proof.
6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
121
(1) Since f is decreasing in the first variable and f(y

, y) = y, x < y

if and only if
f(x, y) > f(y

, y) = y.
(2) Solving f(y

, y) = y for y

gives
y

= g(y) =
y −y
2
qy −p
.
Computing the derivative of g we get
g

(y) = −
p −2y + qy
2
(p −qy)
2
.
The discriminant of the numerator is 4p
2
− 4pq = 4p(p − q) < 0, so the roots of
the numerator are not real. For y ∈ (
p
q
, 1), g

(y) < 0, so y

is decreasing function
of y.
(3) Eliminating y

from the equations y = f(y

, y) and y

= f(y, y

) we get
x −x
2
qx −p
=
px +
x−x
2
qx−p
qx +
x−x
2
qx−p
.
Simplifying this equation we get a fourth degree polynomial equation with roots
0, y, m, M. Thus each of these roots is simple and so f(y, y

)−y

changes sign as y
passes each of these values. Clearly as y approaches
p
q
y

approaches ∞. However
p
q
< f(y, y

) < 1. Thus for y < m, f(y, y

) < y

. Hence
m < y < y ⇒f(y, y

) > y

,
y < y < M ⇒f(y, y

) < y

,
M < y <⇒f(y, y

) > y

.
By (1) then, for m < y < y, y < y

, and for y < y < M, y > y

.
2
Now we will use this result to prove the following:
Lemma 6.9.5 Assume that for some i,
M ≥ y
i
≥ y
i+2
≥ y ≥ y
i+1
≥ m.
Then y
i+3
≤ y
i+1
with equality only in the case of a two cycle.
122 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Proof. To show y
i+3
= f(y
i+2
, y
i+1
) ≤ y
i+1
, we must show y
i+2
≥ y

i+1
.
Since y
i+2
= f(y
i+1
, y
i
) ≤ y
i
, we have y
i+1
≥ y

i
. Thus by (2) of the previous lemma
y

i
≥ y

i+1
, and by (3) y
i
≥ y

i
. Thus y
i
≥ y

i+1
. Since f is increasing in the second
argument and y
i
≥ y

i+1
we get
y
i+2
= f(y
i+1
, y
i
) ≥ f(y
i+1
, y

i+1
).
By (3) of the previous lemma, since m ≤ y
i+1
≤ y, f(y
i+1
, y

i+1
) ≥ y

i+1
. Thus y
i+2
≥ y

i+1
,
as required. To get equality we must have y
i+1
= y

i
or equivalently y
i+2
= y
i
, as well as
y
i+3
= y
i+1
. Thus equality occurs only in the case of a two cycle. 2
The case
m ≤ y
i
≤ y
i+2
≤ y ≤ y
i+1
≤ M
is similar.
We also obtain the following lemma:
Lemma 6.9.6 Unless {y
n
} is a period-two solution, there is no i such that either
M ≥ y
i
≥ y
i+2
≥ . . . ≥ y ≥ y
i+1
≥ y
i+3
≥ . . . ≥ m,
or
M ≥ . . . ≥ y
i+2
≥ y
i
≥ y ≥ . . . ≥ y
i+3
≥ y
i+1
≥ . . . ≥ m.
Proof. We will consider the first case; the second case is similar. Since {y
i+2k+1
} is a
bounded monotonic sequence it has a limit c. The value c will be one value in a two
cycle, so either c = y or c = m. If c = y, then y
i+2n+1
= y for all n, and solving for y
i+2n
we see y
i+2n
= y also. But then y
i
= y
i+1
= y, and our solution is a two cycle.. If c = m,
solving for lim
n→∞
y
i+2n
gives lim
n→∞
y
i+2n
= M. This can only happen if y
i+2n
= M
for all n, in which case y
i+2n+1
= m for all n, which also gives a two cycle. 2
The above sequence of lemmas leads to the following result:
Theorem 6.9.6 Assume that
p < q,
and that Eq(6.66) possesses the two-cycle solution (6.69). Then every oscillatory solution
of Eq(6.66) converges to this two cycle.
Remark. Since some of the oscillatory solutions of Eq(6.66) are generated by initial
values {y
−1
, y
0
} that are on opposite sides of the equilibrium y, it follows by Theorem
6.9.6 that all such pairs belong to the stable manifold of the two cycle.
6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 123
6.9.4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q
Here we have the following result:
Theorem 6.9.7 Assume that
p > q
and
p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q. (6.77)
Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6.66) is globally asymptotically stable.
Proof. We will employ Theorem 1.4.5. To this end, set
f(x, y) =
px + y
qx + y
,
and observe that when p > q, the function f(x, y) is increasing in x for each fixed y, and
is decreasing in y for each fixed x. Also
1 ≤ f(x, y) ≤
p
q
for all x, y > 0.
Finally observe that when (6.77) holds, the only solution of the system
M =
pM + m
qM + m
, m =
pm + M
qm + M
,
is
m = M.
Now the result is a consequence of Theorem 1.4.5. 2
6.10 Open Problems and Conjectures
Open Problem 6.10.1 (See [64]) Assume that
a, b, c, d ∈ R.
(a) Investigate the forbidden set F of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
ax
n
+ bx
n−1
cx
n
+ dx
n−1
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
(b) For every point (x
−1
, x
0
) / ∈ F, investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic
nature of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
.
124 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
(See Section 1.6.)
Open Problem 6.10.2 Assume that
α
n
, β
n
, A
n
, B
n
∈ R for n = 0, 1, . . .
are convergent sequences of real numbers with finite limits. Investigate the forbidden set
and the asymptotic character of solutions of the nonautonomous Riccati equation
x
n+1
=
α
n
+ β
n
x
n
A
n
+ B
n
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
(See Section 1.6 for the autonomous case.)
Conjecture 6.10.1 Assume
p, q ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.10) has a finite limit.
(Note that by Theorem 6.3.3, we need only to confirm this conjecture for p > 2(q +1)
and q ≥ 1. See also [36].)
Conjecture 6.10.2 Assume that
p, q ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.11) has a finite limit.
(Note that by Theorem 6.4.4, this conjecture has been confirmed for q ≤ 1 + 4p.)
Conjecture 6.10.3 Assume p ∈ (0, ∞). Show that the equation
y
n+1
=
p + y
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
has a positive and monotonically decreasing solution.
(Note that by Theorem 6.5.2, every positive solution converges to a, not necessarily
prime, period-two solution.)
6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 125
Conjecture 6.10.4 Assume that
p, q ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.27) either converges to a finite limit or to a
two cycle.
(See Section 6.6.)
Open Problem 6.10.3 Assume that
p, q ∈ (0, ∞)
and
q > 1 + 4p.
Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.27).
Open Problem 6.10.4 Assume that
p, q ∈ (0, ∞)
and
q > pq + 1 + 3p.
Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.66).
Conjecture 6.10.5 Assume
p > q.
Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.66) has a finite limit.
(Note that by Theorem 6.9.7, this conjecture has been confirmed for p ≤ pq +1+3q.)
Open Problem 6.10.5 Find the set of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R×R through
which the solution of the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ y
n−1
1 + y
n
is well defined and converges to 1, as n →∞.
126 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.10.6 Find the set of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R×R through
which the solution of the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ y
n−1
1 + y
n−1
is well defined and converges to 1, as n →∞.
Open Problem 6.10.7 For each of the following difference equations determine the
“good” set G ⊂ R×R of initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ R×R through which the equation
is well defined for all n ≥ 0.Then for every (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ G, investigate the long-term
behavior of the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
:
y
n+1
=
1 −y
n
1 −y
n−1
(6.78)
y
n+1
=
y
n
−1
y
n
−y
n−1
(6.79)
y
n+1
=
1 −y
n−1
1 −y
n
(6.80)
y
n+1
=
1 −y
n−1
y
n
−y
n−1
(6.81)
y
n+1
=
y
n
−y
n−1
y
n
−1
(6.82)
y
n+1
=
y
n
−y
n−1
1 −y
n−1
(6.83)
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ y
n−1
y
n
−y
n−1
. (6.84)
For those equations from the above list for which you were successful, extend your
result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.
Open Problem 6.10.8 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of solutions of the difference
equation
x
n+1
=
αx
n
+ βx
n−1
+ γx
n−2
Ax
n
+ Bx
n−1
+ Cx
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Extend and generalize.
6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 127
Open Problem 6.10.9 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are convergent sequences of
nonnegative real numbers with finite limits,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
and q = lim
n→∞
q
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following eight difference equations:
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ y
n
q
n
+ y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.85)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.86)
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ p
n
y
n
+ q
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.87)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.88)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ y
n−1
q
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.89)
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
+ q
n
y
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.90)
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
q
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.91)
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
q
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.92)
Open Problem 6.10.10 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are period-two sequences
of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of
Eqs(6.85)-(6.92). Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 6.10.11 Assume q ∈ (1, ∞).
(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the
solutions {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.23) are bounded.
(b) Let (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y
n
}

n=−1
.
128 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.10.12 Assume q ∈ (1, ∞).
(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the
solutions {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.47) are bounded.
(b) Let (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y
n
}

n=−1
.
Open Problem 6.10.13 (A Plant-Herbivore System; See [9], [3], and [2]) Assume
α ∈ (1, ∞), β ∈ (0, ∞), and γ ∈ (0, 1) with α + β > 1 +
β
γ
.
Obtain conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium of the
system
x
n+1
=
αx
n
βx
n
+e
y
n
y
n+1
= γ(x
n
+ 1)y
n

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.93)
Conjecture 6.10.6 Assume x
0
, y
0
∈ (0, ∞) and that
α ∈ (2, 3), β = 1 and γ =
1
2
.
Show that the positive equilibrium of System (6.93) is globally asymptotically stable.
Open Problem 6.10.14 (Discrete Epidemic Models; See [14].) Let A ∈ (0, ∞).
(a) Determine the set G of initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) through which
the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
of the difference equation
x
n+1
= (1 −x
n
−x
n−1
)(1 −e
−Ax
n
), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.94)
are nonnegative.
(b) Let (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ G. Investigate the boundedness character, the periodic nature, and
the asymptotic behavior of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(6.94).
(c) Extend and generalize.
6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 129
Open Problem 6.10.15 (The Flour Beetle Model; See [48]). Assume
a ∈ (0, 1), b ∈ (0, ∞), and c
1
, c
2
∈ [0, ∞) with c
1
+ c
2
> 0.
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the Flour
Beetle Model:
x
n+1
= ax
n
+ bx
n−2
e
−c
1
x
n
−c
2
x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
with positive initial conditions.
Open Problem 6.10.16 (A Population Model) Assume
α ∈ (0, 1) and β ∈ (1, ∞).
Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of the system
x
n+1
= αx
n
e
−y
n
+ β
y
n+1
= αx
n
(1 −e
−y
n
)

, n = 0, 1, . . . .
which may be viewed as a population model.
Open Problem 6.10.17 Assume that
p, q ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.
Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference
equations:
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
1 + y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.95)
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ p
y
n
+ qy
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.96)
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n−k
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.97)
y
n+1
=
p + y
n−k
qy
n
+ y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.98)
y
n+1
=
y
n
+ py
n−k
y
n
+ q
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.99)
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−k
q + y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.100)
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−k
qy
n
+ y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.101)
130 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.10.18 Obtain a general result for an equation of the form
y
n+1
= f(y
n
, y
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . .
which extends and unifies the global asymptotic stability results for Eqs(6.11) and (6.27).
Open Problem 6.10.19 Assume that every positive solution of an equation of the form
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.102)
converges to a period-two solution. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so
that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n−2
, x
n−1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.103)
also converges to a period-two solution.
Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 6.10.20 Assume that Eq(6.102) has a two cycle which is locally asymp-
totically stable. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that the same two
cycle is a locally asymptotically stable solution of Eq(6.103).
Chapter 7
(1, 3)-Type Equations
7.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1, 3)-type:
x
n+1
=
α
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.1)
x
n+1
=
βx
n
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.2)
and
x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A +Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (7.3)
Please recall our classification convention in which all the parameters in the above
(1, 3)-type equations are positive and that the initial conditions are nonnegative.
7.2 The Case β = γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 3)-type Eq.(7.1) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
α
A
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
1
1 +py
n
+qy
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.4)
where
p =
αB
A
2
and q =
αC
A
2
.
131
132 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations
One can easily see that the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.4) is locally asymptotically stable
for all values of the parameters and that Eq(7.4) has no prime period two solutions.
The following result is now a straightforward consequence of either the stability
trichotomy Theorem 1.4.4, or Theorem 1.4.7 in the interval [0, 1].
Theorem 7.2.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(7.4) is globally asymptotically stable.
7.3 The Case α = γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 3)-type Eq(7.2) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
C
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
y
n
1 +py
n
+qy
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.5)
where
p =
β
A
and q =
B
C
.
Eq(7.5) always has zero as an equilibrium point and when
p > 1
it also has the unique positive equilibrium point
y =
p −1
q + 1
.
The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1.3.1.
Theorem 7.3.1 Assume
p ≤ 1.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(7.5) is globally asymptotically stable.
The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1.4.2. It also follows
by applying Theorem 1.4.5 in the interval [0,
p
q
].
Theorem 7.3.2 Assume that y
−1
, y
0
∈ (0, ∞) and
p > 1.
Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.5) is globally asymptotically stable.
7.4. The Case α = β = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
133
7.4 The Case α = β = 0 : x
n+1
=
γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (1, 3)-type Eq(7.3) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
reduces to the equation
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
p +qy
n
+y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.6)
where
p =
A
γ
and q =
B
C
.
Eq(7.6) always has the zero equilibrium and when
p < 1
it also has the unique positive equilibrium
y =
1 −p
1 +q
.
The subsequent result is a straightforward application of Theorems 1.1.1 and 1.3.1.
Theorem 7.4.1 (a) The zero equilibrium of Eq(7.6) is globally asymptotically stable
when
p ≥ 1
and is unstable (a repeller) when
p < 1.
(b) Assume that p < 1. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.6) is locally asymptot-
ically stable when
q < 1
and is unstable (a saddle point) when
q > 1.
Concerning prime period-two solutions one can see that Eq(7.6) has a prime period-
two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if
p < 1.
134 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations
Furthermore when
p < 1 and q = 1
the only prime period-two solution is
. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . . .
On the other hand, when
p < 1 and q = 1
all prime period-two solutions of Eq(7.6) are given by
. . . , φ, 1 −p −φ, φ, 1 −p −φ, . . .
with
0 ≤ φ ≤ 1 −p and φ =
1 −p
2
.
Theorem 7.4.2 Assume that
p < 1 and q > 1. (7.7)
Then the period-two solution
. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . . (7.8)
of Eq(7.6) is locally asymptotically stable.
Proof. It follows from Section 2.6 that here
J
T
2

0
1 −p

=


1
p+q(1−p)
0

q(1−p)
p+q(1−p)
p


and in view of (7.7) both eigenvalues of J
T
2

0
1 −p

lie in the disk |λ| < 1. Therefore
the prime period-two solution (7.8) is locally asymptotically stable. 2
7.5 Open Problems and Conjectures
Conjecture 7.5.1 Assume
p, q ∈ (0, 1).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(7.6) has a finite limit.
7.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 135
Conjecture 7.5.2 Assume
p < 1 and q ≥ 1.
Show that every positive solution of Eq(7.6) converges to a, not necessarily prime, period-
two solution.
Open Problem 7.5.1 Assume
p ∈ (0, 1) and q ∈ (1, ∞).
Find the basin of attraction of the two cycle
. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . .
of Eq(7.6).
Open Problem 7.5.2 Investigate the asymptotic character and the periodic nature of
all positive solutions of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−2
1 +px
n
+qx
n−1
+x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
where
p, q ∈ [0, ∞).
Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 7.5.3 For each of the equations given below, find the set G of all points
(x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R ×R through which the equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0:
x
n+1
=
1
1 +x
n
+x
n−1
(7.9)
x
n+1
=
x
n
1 +x
n
+x
n−1
(7.10)
x
n+1
=
x
n−1
1 +x
n
+x
n−1
. (7.11)
Now for each of the equations (7.9)-(7.11), let (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ G be an initial point
through which the corresponding equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0, and investigate
the long term-behavior of the solution {x
n
}

n=−1
.
136 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations
Open Problem 7.5.4 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are convergent sequences of
nonnegative real numbers with finite limits,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
and q = lim
n→∞
q
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following three difference equations:
y
n+1
=
1
1 +p
n
y
n
+q
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.12)
y
n+1
=
y
n
1 +p
n
y
n
+q
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.13)
y
n+1
=
y
n−1
p
n
+q
n
y
n
+y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (7.14)
Open Problem 7.5.5 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are period-two sequences of
nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of
Eqs(7.12)-(7.14). Extend and generalize.
Chapter 8
(3, 1)-Type Equations
8.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1, 3)-type:
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
+γx
n−1
A
, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.1)
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.2)
and
x
n+1
=
α +βx
n
+γx
n−1
Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (8.3)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
Eq(8.1) is a linear difference equation and can be solved explicitly.
Eq(8.2) by the change of the variables
x
n
= y
n
+
β
B
,
is reduced to a (2, 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6.4) (see Section 6.5), namely,
y
n+1
=
(α +
βγ
B
) +γy
n−1
β +By
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Eq(8.3) by the change of the variables
x
n
= y
n
+
γ
C
,
137
138 Chapter 8. (3, 1)-Type Equations
is reduced to a (2, 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6.2) (see Section 6.3) namely,
y
n+1
=
(α +
βγ
C
) +βy
n
γ +Cy
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Hence there is nothing else remaining to do about these equations other than to pose
some Open Problems and Conjectures.
8.2 Open Problems and Conjectures
Open Problem 8.2.1 Assume γ > β. Determine the set of initial conditions (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈
(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(8.2) are bounded.
Open Problem 8.2.2 (a) Assume γ = β and let
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (8.4)
be a period-two solution of Eq(8.2). Determine the basin of attraction of (8.4).
(b) Let {x
n
}

n=−1
be a positive solution of Eq(8.2) which converges to (8.4). Determine
the values of φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x
−1
and x
0
.
Conjecture 8.2.1 Show that every positive solution of Eq(8.3) converges to the positive
equilibrium of the equation.
Open Problem 8.2.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
x
n+1
=
1 +x
n
+x
n−1
x
n
is well defined for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of
the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
.
Open Problem 8.2.4 Determine the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
x
n+1
=
1 +x
n
+x
n−1
x
n−1
is well defined for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of
the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
.
8.2. Open Problems and Conjectures 139
Open Problem 8.2.5 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are convergent sequences of
nonnegative real numbers with finite limits,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
and q = lim
n→∞
q
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following two difference equations:
y
n+1
=
p
n
+x
n
+x
n−1
q
n
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.5)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+x
n
+x
n−1
q
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (8.6)
Open Problem 8.2.6 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
and {q
n
}

n=0
are period-two sequences of
nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of
Eqs(8.5) and (8.6). Extend and generalize.
Chapter 9
(2, 3)-Type Equations
9.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (2, 3)-type:
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.1)
x
n+1
=
α + γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.2)
and
x
n+1
=
βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.3)
Please recall our classification convention in which all the parameters in the above
(2, 3)-type equations are positive and the initial conditions are nonnegative.
9.2 The Case γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.1) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.4)
where
p =
αB
A
2
, q =
β
A
, and r =
C
B
.
141
142 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
(Eq(9.4) was investigated in [51].)
Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability, invariant intervals,
and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions.
Eq(9.4) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by
y =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p(r + 1)
2(r + 1)
.
By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1, we obtain the following result:
Theorem 9.2.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all
values of the parameters p, q and r.
9.2.1 Boundedness of Solutions
We will prove that all solutions of Eq(9.4) are bounded.
Theorem 9.2.2 Every solution of Eq(9.4) is bounded from above and from below by
positive constants.
Proof. Let {y
n
} be a solution of Eq(9.4). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from above
by a constant M, then
y
n+1

p
1 + (1 + r)M
and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the
solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y
1+n
k
}

k=0
such
that
lim
k→∞
n
k
= ∞, lim
k→∞
y
1+n
k
= ∞, and y
1+n
k
= max{y
n
: n ≤ n
k
} for k ≥ 0.
From (9.4) we see that
y
n+1
< qy
n
+ p for n ≥ 0
and so
lim
k→∞
y
n
k
= lim
k→∞
y
n
k
−1
= ∞.
Hence for sufficiently large k,
0 < y
1+n
k
−y
n
k
=
p + [(q −1) −y
n
k
−ry
n
k
−1
]y
n
k
1 + y
n
k
+ ry
n
k
−1
< 0
which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. 2
The above proof has an advantage that extends to several equations of the form
of Eq(9.1) with nonnegative parameters. The boundedness of solutions of the special
9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
143
equation (9.4) with positive parameters immediately follows from the observation that
if
M = max{1, p, q}
then
y
n+1

M + My
n
1 + y
n
= M for n ≥ 0.
9.2.2 Invariant Intervals
The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-
variant intervals for Eq(9.4). Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever,
y
N
, y
N+1
∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,
then
y
n
∈ I for n ≥ N.
Lemma 9.2.1 Eq(9.4) possesses the following invariant intervals:
(a)

0,
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p
2
¸
¸
, when p ≤ q;
(b)
¸
p −q
qr
, q
¸
, when q < p < q(rq + 1);
(c)
¸
q,
p −q
qr
¸
, when p > q(rq + 1).
Proof.
(a) Set
g(x) =
p + qx
1 + x
and b =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p
2
and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.4) we see
that when y
k−1
, y
k
∈ [0, b], then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1

p + qy
k
1 + y
k
= g(y
k
) ≤ g(b) ≤ b.
The proof follows by induction.
144 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
(b) It is clear that the function
f(x, y) =
p + qx
1 + x + ry
is increasing in x for y >
p−q
qr
. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when y
k−1
, y
k

p−q
qr
, q

,
then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f

q,
p −q
qr

= q.
Also by using the condition p < q(rq + 1) we obtain
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≥ f

p −q
qr
, q

=
q(pr + p −q)
(rq)
2
+ rq + p −q
>
p −q
qr
.
The proof follows by the induction.
(c) It is clear that the function
f(x, y) =
p + qx
1 + x + ry
is decreasing in x for y <
p−q
qr
. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when y
k−1
, y
k

q,
p−q
qr

,
then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≥ f

p −q
qr
,
p −q
qr

= q.
Also by using the condition p > q(rq + 1) we obtain
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f(q, q) =
p + q
2
1 + (r + 1)q
<
p −q
qr
.
The proof follows by induction.
2
9.2.3 Semicycle Analysis
Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following identitites are true for n ≥ 0:
y
n+1
−q =
qr(
p−q
qr
−y
n−1
)
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
, (9.5)
y
n+1

p −q
qr
=
qr

q −
p−q
qr

y
n
+ qr

y
n−1

p−q
qr

+ pr(q −y
n−1
)
qr(1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
)
, (9.6)
y
n
−y
n+4
=
9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
145
qr

y
n

p−q
qr

y
n+1
+ (y
n
−q)(y
n+1
y
n+3
+ y
n+3
+ y
n+1
+ ry
n
y
n+3
) + y
n
+ ry
2
n
−p
(1 + y
n+3
)(1 + y
n+1
+ ry
n
) + r(p + qy
n+1
)
,
(9.7)
y
n+1
−y =
(y −q)(y −y
n
) + yr(y −y
n−1
)
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
. (9.8)
The proofs of the following two lemmas are straightforward consequences of the Identities
(9.5)- (9.8) and will be omitted.
Lemma 9.2.2 Assume
p > q(qr + 1)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
< q;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
= q;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
> q;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, q < y
N
<
p−q
qr
, then q < y
N+2
<
p−q
qr
;
(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y ≥ y
N−1
and y ≥ y
N
, then y
N+1
≥ y;
(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y < y
N−1
and y < y
N
, then y
N+1
< y;
(vii) q < y <
p−q
qr
.
Lemma 9.2.3 Assume
q < p < q(qr + 1)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
<
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
> q;
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
=
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
= q;
(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
p−q
qr
, then y
N+2
< q;
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y
N
>
p−q
qr
and y
N
< q then q > y
N+2
>
p−q
qr
;
(v)
p−q
qr
< y < q.
146 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
Lemma 9.2.4 Assume
p = q(qr + 1)
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then
y
n+1
−q =
qr
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
(q −y
n−1
). (9.9)
Furthermore when qr < 1, then
lim
n→∞
y
n
= y. (9.10)
Proof. Identity (9.9) follows by straightforward computation. The limit (9.10) is a
consequence of the fact that in this case qr ∈ (0, ∞) and Eq(9.4) has no period-two
solution. 2
Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.4) when p = q(1 +rq).
In this case Eq(9.4) becomes
y
n+1
=
q + rq
2
+ qy
n
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and the only equilibrium point is y = q.
Theorem 9.2.3 Suppose that p = q + rq
2
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a nontrivial solution of
Eq(9.4). Then this solution is oscillatory and the sum of the lengths of two consecutive
semicycles, excluding the first, is equal to four. More precisely, the following statements
are true for all k ≥ 0:
(i)
y
−1
> q and y
0
≤ q =⇒y
4k−1
> q, y
4k
≤ 1, y
4k+1
< q, and y
4k+2
≥ q;
(ii)
y
−1
< q and y
0
≥ q =⇒y
4k−1
< q, y
4k
≥ 1, y
4k+1
> q, and y
4k+2
≤ q;
(iii)
y
−1
> q and y
0
≥ q =⇒y
4k−1
> q, y
4k
≥ 1, y
4k+1
< q, and y
4k+2
≤ q;
(iv)
y
−1
< q and y
0
≤ q =⇒y
4k−1
< q, y
4k
≤ 1, y
4k+1
> q, and y
4k+2
≥ q.
Proof. The proof follows from identity (9.5). 2
9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
147
9.2.4 Global Asymptotic Stability
The following lemma establishes that when p = q(qr + 1), every solution of Eq(9.4)
is eventually trapped into one of the three invariant intervals of Eq(9.4) described in
Lemma 9.2.1. More precisely, the following is true:
Lemma 9.2.5 Let I denote the interval which is defined as follows:
I =

[0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4p
2
] if p ≤ q;
[
p−q
qr
, q] if q < p < q(qr + 1);
[q,
p−q
qr
] if p > q(qr + 1).
Then every solution of Eq(9.4) lies eventually in I.
Proof. Let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a solution of Eq(9.4). First assume that
p ≤ q.
Then clearly, y ∈ I. Set
b =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p
2
and observe that
y
n+1
−b =
(q −p)(y
n
−b) −r(p + qb)y
n−1
(1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
)(1 + b)
, n ≥ 0.
Hence, if for some N, y
N
≤ b, then y
N+1
< b. Now assume for the sake of contradiction
that
y
n
> b for n > 0.
Then y
n
> y for n ≥ 0 and so
lim
n→∞
y
n
= y ∈ I
which is a contradiction.
Next assume that
q < p < q(qr + 1)
and, for the sake of contradiction, also assume that the solution {y
n
}

n=−1
is not even-
tually in the interval I. Then by Lemma 9.2.3, there exists N > 0 such that one of the
following three cases holds:
(i) y
N
> q, y
N+1
> q, and y
N+2
<
p−q
qr
;
(ii) y
N
> q, y
N+1
<
p−q
qr
, and y
N+2
<
p−q
qr
;
148 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
(iii) y
N
> q,
p−q
qr
≤ y
N+1
≤ q, and y
N+2
<
p−q
qr
.
Also observe that
if y
N
≥ q, then y
N
+ ry
2
N
−p > 0
and
if y
N

p−q
qr
, then y
N
+ ry
2
N
−p < 0.
The desired contradiction is now obtained by using the Identity (9.7) from which it
follows that for j ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3}, each subsequence {y
n+4k+j
}

k=0
with all its terms outside
the interval I converges monotonically and enters in the interval I.
The proof when
p > q(qr + 1)
is similar and will be omitted. 2
By using the monotonic character of the function
f(x, y) =
p + qx
1 + x + ry
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.2.1, together with the appropriate convergence
Theorems 1.4.7 and 1.4.5, we can obtain some global asymptotic stability results for the
solutions of Eq(9.4). For example, the following results are true for Eq(9.4):
Theorem 9.2.4 (a) Assume that either
p ≥ q + q
2
r,
or
p <
q
1 + r
.
Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume that either
p ≤ q
or
q < p < q + q
2
r
and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied:
(i) q ≤ 1;
(ii) r ≤ 1;
(iii) r > 1 and (q −1)
2
(r −1) ≤ 4p.
Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is globally asymptotically stable.
Proof.
9.3. The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
149
(a) The proof follows from Lemmas 9.2.1 and 9.2.4 and Theorems 1.4.7 and 1.4.2.
(b) In view of Lemma 9.2.1 we see that when y
−1
, y
0

¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4p
2

, then y
n

¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4p
2

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈
¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4p
2

and that in the interval
¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4p
2

, the function f increases in x and
decreases in y.
We will employ Theorem 1.4.5 and so it remains to be shown that if
m = f(m, M) and M = f(M, m)
then M = m. This system has the form
m =
p + qm
1 + m + rM
and M =
p + qM
1 + M + rm
.
Hence (M −m)(1 −q + M + m) = 0. Now if m + M = q −1, then M = m. For
instance, this is the case if Condition (i) is satisfied. If m + M = q − 1 then m
and M satisfy the equation
(r −1)m
2
+ (r −1)(1 −q)m + p = 0.
Clearly now if Condition (ii) or (iii) is satisfied, m = M from which the result
follows.
The proof when q < p < q + q
2
r holds follows from Lemma 9.2.1 and Theorem
1.4.5.
2
9.3 The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.2) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n−1
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.11)
where
p =
αB
A
2
, q =
γ
A
, and r =
C
B
.
150 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations
about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain
regions of initial conditions.
Eq(9.11) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by
y =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4p(r + 1)
2(r + 1)
.
By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result.
Theorem 9.3.1 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(9.11) is locally asymptotically stable when
either
q ≤ 1
or
q > 1 and (r −1)(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2
> 0.
(b) The equilibrium y of Eq(9.11) is unstable, and more precisely a saddle point,
when
q > 1 and (r −1)(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2
< 0. (9.12)
9.3.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles
Let
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
be a period-two cycle of Eq(9.11). Then
φ =
p + qφ
1 + ψ + rφ
and ψ =
p + qψ
1 + φ + rψ
.
It now follows after some calculation that the following result is true.
Lemma 9.3.1 Eq(9.11) has a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if (9.12) holds.
Furthermore when (9.12) holds, the period-two solution is “unique” and the values
of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation
t
2

q −1
r
t +
p
1 −r
= 0.
9.3. The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
151
To investigate the local stability of the two cycle
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
we set
u
n
= y
n−1
and v
n
= y
n
, for n = 0, 1, . . .
and write Eq(9.11) in the equivalent form:
u
n+1
= v
n
v
n+1
=
p+qu
n
1+v
n
+ru
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) defined by:
T

u
v

=

v
p+qu
1+v+ru

.
Then

φ
ψ

is a fixed point of T
2
, the second iterate of T. By a simple calculation we find that
T
2

u
v

=

g(u, v)
h(u, v)

where
g(u, v) =
p + qu
1 + v + ru
and h(u, v) =
p + qv
1 + g(u, v) + rv
.
Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the
Jacobian matrix J
T
2, evaluated at

φ
ψ

, lie inside the unit disk.
We have
J
T
2

φ
ψ

=

¸
¸
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
¸

,
where
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) =
q −pr + qψ
(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
,
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ) =
−p −qφ
(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
,
152 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ) =
(p + qψ)(pr −q −qψ)
(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
,
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) =
(p + qψ)(p + qφ)
(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
+
q −pr + qφ
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
.
Set
S =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ) +
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ)
and
D =
∂g
∂u
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂v
(φ, ψ) −
∂g
∂v
(φ, ψ)
∂h
∂u
(φ, ψ).
Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 that both eigenvalues of J
T
2

φ
ψ

lie inside the
unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if
|S| < 1 +D < 2. (9.13)
Inequality (9.13) is equivalent to the following three inequalities:
D < 1 (9.14)
S < 1 +D (9.15)
−1 −D < S. (9.16)
First we will establish Inequality (9.14). This inequality is equivalent to
(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
< 0.
Observe that,
(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) = (q −pr)
2
+ q(q −pr)(φ + ψ) + q
2
φψ =
=
−2q
2
r + q
2
r
2
+ 3qpr
2
−2qpr
3
−p
2
r
3
+ p
2
r
4
−q
3
+ rq
3
+ q
2
−pr
2
q
2
−qpr
r (−1 + r)
and that
(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
=

1 + φ + rψ + ψ + ψφ + rψ
2
+ rφ + φ
2
r + r
2
φψ

2
=

−pr
2
+ qr + pr −q + q
2
r

2
.
Thus
9.3. The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
153
(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
=
−pr
3
q
2
+ 2q
2
r −q
2
r
2
−q
2
+ 3p
2
r
3
−2p
2
r
4
−3rq
3
+ 3qpr
3
−5qpr
2
r
2
(1 −r)
+
2qpr + 4pr
2
q
2
+ 2q
3
+ q
4
r −p
2
r
2
−2prq
2
−q
4
+ r
2
q
3
r
2
(1 −r)
=
(2r
2
p −rp + q −q
2
−qr + q
2
r) (−r
2
p + rp −q + q
2
+ qr)
r
2
(1 −r)
.
Note that
−r
2
p + rp −q + q
2
+ qr = rp(1 −r) + q(q −1) + qr > 0.
Also by using Condition (9.12) we see that
(r −1)(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2
= q
2
r −2qr + r −q
2
+ 2q −1 + 4r
2
p < 0
and so
2r
2
p −rp + q −q
2
−qr + q
2
r < 2r
2
p −rp + q −qr + 2qr −r −2q + 1 −4r
2
p
= −2r
2
p −rp −q + qr −r + 1 = −2r
2
p −rp + (r −1) (q −1) < 0
from which the result follows.
Next we turn to Inequality (9.15). This inequality is equivalent to
(q −pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)
2
+ (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q −pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
−(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
< 0.
After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is a consequence of
Condition (9.12).
Finally Inequality (9.16) is equivalent to
(q −pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)
2
+ (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q −pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)
2
+(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) + (1 + ψ + rφ)
2
(1 + φ + rψ)
2
> 0.
After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is also a consequence
of Condition (9.12).
In summary, we have established the following result:
154 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
Theorem 9.3.2 Eq(9.11) has a unique prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if (9.12) holds.
Furthermore when (9.12) holds, this period-two solution is locally asymptotically sta-
ble.
9.3.2 Invariant Intervals
The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-
variant intervals for Eq(9.11).
Lemma 9.3.2 Eq(9.11) possesses the following invariant intervals:
(a)

0,
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2r
¸
¸
when pr ≤ q;
(b)
¸
pr −q
q
,
q
r
¸
when 1 < q < pr < q +
q
2
r

q
r
;
(c)
¸
q
r
,
pr −q
q
¸
when pr ≥ q +
q
2
r
.
Proof.
(a) Set
g(x) =
p + qx
1 + rx
and b =
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2r
and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.11) we see
that when y
k−1
, y
k
∈ [0, b], then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k−1
1 + y
k
+ qy
k−1

p + qy
k−1
1 + ry
k−1
= g(y
k−1
) ≤ g(b) ≤ b.
The proof follows by induction.
9.3. The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
155
(b) It is clear that the function
f(x, y) =
p + qy
1 + x + ry
is increasing in y for x >
pr−q
q
. Using Eq(9.11) we see that when y
k−1
, y
k

pr−q
q
,
q
r

,
then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k−1
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≥ f

q
r
,
pr −q
q


pr −q
q
.
Now by using the monotonic character of the function f(x, y) and the condition
q < pr < q +
q
2
r
we obtain
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k−1
1 + y
k
+ ry
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f

pr −q
q
,
q
r

=
q
r
.
The proof follows by induction.
(c) It is clear that the function
f(x, y) =
p + qy
1 + x + ry
is decreasing in y for x <
pr−q
q
. Using Eq(9.11) we see that when y
k−1
, y
k

q
r
,
pr−q
q

, then
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k−1
1 + y
k
+ qy
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≥ f

pr −q
q
,
pr −q
q

=
q
r
.
By using the fact that f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments and the condition
pr > q +
q
r
2
we obtain
y
k+1
=
p + qy
k−1
1 + y
k
+ qy
k−1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f

q
r
,
q
r

=
pr + q
2
r + (r + 1)q
<
pr −q
q
.
The proof follows by induction.
2
156 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
9.3.3 Convergence of Solutions
By using the monotonic character of the function
f(x, y) =
p + qy
1 + x + ry
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.3.2, together with the appropriate convergence
theorem (from among Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8) we can obtain some convergence results for
the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. For example, the following
results are true for Eq(9.11):
Theorem 9.3.3 Assume that
pr ≤ q
and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied:
(i) q ≤ 1;
(ii) r ≥ 1;
(iii) r < 1 and (r −1)(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2
≥ 0.
Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

0,
q −1 +

(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2r
¸
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we see that when y
−1
, y
0

¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4pr
2r

, then
y
n

¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4pr
2r

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈
¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4pr
2r

and that in the interval
¸
0,
q−1+

(q−1)
2
+4pr
2r

the function f decreases in x and increases
in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.6.
2
Theorem 9.3.4 (a) Assume that 1 < q < pr < q+
q
2
r

q
r
and that one of the following
conditions is also satisfied:
(i) r ≥ 1;
(ii) r < 1 and (r −1)(q −1)
2
+ 4pr
2
≥ 0.
9.3. The Case β = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
157
Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
pr −q
q
,
q
r
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
(b) Assume that pr > q +
q
2
r
. Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions
in the invariant interval
¸
q
r
,
pr −q
q
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof.
(a) In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we conclude that y
n

pr−q
q
,
q
r

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to
check that y ∈

pr−q
q
,
q
r

and that the function f(x, y) decreases in x and increases
in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.6.
(b) In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we conclude that y
n

q
r
,
pr−q
q

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to
check that y ∈

q
r
,
pr−q
q

and that in the interval

q
r
,
pr−q
q

the function f decreases
in both x and in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.7.
2
9.3.4 Global Stability
By applying Theorem 1.4.3 to Eq(9.11), we obtain the following global asymptotic sta-
bility result.
Theorem 9.3.5 Assume
r ≥ 1 and pr ≤ q.
Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.11) is globally asymptotically stable.
9.3.5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q +
q
2
r
Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.11) when pr = q +
q
2
r
. In
this case Eq(9.11) becomes
y
n+1
=
qr + q
2
+ qr
2
y
n−1
r
2
+ r
2
y
n
+ r
3
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and the only positive equilibrium is y =
q
r
.
158 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
Theorem 9.3.6 Suppose that pr = q +
q
2
r
and let {y
n
}

n=−1
be a nontrivial solution of
Eq(9.11). Then after the first semicycle, the solution oscillates about the equilibrium y
with semicycles of length one.
Proof. The proof follows from the relation
y
n+1

q
r
= (
q
r
−y
n
)
qr
2
r
3
(1 + y
n
+ ry
n−1
)
.
2
9.4 The Case α = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.3) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
,
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−1
r + qy
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.17)
where
p =
β
γ
, q =
B
C
, and r =
A
γ
.
This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations
about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain
regions of initial conditions.
The equilibrium points of Eq(9.17) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation
y =
(p + 1)y
r + (1 + q)y
.
Hence zero is always an equilibrium point and when
p + 1 > r, (9.18)
Eq(9.17) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium
y =
p + 1 −r
q + 1
.
The following theorem is a consequence of Theorem 1.1.1 and Theorem 1.3.1.
9.4. The Case α = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
159
Theorem 9.4.1 (a) Assume that
p + 1 ≤ r.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume that
p + 1 > r.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is unstable. Furthermore the zero equilibrium
is a saddle point when
1 −p < r < 1 + p
and a repeller when
r < 1 −p.
The linearized equation associated with Eq(9.17) about its positive equilibrium y is
z
n+1

p −q + qr
(p + 1)(q + 1)
z
n

q −p + r
(p + 1)(q + 1)
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
The following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.1.1.
Theorem 9.4.2 Assume that (9.18) holds. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.17)
is locally asymptotically stable when
q + r < 3p + 1 + qr + pq, (9.19)
and unstable (a saddle point) when
q + r > 3p + 1 + qr + pq. (9.20)
Concerning prime period-two solutions for Eq(9.17), it follows from Section 2.5 that the
following result is true.
Theorem 9.4.3 Eq(9.17) has a prime period-two solution
. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if and only if (9.20) holds. Furthermore when (9.20) holds there is a unique period-two
solution and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation
t
2
−(1 −p −r)t +
p(1 −p −r)
q −1
= 0.
160 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
9.4.1 Invariant Intervals
The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-
variant intervals for Eq(9.17).
Lemma 9.4.1 Eq(9.17) possesses the following invariant intervals:
(a)
¸
0,
p + q −r
q + 1
¸
when p = q
2
and q
2
+ q > r
and
[0, K] when p = q
2
and q
2
+ q ≤ r,
where K > 0 is an arbitrary number;
(b)
¸
0,
qr
p −q
2
¸
when q
2
< p ≤ q
2
+ r and p + q > r,
[0, K] when q
2
< p ≤ q
2
+ r and p + q ≤ r,
where K > 0 is an arbitrary number
and
¸
qr
p −q
2
, K
1
¸
when p > q
2
+ r
where
K
1
=
(q −r)(p −q
2
) −qr +

((r −q)(p −q
2
) + qr)
2
+ 4q
3
r(p −q
2
)
2q(p −q
2
)
;
(c)
¸
0,
pr
q
2
−p
¸
when q
2
−qr ≤ p < q
2
and p + q > r,
[0, K] when q
2
−qr ≤ p < q
2
and p + q ≤ r,
where K > 0 is an arbitrary number
and
¸
pr
q
2
−p
, K
2
¸
when q
2
> p + qr,
where
K
2
=
(q −r)(q
2
−p) +

((q −r)(q
2
−p))
2
+ 4p
3
qr
2
2pqr
.
9.4. The Case α = 0 : x
n+1
=
βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
161
Proof.
(a) It is easy to see that when p = q
2
the function
f(x, y) =
px + qy
r + qx + y
is increasing in both arguments. Therefore for any K > 0,
0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(K, K).
Now observe that the inequality f(K, K) ≤ K is equivalent to q
2
+q−r ≤ (q+1)K.
When q
2
+q ≤ r, this inequality is satisfied for any K > 0, while when q
2
+q > r
the inequality is true when
K ≥
p + q −r
q + 1
.
(b) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is increasing in both arguments for x <
qr
p−q
2
,
and it is increasing in x and decreasing in y for x ≥
qr
p−q
2
.
First assume that q
2
< p ≤ q
2
+ r .
Hence for y
k−1
, y
k

0,
qr
p−q
2

we obtain
y
k+1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f(K, K) = (p + q)K
1
r + (q + 1)K
≤ K,
where we set K =
qr
p−q
2
. The last inequality is always satisfied when p +q ≤ r and
when p + q > r, it is satisfied under the condition r + q
2
> p.
Second assume that p > q
2
+ r.
Then for y
k−1
, y
k

qr
p−q
2
, K
1

we can see that
f

qr
p −q
2
, K
1

≤ y
k+1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f(K
1
,
qr
p −q
2
) ≤ K
1
.
(c) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is increasing in both arguments for y <
pr
q
2
−p
,
and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for y ≥
pr
q
2
−p
.
First assume that q
2
−qr ≤ p < q
2
.
Then one can see that for y
k−1
, y
k

0,
pr
q
2
−p

we obtain
y
k+1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f(K, K) = (p + q)K
1
r + (q + 1)K
≤ K,
with K =
pr
q
2
−p
.
Second assume that p < q
2
−qr. Then for y
k−1
, y
k

pr
q
2
−p
, K
2

one can see that
f

pr
q
2
−p
, K
2

≤ y
k+1
= f(y
k
, y
k−1
) ≤ f

K
2
,
pr
q
2
−p

≤ K
2
.
2
162 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
9.4.2 Convergence of Solutions
By using the monotonic character of the function
f(x, y) =
px + qy
r + qx + y
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.4.1, together with the appropriate convergence
theorem (from among Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8), we can obtain some convergence results
for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. For example, the
following results are true for Eq(9.17):
Theorem 9.4.4 (a) Assume that p = q
2
and q
2
+ q > r. Then every solution of
Eq(9.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
0,
q
2
+ q −r
q + 1
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Assume that p = q
2
and q
2
+ q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with initial
conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium y.
(b) Assume that q
2
+r ≥ p > q
2
and p +q > r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with
initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
0,
qr
p −q
2
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Assume that q
2
+r ≥ p > q
2
and p +q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with
initial conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium
y.
(c) Assume that q
2
−qr ≥ p < q
2
and p +q > r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with
initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
0,
pr
q
2
−p
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Assume that q
2
−qr ≤ p < q
2
and p +q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with
initial conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium
y.
Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.8.
2
9.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 163
Theorem 9.4.5 Assume that
p > q
2
+ r
and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied:
(i) p ≤ q + r;
(ii) q ≥ 1;
(iii) q < 1 and p ≤
3q
2
+q−qr+r
1−q
.
Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr
p−q
2
, K
1

converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. The proof is a consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.5.
2
Theorem 9.4.6 Assume that q
2
> p + qr and that Condition (9.20) is not satis-
fied. Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr
p−q
2
, K
2

converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.6.
2
9.5 Open Problems and Conjectures
Conjecture 9.5.1 Assume
α, β, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.1) has a finite limit.
Conjecture 9.5.2 Assume
α, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.2) is bounded.
Conjecture 9.5.3 Assume
β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.3) is bounded.
164 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
Conjecture 9.5.4 Assume
α, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)
and suppose that Eq(9.2) has no prime period-two solutions. Show that the positive
equilibrium of Eq(9.2) is globally asymptotically stable.
Conjecture 9.5.5 Assume that x
−1
, x
0
∈ [0, ∞) with x
−1
+ x
0
> 0 and that
β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Suppose that Eq(9.3) has no prime period-two solutions. Show that the positive equilib-
rium of Eq(9.3) is globally asymptotically stable.
Open Problem 9.5.1 Determine the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ x
n−1
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
is well defined for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior
of the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
. Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 9.5.2 Determine the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
is well defined for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior
of the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
. Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 9.5.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R × R
through which the equation
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n−1
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
is well defined for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior
of the solutions {x
n
}

n=−1
. Extend and generalize.
9.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 165
Open Problem 9.5.4 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
, {q
n
}

n=0
, and {r
n
}

n=0
are convergent se-
quences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
, q = lim
n→∞
q
n
, and r = lim
n→∞
r
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following three difference equations:
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n
1 + y
n
+ r
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.21)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n−1
1 + y
n
+ r
n
y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.22)
y
n+1
=
p
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
r
n
+ q
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.23)
Open Problem 9.5.5 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
, {q
n
}

n=0
, and {r
n
}

n=0
are period-two se-
quences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive
solutions of Eqs(9.21)-(9.23). Extend and generalize.
Open Problem 9.5.6 Assume that (9.12) holds. Investigate the basin of attraction of
the two cycle
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
of Eq(9.11).
Open Problem 9.5.7 Assume that (9.20) holds. Investigate the basin of attraction of
the two cycle
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
of Eq(9.17).
Conjecture 9.5.6 Assume that (9.20) holds. Show that the period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
of Eq(9.17) is locally asymptotically stable.
166 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations
Open Problem 9.5.8 Assume that
p, q, r ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.
Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference
equations:
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.24)
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n−k
1 + y
n
+ ry
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.25)
y
n+1
=
py
n
+ y
n−k
r + qy
n
+ y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.26)
Chapter 10
(3, 2)-Type Equations
10.1 Introduction
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (3, 2)-type:
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.1)
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.2)
and
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.3)
Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these
equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are
always positive.
10.2 The Case C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.1) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
B
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
+ ry
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.4)
where
p =
αB
A
2
, q =
β
A
, and r =
γ
A
.
167
168 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
(Eq(10.4) was investigated in [29].)
The linearized equation of Eq(10.4) about its unique equilibrium
y =
q + r −1 +

(q + r −1)
2
+ 4p
2
is
z
n+1

q −p −ry
(1 + y)
2
z
n

r
1 + y
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptot-
ically stable when
r < 1 + q
and is an unstable (saddle point) equilibrium when
r > 1 + q.
When
r = q + 1
Eq(10.4) possesses prime period-two solutions. See Sections 2.5 and 2.7. The main
result in this section is that the solutions of Eq(10.4) exhibit the following trichotomy
character.
Theorem 10.2.1 (a) Assume that
r = q + 1. (10.5)
Then every solution of Eq(10.4) converges to a period-two solution.
(b) Assume that
r < q + 1. (10.6)
Then the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is globally asymptotically stable.
(c) Assume that
r > q + 1. (10.7)
Then Eq(10.4) possesses unbounded solutions.
The proof of part (a) of Theorem 10.2.1 was given, for a more general equation, in
Section 2.7. The proofs of parts (b) and (c) of Theorem 10.2.1 are given in Sections
10.2.1 and 10.2.2 below.
10.2. The Case C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
169
10.2.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1
Here we assume that Eq(10.6) holds and we prove that the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is
globally asymptotically stable. We know already that when Eq(10.6) holds the equilib-
rium is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that every solution of
Eq(10.4) is attracted to the equilibrium.
Observe that
y
n+1
= q +
(p −q) + ry
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and so when
p ≥ q (10.8)
we have
y
n
≥ q for n ≥ 1.
Therefore the change of variables
y
n
= q + z
n
transforms Eq(10.4) to the difference equation
z
n+1
=
(p + rq −q) + rz
n−1
(1 + q) + z
n
, n = 1, . . . (10.9)
which is of the form of the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.23) which was investigated in Section 6.5
and therefore the proof is complete when (10.8) holds.
So in the remaining part of the proof we assume that
p < q.
Now observe that the solutions of Eq(10.4) satisfy the following identity
y
n+1
−q =
r
1 + y
n

y
n−1

q −p
r

for n ≥ 0. (10.10)
Note that when
q =
q −p
r
that is when
p + qr −q = 0 (10.11)
the Identity (10.10) reduces to
y
n+1
−q =
r
1 + y
n
(y
n
−q) for n ≥ 0. (10.12)
Also in this case
0 < r = 1 −
p
q
< 1
170 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
and the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is equal to q.
It follows from (10.12) that
|y
n+1
−q| < r|y
n+1
−q|
and so
lim
n→∞
y
n
= q
which completes the proof when (10.11) holds.
Still to be considered are cases where
p + qr −q > 0 (10.13)
and
p + qr −q < 0. (10.14)
First assume that (10.13) holds. To complete the proof in this case it is sufficient to
show that eventually
y
n
≥ q (10.15)
and then use the known result for Eq(10.9). To this end, note that now
q −p
r
< q
and employ (10.10). If (10.15) is not eventually true then either
y
2n
<
q −p
r
for n ≥ 0 (10.16)
or
y
2n−1
<
q −p
r
for n ≥ 0. (10.17)
This is because when
y
N−1
>
q −p
r
for some N ≥ 0,
then it follows from (10.10) that
y
N+1+2K
> q for all K ≥ 0.
We will assume that (10.16) holds. The case where (10.17) holds is similar and will be
omitted. Then we can see from (10.10) that
y
2n+2
−q =
r
1 + y
n+1

y
2n

q −p
r

> r

y
2n

q −p
r

and so
y
2n+2
> ry
2n
+ p for n ≥ 0. (10.18)
10.2. The Case C = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
171
This is impossible when r ≥ 1, because by (10.16) the solution is bounded. On the other
hand, when r < 1, it follows from (10.16) and (10.18) that
q −p
r
> y
2n+2
> r
n+1
y
0
+ r
n
p + . . . + rp + p
and so
q −p
r

p
1 −r
which contradicts (10.13) and completes the proof when (10.13) holds.
Next assume that (10.14) holds. Now we claim that every solution of Eq(10.4) lies
eventually in the interval

0,
q−p
r

. Once we establish this result, the proof that the
equilibrium is a global attractor of all solutions would be a consequence of Theorem
1.4.8 and the fact that in this case the function
f(x, y) =
p + qx + ry
1 + x
is increasing in both arguments. To this end assume for the sake of contradiction that
the solution is not eventually in the interval

0,
q−p
r

. Then one can see from (10.10) and
the fact that now
q <
q −p
r
,
that either
y
2n
>
q −p
r
for n ≥ 0 (10.19)
or
y
2n−1
>
q −p
r
for n ≥ 0. (10.20)
We will assume that (10.19) holds. The case where (10.20) holds is similar and will be
omitted. Then from (10.10) we see that
y
2n+2
−q =
r
1 + y
2n+1

y
2n

q −p
r

< r

y
2n

q −p
r

and so
y
2n+2
< ry
2n
+ p for n ≥ 0.
Note that in this case r < 1 and so
q −p
r
< y
2n+2
< r
n+1
y
0
+ r
n
p + . . . + rp + p
which implies that
q −p
r

p
1 −r
.
This contradicts (10.14) and completes the proof of part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1.
172 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
10.2.2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10.2.1
Here we assume that (10.7) holds and show that Eq(10.4) possesses unbounded solutions.
To this end observe that
y
n+1
= q +
p + r(y
n−1

q
r
)
1 + y
n
for n ≥ 0
and so when (10.7) holds the interval [q, ∞) is invariant. That is when
y
−1
, y
0
∈ [q, ∞),
then
y
n
≥ q for n ≥ 0.
Now the change of variables
y
n
= q + z
n
transforms Eq(10.4) to Eq(10.9) and the conclusion of part (c) follows from Section 6.5
for appropriate initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
. More specifically the solutions of Eq(10.4)
with initial conditions such that
q ≤ y
−1
< r −1 and y
0
> r
−1
+
p + q(r −1)
r −1 −q
have the property that the subsequences of even terms converge to ∞ while the subse-
quences of odd terms converge to q.
It should be mentioned that when (10.7) holds, the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is a
saddle point and so by the stable manifold theorem, in addition to unbounded solu-
tions, Eq(10.4) possesses bounded solutions which in fact converge to the equilibrium of
Eq(10.4).
10.3 The Case B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.2) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
A
C
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
+ ry
n−1
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.21)
where
p =
αC
A
2
, q =
β
A
, and r =
γ
A
.
10.3. The Case B = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Cx
n−1
173
This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations
about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and convergence of solutions in certain
regions of initial conditions.
The linearized equation of Eq(10.21) about its positive equilibrium
y =
q + r −1 +

(q + r −1)
2
+ 4p
2
is
z
n+1

q
1 + y
z
n
+
p −r + qy
(1 + y)
2
z
n
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
By applying Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable for all values
of the parameters p, q, and r.
10.3.1 Invariant Intervals
The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-
variant intervals for Eq(10.21).
Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever,
y
N
, y
N+1
∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,
then
y
n
∈ I for n ≥ N.
Lemma 10.3.1 Eq(10.21) possesses the following invariant intervals:
(a)
¸
0,
p
1 −q
¸
when q < 1 and p ≥ r;
(b)
¸
0,
r −p
q
¸
when q < 1 and p ≥ r(1 −q).
10.3.2 Global Stability When p ≥ r
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.21) when p ≥ r.
Observe that
y
n+1
= r +
(p −r) + qy
n
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and so when
p ≥ r
174 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
y
n
≥ r for n ≥ 1.
Therefore the change of variables
y
n
= r + z
n
transforms Eq(10.21) to the difference equation
z
n+1
=
p + qr −r + qz
n
(1 + r) + z
n−1
, n = 1, 2, . . .
which is of the form of the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.2) which was investigated in Section 6.3.
The following result is now a consequence of the above observations and the results
in Section 6.3.
Theorem 10.3.1 Assume
p ≥ r.
Then the following statements are true.
(a) Every positive solution of Eq(10.21) is bounded.
(b) The positive equilibrium of Eq(10.21) is globally asymptotically stable if one of
the following conditions holds:
(i) q < 1;
(ii)
q ≥ 1
and
either p + qr −r ≤ q or q < p + qr −r ≤ 2(q + 1).
10.3.3 Convergence of Solutions
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.21) when p < r.
Theorem 10.3.2 (a) Assume that
q < 1 and r ≥
p
1 −q
.
Then every solution of Eq(10.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
0,
r −p
q
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
10.4. The Case A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
175
(b) Suppose that either
0 ≤ q −1 < r and p < r
or
q < 1 and p < r <
p
1 −q
.
Set
K =
pq + r
2
−pr
q + r −p −q
2
.
Then every solution of Eq(10.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval
¸
r −p
q
, K
¸
converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof.
(a) In view of Lemma 10.3.1 we see that when y
−1
, y
0

0,
r−p
q

, then y
n

0,
r−p
q

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈

0,
r−p
q

and that in the interval

0,
r−p
q

the function f(x, y) increases in both x and y. The result is now a consequence of
Theorem 1.4.8.
(b) In view of Lemma 10.3.1 we see that when y
−1
, y
0

r−p
q
, K

, then y
n

r−p
q
, K

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈

r−p
q
, K

and that in the interval

r−p
q
, K

the function f(x, y) increases in x and decreases in y. The result is now
a consequence of Theorem 1.4.5.
2
10.4 The Case A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.3) which by the change of variables
x
n
=
γ
C
y
n
reduces to the difference equation
y
n+1
=
r + py
n
+ y
n−1
qy
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.22)
where
p =
β
γ
, q =
B
C
, and r =
αC
γ
2
.
176 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations
about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain
regions of initial conditions.
The linearized equation of Eq(10.22) about its positive equilibrium
y =
(1 + p) +

(1 + p)
2
+ 4r(1 + q)
2(1 + q)
is
z
n+1

(p −q)y −qr
(q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y)
z
n
+
(p −q)y + r
(q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y)
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .
By applying Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when either
q ≤ pq + 1 + 3p (10.23)
or
q > pq + 1 + 3p and F

2r
q −pq −1 −3p

> 0
where
F(u) = (q + 1)u
2
−(p + 1)u −r.
The second condition reduces to
q > pq + 1 + 3p. (10.24)
It is interesting to note that the above condition for the local asymptotic stability of y
requires the assumption that r > 0. When r = 0, as in Section 6.9, the inequality in
(10.23) is strict and Condition (10.24) is void.
Concerning prime period-two solution, it follows from Section 2.5 that a period-two
solution exists if and only if
p < 1, q > 1 and 4r < (1 −p)(q −pq −3p −1). (10.25)
Furthermore in this case the prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
is unique and the values φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation
t
2
−(1 −p)t +
r + p(1 −p)
q −1
= 0.
10.4. The Case A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
177
10.4.1 Invariant Intervals
Here we present some results about invariant intervals for Eq(10.21). We consider the
cases where p = q, p > q, and p < q.
Lemma 10.4.1 Eq(10.21) possesses the following invariant intervals:
(a)
[a, b] when p = q and
a and b are positive numbers such that
r + (p + 1)a ≤ (q + 1)ab ≤ r + (p + 1)b. (10.26)
(b)
¸
p
q
,
qr
p −q
¸
when p > q and
p
2
−pq
q
2
< r;
¸
qr
p −q
,
p
q
¸
when p > q and
p
2
−pq
q
2
> r.
(c)
¸
1,
r
q −p
¸
when p < q < p + r;
¸
r
q −p
, 1
¸
when q > p + r.
Proof.
(a) It is easy to see that when p = q the function
f(x, y) =
r + px + y
qx + y
is decreasing in both arguments. Hence
a ≤
r + (p + 1)b
(q + 1)b
= f(b, b) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(a, a) =
r + (p + 1)a
(q + 1)a
≤ b.
(b) Clearly the function f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments when y <
qr
p−q
, and it
is increasing in x and decreasing in y for y ≥
qr
p−q
.
First assume that p > q and
p
2
−pq
q
2
< r.
178 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
Then for x, y ∈

p
q
,
qr
p−q

we obtain
p
q
= f

qr
p −q
,
qr
p −q

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

p
q
,
p
q

=
qr + p(p + 1)
p(q + 1)

qr
p −q
.
The inequalities
qr + p(p + 1)
p(q + 1)

qr
p −q
and
p
q
<
qr
p −q
are equivalent to the inequality
p
2
−pq
q
2
< r.
Next assume that p > q and
p
2
−pq
q
2
> r.
For x, y ∈

qr
p−q
,
p
q

, we obtain
(qr + p)(p −q) + pq
2
r
q
3
r + p(p −q)
= f

qr
p −q
,
p
q

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

p
q
,
qr
p −q

=
p
q
.
The inequalities
(qr + p)(p −q) + pq
2
r
q
3
r + p(p −q)

qr
p −q
and
p
q
>
qr
p −q
follow from the inequality
p
2
−pq
q
2
> r.
(c) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments for x <
r
q−p
,
and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for x ≥
r
q−p
.
First, assume that p < q < p + r.
Using the decreasing character of f, we obtain
1 = f

r
q −p
,
r
q −p

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(1, 1) =
r + p + 1
q + 1

r
q −p
,
The inequalities
1 <
r
q −p
and
r + p + 1
q + 1
<
r
q −p
are equivalent to the inequality q < p + r.
Next assume that q > p + r.
Using the decreasing character of f in x and the increasing character of f in y, we
obtain
(p + r)(q −p) + r
q(q −p) + r
= f

1,
r
q −p

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

r
p −q
, 1

= 1.
10.4. The Case A = 0 : x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
179
The inequalities
(p + r)(q −p) + r
q(q −p) + r

r
q −p
and
r
q −p
< 1
follow from the inequality q > p + r.
2
10.4.2 Convergence of Solutions
Here we obtain some convergence results for Eq(10.22).
Theorem 10.4.1 (a) Assume that p = q. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with
initial conditions in the invariant interval [a, b], where 0 < a < b satisfy (10.26)
converges to the equilibrium y.
(b) Assume that p > q and r >
p
2
−pq
q
2
. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial
conditions in the invariant interval

p
q
,
qr
p−q

converges to the equilibrium y.
(c) Assume that p < q < p+r. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions
in the invariant interval

1,
r
q−p

converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.7.
2
Theorem 10.4.2 Assume that p > q, r <
p
2
−pq
q
2
, and that either
p ≤ 1
or
p > 1 and (q −1)[(p −1)
2
(q −1) −4q(1 −p −qr)] ≤ 0.
Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr
p−q
,
p
q

converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.5.
2
Theorem 10.4.3 Assume that p < q, p +r < q, and that Condition (10.25) is not sat-
isfied. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

r
q−p
, 1

converges to the equilibrium y.
Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.6.
2
180 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
10.5 Open Problems and Conjectures
Open Problem 10.5.1 We know that every solution {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(10.4) converges
to a not necessarily prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (10.27)
if and only if
r = 1 + q.
(a) Determine the set of initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
for which φ = ψ.
(b) Assume (10.27) is a prime period-two solution of Eq(10.4). Determine the set of
initial conditions y
−1
and y
0
for which {y
n
}

n=−1
converges to (10.27).
Open Problem 10.5.2 Assume
r > q + 1.
(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the
solutions {y
n
}

n=−1
of Eq(10.4) are bounded.
(b) Let (y
−1
, y
0
) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y
n
}

n=−1
.
Conjecture 10.5.1 Every positive solution of Eq(10.21) converges to the positive equi-
librium of the equation.
Open Problem 10.5.3 For each of the equations listed below, determine the set G of
all initial conditions (x
−1
, x
0
) ∈ R×R through which the equation is well defined for all
n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the corresponding
solution:
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
1 + x
n
(10.28)
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
1 + x
n−1
(10.29)
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
+ x
n−1
x
n
+ x
n−1
. (10.30)
Extend and generalize.
10.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 181
Conjecture 10.5.2 Assume that
p, q, r ∈ (0, ∞).
Then the following statements are true for Eq(10.22)
(a) Local stability of the positive equilibrium implies global stability.
(b) When Eq(10.22) has no prime period-two solutions the equilibrium y is globally
asymptotically stable.
(c) When Eq(10.22) possesses a period-two solution, the equilibrium y is a saddle
point.
(d) The period-two solution of Eq(10.22), when it exists, is locally asymptotically sta-
ble, but not globally.
Open Problem 10.5.4 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
, {q
n
}

n=0
, and {r
n
}

n=0
are convergent se-
quences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits,
p = lim
n→∞
p
n
, q = lim
n→∞
q
n
, and r = lim
n→∞
r
n
.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of
each of the following three difference equations:
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n
+ r
n
y
n−1
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.31)
y
n+1
=
p
n
+ q
n
y
n
+ r
n
y
n−1
1 + y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.32)
y
n+1
=
r
n
+ p
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
q
n
y
n
+ y
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.33)
Open Problem 10.5.5 Assume that {p
n
}

n=0
, {q
n
}

n=0
, and {r
n
}

n=0
are period-two se-
quences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive
solutions of Eqs(10.31)-(10.33). Extend and generalize.
182 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 10.5.6 Assume that
p, q, r ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.
Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference
equations:
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
+ ry
n−k
1 + y
n
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.34)
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
+ ry
n−k
1 + y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.35)
y
n+1
=
p + qy
n
+ ry
n−1
qy
n
+ y
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.36)
Chapter 11
The (3, 3)-Type Equation
x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
In this chapter we discuss the (3, 3)-type equation
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
A + Bx
n
+ Cx
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.1)
Please recall our classification convention in which all coefficients of this equation are
now assumed to be positive and the initial conditions nonnegative.
This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations
about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain
regions of initial conditions.
11.1 Linearized Stability Analysis
Eq(11.1) has a unique equilibrium which is the positive solution of the quadratic equation
(B + C)x
2
−(β + γ −A)x −α = 0.
That is,
x =
β + γ −A +

(A −β −γ)
2
+ 4α(B + C)
2(B + C)
.
The linearized equation about x is (see Section 2.3)
z
n+1

(βA −Bα) + (βC −Bγ)x
A
2
+ α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x
z
n

(γA −Cα) −(βC −γB)x
A
2
+ α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x
z
n−1
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.2)
183
184 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
The equilibrium x is locally asymptotically stable if Conditions (2.13), (2.14), and (2.15)
are satisfied.
Eq(11.1) has a prime period-two solution
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
if, see Section 2.5, Conditions (2.31) and (2.32) are satisfied; that is,
γ > β+A, B > C, and α <
(γ −β −A)[B(γ −β −A) −C(γ + 3β −A)]
4C
2
. (11.3)
Furthermore, when (11.3), holds the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the
quadratic equation
t
2
+
γ −β −A
C
t +
αC + β(γ −β −A)
C(B −C)
= 0. (11.4)
The local asymptotic stability of the two cycle
. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .
is discussed in Section 2.6.
11.2 Invariant Intervals
Here we obtain several invariant intervals for Eq(11.1). These intervals are derived by
analyzing the intervals where the function
f(x, y) =
α + βx + γy
A + Bx + Cy
is increasing or decreasing in x and y.
If we set
L = βA −αB, M = βC −γB, and N = γA −αC
then clearly
f
x
=
L + My
(A + Bx + Cy)
2
and f
y
=
N −My
(A + Bx + Cy)
2
.
Recall that an interval I is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) if whenever,
y
N
, y
N+1
∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,
then
y
n
∈ I for n ≥ N.
Once we have an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) then we may be able to obtain a con-
vergence result for the solutions of Eq(11.1) by testing whether the hypotheses of one of
the four Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8 are satisfied.
11.2. Invariant Intervals 185
Lemma 11.2.1 (i) Assume that
γ
C
=
β
B
>
α
A
.
Then

α
A
,
β
B

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.
(ii) Assume that
β
B
>
γ
C
>
α
A
and
γ
C

N
M
.
Then

α
A
,
γ
C

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.
(iii) Assume that
γ
C
>
β
B
>
α
A
and
β + γ
B + C

αB −βA
βC −γB
.
Then

α
A
,
β+γ
B+C

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the func-
tion f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.
(iv) Assume that
γ
C
=
β
B
<
α
A
.
Then

β
B
,
α
A

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.
(v) Assume that
γA −αC
βC −γB

α
A
>
β
B
>
γ
C
.
Then

0,
γA−αC
βC−γB

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the func-
tion f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.
(vi) Assume that
β
B
<
γ
C
<
α
A
<
γA −αC
βC −γB
.
Then

0,
α
A

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.
(vii) Assume that
α
A
=
β
B
>
γ
C
.
Then

0,
α
A

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.
186 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
(viii) Assume that
β
B
>
α
A

γ
C
.
Then

0,
β
B

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.
(ix) Assume that
α
A
=
β
B
<
γ
C
.
Then

0,
γ
C

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.
(x) Assume that
β
B
<
α
A

γ
C
.
Then

0,
γ
C

is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.
Proof.
(i) The condition
γ
C
=
β
B
>
α
A
is equivalent to M = 0 and L > 0, which in turn imply
that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in both variables for
all values of x and y and
α
A
= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(
β
B
,
β
B
) ≤
β + γ
B + C
=
β
B
.
Here we used the fact that under the condition
γ
C
=
β
B
>
α
A
the function f(u, u) is increasing and consequently
f(u, u) ≤
β + γ
B + C
=
β
B
.
(ii) The condition
β
B
>
γ
C
>
α
A
is equivalent to M > 0, L > 0, and N > 0. Thus, in
this case the function f is increasing in x, for every x. In addition, this function
is increasing in y for x <
N
M
. Thus, assuming
γ
C

N
M
we obtain
α
A
= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(
N
M
,
N
M
) =
γ
C
,
for all x, y ∈

α
A
,
γ
C

.
11.2. Invariant Intervals 187
(iii) The condition
γ
C
>
β
B
>
α
A
is equivalent to M < 0 and L > 0, which in turn imply
that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in y, for every y. In
addition, this function is increasing in x for y < −
L
M
. Thus assuming
β+γ
B+C
≤ −
L
M
,
we obtain,
α
A
= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

β + γ
B + C
,
β + γ
B + C


β + γ
B + C
,
for all x, y ∈

α
A
,
β+γ
B+C

.
(iv) The condition
γ
C
=
β
B
<
α
A
is equivalent to M = 0 and L < 0, which in turn imply
that N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in both variables for
all values of x and y and
β
B
≤ f

α
A
,
α
A

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =
α
A
.
Here we used the fact that under the condition
γ
C
=
β
B
<
α
A
the function f(u, u) is decreasing and consequently
f(u, u) ≥
β + γ
B + C
=
β
B
.
(v) The condition
α
A
>
β
B
>
γ
C
is equivalent to M > 0 and L < 0, which imply that
N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in y, for every y. In addition,
this function is decreasing in x for y < −
L
M
. Thus assuming
α
A
≤ −
L
M
, we obtain
0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =
α
A
≤ −
L
M
,
for all x, y ∈

0, −
L
M

.
(vi) The condition
α
A
>
γ
C
>
β
B
is equivalent to M < 0, L < 0, and N < 0. Thus, in
this case the function f is decreasing in x, for every x. In addition, this function
is decreasing in y for x <
N
M
. Thus assuming
α
A

N
M
, we obtain
0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =
α
A
,
for all x, y ∈

0,
α
A

.
188 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
(vii) The condition
α
A
=
β
B
>
γ
C
is equivalent to M > 0 and L = 0, which in turn imply
that N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in
y for all values of x and y. Using this we obtain,
0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

α
A
, 0

=
α
A
,
for all x, y ∈

0,
α
A

.
(viii) The condition
β
B
>
α
A
>
γ
C
is equivalent to M > 0, L > 0, and N < 0. Thus, in
this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x
and y. Using this we obtain,
0 ≤ f(x, y) < f

β
B
, 0

=
β
B
,
for all x, y ∈

0,
β
B

.
(ix) The condition
α
A
=
β
B
<
γ
C
is equivalent to M < 0 and L = 0, which in turn imply
that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in x and increasing in
y for all values of x and y. Using this we obtain,
0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

0,
γ
C

=
γ
C
,
for all x, y ∈

0,
γ
C

.
(x) The condition
β
B
<
α
A

γ
C
is equivalent to M < 0, L < 0, and N ≥ 0. Thus, in
this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x
and y. Using this we obtain,
0 ≤ f(x, y) < f

0,
γ
C


γ
C
,
for all x, y ∈

0,
γ
C

. Here we use the fact that the function f(0, v) is increasing in
v when N > 0 and so
f(0, v) ≤
γ
C
= lim
v→∞
f(0, v),
for all v.
2
The next table summarizes more complicated invariant intervals with the signs of
the partial derivatives f
x
and f
y
.
11.3. Convergence Results 189
Case Invariant intervals Signs of derivatives
1
[0,
N
M
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
<
N
M
[
N
M
, K
1
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
>
N
M
f
x
> 0
f
y
> 0 if x <
N
M
; f
y
< 0 if x >
N
M
2
[0,
β−A+

(β−A)
2
+4Bα
2B
]
f
x
> 0
f
y
< 0
3
[0,
β+γ−A+

(β+γ−A)
2
+4α(B+C)
2(B+C)
]
f
x
> 0
f
y
> 0
4
[0, −
L
M
] if
αM−(β+γ)L
AM−(B+C)L
< −
L
M
[−
L
M
, K
2
] if
βMK+αM−γL
BMK+AM−CL
> −
L
M
f
x
> 0 if y < −
L
M
; f
x
< 0 if y > −
L
M
f
y
> 0
5 [0,
β
B
]
f
x
> 0
f
y
< 0
6 [0,
γ
C
]
f
x
< 0
f
y
> 0
7
[
αM−L(β+γ)
AM−L(B+C)
, −
L
M
] if
αM−L(β+γ)
AM−L(B+C)
< −
L
M
[−
L
M
, K
3
] if
αM−βL+γMK
AM−BL+CMK
> −
L
M
f
x
> 0 if y > −
L
M
; f
x
< 0 if y < −
L
M
f
y
< 0
8 [0,
α
A
]
f
x
< 0
f
y
< 0
9
[
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
,
N
M
] if
αM+(β+γ)N
AM+(B+C)N
<
N
M
[
N
M
, K
4
] if
αM+βK+γNM
AM+BK+CNM
>
N
M
f
x
< 0
f
y
> 0 if x >
N
M
; f
y
< 0 if x <
N
M
where
K
1
=
(β −A)M −CN +

((β −A)M −NC)
2
+ 4BM(αM + γN)
2BM
,
K
2
=
(A −γ)M −BL +

((A −γ)M −BL)
2
+ 4CM(αM −βL)
−2CM
,
K
3
=
(β −A)M + LC +

((β −A)M + LC)
2
+ 4BM(αM −γL)
2BM
,
K
4
=
(γ −A)M −BN +

((γ −A)M −BN)
2
+ 4BM(αM + βN)
2CM
.
11.3 Convergence Results
The following result is a consequence of Lemma 11.2.1 and Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8.
Theorem 11.3.1 Let {x
n
} be a solution of Eq(11.1). Then in each of the following
cases
lim
n→∞
x
n
= x.
190 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
(i)
γ
C
=
β
B
>
α
A
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
α
A
,
β
B
¸
;
(ii)
β
B
>
γ
C
>
α
A
,
γ
C

γA −αC
βC −γB
, and x
−1
, x
0

¸
α
A
,
γ
C

;
(iii)
γ
C
>
β
B
>
α
A
,
β + γ
B + C

αB −βA
βC −γB
, and x
−1
, x
0

¸
α
A
,
β + γ
B + C
¸
;
(iv)
γ
C
=
β
B
<
α
A
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
β
B
,
α
A
¸
;
(v)
γA −αC
βC −γB

α
A
>
β
B
>
γ
C
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
0,
γA −αC
βC −γB
¸
;
(vi)
β
B
<
γ
C
<
α
A
<
γA −αC
βC −γB
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
0,
α
A

;
(vii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisfied and x
−1
, x
0

0,
α
A

:
β > γ + A,
B < C,
and
(C −B)[(C −B)(β −γ −A)
2
−4B(αB + γ(β −γ −A))] > 0,
or
α
A
=
β
B
>
γ
C
;
(viii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisfied and x
−1
, x
0

0,
β
B

:
β > γ + A,
B < C,
and
(C −B)[(C −B)(β −γ −A)
2
−4B(αB + γ(β −γ −A))] > 0,
or
β
B
>
α
A

γ
C
;
11.3. Convergence Results 191
(ix) Condition (11.3) is not satisfied,
α
A
=
β
B
<
γ
C
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
0,
γ
C

;
(x) Condition (11.3) is not satisfied,
β
B
<
α
A

γ
C
and x
−1
, x
0

¸
0,
γ
C

.
Proof. The proofs of statements (i-iii) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (i-iii) and
Theorem 1.4.8.
The proofs of statements (iv-vi) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (iv-vi) and Theo-
rem 1.4.7.
The proofs of statements (vii) and (viii) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (vii) and
(viii) respectively, Theorem 1.4.5, and by observing that the only solution of the system
of equations
m = f(m, M), M = f(M, m);
that is,
m =
α + βm + γM
A + Bm + CM
, M =
α + βM + γm
A + BM + Cm
is m = M.
The proofs of statements (ix) and (x) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (ix) and (x)
respectively, Theorem 1.4.6, and by observing that Eq(11.1) does not possess a prime
period-two solution.
2
11.3.1 Global Stability
Theorem 1.4.2 and linearized stability imply the following global stability result:
Theorem 11.3.2 Assume that
γ
C
< min

β
B
,
α
A
¸
.
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.
By applying Theorem 1.4.3 to Eq(11.1) we obtain the following global asymptotic
result.
192 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
Theorem 11.3.3 Assume that
B ≤ C, γB > βC, αB > βA, and γA > αC.
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.
The following global stability result is a consequence of linearized stability and the
Trichotomy Theorem 1.4.4.
Theorem 11.3.4 (a) Assume that
αC ≥ γA, βA ≥ αB, and 3γB ≥ βC ≥ γB.
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.
(b) Assume that
αB ≥ βA, γA ≥ αC, and 3βC ≥ γB ≥ βC.
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.
11.4 Open Problems and Conjectures
Conjecture 11.4.1 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that every positive solution of Eq(11.1) is bounded.
Conjecture 11.4.2 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)
and that Eq(11.1) has no positive prime period-two solution. Show that every positive
solution of Eq(11.1) converges to the positive equilibrium.
Conjecture 11.4.3 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)
and that Eq(11.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. Show that the positive equi-
librium of Eq(11.1) is a saddle point and the period-two solution is locally asymptotically
stable.
11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 193
Conjecture 11.4.4 Assume
α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).
Show that Eq(11.1) cannot have a prime period-k solution for any k ≥ 3.
Open Problem 11.4.1 Assume {α
n
}

n=0
, {β
n
}

n=0
, {γ
n
}

n=0
, {A
n
}

n=0
, {B
n
}

n=0
, {C
n
}

n=0
are convergent sequences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits. Investigate the
asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the difference
equation
x
n+1
=
α
n
+ β
n
x
n
+ γ
n
x
n−1
A
n
+ B
n
x
n
+ C
n
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.5)
Open Problem 11.4.2 Assume that the parameters in Eq(11.5) are period-two se-
quences of positive real numbers. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic
nature of all positive solutions of Eq(11.5).
Open Problem 11.4.3 Assume that
a, A, a
i
, A
i
∈ [0, ∞) for i = 0, 1, . . . , k. (11.6)
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions so that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
a + a
0
x
n
+ . . . + a
k
x
n−k
A + A
0
x
n
+ . . . + A
k
x
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.7)
has a finite limit.
Open Problem 11.4.4 Assume that (11.6) holds. Obtain necessary and sufficient con-
ditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11.7) converges to a period-two solution.
Open Problem 11.4.5 Assume that (11.6) holds. Obtain necessary and sufficient con-
ditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11.7) is periodic with period-k, k ≥ 2. In
particular, investigate the cases where 2 ≤ k ≤ 8.
194 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
Open Problem 11.4.6 Let
α, β, γ, δ ∈ [0, ∞) with γ + δ > 0.
Investigate the boundedness character, the periodic nature, and the asymptotic behavior
of all positive solutions of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
αx
n
+ βx
n−1
x
n−2
γx
n
x
n−1
+ δx
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
(See [8] and [61].)
Conjecture 11.4.5 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer. Show that every positive solution
of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ . . . + x
n−k
+ x
n−k−1
x
n−k−2
x
n
x
n−1
+ x
n−2
+ . . . + x
n−k−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to 1. Extend and generalize.
(See [8], [47], and [60].)
Conjecture 11.4.6 Let
a
ij
∈ (0, ∞) for i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}.
Show that every positive solution of the system
x
n+1
=
a
11
x
n
+
a
12
y
n
+
a
13
z
n
y
n+1
=
a
21
x
n
+
a
22
y
n
+
a
23
z
n
z
n+1
=
a
31
x
n
+
a
32
y
n
+
a
33
z
n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.8)
converges to a period-two solution. Extend to equations with real parameters.
(See [32] for the two dimensional case.)
Conjecture 11.4.7 Assume that
p, q ∈ [0, ∞).
11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 195
(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
px
n−1
+ x
n−2
q + x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution if and only if
p = 1 + q.
(b) Show that when
p < 1 + q
every positive solution has a finite limit.
(c) Show that when
p > 1 + q
the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.
(See [62].)
Conjecture 11.4.8 Assume that
p ∈ (0, ∞).
(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−1
x
n−1
+ px
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution if
p ≥ 1.
(b) Show that when
p < 1
the positive equilibrium x =
1
1+p
is globally asymptotically stable.
Conjecture 11.4.9 Assume that
p, q ∈ [0, ∞).
196 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−1
+ p
x
n−2
+ q
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution if and only if
q = 1.
(b) Show that when
q > 1
the positive equilibrium of the equation is globally asymptotically stable.
(c) Show that when
q < 1
the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.
(See [62].)
Conjecture 11.4.10 Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ x
n−2
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-four solution.
(See [62].)
Conjecture 11.4.11 Show that the difference equation
x
n+1
=
p + x
n−2
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
has the following trichotomy character:
(i) When p > 1 every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium.
(ii) When p = 1 every positive solution converges to a period-five solution.
(iii) When p < 1 there exist positive unbounded solutions.
(See [62].)
11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 197
Conjecture 11.4.12 Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
x
n−1
+ x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-six solution of the form
. . . , φ, ψ,
ψ
φ
,
1
φ
,
1
ψ
,
φ
ψ
, . . .
where
φ, ψ ∈ (0, ∞).
(See [62].)
Open Problem 11.4.7 Consider the difference equation
x
n+1
=
α + βx
n
+ γx
n−1
+ δx
n−2
A + Bx
n
+ Dx
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.9)
with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that B+D > 0 and
A + Bx
n
+ Dx
n−2
> 0 for n ≥ 0.
Then one can show that Eq(11.9) has prime period-two solutions if and only if
γ = β + δ + A. (11.10)
(a) In addition to (11.10), what other conditions are needed so that every positive
solution of Eq(11.9) converges to a period-two solution?
(b) Assume
γ < β + δ + A.
What other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11.9) con-
verges to the positive equilibrium?
(c) Assume
γ > β + δ + A.
What other conditions are needed so that Eq(11.9) possesses unbounded solutions?
(See [6].)
198 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
Conjecture 11.4.13 Show that every positive solution of each of the two equations
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n−1
+ x
n−2
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
and
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n−1
+ x
n−2
x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution.
(See [6].)
Conjecture 11.4.14 Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n−1
1 + x
n
+ x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-two solution.
(See [6].)
Conjecture 11.4.15 Show that every positive solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−2
x
n−1
+ x
n−2
+ x
n−3
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-three solution.
Conjecture 11.4.16 Consider the difference equation
x
n+1
=
p + qx
n
+ rx
n−2
x
n−1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
where
p ∈ [0, ∞) and q, r ∈ (0, ∞).
(a) Show that when
q = r
every positive solution converges to a period-four solution.
(b) Show that when
q > r
every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium.
11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 199
(c) Show that when
q < r
the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.
(See [62].)
Open Problem 11.4.8 Determine whether every positive solution of each of the fol-
lowing equations converges to a periodic solution of the corresponding equation:
(a)
x
n+1
=
x
n−2
+ x
n−3
x
n
, n = 0, 1, . . .
(b)
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n−3
1 + x
n
+ x
n−3
, n = 0, 1, . . .
(c)
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
+ x
n−3
x
n−2
, n = 0, 1, . . .
(d)
x
n+1
=
x
n−1
x
n
+ x
n−2
+ x
n−3
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
Open Problem 11.4.9 Assume that k is a positive integer and that
A, B
0
, B
1
, . . . B
k
∈ [0, ∞) with
k
¸
i=0
B
i
> 0.
Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on the parameters A and B
0
, B
1
, . . . B
k
so
that every positive solution of the difference equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−k
A + B
0
x
n
+ . . . + B
k
x
n−k
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of this equation.
(See [6].)
200 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x
n+1
=
α+βx
n
+γx
n−1
A+Bx
n
+Cx
n−1
Open Problem 11.4.10 Assume that k is a positive integer. Then we can easily see
that every nonnegative solution of the equation
x
n+1
=
x
n−k
1 + x
n
+ . . . + x
n−k+1
, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.11)
converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of the form
. . . , 0, 0, ..., 0
. .. .
k−terms
, φ, . . . (11.12)
with φ ≥ 0.
(a) Does Eq(11.11) possess a positive solution which converges to zero?
(b) Determine, in terms of the nonnegative initial conditions x
−k
, . . . , x
0
, the value of
φ in (11.12) which corresponds to the nonnegative solution {x
n
}

n=−k
of Eq(11.11).
(c) Determine the set of all nonnegative initial conditions x
−k
, . . . , x
0
for which the
corresponding solution {x
n
}

n=−k
of Eq(11.11) converges to a period-(k+1) solution
of the form (11.12) with a given φ ≥ 0 ?
(See [6].)
Conjecture 11.4.17 Let k be a positive integer. Show that every positive solution of
x
n+1
=
1 + x
n
+ x
n−k
x
n−k+1
, n = 0, 1, . . .
converges to a periodic solution of period 2k.
Appendix A
Global Attractivity for Higher
Order Equations
In this appendix we present some global attractivity results for higher order difference
equations which are analogous to Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8. We state the results for third
order equations from which higher order extensions will become clear.
Let I be some interval of real numbers and let
f : I ×I ×I →I
be a continuously differentiable function.
Then for every set of initial conditions x
0
, x
−1
, x
−2
∈ I, the difference equation
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, x
n−2
), n = 0, 1, . . . (A.1)
has a unique solution {x
n
}

n=−2
.
As we have seen in previous chapters, very often a good strategy for obtaining global
attractivity results for Eq(A.1) is to work in the regions where the function f(x, y, z) is
monotonic in its arguments. In this regard there are eight possible scenarios depending
on whether f(x, y, z) is non decreasing in all three arguments, or non increasing in two
arguments and non decreasing in the third, or non increasing in one and non decreasing
in the other two, or non decreasing in all three.
Theorem A.0.1 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;
(b) The equation
f(x, x, x) = x,
has a unique solution in the interval [a, b].
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1)
converges to x.
201
202 Appendix
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
, M
i−1
) and m
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
, m
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
i
≤ . . . ≤ M
1
≤ M
0
,
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then
M ≥ limsup
i→∞
x
i
≥ liminf
i→∞
x
i
≥ m (A.2)
and by the continuity of f,
m = f(m, m, m) and M = f(M, M, M).
In view of (b),
m = M = x,
from which the result follows. 2
Theorem A.0.2 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x and y ∈ [a, b] for each z ∈ [a, b], and is non-
increasing in z ∈ [a, b] for each x and y ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
m = f(m, m, M) and M = f(M, M, m)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
Appendix 203
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
, m
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
a = m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b.
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
m = f(m, m, M) and M = f(M, M, m).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the result follows. 2
Theorem A.0.3 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x and z in [a, b] for each z ∈ [a, b], and is non-
increasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x and z in [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(M, m, M) and m = f(m, M, m)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
204 Appendix
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f (M
i−1
, m
i−1
, M
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f (m
i−1
, M
i−1
, m
i−1
) .
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
a = m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b.
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
m = f (m, m, M) and M = f (M, M, m) .
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
Theorem A.0.4 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-increasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-decreasing
in y and z for each x, y ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(m, M, M) and m = f(M, m, m)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
Appendix 205
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, M
i−1
, M
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(M
i−1
, m
i−1
, m
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
M = f(m, M, M) and m = f(M, m, m).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
Theorem A.0.5 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-increasing
in y and z for each x ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(M, m, m) and m = f(m, M, M)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
206 Appendix
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(M
i−1
, m
i−1
, m
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(m
i−1
, M
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
M = f(M, m, m) and m = f(m, M, M).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
Theorem A.0.6 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in y for each x and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-increasing
in x and z for each y ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(m, M, m) and m = f(M, m, M)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
Appendix 207
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, M
i−1
, m
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(M
i−1
, m
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
M = f(m, M, m) and m = f(M, m, M).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
Theorem A.0.7 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in z for each x and y in [a, b] and is non-increasing
in x and y for each z ∈ [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(m, m, M) and m = f(M, M, m)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
208 Appendix
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
, M
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
, m
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
M = f(m, m, M) and m = f(M, M, m).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
Theorem A.0.8 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
3
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(x, y, z) is non-increasing in all three variables x, y, z in [a, b];
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(m, m, m) and m = f(M, M, M)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges
to x.
Appendix 209
Proof. Set
m
0
= a and M
0
= b
and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set
M
i
= f(m
i−1
, m
i−1
, m
i−1
)
and
m
i
= f(M
i−1
, M
i−1
, M
i−1
).
Now observe that for each i ≥ 0
m
0
≤ m
1
≤ . . . ≤ m
i
≤ . . . M
i
≤ . . . M
1
≤ M
0
= b
and
m
i
≤ x
k
≤ M
i
for k ≥ 3i + 1.
Set
m = lim
i→∞
m
i
and M = lim
i→∞
M
i
.
Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,
M = f(m, m, m) and m = f(M, M, M).
Therefore in view of (b)
m = M
from which the results follows. 2
The above theorems can be easily extended to the general difference equation of order
p
x
n+1
= f(x
n
, x
n−1
, . . . , x
n−p+1
), n = 0, 1, . . . (A.3)
where
f : I
p
→I
is a continuous function. In this case, there are 2
p
possibilities for the function f to
be non decreasing in some arguments and non increasing in the remaining arguments.
This gives 2
p
results of the type found in Theorems A.0.1-A.0.8. Let us formulate one
of these results.
Theorem A.0.9 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that
f : [a, b]
p
→[a, b]
is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:
(a) f(u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
p
) is non decreasing in the second and the third variables u
2
and
u
3
and is non increasing in all other variables.
210 Appendix
(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system
M = f(m, M, M, m, . . . , m) and m = f(M, m, m, M, . . . , M)
then
m = M.
Then Eq(A.3) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.3) converges
to x.
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Index
basin of attraction of a two cycle, 38
classification of equation types, 3
convergence to period-two solutions, 38
Discrete Epidemic Models, 128
equilibrium point, 5, 29
existence of prime period-two solution,
35
existence of solutions, 2
fixed point, 5
Flour Beetle Model, 129
forbidden set, 2, 17
full limiting sequence, 15
full limiting solution, 16
gingerbreadman map, 75
global asymptotic stability of the zero
equilibrium, 9, 31
global attractivity of the positive equi-
librium, 9–14
global attractor, 6
globally asymptotically stable, 6
invariant, 71
invariant interval, 41–42, 184–189
limiting solution, 15
linearized stability analysis, 5, 183
linearized stability theorem, 6
local asymptotic stability of a two cycle,
36
local stability of the positive equilibrium
, 32
local stability of the zero equilibrium, 30
locally asymptotically stable, 6
locally stable, 6
Lyness’ equation, 2, 70
May’s host parasitoid model, 75
negative feedback condition, 9
negative semicycle, 25
nonoscillatory, 25
open problems and conjectures, 43–46,
49–51, 64–68, 72–75, 123–130, 134–
136, 138–139, 163–166, 180–182,
192–200
oscillate about x, 25
oscillate about zero, 25
periodic solution, 7
periodic solutions with the same period,
33
Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model, 2,
66
Pielou’s equation, 57
Plant-herbivore system, 128
population model, 66, 129
positive equilibrium, 9
positive semicycle, 24
prime period p solution, 7
repeller, 6, 7
Riccati difference equation, 1, 17, 78
Riccati number, 18
saddle point, 7
semicycle analysis, 24–28
signum invariant, 38
sink, 7
217
218 INDEX
source, 6
stability of equilibrium, 5
stability trichotomy, 10
stable manifold, 8
stable manifold theorem in the plane, 7
strictly oscillatory, 25
table of invariant intervals, 42, 189
trichotomy character, 168
type of equation
(1, 1)-type, 47–48
(1, 2)-type, 53–54
(1, 3)-type, 131
(2, 1)-type, 69–70
(2, 2)-type, 77–78
(2, 3)-type, 141
(3, 1)-type, 137
(3, 2)-type, 167
(3, 3)-type, 183
unstable equilibrium, 6
unstable manifold, 8

DYNAMICS of SECOND ORDER RATIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
With Open Problems and Conjectures

DYNAMICS of SECOND ORDER RATIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
With Open Problems and Conjectures
M. R. S. Kulenovi´ c G. Ladas

CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

E. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. and are used only for identification and explanation.S. or for resale. for promotion. Boca Raton. M. cm.) c Dynamics of second order rational difference equations : with open problems and conjectures / M. Ladas. Reprinted material is quoted with permission. Title. Florida 33431. Ladas. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information..S. A wide variety of references are listed. without intent to infringe. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution. QA431 . and sources are indicated. Visit the CRC Press Web site at www. ISBN 1-58488-275-1 1. 2000 N. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.R. Kulenovi´ .S.S. or by any information storage or retrieval system.625—dc21 20010370 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. I. G. electronic or mechanical. c p. II. for creating new works. without prior permission in writing from the publisher.W. Difference equations—Numerical solutions.crcpress. (Mustafa R. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-58488-275-1 Library of Congress Card Number 20010370 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper .Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kulenovi´. Includes bibliographical references and index. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.com © 2002 by Chapman & Hall/CRC No claim to original U. including photocopying. Corporate Blvd. and recording. microfilming. G.K84 2001 515′. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying.R.

.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium . . . .Contents Preface Acknowledgements Introduction and Classification of Equation Types 1 Preliminary Results 1. and Invariant Intervals 2. . . . . . . 2. . .9 Open Problems and Conjectures . . 1)-Type Equations 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . Periodicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bxn 3. . . . . . . .3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = γxn−1 . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Local Stability. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle . v . . . . . . . . . .1 Equilibrium Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . βxn 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . ix xi 1 5 5 7 9 9 14 17 24 29 29 30 32 33 35 36 38 41 43 47 47 48 49 49 . . . .8 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . 1. . . . .4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? . . . . . 3 (1. . . . . . . .3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . 1. . .2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane . . . . . . 1. 2. . . . . . . . . . .2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = Cxn−1 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C=0 .1 Definitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semicycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 2. . . . .5 Limiting Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . .6 The Riccati Equation .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . 4. . . . . .2 The Case γ = C = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . 78 n α+βxn 6. α+γxn−1 6. . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . 5 (2. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 2)-Type Equations 53 4. . . . . . . . . . . n +γx 6. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .2 The Case p = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi Contents 4 (1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .8 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 α 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . A+Bxn γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 Pielou’s Equation . . . . . . . . . βxn A+Cxn−1 βxn Bxn +Cxn−1 γxn−1 . . . . . . . . .3 The Case q > 1 . . Bx 5. . . . . . .6. . . .2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4 Global Attractivity When q < 1 . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxα+βxn n +Cxn−1 6. . . . . . . 6. .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 55 4. . . . . . 5. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1)-Type Equations 5. . . .3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . .4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . .2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn . . . . .7. . .2 The Case q < 1 . . . . . . 79 6. . . . . .1 The Case p < 1 . . . . . . . . .3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1 . . . . . 54 α 4. . . . . . . . .7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .Lyness’ Equation Cxn−1 n−1 5. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Riccati Equation . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . .6 The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . .3 The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = A+Cxn−1 . . . . . 6. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 .3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Global Stability and Boundedness .4. . . .3 The Case p > 1 . . . . .1 Semicycle Analysis . . . .6. . 57 58 59 60 61 62 62 64 69 69 70 72 72 . . . . .4 Global Behavior of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5. . . . . . 77 α+βx 6. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 2)-Type Equations 77 6. . . .7 The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = βxA+Bxn−1 . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1 . .2 Invariant Intervals . . .1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . . . . 6. . . . .3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 (2. . . . . .7. . 82 83 84 87 89 90 90 91 92 93 96 97 100 101 102 103 105 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. A+Bxn 6. . .5 The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 . . . . . .4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . .1 Existence of a Two Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 +Cx 7. .8 The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 . . . . . . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . vii 107 109 110 112 113 114 117 117 123 123 7 (1.4 Global Asymptotic Stability . . . . . . n +Cxn−1 9. . . . . . . . 138 9 (2. . . . . . . .2 The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . .2. . . 3)-Type Equations 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . α+βxn 9. . . . . . . . 9. . .3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q . . .3. . . . . .Contents 6. . .4 The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxnn−1 n−1 . . . . . . . . . .8. .2 The Case β = γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxnα n−1 . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case α = γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxβxn n−1 . . . . . . . . . 1)-Type Equations 137 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .3. . .9. . . . . .3 Semicycle Analysis . . .2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . 3)-Type Equations 131 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Invariant Intervals . . . . n−1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9. . . . . . . .1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles 9. . . . . . . . 134 8 (3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .2 Open Problems and Conjectures . .9. A+Cxn−1 6. . .3. . . . . 131 7. . . . . . α+γxn−1 9. . . . . . . . . .9 The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . 6.1 Boundedness of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bx+γxn−1 . . βxn 9. . . . . 6. . . . . 133 +Cx 7. . . . .4 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 132 n +Cx γx 7. . .2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .9.10 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 137 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1 6. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . 141 141 141 142 143 144 147 149 150 154 156 157 157 158 160 162 163 . . . . . . 9. . . . . 9. . . . . . . .4. . . . . 6. . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Convergence of Solutions . . .5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q + qr . . . βxn +γx 6. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2)-Type Equations 10. . . A+Cxn−1 10. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Invariant Intervals .2 11. . . . . .viii 10 (3. . . . . . . . . . .3. 10. . . .3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = A+Bxn +γxn−1 n +Cxn−1 Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . .4. . . Bxn 10. . . . . . . . 11. .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . .1 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 10. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3 Contents 167 167 167 169 172 172 173 173 174 175 177 179 180 183 183 184 189 191 192 201 211 217 . . . . . . . . . Convergence Results . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . α+βx (3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures . n +γxn−1 10.4. . . . . . . . .1 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Case C = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 . . . . . .2 Global Stability When p ≥ r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations Bibliography Index . . . . 10. . . . . 11 The 11. . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 . . . . . . . . .4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10. . . . . . .4 The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = α+βx+Cxn−1 . A+Bxn 10. . . 10. . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .1 10. . . . . .1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10. .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . .2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . .

γ. β. B. In this sense. We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own right and furthermore we believe that these results offer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference equations of order greater than one. It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains. In an appendix. The techniques and results which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. Every chapter in this monograph contains several open problems and conjectures related to the particular equation which is investigated and its generalizations. at the end of this monograph. the global stability.Preface In this monograph. (1) where the parameters α. . and the periodicity of solutions of all rational difference equations of the form xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . we present some global attractivity results for higher order difference equations which may be useful for extensions and generalizations. Chapter 1 contains some basic definitions and some general results which are used throughout the book. In particular we present necessary and sufficient conditions for Eq(1) to have period-two solutions and we also present a table of invariant intervals. In Chapters 3 to 11 we present the known results and derive several new ones on the various types of equations which comprise Eq(1). A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. . To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations. In Chapter 2 we present some general results about periodic solutions and invariant intervals of Eq(1). ix . 1. we present the known results and derive several new ones on the boundedness. A. . C and the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are nonnegative real numbers. this is a self-contained monograph and the main prerequisite that the reader needs to understand the material presented here and to be able to attack the open problems and conjectures is a good foundation in analysis. as special cases. a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge for further investigation.

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Amleh. Camouzis. P. Kent. Teixeira. El-Metwally. C. O. Valicenti. C. and K. Driver. Wilkinson for their enthusiastic participation and useful suggestions which helped to improve the exposition. Rodrigues. R. xi . F. L. C. Radin. Gibbons. Sizer and to our graduate students A. J. C. DeVault. Grove. We are thankful to Professors R. Martins. S. Schultz. W. Merino. A. H. S. N. K.Acknowledgements This monograph is the outgrowth of lecture notes and seminars which were given at the University of Rhode Island during the last five years. M. Kosmala. T. C. E. J. A. E. W. M. E. Cunningham. and W. L. Clark. I. Hoag. D. Janowski. Briden. Predescu. S. Feuer. W. Prokup. M. McGrath.

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To Senada and Theodora .

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a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. Eq(1) includes among others the following well known classes of equations: 1. The Riccati difference equation when γ = C = 0. We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own right and furthermore we believe that these results offer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference equations of order greater than one. etc.Introduction and Classification of Equation Types In this monograph. . The techniques and results which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. such as [1]. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. (1) where the parameters α. C are nonnegative real numbers and the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that A + Bxn + Cxn−1 > 0 for all n ≥ 0. A. . This equation is studied in many textbooks on difference equations. . γ. [21]. 1. β. and the periodicity of solutions of all rational difference equations of the form xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . in addition to the basic description of the solutions 1 .6 where. [41]. See Section 1. [42]. It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains as special cases. the global stability. B. we present the known results and derive several new ones on the boundedness. To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations.

6 for some results in this regard. . [49]. 3. Hence the solution {xn } of Eq(2) exists for all n ≥ 0. it is interesting to note the similarities of the dynamics of the population model xn+1 = α + βxn−1 e−xn . See [24] and Sections 2. See [13]. [18]. / if and only if x0 ∈ F. 1 + xn n = 0. p. See ([42]. and Section 4. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn−1 xn+1 = −1 + xn is well defined for all n ≥ 0. [57]. [69]. We believe that the techniques which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) will also be of paramount importance in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. See [42]. . 1.7 and 10. and Section 5. n = 0.4.2. and Section 1. Lyness’ equation when γ = A = B = 0. . 75). and the rational equation xn+1 = α + αxn + βxn−1 . 1. This is a fascinating equation with many interesting extensions and generalizations. [67]. Throughout this monograph we pose several open problems related to the existence of solutions of some simple equations with the hope that their investigation may throw some light into this very difficult problem. . A characteristic feature of this equation is that it possesses an invariant which can be used to understand the character of its . [55]. we introduce the forbidden set of the equation. . . An example of such a problem is the following: Open Problem Find all initial points (x−1 . See [13]. [44]. 2. The problem of existence of solutions for difference equations is of paramount importance but so far has been systematically neglected.2. [66]. Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model when α = γ = B = 0. . [32]. For example.2 Introduction and Classification of the Riccati equation. This is the set F of all initial conditions x0 ∈ R through which the equation xn+1 = α + βxn A + Bxn (2) is not well defined for all n ≥ 0.

. 2) 3 equations of type (1. In this sense. xn+1 = xn−1 where α ∈ (0. a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. 1. 3) 3 equations of type (3. l)-type if the equation is of the form of Eq(1) with k positive parameters in the numerator and l positive parameters in the denominator. . [45] and [52]-[54]. 1) 9 equations of type (2. n = 0. 1. . . γ + xn−1 1 + xn . xn+1 = xn−1 βxn + γxn−1 . [43]. n = 0. 2) 1 equation of type (3. 1) 9 equations of type (1. . Our goal in this monograph is to familiarize readers with the recent techniques and results related to Eq(1) and its extensions. n = 0. or of the Riccati type. that every positive solution of the difference equation α + xn . n = 0. . Without the use of this invariant we are still unable to show. 3}. and (2. and to bring to their attention several Open Research Problems and Conjectures related to this equation and its functional generalization. ∞). or linear. 1. . 21 are either trivial. 1) 3 equations of type (2. .Introduction and Classification 3 solutions. [15]. . 2). [29]. 2) 9 equations of type (2. 1). We will say that a special case of Eq(1) is of (k. 3). . as special cases. For example the following equations xn . Of these 49 equations. It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains. [28]. 1). The remaining 28 are quite interesting nonlinear difference equations. . is bounded. However to this day. Let k and l be positive integers from the set {1. For convenience we classify all the special cases of Eq(1) as follows. . 1. (2. [42]. . xn+1 = xn−1 α + βxn xn+1 = . 1. n = 0. 3) 3 equations of type (3. . many special cases of Eq(1) are not thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge for further investigation. 3) respectively. (2. 2. Some of them have been recently investigated and have led to the development of some general theory about difference equations. for example. . See [7]. Eq(1) contains 49 equations as follows: 9 equations of type (1. xn+1 = A + Bxn + Cxn−1 are of types (1. .

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or equivalently.1). and [68]. 1.1) has a unique solution {xn }∞ . xn = x for n ≥ 0 is a solution of Eq(1.Chapter 1 Preliminary Results In this chapter we state some known results and prove some new ones about difference equations which will be useful in our investigation of Eq(1). [16]. The reader may just glance at the results in this chapter and return for the details when they are needed in the sequel. [63].1) if x = f (x. . Then for every set of initial conditions x0 . [22]. Definition 1. n = 0. [21]. the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn .1). 5 . x−1 ∈ I. 1. . n=−1 A point x ∈ I is called an equilibrium point of Eq(1. x).1 Let x be an equilibrium point of Eq(1. .1 Definitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis f :I ×I →I Let I be some interval of real numbers and let be a continuously differentiable function. [41]. x is a fixed point of f .1. [34]. [4]. xn−1 ). See also [1]. that is. [33]. (1.

x) ∂u ∂v denote the partial derivatives of f (u.1) is called globally asymptotically stable if it is locally stable and a global attractor. and if there exists γ > 0 such that for all x0 . . we have n→∞ lim xn = x. x) and q = (x. 1. if there exists r > 0 such that for all x0 .3) Let lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1.1 (Linearized Stability) (a) If both roots of the quadratic equation λ2 − pλ − q = 0 (1. n = 0.1) is called locally asymptotically stable if it is locally stable. we have |xn − x| < ε for all n ≥ −1. . (vi) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. x−1 ∈ I with |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < γ.1) about the equilibrium point x. Then the equation yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 .1.1) is called locally stable if for every ε > 0. (iii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is locally asymptotically stable.1) is called unstable if it is not stable. there exists N ≥ 1 such that |xN − x| ≥ r. Preliminary Results (i) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. (ii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called a global attractor if for every x0 .6 Chapter 1. v) evaluated at the equilibrium x of Eq(1. n→∞ (iv) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. (v) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. x−1 ∈ I we have lim xn = x. Clearly a source is an unstable equilibrium. x−1 ∈ I with 0 < |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < r. (1. Theorem 1. ∂f ∂f (x. there exists δ > 0 such that for all x0 . or a repeller. .1).1) is called a source. x−1 ∈ I with |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < δ. .2) p= is called the linearized equation associated with Eq(1.

1.2. The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane

7

(b) If at least one of the roots of Eq(1.3) has absolute value greater than one, then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is unstable. (c) A necessary and sufficient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1, is |p| < 1 − q < 2. (1.4) In this case the locally asymptotically stable equilibrium x is also called a sink. (d) A necessary and sufficient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value greater than one is |q| > 1 and |p| < |1 − q| . In this case x is a repeller. (e) A necessary and sufficient condition for one root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value greater than one and for the other to have absolute value less than one is p2 + 4q > 0 and |p| > |1 − q| .

In this case the unstable equilibrium x is called a saddle point. (f ) A necessary and sufficient condition for a root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value equal to one is |p| = |1 − q| or q = −1 and |p| ≤ 2. In this case the equilibrium x is called a nonhyperbolic point. Definition 1.1.2 if (a) A solution {xn } of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with period p xn+p = xn for all n ≥ −1. (1.5)

(b) A solution {xn } of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with prime period p, or a p-cycle if it is periodic with period p and p is the least positive integer for which (1.5) holds.

1.2

The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane

Let T be a diffeomorphism in I × I, i.e., one-to-one, smooth mapping, with smooth inverse. Assume that p ∈ I × I is a saddle fixed point of T, i.e., T(p) = p and the Jacobian JT (p) has one eigenvalue s with |s| < 1 and one eigenvalue u with |u| > 1.

8

Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Let vs be an eigenvector corresponding to s and let vu be an eigenvector corresponding to u. Let S be the stable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose forward orbits (under iteration by T) p, T(p), T2 (p), . . . converge to p. Let U be the unstable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose backward orbits (under iteration by the inverse of T) p, T−1 (p), T−2 (p), . . . converge to p. Then, both S and U are one dimensional manifolds (curves) that contain p. Furthermore, the vectors vs and vu are tangent to S and U at p, respectively. The map T for Eq(1.1) is found as follows: Set un = xn−1 and vn = xn Then un+1 = xn and so T u v = v f (v, u) x x . and vn+1 = f (vn , un ) for n ≥ 0

for n ≥ 0.

Therefore the eigenvalues of the Jacobian JT

at the equilibrium point x of Eq(1.1)

are the roots of Eq(1.3). In this monograph, the way we will make use of the Stable Manifold Theorem in our investigation of the rational difference equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (1.6)

is as follows: Under certain conditions the positive equilibrium of Eq(1.6) will be a saddle point and under the same conditions Eq(1.6) will have a two cycle . . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (1.7)

which is locally asymptotically stable. Under these conditions, the two cycle (1.7) cannot be a global attractor of all non-equilibrium solutions. See, for example, Sections 6.6 and 6.9.

1.3. Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium

9

1.3

Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium

When zero is an equilibrium point of the Eq(1.6), which we are investigating in this monograph (with β > 0), then the following theorem will be employed to establish conditions for its global asymptotic stability. Amazingly the same theorem is a powerful tool for establishing the global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium of several biological models. See, for example, [31] and [48]. Theorem 1.3.1 ([31]. See also [48], and [70]) Consider the difference equation xn+1 = f0 (xn , xn−1 )xn + f1 (xn , xn−1 )xn−1 , with nonnegative initial conditions and f0 , f1 ∈ C[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, 1)]. Assume that the following hypotheses hold: (i) f0 and f1 are non-increasing in each of their arguments; (ii) f0 (x, x) > 0 for all x ≥ 0; (iii) f0 (x, y) + f1 (x, y) < 1 for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(1.8) is globally asymptotically stable. n = 0, 1, . . . (1.8)

1.4

Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium

Unfortunately when it comes to establishing the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the Eq(1.6) which we are investigating in this monograph, there are not enough results in the literature to cover all various cases. We strongly believe that the investigation of the various special cases of our equation has already played and will continue to play an important role in the development of the stability theory of general difference equations of orders greater than one. The first theorem, which has also been very useful in applications to mathematical biology, see [31] and [48], was really motivated by a problem in [35]. Theorem 1.4.1 ([31]. See also [35], [48], and ([42], p. 53). Let I ⊆ [0, ∞) be some interval and assume that f ∈ C[I × I, (0, ∞)] satisfies the following conditions: (i) f (x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments; (ii) Eq(1.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x ∈ I and the function f (x, x) satisfies the negative feedback condition: (x − x)(f (x, x) − x) < 0 for every x ∈ I − {x}.

Then every positive solution of Eq(1.1) with initial conditions in I converges to x.

10

Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

The following theorem was inspired by the results in [55] that deal with the global asymptotic stability of Pielou’s equation (see Section 4.4), which is a special case of the equation that we are investigating in this monograph. Theorem 1.4.2 ([42], p. 27) Assume (i) f ∈ C[(0, ∞) × (0, ∞), (0, ∞)]; (ii) f (x, y) is nonincreasing in x and decreasing in y; (iii) xf (x, x) is increasing in x; (iv) The equation xn+1 = xn f (xn , xn−1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . has a unique positive equilibrium x. Then x is globally asymptotically stable. Theorem 1.4.3 ([27]) Assume (i) f ∈ C[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), (0, ∞)]; (ii) f (x, y) is nonincreasing in each argument; (iii) xf (x, y) is nondecreasing in x; (iv) f (x, y) < f (y, x) ⇐⇒ x > y; (v) The equation xn+1 = xn−1 f (xn−1 , xn ), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.10)

(1.9)

has a unique positive equilibrium x. Then x is a global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(1.10). The next result is known as the stability trichotomy result: Theorem 1.4.4 ([46]) Assume f ∈ C 1 [[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, ∞)] is such that x ∂f ∂f +y < f (x, y) for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). ∂x ∂y (1.11)

Then Eq(1.1) has stability trichotomy, that is exactly one of the following three cases holds for all solutions of Eq(1.1): (i) limn→∞ xn = ∞ for all (x−1 , x0 ) = (0, 0) . (ii) limn→∞ xn = 0 for all initial points and 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.1). (iii) limn→∞ xn = x ∈ (0, ∞) for all (x−1 , x0 ) = (0, 0) and x is the only positive equilibrium of Eq(1.1).

b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. ≤ mi ≤ .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. . . ≤ M1 ≤ M0 and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi i→∞ for k ≥ 2i + 1. (b) If (m. mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 .4. M ) ∈ [a.1. b] × [a. or nonincreasing in one and nondecreasing in the other.7 below are new and deal with the remaining two cases relative to the monotonic character of f (x. Theorems 1. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . See also the Appendix. and f (x. or nonincreasing in both arguments. b] for each x ∈ [a. b] → [a. b]. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. y) is non-decreasing in x ∈ [a. then m = M . Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium 11 Very often the best strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(1. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . y) is non-decreasing in x and non-increasing in y and the second theorem deals with the case where the function f (x.4.4. Proof.8 where these theorems are utilized. . Mi−1 ). y) is nonincreasing in y ∈ [a. .4.1) is to work in the regions where the function f (x. y) is monotonic in its arguments. which describes the extension of these results to higher order difference equations. (See Section 6.5 ([54]) Let [a. . at the end of this monograph. y). b] is a solution of the system f (m. y) is non-increasing in x and nondecreasing in y. Theorem 1.) The first theorem deals with the case where the function f (x. b]. b] × [a. . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. b] for each y ∈ [a. set Mi = f (Mi−1 . m) = M. . ≤ Mi ≤ . . 2. In this regard there are four possible scenarios depending on whether f (x. M ) = m and f (M.1) converges to x. .4 and 6. y) is nondecreasing in both arguments. The next two theorems are slight modifications of results which were obtained in [54] and were developed while we were working on a special case of the equation that we are investigating in this monograph. .9. See Sections 6. Then Eq(1. b] and every solution of Eq(1.8 and 1.

Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . . . y) is non-increasing in x ∈ [a. .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.12 Then Chapter 1. b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) has no solutions of prime period two in [a. m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . 2 Theorem 1. Preliminary Results M ≥ lim sup xi ≥ lim inf xi ≥ m i→∞ i→∞ (1.12) holds and by the continuity of f . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. Therefore in view of (b). (b) The difference equation Eq(1. m). Proof. . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. . m) and M = f (m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. ≤ mi ≤ . b]. set Mi = f (mi−1 . m = f (M. ≤ Mi ≤ . .12) and by the continuity of f . m = f (m. m=M from which the result follows. 2 . . . and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi i→∞ for k ≥ 2i + 1. b] for each y ∈ [a. m=M from which the result follows. y) is nondecreasing in y ∈ [a.6 ([54]) Let [a. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. 2. Then clearly (1. b] for each x ∈ [a. . b] × [a. Then Eq(1. and f (x.4. In view of (b). i→∞ and M = lim Mi . ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . M ) and M = f (M. M ).1) converges to x. b]. b]. b] → [a. mi−1 ).

≤ mi ≤ . x) = x. M ) and M = f (m. b] × [a. ≤ M1 ≤ M0 .4.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. 13 then m = M .7 Let [a.1) converges to x. . . m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . set Mi = f (mi−1 . (b) The equation f (x. b] × [a.12) holds and by the continuity of f . b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. Then clearly (1. . Proof. has a unique positive solution. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. . . b] and every solution of Eq(1. . i→∞ and M = lim Mi . y) is non-increasing in each of its arguments. Mi−1 ). Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. b] × [a. y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. M ) = m.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. . . b] → [a. (b) If (m. Then Eq(1. 2. b] and every solution of Eq(1. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium Theorem 1. mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . . b] → [a. M ) ∈ [a. In view of (b). m). b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. 2 Theorem 1. b] is a solution of the system f (m. Then Eq(1. and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi i→∞ for k ≥ 2i + 1. m) = M and f (M.1) converges to x. m = f (M.1. ≤ Mi ≤ . m=M =x from which the result follows.4.8 Let [a.4. .

5 Limiting Solutions The concept of limiting solutions was introduced by Karakostas [37] (see also [40]) and is a useful tool in establishing that under certain conditions a solution of a difference equation which is bounded from above and from below has a limit. Preliminary Results m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. ≤ Mi ≤ . . In this section we first give a self-contained version of limiting solutions the way we will use them in this monograph. set Mi = f (Mi−1 . m = f (m. and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ for k ≥ 2i + 1. . (1. . . i→∞ and M = lim Mi . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . Now with the above hypotheses. m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . from which the result follows. Let L be a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 (For example L is the limit superior S or the limit inferior I of the solution). and let k ≥ 1 be a positive integer. where A. Let J be some interval of real numbers. B ∈ J. . . Then clearly the inequality (1.14 Proof.12) is satisfied and by the continuity of f . n ≥ −k + 1. . 2 1. m) and M = f (M. . ≤ mi ≤ . . . M ). In view of (b). ∞ we will show that there exists a solution {Ln }n=−k of the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . Set Chapter 1. mi−1 ).1) such that A ≤ xn ≤ B for all n ≥ −1. xn−1 ). Assume that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a solution of Eq(1. 2. f ∈ C[J × J.13) . . m = M = x. . J].

It follows by induction that the sequence L−k . (See Theorem 1. .13) and every term of this sequence is a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ . B] and so it has a ∞ further subsequence {xnij }j=1 which converges to some limit which we call L−1 . Therefore. ∞ Next the subsequence {xni −1 }i=1 of {xn }∞ n=−1 also lies in interval [A. j→∞ lim xnj −k = L−k . xn−1 ). Limiting Solutions such that L0 = L 15 and for every N ≥ −k. . is stated in the way we will use it in this monograph: .5. −k Let { n }∞ n=−k be the solution of Eq(1. . L−k+1 . . lim xnij = L and lim xnij −1 = L−1 . which is a consequence of the above discussion. −k ) = f (L−k+1 . L0 = L = 0 . (1. .1).2 below. Clearly there exists a subsequence {xni }∞ of {xn }∞ i=1 n=−1 such that i→∞ lim xni = L. xnj −k ) = lim xnj −k+2 = L−k+2 .13) with Then clearly. .13) associated with the The solution {Ln }∞ n=−k solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(1. .5.. . = f( −k+1 . L1 = 1. L−3 . the term LN is a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ .1. . n=−1 The following result. Karakostas takes k = ∞ and calls the solution {Ln }∞ n=−∞ a full limiting sequence of the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . satisfies Eq(1. −k+2 j→∞ = L−k and −k+1 = L−k+1 .. .14) associated with the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(1. n=−1 is called a limiting solution of Eq(1. . i→∞ i→∞ Continuing in this way and by considering further and further subsequences we obtain ∞ numbers L−2 . L−k ) j→∞ = lim f (xnj −k+1 . L−1 .1).) ∞ We now proceed to show the existence of a limiting solution {Ln }n=−k . L−k and a subsequence {xnj }n=−1 such that j→∞ lim xnj = L j→∞ lim xnj −1 = L−1 .

Theorem 1.16) are called full limiting solutions of Eq(1. Sn ∈ [I.5. . (1. f ∈ C[J ν+1 . .16 Chapter 1. yn+1 = k i=0 Ai yn−i . S] for n ≥ −k. . . there exist two subsequences {xrn } and {xln } of the solution {xn }∞ n=−ν such that the following are true: n→∞ (1. n=−ν Furthermore for every m ≤ −ν. 1. J]. 0. xn−ν ) which satisfy the equation for all n ∈ Z. . 1. 1. f ∈ C[J × J. . .}. Let Z denote the set of all integers {. S0 = S We now state the complete version of full limiting sequences. Then there exist two solutions ∞ {In }∞ n=−∞ and {Sn }n=−∞ of the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . . xn−ν ). xn−1 . . n = 0. and In . . Suppose that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a bounded solution of Eq(1. S ∈ J.1 Let J be some interval of real numbers. . 1.5. S ∈ J. i=0 xn−i k n = 0. and let k ≥ 1 be a positive integer. . . ∞ The solutions {In }∞ n=−∞ and {Sn }n=−∞ of the difference equation (1. . . and let {xn }∞ n=−ν be a bounded solution of the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . . with I.5. . . IN and SN are limit points of {xn }∞ . with I = lim inf xn . S] for all n ∈ Z and such that for every N ∈ Z. J]. Then Eq(1. .13) has two solutions {In }∞ n=−k with the following properties: and {Sn }∞ n=−k I0 = I.16) lim xrn +N = IN and n→∞ lim xln +N = SN for every N ≥ m. n→∞ S = lim sup xn n→∞ n = 0. . −1.1) with limit inferior I and limit superior S.15) and with I.2 ([37]) Let J be some interval of real numbers. S0 = S. which by the change of variables xn = y1 reduce to rational difference equations of the n form 1 .15).2 to difference equations of the form xn+1 = Ai . Sn ∈ [I. .16) associated with the solution {xn }∞ n=−k of Eq(1. . . with I0 = I. . In . Preliminary Results Theorem 1. See [23] and [25] for an application of Theorem 1. as developed by Karakostas. xn−1 .

19) holds every solution of Eq(1. . γ.18) holds and that Eq(1.18) Indeed when B = 0. we will assume that B = 0 and αB − βA = 0.1 Assume that (1. Theorem 1. 1. . C and the initial conditions x−1 . A + Bxn A difference equation of the form xn+1 = n = 0. The proof is straightforward and will be omitted. One of our goals in this section is to determine the forbidden set F of Eq(1.20) . A. Then (1. .17) will become zero for some value of n ≥ 0 is called the forbidden set F of Eq(1. B. A + Bxn B The set of initial conditions x0 ∈ R through which the denominator A+Bxn in Eq(1. Eq(1.17) possesses a prime periodtwo solution. Eq(1.17).1.and short-term behavior of / solutions of Eq(1. A. x0 are all real numbers) other than the material presented here.17) reduces to βA + βxn β xn+1 = B = for all n ≥ 0.17) with x0 = is periodic with period two. It should be mentioned here that there is practically nothing known about the forbidden set of Eq(1) (when the parameters α.17) is a linear equation and when αB − βA = 0. (1.17) where the parameters α.17) regarding period-two solutions.17). (See also [13] and [69]. B and the initial condition x0 are real numbers is called a Riccati difference equation.6.6 The Riccati Equation α + βxn .19) β + A = 0. β. The Riccati Equation 17 1. we will assume that β + A = 0. in addition to (1. β. which is extracted from [32]. The first result in this section addresses a very special case of Eq(1.18). (1.6. In the sequel. (1. To avoid degenerate cases.21) β B (1.17) when x0 ∈ F.) The other goal we have is to describe in detail the long. Furthermore when (1.

. Preliminary Results for n ≥ 0 (1.18 Now observe that the change of variable xn = β+A A wn − B B Chapter 1. .22). called the Riccati number of Eq(1. Similar results can be obtained for Eq(1.23) and present its forbidden set F and the character of its solutions.17) through the change of variables (1. (1.22) transforms Eq(1.17).17) have been reduced to the single parameter R of Eq(1. . 1.17) into the difference equation wn+1 = 1 − where R= R .23) it follows that when R< 1 4 . (A + Bx)2 of the function For the remainder of this section we focus on Eq(1. It is interesting to note that the four parameters of Eq(1. w Also note that the signum of R is equal to the signum of the derivative y =1− f (x) = βA − αB . If we set y = g(w) = 1 − then we note that the two asymptotes x=− of the function A B and y = β B R w α + βx A + Bx have now been reduced to the two asymptotes y = f (x) = w = 0 and y = 1 R . From Eq(1.23). wn n = 0.23) βA − αB (β + A)2 is a nonzero real number.

. 1 w= .23) has no equilibrium points. The Riccati Equation Eq(1. Also w− < 0 if R < 0 and 1 w− > 0 if R ∈ (0.24) yn+1 yn for n = 0.23) is clearly the set of points where the sequence {yn }∞ n=0 vanishes. .1. 2 Finally. .23) has the two equilibrium points w− and w+ with w− = and |w− | < w+ . respectively.23). n = 0.23) to the second order linear difference equation yn+2 − yn+1 + Ryn = 0. The forbidden set of Eq(1.6.24) are real numbers. ). when 1 R> .23) has exactly one equilibrium point namely. 1 The next two theorems deal with the cases R < 1 and R = 4 . which can be solved explicitly. 1. . 4 1− √ √ 1 − 4R 1 + 1 − 4R < = w+ 2 2 19 When Eq(1. 4 1 R= . Now observe that the change of variables wn = with y0 = 1 and y1 = w0 reduces Eq(1. Note that in these two cases the characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) are the equilibrium points of Eq(1. 1. . where 4 the characteristic roots of Eq(1. (1. 4 Eq(1. . .

Theorem 1. (1. The equilibrium w+ is a global attractor as long as w0 ∈ F ∪ {w− } / and the equilibrium w− is a repeller. wn = n n (w0 − w− )w+ − (w+ − w0 )w− n = 1. Preliminary Results √ √ 1 − 4R 1 + 1 − 4R w− = and w+ = 2 2 are the only equilibrium points of Eq(1. .2 Assume Then 1 R< . if R > 0 and fn < w− while (fn − w− )(fn+1 − w− ) < 0 if R < 0. (1.2 that n→∞ lim fn = w− . .23). .3 Assume Then w= 1 R= . .23) is the sequence of points fn = n−1 n−1 w+ − w− w+ w− n n w+ − w− for n = 1. . 4 1 2 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1. The forbidden set F of Eq(1.6. The forbidden set F of Eq(1. .20 Theorem 1. 2. the solution of Eq(1.25) When w0 ∈ F.23) is given by / n+1 n+1 (w0 − w− )w+ − (w+ − w0 )w− . .23) is the sequence of points fn = n−1 2n for n = 1.6. . . . . 2. 4 1− Chapter 1.26) It is now clear from Theorem 1.6.27) . . 2.23). (1.

4 The characteristic roots of Eq(1. ) 2 and √ 4R − 1 √ sin φ = .23) is a global 2 / attractor for all solutions with w0 ∈ F but is locally unstable. more precisely. . . . 1. .28) From Theorem 1. 2 R n = 0. The Riccati Equation 21 which converges to the equilibrium from the left. When w0 ∈ F. 2w0 − 1 C1 = 1 and C2 = √ . . the solution of Eq(1. 1.6. Hence wn = √ √ 4R − 1 cos(n + 1)φ + (2w0 − 1) sin(n + 1)φ √ . .23) is given by / wn = 1 + (2w0 − 1)(n + 1) 2 + 2(2w0 − 1)n for n = 0. . (1. yn = R 2 (C1 cos(nφ) + C2 sin(nφ)).3 it follows that the equilibrium w = 1 of Eq(1.24) in this case are √ 4R − 1 1 λ± = ± i 2 2 with |λ± | = Let be such that 1 cos φ = √ 2 R Then with C1 = y0 = 1 and It follows that √ R(C1 cos φ + C2 sin φ) = y1 = w0 . 4R − 1 n = 0. (1. R 4R − 1 cos(nφ) + (2w0 − 1) sin(nφ) . π φ ∈ (0.29) n Finally consider the case √ R.1. 1 R> . 1. . it is a sink from the right and a source from the left. .6. .

2 R Then the forbidden set F of Eq(1. . φ= π k π ∈ (0. . . . .23). w0 = − 2 2 The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.22 Chapter 1. when R > 1 . π ) be such that 2 2 √ 4R − 1 2x0 − 1 and sin θ = cos θ = r r where r= Then we obtain. π ) be such that 2 1 cos φ = √ 2 R and 1 4 √ 4R − 1 √ sin φ = . / (1. . ) N 2 (1. 2 n = 0.29). wn = (4R − 1)2 + (2x0 − 1)2 . the solution of Eq(1. For example. (1. and so √ cos(nφ + φ − θ) √ cos(nφ − θ) cos φ − sin(nφ − θ) sin φ R = R cos(nφ − θ) cos(nφ − θ) √ = R (cos φ − sin φ tan(nφ − θ)) 1 wn = − 2 √ 4R − 1 tan(nφ − θ). 2 2 When w0 ∈ F. . √ 4R − 1 1 cot(nφ) for n = 1. .31) from which the character of the solutions of Eq(1. 1. 2.6. . . can now be easily 4 revealed. 2. Theorem 1. π ) is a rational multiple of π. Preliminary Results as long as the denominator is different from zero. that is.30) 1 Clearly when R > 4 the character of the solution {wn } and the forbidden set F depends on whether or not the number φ ∈ (0. 2 Let θ ∈ (− π . that is.32) .23) is given by (1. assume φ is a rational multiple of π.23) is the sequence of points √ 1 4R − 1 fn = − cot(nφ) for n = 1. .4 Assume that R> and let φ ∈ (0.

p − 1 . . .23) with w0 ∈ F is dense in R. N ∈ {1. (ii) The set of limit points of a solution of Eq(1.6. . .23) is periodic with period N .6 Assume that the number φ in Theorem 1. The Riccati Equation 23 for some k.} with 2k < N. 2.5 is not a rational multiple of π. √ √ 1 1 4R − 1 4R − 1 wN = − tan(kπ − θ) = − tan(−θ) = w0 2 2 2 2 and so every solution of Eq(1. Then the following statements are true: (i) No solution of Eq(1. N ∈ {1.6. then every solution of Eq(1. . ) p 2 1 4 cos2 φ with φ = k π N Then where k and p are positive comprimes and suppose that √ 4R − 1 1 √ cos φ = √ and sin φ = .6. 2. then the following result is true: Theorem 1.23) is periodic.6. When the number φ in Theorem 1.6.5 Assume that φ= k π π ∈ (0. / for n = 1. . . . The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.23) is periodic with period N .} and 2k < N. p Then every solution of Eq(1. Equivalently assume that A= where k. 2 R 2 R or equivalently k 4R cos2 ( π) = 1.1. Theorem 1. 2. .23) with √ sin(n k π) − 4R − 1 cos(n k π) p p w0 = k 2 sin(n p π) is periodic with period p.5 is not a rational multiple of π. .

A positive semicycle of a solution {xn } of Eq(1.23) and the fact that when φ is not a rational multiple of π.1) consists of a “string” of terms {xl .33) relative to an equilibrium point x. 1. wk = wl if and only if Chapter 1. . n = 0. (1. First we give the definitions for the positive and negative semicycle of a solution of Eq(1. .24 Proof. 1. xn−1 ). . Statement (i) is true because. . . . are dense in the interval (− π . all greater than or equal to the equilibrium x. we present some results about the semicycle character of solutions of some general difference equations of the form xn+1 = f (xn . π ). In this section.33) under appropriate hypotheses on the function f . xm }. or m < ∞ and xm+1 < x. The proof of statement (ii) is a consequence of the form of the solution of Eq(1. xl+1 . . . or l > −1 and xl−1 < x and either m = ∞. then the values (nφ − θ)(mod π) for n = 0. φ is a rational multiple of π. Preliminary Results tan(kφ − θ) = tan(lφ − θ) if and only if for some integer N kφ − θ − (lφ − θ) = N π if and only if (k − l)φ = N π that is.7 Semicycle Analysis We strongly believe that a semicycle analysis of the solutions of a scalar difference equation is a powerful tool for a detailed understanding of the entire character of solutions and often leads to straightforward proofs of their long term behavior. . . . 2 2 2 1. with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such that either l = −1.

7. with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such that either l = −1. xm }.5. n2 ≥ n0 such that xn1 xn2 < 0. xN −1 ) < f (x. (0.33) with at least two semicycles. all less than the equilibrium x. x) = x and xN +2 = f (xN +1 .1. Then except possibly for the first semicycle. (See Section 6.33) consists of a “string” of terms {xl . The first result was established in [28] while we were working on a special case of the equation we are investigating in this monograph. or l > −1 and xl−1 ≥ x and either m = ∞. there exist n1 .33) has semicycles of length one.) Theorem 1. . (b) A sequence {xn } is said to oscillate about x if the sequence xn − x oscillates. We will assume that xN −1 < x ≤ xN . Proof. Thus xN +1 < x < xN +2 or m < ∞ and xm+1 ≥ x. A sequence {xn } is called strictly oscillatory if for every n0 ≥ 0. Let {xn } be a solution of Eq(1. Definition 1. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. . xN ) > f (x. y) is increasing in y for each fixed x. y) is decreasing in x for each fixed y.7. Otherwise the sequence is called nonoscillatory. . ∞) × (0. y) we have xN +1 = f (xN . . and f (x. All other cases are similar and will be omitted.1 (Oscillation) (a) A sequence {xn } is said to oscillate about zero or simply to oscillate if the terms xn are neither eventually all positive nor eventually all negative. x) = x. ∞).33). ∞)] is such that: f (x.7. Semicycle Analysis 25 A negative semicycle of a solution {xn } of Eq(1.1 ([28]) Assume that f ∈ C[(0. xl+1 . Then by using the monotonic character of f (x. The sequence {xn } is called strictly oscillatory about x if the sequence xn − x is strictly oscillatory. Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that either xN −1 < x ≤ xN or xN −1 ≥ x > xN . . every solution of Eq(1.

The proof in the case of negative semicycle is similar and is omitted. with at least one of the inequalities being strict. y) is increasing in both arguments. Proof.26 and the proof follows by induction. (0.33) has semicycles of length at most two. Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN in a positive semicycle xN −1 ≥ x and xN ≥ x with at least one of the inequalities being strict. Then by using the decreasing character of f we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN .7. 2 The next result applies when the function f (x.7.33) has semicycles of length one. Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN . ∞). x) = x which completes the proof. Then every oscillatory solution of Eq(1. x) = x which shows that the next term xN +1 also belongs to the positive semicycle. (0. Then except possibly for the first semicycle. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. Proof. 2 . Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN in a positive semicycle xN −1 ≥ x and xN ≥ x.33). every oscillatory solution of Eq(1. xN −1 ) < f (x. ∞) × (0. Theorem 1. ∞)] and that f (x. xN −1 ) > f (x. The proof in the case of negative semicycle is similar and is omitted.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. y) is decreasing in both arguments. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. which is a contradiction. It follows by induction that all future terms of this solution belong to this positive semicycle. ∞). Preliminary Results 2 The next result applies when the function f is decreasing in both arguments. Theorem 1. ∞) × (0. The next result applies when the function f is increasing in both arguments. Chapter 1.33). ∞)] and that f (x.

34) we obtain xN +1 = f (xN . ∞). xN −1 ) > f (xN . The proof in the case xN −1 ≥ x > xN . if we assume that f (u. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. Then. Now also assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN such that xN −1 > xN ≥ x and xN −2 < x.34) we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN . y) is increasing in x for each fixed y.33) has semicycles of length at least two. Semicycle Analysis 27 Theorem 1.7. is similar and is omitted. and f (x. u) = x for every u and f (x. Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN such that xN −1 < x ≤ xN . y) is decreasing in y for each fixed x. Furthermore. and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms. y) < x for every x > y > x (1.34) .35) then {xn } oscillates about the equilibrium x with semicycles of length two or three. ∞) × (0.7. except possibly for the first semicycle. except possibly for the first semicycle which may have length one. (0. Then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.1. Proof. x) = x which shows that the next term xN +1 also belongs to the positive semicycle. xN −1 ) > f (x. xN ) = x which shows that the positive semicycle has length two. ∞)] is such that: f (x. every oscillatory solution of Eq(1. xN ) = x (1. If xN > xN −1 > x then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1. Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain xN +1 = f (xN .33).4 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. xN −1 ) < f (xN . The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the first term if the semicycle has two terms.

and f (x. the corresponding solution is increasing.36) f (x.36) is satisfied and that x0 > x−1 > x.33) has monotonic solutions. f satisfies Condition (1.36) we get x1 = f (x0 . y) < x for every x < y < x then if x0 < x−1 < x. and the proof follows by induction. on the other hand.33). Proof. (0. 2 (1. xN −1 ) < xN and the proof is complete.36).28 and by using Condition (1. then Eq(1. we assume (1. ∞)] is such that: f (x. the corresponding solution is decreasing.34) and (1.34). we obtain x1 = f (x0 . Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. First. If.35).35) we find Chapter 1. Then if x0 > x−1 > x. assume that Condition (1. and f (x. If.34) is not enough to guarantee the above result. y) > x for every x > y > x. Then by the monotonic character of f and (1. Theorem 1. Preliminary Results xN +1 = f (xN . y) is decreasing in y for each fixed x.34). Assume that f satisfies Conditions (1. x−1 ) = x. x−1 ) > x0 . The proof of the remaining case is similar and will be omitted. x−1 ) > f (x−1 .7. 2 Condition (1.37) .5 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. In view of Condition (1. ∞). instead of Condition (1. y) is increasing in x for each fixed y. ∞) × (0.

Chapter 2 Local Stability.5) holds. 29 . (2. Zero is an equilibrium point of Eq(2.4) α + (β + γ)x A + (B + C)x (2.1) if and only if α = 0 and A > 0.1) When (2. the equilibrium points of Eq(2.1) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. A. Semicycles. (2. C ∈ [0. . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 Here we investigate the equilibrium points of the general equation xn+1 = where α.1) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation x= or equivalently (B + C)x2 − (β + γ − A)x − α = 0. . 1. and Invariant Intervals 2. B + C ∈ (0.1). ∞) with α + β + γ. .5) (2. B. in addition to the zero equilibrium . Periodicity. γ.2) and where the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that the right hand side of Eq(2. Eq(2.3) n = 0. ∞) (2. In view of the above restriction on the initial conditions of Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium if and only if β + γ > A. β.1 Equilibrium Points α + βxn + γxn−1 .

it is interesting to observe that when Eq(2.4) would also be an equilibrium worth investigating.1) is positive and is given by x= β+γ . when α = 0. .1) has a positive equilibrium x. Finally when α>0 the only equilibrium point of Eq(2. . [18].8) of the quadratic equation (2.3) and (2. Semicycles. Periodicity. This observation simplifies the investigation of the local stability of the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.7) β+γ−A .8). except for our presentation in Section 1.1). n = 0.4). v) = A + Bu + Cv and observe that (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)v fu (u.1) is the positive solution x= β+γ−A+ (β + γ − A)2 + 4α(B + C) 2(B + C) (2. and Invariant Intervals In fact in this case the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.1) is unique and is given by x= When α = 0 and A = 0 the only equilibrium point of Eq(2. the quantity β + γ is positive.1). [32]. 1. (See [13].1) when the initial conditions and the coefficients of the equation are real numbers is of great mathematical importance and. .6) Note that in view of Condition (2.4). then x is unique. 2. A + Bxn there is very little known.9) . and [69] for some results in this regard. The problem of investigating Eq(2. If we had allowed negative initial conditions then the negative solution of Eq(2. and it is given by (2.) In summary. B+C (2.6 about the Riccati equation α + βxn xn+1 = .30 Chapter 2. B+C (2. it satisfies Eqs(2. . v) = (A + Bu + Cv)2 (2.2). Set α + βu + γv f (u. Local Stability.2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium Here we investigate the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.

n = 0.2. .1). The local stability character of x is now described by the linearized stability Theorem 1. 1. we have the luxury of the global stability Theorem 1.1. . is globally asymptotically stable when β+γ ≤A and is unstable when β + γ > A. .3. . . (A + Bu + Cv)2 31 (2. x). . Stability of the Zero Equilibrium and fv (u.1).1) about the zero equilibrium point is β γ zn+1 − zn − zn−1 = 0. . As a consequence of these two theorems we obtain the following global result: Theorem 2.1 Assume that A > 0. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. A A For the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1) we have p= β A and q = γ A and so the linearized equation associated with Eq(2. For the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.10) If x denotes an equilibrium point of Eq(2.2. 1. in addition to the local stability Theorem 1. Then the zero equilibrium point of the equation xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . v) = (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)u . Furthermore the zero equilibrium point is a sink when a saddle point when a repeller when A>β+γ A < β + γ < A + 2β β + γ > A + 2β.1) about the equilibrium point x is zn+1 − pzn − qzn−1 = 0 where p = fu (x.1. . then the linearized equation associated with Eq(2.1.1. x) and q = fv (x.1.2.

1.8). Inequalities (2.11) and (2.1.15). Eq(2.13)-(2. it satisfies Eqs(2.3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium α = 0 and β + γ > A As we mentioned in Section 2. By using the identity (B + C)x2 = (β + γ − A)x + α.3) and (2. Semicycles.11) and q > −1. Local Stability.1) has a positive equilibrium when either or α > 0. x) = (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)x (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)x = 2 . Periodicity. x) = and q = fv (x. and it is given by (2.12) (A + β + γ)x > −α − (2. and Invariant Intervals 2.12) are equivalent to the following three inequalities: A+β+γ+2 βC − γB A2 + (βA − αB) − (γA − αC) x > −α − B+C B+C A2 − (βA − αB) − (γA − αC) B+C (2.14) (2.13) (2.32 Chapter 2.15) A2 + (γA − αC) βC − γB x > −α − .1) the following: |p| < 1 − q (2. A+β+γ− B+C B+C Out of these inequalities we will obtain explicit stability conditions by using the following procedure: First we observe that Inequalities (2. In these cases the positive equilibrium x is unique. 2 (A + (B + C)x) A + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)x (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)x = 2 2 (A + (B + C)x) A + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x Hence the conditions for the local asymptotic stability of x are (see Theorem 1. are equivalent to some inequalities of the form x>ρ .4). we see that p = fu (x.

and 6 respectively. Then γ(α + β) = 0. (See also [75]. . xn 1 xn−1 . .19) 1 + xn .4.2.17) (2. (2. 1.4. n = 0. it is clear that F (x) = 0 and that x > ρ if and only if F (ρ) < 0 while x<σ if and only if F (σ) > 0.1 Let p ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that every positive solution of Eq(2. The following result characterizes all possible special cases of equations of the form of Eq(2. n = 0. = xn−1 are remarkable in the sense that all positive solutions of each of these four nontrivial equations are periodic with periods 2. .) Theorem 2. σ ∈ [0.4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? 1 . . . When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? and/or x<σ for some ρ. xn−1 xn . 1.18) (2. . . (ii) Assume C = 0. 33 2. . 1. 4. .1) is periodic with period p. n = 0. . 5. Now if we set F (u) = (B + C)u2 − (β + γ − A)u − α. and [74].1) xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 n = 0.16) (2. ∞). Then A = B = γ = 0. [73]. .1) with the property that every solution of the equation is periodic with the same period. The following four special examples of Eq(2. . Then the following statements are true: (i) Assume C > 0. . 1.

Hence (2. A+B C we see that (2. Consider the solution with x−1 = 1 and x0 ∈ (0. Otherwise A + B > 0 and by choosing x0 > max α+β γ . (2. assume that γ(α + β) > 0. Local Stability. Then we claim that A = B = 0. Semicycles. Then by choosing x0 sufficiently small. A + B + Cxp−2 and xp−1 = x−1 = 1 we see that (2.20) is impossible. Thus (2. ∞).1) xp = Hence (A + B)x0 + (Cx0 − γ)xp−2 = α + β.4. Then clearly x0 = xp and so from Eq(2. In addition to (2.22) Otherwise γ > 0 and by choosing x0 < min α+β γ .1) reduces to one of the equations (2. .22) holds . we see that (2. (i) Assume that C > 0.16)-(2. Then up to a change of variables of the form xn = λyn Eq(2. for the sake of contradiction.20) is impossible. Periodicity. 4. and Invariant Intervals Proof. The proof is complete.1 Let p ∈ {2.20) α + β + γxp−2 = x0 .19) . 3. 2 Corollary 2. 5.34 Chapter 2.1) is periodic with period p.20) is impossible.21) holds. 6}.21) we now claim that also γ = 0. (ii) Assume C = 0 and. Assume that every positive solution of Eq(2.21) (2. A+B C (2.

not necessarily prime. φ. Then φ= and ψ= from which we find that C(φ + ψ) = γ − β − A and when C>0 we also find that (B − C)φψ = One can show that when C = 0 and B > 0 Eq(2. φ. Assume that . .1) if and only if α + β(φ + ψ) = Bφψ with φ.1) has a prime period-two solution if and only if γ = β + A. ψ.1). .26) and (2. . ψ. .27) hold . φ. . ψ ∈ [0.1) converges to a period-two solution in a nontrivial way according to the following convention. ψ.5. Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions 35 2. .) Furthermore we are interested in conditions under which every solution of Eq(2. . . .27) (2.5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions In this section we give necessary and sufficient conditions for Eq(2. . Furthermore when (2. solution with period p and furthermore the set of solutions of the equation with prime period p is nonempty. is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2. is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2.24) (2.26) αC + β(γ − β − A) . C (2. ψ.2. Convention Throughout this book when we say that “every solution of a certain difference equation converges to a periodic solution with period p” we mean that every solution converges to a. φ. (See [50]. ∞) and φ = ψ (2. . .23) α + βψ + γφ A + Bψ + Cφ α + βφ + γψ A + Bφ + Cψ .1) to have a prime period-two solution and we exhibit all prime period-two solutions of the equation.25) (2.

(2. B φ= β+ √ β 2 + αB . C γ−A γ−A . 1. . . φ. (γ − β − A)[B(γ − β − A) − C(γ + 3β − A)] α< . φ. and φψ = 0. φ.1) possesses a prime period-two solution . C C with 0 ≤ φ < γ−A ..1). the values φ and ψ of the two cycle are given by the two roots of the quadratic equation t2 − γ−β−A αC + β(γ − β − A) t+ =0 C C(B − C) and we should also require that the discriminant of this quadratic equation be positive.28) Next assume that (2. . . . 0. Periodicity. . .6 Let Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle . B and ψ = α + βφ . Set un = xn−1 and vn = xn for n = 0. . and φψ ≥ 0.36 Chapter 2.30) holds. the two cycle is . Semicycles.. γ−A γ−A − φ. ψ. ψ. 0. be a two cycle of the difference equation (2. (2.29) holds. α + β > 0. When (2. . .30) (2. . .31) γ > β + A and When (2. . C C Finally when (2. .. the two cycle is .24) holds and that Eq(2. . . . − φ. . . .23) and (2. φ. . Local Stability. and Invariant Intervals or equivalently β φ> . α = β = 0. . . φ.32) 4C 2 2. B > C. .25) that one of the following three conditions must be satisfied: B = C. . B = C. Then it follows from (2. φ. and φψ > 0. α = β = 0. .29) (2. ψ. That is. −β + Bφ (2.31) holds. . . ψ.

Furthermore T2 where g(u. ψ) = . ∂u (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 . By computing the partial derivatives of g and h and by using the fact that φ= α + βψ + γφ A + Bψ + Cφ and ψ = α + βφ + γψ A + Bφ + Cψ The two cycle is locally asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix φ lie inside the unit disk. v) = u v = g(u. ψ) ∂u we find the following identities: (γA − αC) + (γB − βC)ψ ∂g (φ. ψ ∂h ∂h (φ. φ ψ is a fixed point of T 2 . ∞) defined by: T Then u v = v βv+γu+α Bv+Cu+A 37 . JT 2 . the second iterate of T . 1. . . ∂u (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 ∂g (βA − αB) − (γB − βC)φ (φ. ψ) = . Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle and write Eq(2. evaluated at ψ By definition  ∂g  ∂g (φ. .2.1) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn α+βv vn+1 = A+Bvn +γun . ∞) × [0. ∂v (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 [(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)ψ][(γA − αC) + (γB − βC)ψ] ∂h (φ. n +Cun Let T be the function on [0. . ψ) ∂u φ  = JT 2  . v) α+βv+γu α + β A+Bv+Cu + γv α+βv+γu A + B A+Bv+Cu + Cv . n = 0. ψ) ∂v (φ.6. ψ) ∂v (φ. ψ) = . v) h(u. v) = α + βv + γu A + Bv + Cu and h(u.

B ∈ [0. ψ) (φ. ψ. .33) . x0 ) through which the solution of Eq(2. . every solution converges to a (not necessarily prime) period-two solution and n = 0.1.7. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the Then it follows from Theorem 1.33) converges to a period-two solution.1 (Basin of Attraction of a Two Cycle) Let . 6. See Sections 6.7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C=0 α + βxn + γxn−1 .1) converges to the two cycle. (2. 6. A. φ. and Invariant Intervals [(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)ψ][(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)φ] ∂h (φ. β. and 7. . ψ). A + B ∈ (0. if and only if |S| < 1 + D and D < 1. . . Periodicity. γ. .5. . 6. 1. be a two cycle of Eq(2. The basin of attraction of this two cycle is the set B of all initial conditions (x−1 .2) to obtain conditions on α. Semicycles.1).6. β. φ. ∞) and nonnegative initial conditions and obtain a signum invariant for its solutions which will be used in the sequel (See Sections 4.1 (c) that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1. ψ. ψ) (φ. Definition 2. ψ) − (φ.7. 2. ψ) + (φ.4 for some applications. . ψ) ∂u ∂v ∂h ∂g ∂h ∂g (φ. γ. .38 Chapter 2. That is. + (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ.9. ∞) with α + β + γ. and 10. Local Stability. A + Bxn In this section we consider the equation xn+1 = where α.6. A and B so that every solution of Eq(2. ψ) = ∂v (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 (γA − αC) + (γB − βC)φ .

27) holds. the solution {xn } is periodic with period-two. A + Bxn In particular.2.33): (i) xn+1 − xn−1 = 0 for all n ≥ 0. we need the following result. Finally (iii) holds. if and only if. ∞ Lemma 2.33) converges to a periodtwo solution if and only if (2. (ii) xn+1 − xn−1 < 0 for all n ≥ 0. Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C=0 39 there exist prime period-two solutions. In particular. one and only one of the following three statements is true for each solution of Eq(2. (β + A)J0 = 0. the solution would converge to a period-two solution. Then the following statements are true: (a) β+A Jn for n ≥ 0. the sign of the quantity Jn is constant along each solution. (See also Section 10.1 Assume that (2. In this case the subsequences {x2n }∞ and {x2n−1 }∞ of the solution {xn }∞ are both decreasing to finite limits and n=0 n=0 n=0 so in this case the solution converges to a period-two solution. Now observe that xn+1 − xn−1 = β+A (xn − xn−2 ) for n ≥ 1 A + Bxn . In this case.33).2 where we present the complete character of solutions of Eq(2. Set (2.33). if and only if J0 > 0 and β + A > 0. the proof of which follows by straightforward computations.27) holds. and let {xn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(2.34) Jn = α + β(xn−1 + xn ) − Bxn−1 xn for n ≥ 0. (iii) xn+1 − xn−1 > 0 for all n ≥ 0. Clearly (i) holds. In this case the subsequences ∞ {x2n }∞ and {x2n−1 }∞ of the solution {xn }n=0 are both increasing and so if we can n=0 n=0 show that they are bounded. Statement (ii) holds if and only if J0 < 0 and β +A > 0.7.) Now before we see that when B > 0 every solution of Eq(2.7. Jn+1 = (b) xn+1 − xn−1 = Jn A + Bxn for n ≥ 0.

40 and so Chapter 2. of Eq(2. Then the following statements hold: (a) Eq(2. . Local Stability.35) We will now employ (2. (c) When (2.7. that the subsequence of even terms increases to ∞. Semicycles. φ. Periodicity. Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that ρ= Clearly for all n > N .27) holds. ≤K ρi + x2N < i=1 which contradicts the hypothesis that the subsequence of even terms is unbounded. We will give the details for the subsequence of even terms. . The proof for the subsequence of odd terms is similar and will be omitted. Kρ + x2N 1−ρ .28). ψ. ψ. 2.33) has a prime period-two solution if and only if (2. A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N A+β A+β |x2N − x2N −2 | < Kρ A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N A+β A+β |x2N +2 − x2N | < Kρ2 |x2N +4 − x2N +2 | = A + Bx2N +3 A + Bx2N +2 and by induction |x2N +2m − x2N +2(m−1) | < Kρm But then x2N +2m ≤ |x2N +2m − x2N +2m−2 | + . . In summary we have established the following result. . . |x2N +2 − x2N | = A+β A+β < 1. . . and Invariant Intervals n xn+1 − xn−1 = (x1 − x−1 ) β+A . . for the sake of contradiction. + |x2N +2 − x2N | + x2N m for m = 1. Theorem 2. A + Bxk k=1 (2. .33) converges to a period-two solution.35) to show that the subsequences of even and odd terms of the solution are bounded. A+β A+β A+β A+β < = ρ. A + Bx2n+1 A + Bx2n A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N Set Then K = |x2N − x2N −2 |.27) holds all prime period-two solutions .1 Assume B > 0. (b) When (2.33) are given by (2. . . To this end assume.27) holds every solution of Eq(2. φ. .

and N = γA − αC. Case L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 + + + + + + 0 0 0 0 M + + + 0 0 − + + − − 0 0 − − N + 0 − + 0 + 0 − + 0 − 0 − + 0 − M = βC − γB. we obtain the following table of invariant intervals for Eq(2.8 Invariant Intervals An invariant interval for Eq(2. y) = N − Mx . . (2.1) the partial derivatives are given by (2. . y) is monotonic in its arguments. 1.2. n = 0.36) are determined from the intervals where the function f (x.1) is an interval I with the property that if two consecutive terms of the solution fall in I then all the subsequent terms of the solution also belong to I. Invariant intervals for Eq(2.8.1). xn−1 ). y) = where L = βA − αB. The following table gives the signs of fx and fy in all possible nondegenerate cases. In other words I is an invariant interval for the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . . Signs of derivatives fx and fy fx > 0 N N fy > 0 if x < M . fy < 0 if x < M L + My (A + Bx + Cy)2 and fy (x. fx < 0 if y > − M fy > 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 L L fx > 0 if y > − M . (A + Bx + Cy)2 − + − − − − − − Using this table. For Eq(2. .9) and (2. then xn ∈ I for every n > N . fy < 0 if x > M fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy > 0 fx > 0 and fy = 0 L L fx > 0 if y < − M . xN ∈ I for some N ≥ 0.36) if xN −1 . fx < 0 if y < − M fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy = 0 fx < 0 and fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 N N fy > 0 if x > M .10) and are fx (x. Invariant Intervals 41 2.

B(β−γ) ] if A = 0 and β > γ αM +(β+γ)N N αM +(β+γ)N N [ AM +(B+C)N . Semicycles. Local Stability. ] if B > 0 2B α [0. K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α + βk + (γ − A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α + βK − Ak γ [0. α > 0 and A > β √ β+γ−A+ (β+γ−A)2 +4α(B+C) [0. ] if AM +(B+C)N > 2BM αM +γN N [ M . A ] if A > 0 A2 +Bα β β [ B . ] if B > 0 2B α [0. α > 0 and A > β √ β−A+ (β−A)2 +4Bα [0. Periodicity. K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α + βk + (γ − A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α + βK − Ak β γ [ B . B(β−γ) ] if C = 0 and β > γ αM −L(β+γ) αM −L(β+γ) L L [ AM −L(B+C) . C ] if C > 0 [k. B + α ] if A = 0 and β > 0 β α [0. M ] if AM +(B+C)N < M √ 2 αM +(β+γ)N N (β−A)M −CN + ((β−A)M −N C) +4BM (αM +γN ) [M . C ] if C > 0 [k. (γ − A)M + BL > 0 N M and B > 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 γ β [ C . ] if AM −BL+CMK > − M 2BM K α [ α(A+β) . A−β ] if B = 0. C ] if C > 0 β αB+β 2 [ B . ] if B + C > 0 √ 2(B+C) 2 +4αB α β−A+ (β−A) [A. L [− M . αC+γ ] if B = 0 and γ > βC γ−βC γ [0. ] if B > 0 2B α α [ A . M ] if AM +(B+C)N < M √ 2 N (γ−A)M −BN + ((γ−A)M −BN ) +4BM (αM +βN ) [M . ] if 2CM αM +βK+γN M AM +BK+CN M > N M . and Invariant Intervals Case 1 2 3 4 5 Invariant intervals αM +(β+γ)N N N [0. − M ] if AM −L(B+C) < − M √ 2 αM −βL+γM L (β−A)M +LC+ ((β−A)M +LC) +4BM (αM −γL) L [− M .42 Chapter 2. A−β ] if B = 0 and A > β L [0. − M ] if L [− M . C(γ−β) ] if B = 0 and β < γ βM K+αM L if C = 0 and BM K+AM −γL > − M −CL and −(βM + BL)K ≥ αM + AL β [0. αM −(β+γ)L L AM −(B+C)L < − M √ (A−γ)M −BL+ ((A−γ)M −BL)2 +4CM (αM −βL) ] −2CM βL−αM (γ−A)M +BL ] if C = 0. (A−β)M +CN ] if B = 0 and (A − β)M + CN > 0 √ β−A+ (β−A)2 +4Bα [0. B ] if B = 0 2 γ [ C . C ] if C > 0 β β2 [ B . K] if A = 0 where k and K satisfy α+(β+γ)k ≤ kK ≤ α+(β+γ)K B+C B+C γ [0. B ] if B > 0 γ γ2 [ C . A−β ] if B = 0. A ] if A > 0 [k.

7) that every positive solution of each of the following three equations xn+1 = 1 + xn+1 = xn+1 xn−1 .9. A.1 Assume that f ∈ C 1 [(0. . ∞). .1) with α.2. ∞)] and let p ≥ 2 be an integer. (2. In particular address the case p = 2. B. . Is it true that the linearized equation about a positive equilibrium point of Eq(2. . . Open Problem 2. and 6. . 6}? Open Problem 2. Find necessary and sufficient conditions so that every nonnegative solution of the difference equation (2. . Open Problems and Conjectures 43 2. if and only if every root of the characteristic equation is a pth root of unity. (0.37) has the property that every one of its solutions is also periodic with the same period p? What is it that makes every positive solution of a difference equation converge to a periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 ? Open Problem 2.39) (2.40) 1 + xn−1 .9. γ.3 Let p ≥ 2 be an integer and assume that every positive solution of Eq(2. 1.7.9. [0.38) (2.4 It is known (see Sections 2. 1. = 1 + xn . (2.9 Open Problems and Conjectures What is it that makes all solutions of a nonlinear difference equation periodic with the same period? For a linear equation. Is it true that p ∈ {2. ∞) × (0. n = 0. 4. . . every solution is periodic with period p ≥ 2.37) is periodic with period p ≥ 2.9. ∞)] is such that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = f (xn . n = 0.5. ∞) × [0.9.7. ∞) converges to a solution with period p . 4. 1. 6. Open Problem 2. n = 0.2 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0. 1 + xn xn + 2xn−1 . xn n = 0. . β. 5.37) converges to a periodic solution with period p. . xn−1 ). C ∈ [0. 1. . ∞).

) Conjecture 2. ψ.2 Assume α. and Invariant Intervals converges to a solution with (not necessarily prime) period-two: . ∞) and γ > β + A. C ∈ (0. C ∈ (0. 6. γ.33) is bounded.7. β. C ∈ (0.41). γ. Open Problem 2. Periodicity. if (2. ∞) for which the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 converges to the period-two solution (2. β. .9.38) or Eq(2.9. γ. Show that every positive solution of Eq(2. Semicycles. A.2. B.39) or Eq(2. Determine the set of initial conditions x−1 and x0 for which the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(2.3 Assume α.41) is a period-two solution of Eq(2.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. β. . β.40). B. A. Show that the positive equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. ∞) × (0.41) In each case.5 Assume α. (2. φ. determine φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x−1 and x0 .1 Assume α. (See Sections 2. ψ. ∞). Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.5. Conversely. x0 ) ∈ (0. A. determine all initial conditions (x−1 .9. Local Stability. . 6. A. γ.1) is bounded. Conjecture 2.7. .7. .1) is a saddle point. ∞) and that Eq(2. φ.1) has no period-two solution. . ∞) and that Eq(2. B.44 Chapter 2. . and 10. 4. .9. Conjecture 2. B ∈ (0.

∞).1) cannot have a positive prime two cycle which attracts all positive non-equilibrium solutions.8 Assume f ∈ C[(0. ∞)]. (See Section 4.9.9. (See Section 5. . C ∈ [0. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f for every solution of the difference equation xn+1 = to be bounded. . . xn n = 0. (0. (0. Show that Eq(2.7 Assume f ∈ C[(0. Conjecture 2. A.2). C ∈ [0. ∞). xn−1 n = 0. Open Problem 2.7). 1.6 Assume α.7. Open Problem 2. ∞). f (xn ) . Open Problems and Conjectures Open Problem 2. . β. .4 Assume that α. A + Bxn−1 + Dxn−2 n = 0.9.1) is bounded. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + to converge to a period-two solution.9 Extend Theorem 2. f (xn−1 ) . 1. γ. . A. 45 Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the coefficients so that every positive solution of Eq(2. ∞)]. .1 to third order difference equations xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 + δxn−2 . B. β.9. .9.2. with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that γ = β + δ + A.9. γ. ∞). B. What additional conditions should the parameters satisfy? . Open Problem 2. 1. .

. But how about necessary and sufficient conditions for the equilibrium of Eq(2.1 to third order difference equations xn+1 = f (xn . xn−1 . .1. n = 0. . Local Stability. .42) to be a repeller. Periodicity. (2. and Invariant Intervals Open Problem 2. or a saddle point. n = 0. 1. xn−2 .42) For the equation λ3 + aλ2 + bλ + c = 0 one can see that all roots lie inside the unit disk |λ| < 1 if and only if |a + c| < 1 + b |a − 3c| < 3 − b b + c2 < 1 + ac      . .46 Chapter 2. or nonhyperbolic? Extend these results to fourth order difference equation xn+1 = f (xn .10 Extend the linearized stability Theorem 1. xn−1 . Semicycles.9. . . xn−2 ). . 1. xn−3 ). .

. . . (3. . 1.5) xn+1 = βxn . . 1. .6) . (3. . 1)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. Bxn n = 0.3) xn+1 = βxn . Cxn−1 n = 0. . B n = 0. 1. 1)-Type Equations 3. 1.4) xn+1 = β .1 Introduction α . 1. (3. . . A n = 0. . . (3. . Cxn−1 47 n = 0. (3. (3. . . 1. A Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1. .1) xn+1 = α . .2) xn+1 = α .Chapter 3 (1. .

. 1. (3. . ..7) are linear difference equation. Indeed the solution with initial conditions y−1 and y0 is the six-cycle: y−1 . Of these nine equations. A n = 0. . .4) is periodic with period four. . the initial conditions are nonnegative.5)..10) It is easy to see that every positive solution of Eq(3. ..1). y0 . 1)-Type Equations xn+1 = γxn−1 . Eqs(3. . yn−1 n = 0.8).6) and (3. . 1.2) is periodic with period two and every solution of Eq(3. . . . y−1 y−1 y0 y0 It is interesting to note that except for the equilibrium solution y = 1. (3. Every solution of Eq(3. C n = 0. and (3. namely. 1)-type Eq(3. and the denominators are always positive. (3.10) has prime period six. (1. . . . 1. Eqs (3.4) and (3.8) xn+1 = γ .2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = β yn C βxn Cxn−1 This is the (1.6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = yn .9) Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. . 3. y0 1 1 y−1 . every other solution of Eq(3. Eqs(3. (3. The remaining two equations.9) are trivial.7) xn+1 = and γxn−1 . are treated in the next two sections.48 Chapter 3. (3. . . . 1.10) is periodic with period six. Bxn n = 0.

The general solution of Eq(3.4 Open Problems and Conjectures Of the nine equations in this chapter we would like to single out the two nonlinear equations.7) is periodic with period two but this is a linear equation. . Also every solution of Eq(3. (3. which possess the property that every positive nontrivial solution of each of these two equations is periodic with the same prime period.2) and (3. 1. (3. . . . . .2). ∞)].14) (3. n = 0. . . 1. Eq(3. .3) also has the property that every nontrivial positive solution is periodic with prime period four but this equation is really a variant of Eq(3.3. . n = 0. ∞).12) . The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = γxn−1 Bxn 49 γxn−1 Bxn 3. xn−1 ). . (3. 1. where f ∈ C[(0.6) is of the form xn+1 = f (xn . . 1)-type Eq(3. (3. ∞)]. 1.8) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the linear equation yn+1 + yn − yn−1 = 0. respectively.11) + C2 −1 − 2 √ 5 n .13) n = 0. while Eq(3. ∞) × (0. namely two and six. Eq(3. 3.2) is of the form xn+1 = f (xn ).3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn e B This is the (1. (3.15) What is it that makes every solution of a nonlinear difference equation periodic with the same period? We believe this is a question of paramount importance and so we pose the following open problems.11) is yn = C1 −1 + 2 √ 5 n n = 0. from which the behavior of solutions is easily derived. (0.6). (0.3. where f ∈ C[(0. ∞). .

In particular address the cases: (See [10]. . .4. In particular address the cases k = 4. (1. k = 5. [0. 9. . and [59]. 1)-Type Equations Open Problem 3. 7. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on α.50 Chapter 3.2 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3. γ ∈ (−∞. ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial solution of the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn ) . β. ∞). . . Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.3 Let k be a positive integer and assume that α.16) is periodic with prime period six. γ so that every solution of the equation xn+1 = α |xn | + βxn−1 + γ.4.4.12) is periodic with period k.4. 1. Conjecture 3. [0. 8. ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial solution of the difference equation (3. with real initial conditions is periodic with period k. ∞). n = 0. Open Problem 3.13) holds. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3. 1. (3.4. 6. ∞).16) is periodic with prime period five. 6.1 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0. [17]. Show that f (x) = x. Open Problem 3. xn−1 n = 0. .1 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3. 5.2 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0. . Show that f (x) = 1 + x. β.) Conjecture 3.14) is periodic with period k.15) holds.

[0. n = 0. . Open Problems and Conjectures 51 Open Problem 3. 1. n=0 (iii) {pn }∞ is periodic with prime period k ≥ 2.18) xn−1 ∞ (i) {pn }n=0 converges to a finite limit. (ii) {pn }∞ converges to ±∞.4. (3. (3. .4. . xn−1 n = 0.4 Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f ∈ C[[0. . .3.5 Let {pn }∞ be a sequence of nonzero real numbers. 1. ∞)] such that every positive nontrivial solution of the equation xn+1 = is periodic with prime period three. . . n=0 . f (xn ) .4.17) Open Problem 3. In each of n=0 the following cases investigate the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the difference equation pn x n xn+1 = . ∞).

.

. . 1. 1. (4.3) xn+1 = βxn .1) xn+1 = α . 1.4) xn+1 = βxn .2) xn+1 = α . A + Cxn−1 n = 0.Chapter 4 (1. Bxn + Cxn−1 53 n = 0.6) . . (4. 1. 2)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. . (4. A + Bxn n = 0. .5) xn+1 = βxn . . . . . (4. (4. Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. A + Bxn Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1.1 Introduction α . . 2)-Type Equations 4. . A + Cxn−1 n = 0. 1. . . 1. (4. . . . . .

. yn+1 = A + Cyn It is also interesting to note that the change of variables xn = 1 yn reduces the Riccati equation (4. 2)-type Eq(4. . . (4. A + Bxn n = 0.2) and (4.4) are Riccati-type difference equations. .8). 1. . Indeed if {xn } is a solution of Eq(4. (See Section 1. and the denominators are always positive. .8) are essentially Riccati equations.9) Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. 1.1). and (4.8) γxn−1 . 1. Eqs(4. . . if {xn } is a solution of Eq(4. 4. from which the global behavior of solutions is easily derived. 2)-Type Equations xn+1 = γxn−1 . Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. . the initial conditions are nonnegative. β β n = 0. Similarly.6 in the Preliminary Results). In view of the above. (4. . (4. .8) will not be discussed any further in this chapter.1) which by the change of variables xn = . Also Eqs(4.2). . 1. then the subsequences {x2n−1 } and {x2n } satisfy the Riccati equation of the form of Eq(4. .2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : xn+1 = A yn B α A+Bxn This is the (1. . then the subsequences {x2n−1 } and {x2n } satisfy the Riccati equation γyn n = 0. A + Cxn−1 n = 0.7) xn+1 = and xn+1 = γxn−1 . . Two of these equations. (4. (1.54 Chapter 4. . .4) to the linear equation yn+1 = A B yn + .4). namely Eqs(4. 1.1) and (4.2).

Proof.3) which by the change of variables √ α xn = yn is transformed to the difference equation yn+1 = C B + .12) converges to √ its equilibrium B + C.2.) We will first show that every solution of Eq(4.1 Every solution of Eq(4. yn yn−1 n = 0.11) (4. 1 + yn p= n = 0. It is easy to see that if a solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded and then we will use the method of “limiting solutions” to show that every solution of Eq(4. 1.12) is bounded from above then it is also bounded from below and vice-versa.10) αB . The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = reduces to the Riccati equation yn+1 = where α Bxn +Cxn−1 55 p . . A2 The Riccati number associated with this equation (see Section 1. (4.12) is bounded and persists.4.12) was investigated in [65]. (See also [12]. .3. n→∞ .10) is globally asymptotically stable. 4. Theorem 4. (4. That is. So if the theorem is false there should exist a ∞ solution {yn }n=−1 which is neither bounded from above nor from below.3.1 The positive equilibrium y= −1 + √ 2 1 + 4p of Eq(4. . Theorem 4. lim sup yn = ∞ and n→∞ lim inf yn = 0. . 1.3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = α Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (1.6.12) Eq(4. . 2)-type Eq(4. . .6) is R = −p < 0 and so the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.2.

12). Therefore there exist positive numbers m and M such that m ≤ yn ≤ M Let I = lim inf yn n→∞ We will show that I = S.3.5) there exist two solutions {In }∞ n=−3 and {Sn }∞ n=−3 of the difference equation yn+1 = with the following properties: I0 = I. . and by Theorem 1.1. . B+C B+C n = 0. .1. . B + C < yi yj ≤ B + C which is impossible.56 Chapter 4. let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. . . and S = lim sup yn .13) for all n ∈ {−1. To ∞ this end. 2 √ B + C of Eq(4. By the theory of limiting solutions (see Section 1. yi−1 yi−2 yj Proof. It remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(4. . y is locally asymptotically stable for all positive values of B and C.12). The linearized equation of Eq(4. .1 .2 The equilibrium y = stable. −2. . .3. Theorem 4. j − 1}.12) is globally asymptotically √ B + C is (4. B C B+C + > yj−1 yj−2 yi C B+C B + ≤ . Then by Theorem 4.12) about the equilibrium y = zn+1 = − B C zn − zn−1 . . 2)-Type Equations Then clearly we can find indices i and j with 1 ≤ i < j such that yi > yn > yj Hence yj = and yi = That is . 1. {yn }n=−1 is bounded and persists. S0 = S B C + . yn yn−1 n = −3. n→∞ for n ≥ −1. . (1.

14) from which it follows that (4. From (4. A n = 0.15) 2 4. (4. 2)-type Eq(4. S= B C B+C + ≤ S−1 S−2 I C B+C B + ≥ . Therefore B C B C + = I = S−1 = + S S S−2 S−3 S = S−2 .Pielou’s This is the (1.4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = Equation A yn .5) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to Pielou’s difference equation yn+1 = where p= pyn .15) we conclude that S=I and the proof is complete. The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = and Then βxn A+Cxn−1 .14) and (4. Sn ∈ [I. C βxn A+Cxn−1 .16) .Pielou’s Equation 57 In . 1. . 1 + yn−1 β . . . S] for n ≥ −3.4. I−1 I−2 S B + C = SI. (4.4. and I= Hence Thus B C B+C B C + =S= = + S−1 S−2 I I I from which it follows that S−1 = S−2 = I.

. Eq(4. x is globally asymptotically stable. p. 0 is locally asymptotically stable when p ≤ 1 and unstable when p > 1. it follows from Eq(4. p + yn−1 n = 0. (4.) When p ≤ 1.17) In this case the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is globally asymptotically stable. 4. . 2)-Type Equations This equation was proposed by Pielou in her books ([66]. So the interesting case for Eq(4.16) is unstable and Eq(4. In fact by employing Theorem 1.6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = p + yn . Furthermore. 1. (See also ([42].16) is when p > 1.22) and ([67].4. Theorem 4.17) holds. which is locally asymptotically stable.58 Chapter 4. (1. it follows that when (4. p. (b) Assume y0 ∈ (0.18) . 2)-type Eq(4.16) that every positive solution converges to 0. p.16) possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p − 1. B + Cyn βxn Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (1. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.75). Then the positive equilibrium y = p − 1 of Eq(4. t≥0 dt P which is a prototype of modelling the dynamics of single-species.4. We summarize the above discussion in the following theorem. .79) as a discrete analogue of the delay logistic equation dN N (t − τ ) = rN (t) 1 − .5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = β .2. (4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.1 (a) Assume p ≤ 1. ∞) and p > 1.16) was investigated in [55].

4. The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 = where γxn−1 A+Bxn 59 B . . 2)-type Eq(4. (4. except possibly for the first semicycle. 0 is a repeller and y = 1 − p is a saddle point equilibrium. The oscillatory character of the solutions of Eq(4. That is.19) and they are both unstable.19) is a consequence of Theorem 1. Then 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(4. C Eq(4. p + yn n = 0. .19) has semicycles of length one. every solution of Eq(4.5) that 1 yn+1 < yn−1 p and so when p>1 for n ≥ 0 .18) was investigated in ([42] Corollary 3.1 (e).6. Then 0 and y = 1 − p are the only equilibrium points of Eq(4.1.4.7) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= yn−1 .19) A ∈ (0. Lemma 4. ∞). 73) where it was shown that its equilibrium one is globally asymptotically stable . p= 4. γ Eq(4. B γxn−1 A+Bxn This is the (1. (b) Assume p < 1.19) was investigated in [28]. It follows directly from Eq(4.1 (a) Assume p > 1. The following local result is a straightforward application of the linearized stability Theorem 1.19) (see also Section 2.6.6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn .7. p.1. 1. In fact.19) and it is locally asymptotically stable.1. .

(1. yn n = 0. 2)-Type Equations the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.19) converges to a period-two solution . . 1. n = 0. 2)-type Eq(4.20) C ∈ (0. B This equation was investigated in [7] where it was shown that the following statements are true: p= . .60 Chapter 4. Furthermore we can see that φψ = 0 but whether there exists solutions with φ=ψ=0 remains an open question. . ∞). . . . φ. ψ. φ. 1. (4. yn+1 − yn−1 = p + yn that every oscillatory solution is such that the subsequences of even and odd terms converge monotonically one to ∞ and the other to 0. . 4.9) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = p + where yn−1 .19) is globally asymptotically stable. Finally when p<1 by invoking the stable manifold theory one can see that there exist nonoscillatory solutions which converge monotonically to the positive equilibrium 1 − p.7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 = γ Byn γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (1. . . yn+1 < yn−1 for n ≥ 0 and so every positive solution of Eq(4. It follows from the identity (1 − p) − yn yn−1 . ψ. On the other hand when p = 1. . . . .

1 The equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4. p+1 p+1 n = 0.20) to be bounded. .1.20) such that 0 < 1 y−1 ≤ 1 and y0 ≥ 1−p .20) which consists of a single semicycle.7. Then the following statements are true: 1.4. Theorem 4.7. It suffices to show that y1 ∈ (p. Clearly the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution.7. The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 = γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 61 (i) p ≥ 1 is a necessary and sufficient condition for every solution of Eq(4. (iii) When p > 1. 1. and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. Note that 1 1−p > p + 1. lim y2n = ∞.7.7. Moreover.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 4.3 Let p < 1. The linearized equation of Eq(4. n→∞ y2n+1 = p. n→∞ lim 2. and so y0 > p + 1. 1] and y2 ≥ p + y0 and use induction to complete the proof.20) is y = p + 1.2 (a) Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4.1.20) is globally asymptotically stable.20) about the equilibrium point y = p + 1 is zn+1 + 1 1 zn − zn−1 = 0. every solution of Eq(4.21) As a simple consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1. every semicycle has length one. with the possible exception of the first semicycle. In fact the following result is true.1 The Case p < 1 Here we show that there exist solutions of Eq(4. Theorem 4. (ii) When p = 1. The next result about semicycles is an immediate consequence of some straightforward arguments and Theorem 1. .20) which are unbounded.20) is locally asymptotically stable when p > 1 and is an unstable saddle point when p < 1. (4. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 converges monotonically to y = p + 1.7. Proof. We now proceed to establish the above results. 4. . Then {yn }∞ n=−1 is oscillatory. . the equilibrium y = p + 1 of Eq(4. . ∞ (b) Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4.20) which consists of at least two semicycles.

20) converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1. 2)-Type Equations > p. 1.62 Indeed y1 = p + y1 y0 Chapter 4. Lemma 4. Hence y2 = p + y0 y1 ≥ p + y0 . (1.7. y1 = p + y−1 1 ≤p+ ≤ 1. y2n+1 < p + So as every solution of the difference equation 1 ym+1 = p + ym . Then p+ p2 p−1 ≤ lim inf yn ≤ lim sup yn ≤ . and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. p2 We shall first show that lim supn→∞ yn ≤ p−1 . p .2 The Case p = 1 The following result follows from Lemma 2. p m = 0.7. Note that for n ≥ 0.5. Then {yn }n=−1 converges to a prime period-two solution of Eq(4.7. that p < yn for all n ≥ −1.1 Let p > 1.7. ∞ (a) Suppose {yn }n=−1 consists of a single semicycle. and that p < y0 < p + 1 < y−1 .7. The following result will be useful. Theorem 4.20). and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. . It follows from Theorem 4.1 and some straightforward arguments.2 that we may assume that every semicycle of {yn }∞ n=−1 has length one. (c) Every solution of Eq(4. See also Section 2.3 The Case p > 1 Here we show that the equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4. 1]. . Then {yn }∞ n=−1 converges monotonically to y = 2.20).20). 4. Then the following statements are true. y0 y0 2 and so y1 ∈ (p.7. y2n−1 . Also. . ∞ (b) Suppose {yn }∞ n=−1 consists of at least two semicycles. 4.20) is globally asymptotically stable. n→∞ p p−1 n→∞ Proof.4 Let p = 1.

∞). n→∞ y f (x. Let p N ≥ 0 such that for all n ≥ N . ∞). Let > 0. p−1 f p. Hence p < f (x. lim inf yn ≥ 2 n→∞ p p 2 We are now ready for the following result.20) with prime period two.7. So let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. x Then f ∈ C[(0. We know by Theorem 4. f is decreasing in x ∈ (0. Then the equilibrium y = p + 1 is globally asymptotically stable.5 Let p > 1. There clearly exists y2n = p + So as p−1 p3 + p + p(p − 1) y2n−2 >p+p 2 = .p = p + p 2 p−1 p + p2 + p−1 p2 + p−1 = p2 + p3 + p = . y) = p + . ∞)] . p2 − p p−1 p2 + . there exist no solutions of Eq(4. ∞) for each y ∈ (0.4.1 that y = p + 1 is a locally asymptotically stable equilibrium point of Eq(4. ∞). ∞) for each x ∈ (0. .7.7. Theorem 4. and f is increasing in y ∈ (0.20). we have p−1 p3 + p(p − 1) =p+ .4. Then > 0. We shall next show that p + p−1 ≤ lim inf n→∞ yn . and set a = p and b = Note that f and p2 + . Recall that by Theorem 4. p−1 For x.7. It suffices to show that lim yn = p + 1. y) < for all x. ∞). set p−1 p2 + >p . y2n−1 p + p2 + is arbitrary. it follows that lim supn→∞ yn ≤ p−1 . Proof. p2 + y2n−1 < . y ∈ p.20). y ∈ (0. The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 = 2 γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 2 63 p p converges to p−1 . (0. p−1 Let n ≥ N . ∞) × (0.

} with k < l. .2 (see [18]) Assume that A. y0 are such that y−1 y0 < 0 and such that Eq(4. 1. Show that every solution of Eq(4. . 1.8.1 Let . . + yn yn−1 (4. .8. .22) Conjecture 4. . Is it bounded? Does limn→∞ yn exist? When does {yn } converge to a two cycle? . is well defined for all n ≥ 0. .8. . y0 with y−1 y0 < 0 for which the equation yn+1 = B A . p<p+ Chapter 4. φ1 . . . A+B A+B A.6. . ∞). be a given prime period p solution of Eq(4. . B ∈ (0. . and [61]. . Investigate the global behavior of the solution {yn }.64 Finally note that by Lemma 4.7. .) Open Problem 4. 2)-Type Equations and so by Theorem 1. . . . . (a) Find all initial conditions y−1 . . x0 such that {xn }∞ converges to this periodic solution.1.23) A B λl−k + = 0. [60]. p−1 p2 + p2 ≤ lim inf yn ≤ lim sup yn ≤ < n→∞ p p−1 p−1 n→∞ n→∞ lim yn = p + 1. (b) Assume that the initial conditions y−1 .22) converges. [25].1 Consider the difference equation where and where the initial conditions x−l . 2 4. l ∈ {0. either to the equilibrium or to a periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 and that what happens and the exact value of p are uniquely determined from the characteristic roots of the linearized equation λl+1 + (See [19]. xn−l n = 0. Determine the set of all positive initial conditions x−l . [23]. φ2 . (1.22). (4. . B ∈ (0.23) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. x0 are arbitrary positive real numbers. ∞) and k. φp . .4.8 Open Problems and Conjectures xn+1 = A xn−k + B . . . n=−l Open Problem 4.

Conjecture 4.2 Assume that p = 1.3 Assume that p < 1. Show that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a three cycle.4 Assume that (x−1 . and the periodic ∞ nature of the solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4.20) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Open Problem 4.8. y0 ∈ (0.8. the asymptotic behavior. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation yn−1 yn+1 = 1 + yn is well defined for all n ≥ 0 and.8.8.8. (c) Discuss (a) and (b) when p < 0. investigate the boundedness. x0 ) ∈ R × R is such that the equation (4.20) possesses a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 which remains above the equilibrium for all n ≥ −1. (b) Let y−1 .6 (See [13]) Find the set G of all initial points (x−1 .4 Determine the set G of all initial conditions (y−1 . Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 .20) is well defined for all n ≥ 0.20). For such an initial point.19) has a solution which converges to zero. Open Problem 4.5 (a) Assume p ∈ (0. Open Problem 4. . Open Problem 4. for these initial points. ∞) ∞ for which the solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4. y0 ∈ R be such that Eq(4.8. y0 ∈ R such that the equation (4. Determine all initial conditions y−1 .4. Open Problems and Conjectures 65 Conjecture 4.19) is bounded. investigate the global character ∞ of {yn }n=−1 .3 Show that Eq(4. Show that Eq(4.24) is well defined for all n ≥ 0 and bounded.8. ∞). x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn−1 xn+1 = −1 + (4.24) xn is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Conjecture 4.8.

8. 1. . 1. . ai ∈ (0.}. 2)-Type Equations Open Problem 4. + ak xn−k n = 0. . . see [55]. (0.8. Conjecture 4. . .7 Let f ∈ C[(0. < 2 cos α 2k + 1 Open Problem 4. xn+1 = 1 + xn converges to two? . n = 0. . . . . 1.8. . . Open Problem 4. xn + xn−1 n = 0. 1. . 1 + xn−k n = 0.) Assume α ∈ (1. ∞). f (xn ) . ∞) and k ∈ {0. . . a + a0 xn + . [66]. . and [67].9 (See [5]) For which initial values x−1 .6 (Pielou’s Discrete Logistic Model.8. ∞)]. with positive initial conditions. x0 ∈ (0. Conjecture 4. converges to a period-two solution. Investigate the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of the difference equation xn+1 = xn . 1. .66 Chapter 4.8. ∞) does the sequence defined by xn−1 . . . n = 0.8 Let a. ∞) for i = 0. . Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = to be bounded. Show that the positive equilibrium of Pielou’s discrete logistic model xn+1 = αxn . (1. . k.5 (See [27]) Assume r ∈ (0. Show that every positive solution of the population model Jn+1 = Jn−1 er−(Jn +Jn−1 ) . with positive initial conditions is globally asymptotically stable if and only if kπ α−1 . ∞). . 1. . .

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 pn + . Open Problems and Conjectures (See also Section 4. n = 0.20) are bounded. y0 ∈ (0. . .25) with nonnegative initial conditions. 1. find the basin of attraction of the equilibrium of Eq(4. . . (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions y−1 . (4. each of the subsequences {y2n }∞ and {y2n+1 }n=−1 is decreasing and n=0 lim [n→∞ y2n ][n→∞ y2n+1 ] = 0.10 (See [31]) Consider the difference equation yn+1 = yn−1 e−yn .11 Assume p ∈ (0. 1 + yn−1 n = 0. .7) Open Problem 4. . . .8. . yn yn−1 pn yn .12 Let {pn }∞ be a convergent sequence of nonnegative real numn=0 bers with a finite limit. ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(4. 67 (4. .25). (b) Determine the limits of the subsequences of even and odd terms of every solution of Eq(4. ∞ More precisely. in terms of the initial conditions y−1 and y0 of the solution.8.8. lim p = n→∞ pn . 0. ∞ (b) Let y−1 . . . y0 ∈ B. 0.25) converge to zero. lim (a) Find all initial points y−1 . .25) converges to a period-two solution . 1. y0 ∈ [0. In other words. n = 0.27) .4. ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(4. . Open Problem 4. . Open Problem 4. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 .25). .26) (4. 1). . 1. ∞ One can easily see that every solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4.8. .

.33) (4.28) (4.32) (4. .29) (4. n = 0. 1. .13 Let {pn }∞ be a periodic sequence of nonnegative real numbers n=0 with period k ≥ 2. . 1 − yn (4. 1 − yn−1 yn−1 . pn + yn yn−1 .31) yn+1 = (4. Open Problem 4. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of each of Eqs(4. yn Chapter 4.26) . . extend your result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation. n = 0. 1 − yn−1 1 + yn . (1.68 pn + yn . y0 ) ∈ G. 2)-Type Equations yn+1 = n = 0.30) yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + Open Problem 4. Then for every (y−1 . . .(4. . (4.8. investigate the long term behavior of the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 : yn+1 = yn . pn + yn−1 yn−1 . y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0. . . 1.8.14 For each of the following difference equations determine the “good” set G ⊂ R × R of all initial conditions (y−1 . .34) yn+1 = yn+1 = −1 + yn−1 . yn For those equations from the above list for which you were successful.30). 1.

. .5) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 .Chapter 5 (2.1) xn+1 = α + βxn . . . . (5. . Bxn n = 0. .3) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 . 1. . . 1. 1. A Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2. 1. 1. (5. . (5. 1)-Type Equations 5.1 Introduction α + βxn .4) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 . Bxn n = 0. . (5. . 1)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. . 1.2) xn+1 = α + βxn . (5. A n = 0. (5.6) . Cxn−1 n = 0. . . Cxn−1 69 n = 0. . . .

2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = Equation p + yn .2). which was investigated in Section 4. (5. which will be investigated in the next two sections. (5. . Eq(5.5).4) and (5. The change of variables γ xn = yn . the initial conditions are nonnegative. .9) to Eq(4. . (2. γ Finally the change of variables xn = γ β + yn . 1)-Type Equations xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 .18) with p = β .70 Chapter 5. . 1.2) is a Riccati equation and Eq(5.7) xn+1 = and xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . 1.8) βxn + γxn−1 . .9) Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. . Of these nine equations. 1)-type Eq(5. . .20) with p = β . . (5. Cxn−1 n = 0. B reduces Eq(5.6) is essentially like Eq(5. 1. and the denominators are always positive. (5. . .1). Eqs(5. (5.7) are linear.3) which by the change of variables reduces to the equation yn+1 = n = 0.8) to Eq(4. Therefore there remain Eqs(5.3) and (5. . C C γ reduces Eq(5. yn−1 α+βxn Cxn−1 .7.Lyness’ This is the (2. 1.10) . . 5.5. A n = 0. which was investigated in Section 4. Bxn n = 0.

This result was also established in [49] by using a Lyapunov function.1 Assume that p > 0. (See ([42].10) are true: (a) The absolute extreme in a semicycle occurs in the first or in the second term. .10) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants. 1. The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = where α+βxn Cxn−1 . (5. 131) for the history of the problem. There is substantial literature on Lyness’ Equation. y−1 y−1 y0 y0 Eq(5. Concerning the semicycles of solutions of Eq(5.Lyness’ Equation 71 p= The special case of Eq(5. (b) Every nontrivial semicycle. after the first one. contains at least two and at most three terms.11) yn−1 every solution of which is periodic with period five. See [11]. ..2. n = 0. Then the following statements about the positive solutions of Eq(5.2. . [43].10) where αC . β2 p=1 was discovered by Lyness in 1942 while he was working on a problem in Number Theory. and [72] and the references cited therein.11) with initial conditions y−1 and y0 is the five-cycle: y−1 . .10) the following result was established in [43]: Theorem 5.5. It was shown in [30] that no nontrivial solution of Eq(5.10) is stable but not asymptotically stable. [57]-[59]. p. .10) possesses the invariant In = (p + yn−1 + yn ) 1 + 1 yn−1 1+ 1 yn = constant (5.. [71].12) from which it follows that every solution of Eq(5. y0 ..10) has a limit. It was also shown in [44] by using KAM theory that the positive equilibrium y of Eq(5. Indeed the solution of Eq(5. . . [42].) In this special case. 1 + y0 1 + y−1 + y0 1 + y−1 . the equation becomes 1 + yn yn+1 = .

13) was investigated in [28]. γ2 Eq(5. α+γxn−1 Bxn This is the (2.1. 1)-Type Equations 5. By the linearized stability Theorem 1.4 Open Problems and Conjectures By using the invariant (5.12). . (2.10) without using essentially the invariant.13) is a saddle point.1 one can see that the unique equilibrium point √ 1 + 1 + 4p y= 2 of Eq(5. The global character of solutions of Eq(5. Open Problem 5. By Theorem 1.13) is a consequence of the identity yn+1 − yn−1 = yn−1 − yn−2 yn for n ≥ 1.4.12).72 Chapter 5.13) has semicycles of length one.13) one can easily see that every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(5.1 Show that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5.13) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y. Concerning the nonoscillatory solutions of Eq(5. 1)-type Eq(5. .10) is bounded without using the invariant (5. To this day we have not found a proof for the boundedness of solutions of Eq(5. 1. one can easily see that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5. .7. 5. From this it follows that a solution of Eq(5. every oscillatory solution of Eq(5.13) either approaches the positive equilibrium y monotonically or it oscillates about y with semicycles of length one in such a way that {y2n } and {y2n+1 } converge monotonically one to zero and other to ∞.1 one can see that except possibly for the first semicycle. .10) is bounded from above and from below by positive numbers.13) αB . yn (5.3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn B n = 0.5) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where p= p + yn−1 .

. When we allow the initial conditions to be real numbers the equation yn+1 = p + yn yn−1 (5.4. (0.15) are unbounded is a set of measure zero. Open Problems and Conjectures 73 Open Problem 5. . Open Problem 5.4. ∞)].) Assume p ∈ (−∞. we offer the following open problems and conjectures. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of f so that every positive solution of the difference equation xn+1 = is bounded. .5.4.4 (See [26]. ∞). Show that the linearized equation of Eq(5. ∞)] and that the difference equation (5.15) may not even be well defined for all n ≥ 0. f (xn ) .15) is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Conjecture 5.2 Let G be the set of initial conditions defined in the Open problem 5. 1. .4.1 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. y0 ∈ (−∞. (0. ∞). Determine the set G of all initial conditions y−1 .4.14) about x does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| < 1 and does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| > 1.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. ∞) through which Eq(5. To illustrate.14) Open Problem 5. ∞)]. Show that the subset of G through which the solutions of Eq(5. ∞).14) possesses a (nontrivial) invariant. ∞).4.4. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of f so that the difference equation (5.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. (0. What is it that makes Lyness’ equation possess an invariant? What type of difference equations possess an invariant? Along these lines.14) possesses a unique positive equilibrium point x and a nontrivial invariant. we offer the following open problems and conjectures. xn−1 n = 0. (5.4. Conjecture 5.

y0 ) ∈ G. . . Open Problem 5. . . Determine the periodic character and the asymptotic behavior of all solutions with (y−1 . . y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + yn−1 yn+1 = yn is well defined for all n ≥ 0. . . (2. Open Problem 5.4. 1.5 Determine all positive integers k with the property that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = is periodic. ∞) × (−∞. . .4. yn n = 0. .4 Show that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = converges to a period-six solution. Conjecture 5.5 (See [20]) Show that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = 1 1 . . has a nontrivial positive solution which decreases monotonically to the equilibrium of the equation. 1.4.4. 1. . is a set of points without interior.4. ∞) through which Eq(5. 1)-Type Equations Conjecture 5. y0 ) ∈ (−∞. yn−1 yn−3 n = 0. Conjecture 5.6 Show that the equation yn+1 = 1 + yn−1 . + yn−k . Conjecture 5.4. yn−k−1 n = 0. yn yn−4 + . converges to a period-three solution. . . Show that the set of points (y−1 . .15) is not well defined for all n ≥ 0. + yn yn−1 yn−3 yn−4 n = 0. 1.6 Find the set G of all initial points (y−1 . ∞).74 Chapter 5. 1 + .3 Assume p ∈ (−∞.

   When δ = 1.5. see [59]) Let A ∈ (0. Note that the change of variables      n e y2 max{x2 . . . . 2 αxn . . .4. . ∞). . 1. (1 + xn )xn−1 n = 0. Conjecture 5. . . 1.8 (The Gingerbreadman Map. xn xn−1 n = 0.16) A A 1+yn 2 reduces Eq(5. Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = is bounded.7 (May’s Host Parasitoid Model. . 1 if A < 1 if A = 1 δ= 0  −1 if A > 1. (5.4. 1.16) to where xn =   −1+yn 2 if A > 1 if A = 1 if A < 1 n = 0.17) is called the Gingerbreadman Map and was investigated by Devaney [17]. (5. A} n .17) yn+1 = |yn | − yn−1 + δ. Eq(5.4. see [59]) Assume α > 1. Show that every positive solution of May’s Host Parasitoid Model xn+1 = is bounded. Open Problems and Conjectures 75 Conjecture 5.

.

1.1) xn+1 = α + βxn . (6.5) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 .2) xn+1 = α + βxn . .4) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 . . . A + Bxn Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2. .3) xn+1 = α + γxn−1 . A + Bxn n = 0. A + Cxn−1 n = 0. . (6. . Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. (6. 2)-type: xn+1 = n = 0.6) . . . .Chapter 6 (2. 1. . . (6. Bxn + Cxn−1 77 n = 0. . A + Cxn−1 n = 0. . 1.1 Introduction α + βxn . (6. . 1. 2)-Type Equations 6. 1. . . . (6. . 1.

A + Cxn−1 n = 0. (2. In fact if {xn }∞ n=−1 is a positive solution of ∞ ∞ Eq(6. (6. . .2 The Case γ = C = 0 : Equation xn+1 = α+βxn A+Bxn . Eq(6. . (6. . .5) is essentially similar to Eq(6.6. 1. . . Therefore we will omit any further discussion of Eq(6. .7) xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . the initial conditions are nonnegative. 2)-Type Equations xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . . .1).1) which is in fact a Riccati equation. 1.Riccati This is the (2.78 Chapter 6.8) xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . See Section 1. . A + Czn n = 0. . Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. . To avoid a degenerate situation we will assume that αB − βA = 0. A + Czn for n ≥ 0 n = −1. (6.5) then {x2n }n=0 and {x2n−1 }n=0 are both solutions of the Riccati equations zn+1 = with zn = x2n and zn+1 = with zn = x2n+1 respectively. α + γzn . . 0. 6. . . α + γzn . 1.5). 1. A + Bxn n = 0. and the denominators are always positive. for n ≥ −1.9) Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. 2)-type Eq(6. .

1.) Eq(6. By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1. . The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn A+Cxn−1 79 The Riccati number associated with this equation is R= and clearly βA − αB (β + A)2 1 R< . Eq(6. .3 The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = A yn C α+βxn A+Cxn−1 This is the (2.1 Every solution of Eq(6. 4 Now the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.10) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q.10) was investigated in [42] and [43].2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where p + qyn . .3.3.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6. 2 A A (Eq(6. the conjecture has not been proven or refuted. 2)-type Eq(6. 6. To this day.2.1) is globally asymptotically stable.2: Theorem 6. Lemma 6.3. The main results known about Eq(6. .6.10) are the following: Theorem 6.1 we obtain the following result.10) is a very simple looking equation for which it has long been conjectured that its equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable.10) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants.1.10) αC β and q = .6.10) has the unique positive equilibrium y given by p= y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2 .1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6. 1 + yn−1 n = 0. (6. See also [36].

for sufficiently large k. From (6. k→∞ Hence. Let {yn } be a solution of Eq(6. then p yn+1 ≥ 1+M and so it is also bounded from below. in every semicycle.10) is described by the following result: ∞ Theorem 6. Then the following statements are true: (i) Every semicycle. except perhaps for the first one. . Then there exists a subsequence {y1+nk }∞ such k=0 that k→∞ lim nk = ∞. every semicycle contains two or three terms. Furthermore. Furthermore after the first.80 Chapter 6. except possibly for the first semicycle.3. Clearly.10) we see that yn+1 < qyn + p for n ≥ 0 and so k→∞ lim ynk = lim ynk −1 = ∞. (iv) Assume q ≤ p. Then. The proofs for negative semicycles are similar and will be omitted. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not bounded from above. Proof. (iii) In any two consecutive semicycles.10). has at least two terms. The oscillatory character of solutions for Eq(6. k→∞ lim y1+nk = ∞.10). (2. there is at most one term which follows the extreme. and y1+nk = max{yn : n ≤ nk } for k ≥ 0. if the solution is bounded from above by a constant M . We present the proofs for positive semicycles only. their extrema cannot be consecutive terms. the remaining terms in a positive semicycle are strictly decreasing and in a negative semicycle are strictly increasing.2 Let {yn }n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6. 0 ≤ y1+nk − ynk = p + [(q − 1) − ynk −1 ]ynk <0 1 + ynk −1 2 which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. (ii) The extreme in each semicycle occurs at either the first term or the second. 2)-Type Equations Proof.

The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = (i) Assume that for some N ≥ 0. 1 + yN −1 1 + yN (iv) Assume that for some N ≥ 0. The opposite case is similar and will be omitted. > 1 + yN −1 1+y (ii) Assume that for some N ≥ 0. Then yN +1 = p + qyN p + qyN +1 < = yN +2 .10) is globally asymptotically stable if one of the following two conditions holds: (i) q < 1. . the first two terms in a positive semicycle are yN and yN +1 . Then yN ≥ y. p + qyN p + qy = y.6. yN +1 . < < 1 + yN +1 1 + yN +1 1+y 2 Theorem 6. (ii) q≥1 and either p ≤ q or q < p ≤ 2(q + 1). the terms yN . So assume that for some N ≥ 0 the last two terms in a negative semicycle are yN −1 and yN with yN −1 ≥ yN .3. α+βxn A+Cxn−1 81 yN −1 < y Then yN +1 = and yN ≥ y.3 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6. and yN +2 are all in a positive semicycle. yN +1 > y and p p +q +q yN +2 1 p + qyN +1 yN +1 = = < y = 1.3. Then yN +3 = p + qyN +2 p + qyN +1 p + qy = y. yN +1 yN +1 1 + yN 1 + yN 1+y (iii) We consider the case where a negative semicycle is followed by a positive one.

4. For the proof when see ([42].2. p.1. it remains to show that every solution {yn }∞ of Eq(6. (2. Theorem 3.3. 2)-type Eq(6. The following result is a consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1. 2)-Type Equations (i) In view of Lemma 6. p + (q − 1)i ≤ is ≤ p + (q − 1)s i≥s p + qi 1+s and s ≤ p + qs . .4 The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = β yn B α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (2. B (6. 1. 1 ≤ q ≤ p ≤ 2(q + 1) 2 6.3.10) yields i≥ Hence and so because q < 1. 1+i from which the result follows. . To this end.1. This result was first established in [43].1. 71). .11) and q = Eq(6.1 exist and are positive numbers. Then Eq(6.82 Proof. . C .3 (f). yn + qyn−1 αB β2 n = 0.11) was investigated in [15]. (ii) The proof when p<q follows by applying Theorem 1.10) n=−1 tends to y as n → ∞. let i = lim inf yn n→∞ and s = lim sup yn n→∞ which by Theorem 6. Chapter 6.4.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= yn + p .

the q function u+p f (u. yk + qyk−1 yk + q p q yk+1 yk + p = ≥ yk + qyk−1 p q p q +p +q > p q 2 and the proof follows by induction. yk ∈ 1. yk−1 .1 The unique positive equilibrium point y= 1+ 1 + 4p(q + 1) 2(q + 1) of Eq(6. Lemma 6. q for all n > k.11) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q. v ∈ [ p . for some k ≥ 0. (a) The basic ingredient behind the proof is the fact that when u.11). yk + p yk + p yk+1 = ≤ = 1.1 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. . The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1 83 Theorem 6.1 Invariant Intervals The following result establishes that the interval I with end points 1 and p is an invariq ant interval for Eq(6. two consecutive values yk−1 and yk of a solution lie in I. Indeed.6. Then yn ∈ 1.4. 6. Proof. q for all n > k. yk−1 .4.1 q p . yk ∈ Then yn ∈ p .4.4. (b) Assume p > q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0. then ym ∈ I for all m > k. p q p .11) in the sense that if. (b) The proof is similar and will be omitted. Then the following statements are true: (a) Assume p < q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0. v) = u + qv is increasing in u and decreasing in v. ∞).1 .

84

Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.4.2

Semicycle Analysis

∞ Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then observe that the following identities are true: p − yn−1 (6.12) yn+1 − 1 = q q for n ≥ 0, yn + qyn−1

yn+1 − and yn − yn+4 =

p (q − p) + pq(1 − yn−1 ) = q q(yn + qyn−1 )

for n ≥ 0,

(6.13)

(yn − 1)[qyn yn+3 + yn+1 yn+3 ] + qyn+1 (yn − p ) q q(p + yn+1 ) + yn+3 (yn+1 + qyn )

for n ≥ 0.

(6.14)

First we will analyze the semicycles of the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 under the assumption that p > q. (6.15) The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.15):
∞ Lemma 6.4.2 Assume that (6.15) holds and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < p , then yN +1 > 1; q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = p , then yN +1 = 1; q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > p , then yN +1 < 1; q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≥ 1, then yN +1 < p ; q (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ 1, then yN +1 > 1; (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≥ p , then yN +4 < yN ; q (vii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≤ 1, then yN +4 > yN ; (viii) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ yN −1 ≤ p , then 1 ≤ yN +1 ≤ p ; q q (ix) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ yN −1 , yN ≤ p , then yn ∈ [1, p ] for n ≥ N . That is [1, p ] is q q q an invariant interval for Eq(6.11); (x) p 1<y< . q

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1

85

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.2, states that when (6.15) holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11), which lies in the interval [1, p ], oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one or two. q Theorem 6.4.2 Assume that Eq(6.11) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [1, p ], oscillates about y with semicycles q of length one or two.
∞ Next we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {yn }n=−1 under the assumption that q = p. (6.16)

In this case, Eq(6.11) reduces to yn+1 = with the unique equilibrium point y = 1. Also identities (6.12)-(6.14) reduce to yn+1 − 1 = p and yn − yn+4 = (yn − 1) pyn+1 + pyn yn+3 + yn+1 yn+3 p(p + yn+1 ) + yn+3 (yn+1 + pyn ) for n ≥ 0. (6.19) 1 − yn−1 yn + pyn−1 for n ≥ 0 (6.18) yn + p , yn + pyn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (6.17)

and so the following results follow immediately:
∞ Lemma 6.4.3 Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.17). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < 1, then yN +1 > 1; (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = 1, then yN +1 = 1; (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > 1, then yN +1 < 1; (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN < 1, then yN < yN +4 < 1; (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN > 1, then yN > yN +4 > 1.
∞ Corollary 6.4.1 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.17). Then {yn }n=−1 oscillates about the equilibrium 1 and, except possibly for the first semicycle, the following are true:

86

Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(i) If y−1 = 1 or y0 = 1, then the positive semicycle has length three and the negative semicycle has length one. (ii) If (1 − y−1 )(1 − y0 ) = 0, then every semicycle has length two. Finally we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {yn }∞ under the assumption n=−1 that p < q. (6.20) The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.14) and (6.20). Lemma 6.4.4 Assume that (6.20) holds and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < p , then yN +1 > 1; q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = p , then yN +1 = 1; q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > p , then yN +1 < 1; q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ 1, then yN +1 > p ; q (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ p , then yN +1 > p ; q q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≥ 1, then yN +4 < yN ; (vii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≤ p , then yN +4 > yN ; q (viii) If for some N ≥ 0,
p q p q

≤ yN −1 ≤ 1, then

≤ yN +1 ≤ 1;

(ix) If for some N ≥ 0, p ≤ yN −1 , yN ≤ 1, then yn ∈ [ p , 1] for n ≥ N . That is, [ p , 1] is q q q an invariant interval for Eq(6.11); (x) p < y < 1. q

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.4, states that when (6.20) holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [ p , 1], after the first semicycle, oscillates with semicycles of length at least two. q Theorem 6.4.3 Assume that (6.20) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [ p , 1], after the first semicycle, oscillates with q semicycles of length at least two.

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1

87

How do solutions which do not eventually lie in the invariant interval behave? First assume that p>q
∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution which does not eventually lie in the interval I = [1, p ]. q Then one can see that the solution oscillates relative to the interval [1, p ], essentially in q one of the following two ways: (i) Two consecutive terms in ( p , ∞) are followed by two consecutive terms in (0, 1), q are followed by two consecutive terms in ( p , ∞), and so on. The solution never visits q the interval (1, p ). q (ii) There exists exactly one term in ( p , ∞), which is followed by exactly one term in q (1, p ), which is followed by exactly one term in (0, 1), which is followed by exactly one q term in (1, p ), which is followed by exactly one term in ( p , ∞), and so on. The solution q q visits consecutively the intervals

...,

p p p p , ∞ , 1, ,∞ ,... , (0, 1), 1, , q q q q

in this order with one term per interval. The situation is essentially the same relative to the interval [ p , 1] when q p < q.

6.4.3

Global Stability and Boundedness

Our goal in this section is to establish the following result: Theorem 6.4.4 when (b) Assume that q > 1 + 4p. Then every solution of Eq(6.11) lies eventually in the interval Proof. (a) We have already shown that the equilibrium y is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.11). Case 1 Assume p = q. It follows from (6.19) that each of the four subsequences {y4n+i }∞ n=0 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4
p ,1 q

(a) The equilibrium y of Eq(6.11) is globally asymptotically stable q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.21)

.

(2. it converges to a periodic solution with period-four which q is not the equilibrium. we assume that p > q.2 that [1.22) we see that Li = 1 for i = 1.5 applies and so every solution of Eq(6. By applying (6. p ]. q Hence for every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. . 2. Theorem 1.4. (b) The proof follows from the discussion in part (a).14) to this period four solution we obtain a contradiction and so every solution of Eq(6.22) is a periodic solution of Eq(6. First.19) to the solution (6. Now.11) n→∞ lim yn = y and the proof is complete. By applying (6.4. assume that p < q. . Set Li = n→∞ y4n+i lim Thus clearly .11) with two consecutive values in [1. L4 . 3. Recall from Lemma 6. In this interval the q function u+p f (u. . L1 . lim yn = 1. p ] converges to y.7 that every solution of Eq(6. v) = u + qv is decreasing in both variables and so it follows by applying Theorem 1. L2 .4.88 Chapter 6. 4 and so n→∞ for i = 1.11) must eventually lie in the interval [ p .11) must lie eventually in [1. L3 . (6.11) converges to y. As in Case 2 we can see that every solution of Eq(6. 1]. p ]. 2)-Type Equations is either identically equal to one or else it is strictly monotonically convergent. Case 2 Assume p = q. 4. . . In this interval the function q f (u. By q using an argument similar to that in the case p = q. v) = u+p u + qv is increasing in u and decreasing in v. we can see that if a solution is not eventually in [1. .11) with period four. Under the assumption that q ≤ 1 + 4p. p ] is an invariant interval. 3. 2. 2 .

φ.25) holds.5 The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 = A yn B This is the (2.2 (a) Eq(6. ψ.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 6.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.25) holds.7.23) converges to a period two solution. (c) Assume that (6. Then every solution of Eq(6. ∞) : φψ = p}. (6.23) was investigated in [28].5. 1 + yn αB A2 n = 0. Then the values φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions (6. . .23) is locally asymptotically stable when q < 1. . (6.6. φ. γ . The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn 89 α+γxn−1 A+Bxn 6.4) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn−1 . . . ψ. Concerning prime period-two solutions.5.24) . .) The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.25) (b) Assume (6.23) is y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2 and by applying the linearized stability Theorem 1. 1.5.23) has a prime period-two solution .1. the following result is a consequence of the results in Section 2. . . ψ ∈ (0. A (6. Theorem 6.24) are given by {φ. 2)-type Eq(6. . if and only if q = 1. and is an unstable saddle point when q > 1.23) and q = (Eq(6.

yn0 ) < f (y. 1 + yn0 2 p + qx 1+x 6.90 Chapter 6. yn0 > yn0 −1 . We will assume that there exists a positive integer K such that yn−1 ≥ y for every n ≥ K.5.1 Semicycle Analysis Our results on the semicycles of solutions for Eq(6. Clearly.4 Assume that q < 1. y) = y. (a) This follows immediately from Theorem 1. p + qyn0 −1 = f (yn0 .23).5. So assume for the sake of contradiction that for some n0 ≥ K.7.23) oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one. Then yn0 +1 = which is impossible.23) are as follows: Theorem 6. Clearly yn+1 = Set M= p + qyn−1 < p + qyn−1 . 1 + yn p + . 2)-Type Equations 6. Proof. yn0 −1 ) < f (yn0 . 1−q n ≥ 0.3 Let {yn } be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6. The case where yn−1 < y for n ≥ K is similar and will be omitted.2 The Case q < 1 The main result in this section is the following: Theorem 6. Then the following statements are true: (a) After the first semicycle. the condition p ≥ q implies that the function f (x) = is decreasing.26) . Then every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.1 (b) Let {yn } be a nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6. (b) Assume p ≥ q. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6. (6.5. (2. It is sufficient to show that {yn } is a decreasing sequence for n ≥ K.23) and let y denote the unique positive equilibrium of Eq(6.5. Proof.23) is globally asymptotically stable.23) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y.23). an oscillatory solution {yn } of Eq(6.

In fact this is true for every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 whose initial conditions are such that the following inequalities are true: y−1 < q − 1 and y0 > q − 1 + To this end observe that y1 = and y2 = and by induction. for all (x. y) = . b] × [a. The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn 91 where is some positive number. Set p + qy p f (x. y) ∈ [a. M ]. lim y2n = ∞ p + qy2n−1 =0 1 + y2n and lim y2n+1 = lim n→∞ n→∞ and the proof is complete. y) ≤ b. y2n−1 < q − 1 and y2n > y0 + n Hence n→∞ p . and b = + . a = 0.6. From Eq(6.3 The Case q > 1 In this case we will show that there exist solutions that have two subsequences. one of which is monotonically approaching 0 and the other is monotonically approaching ∞. q−1 p + q(q − 1) p + qy−1 < <q−1 1 + y0 1 + y0 p + qy0 p + qy0 p > = y0 + 1 + y1 q q p q for n ≥ 1.5.26) and Eq(6. The proof is complete.23). it now follows that every solution of Eq(6. By applying Theorem 1. .23).6 it follows that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(6. 1+x 1−q Then clearly. The local stability of y was established in Theorem 6.4.23) lies eventually in the interval [0. b].1. a ≤ f (x. 2 6.5.5.

28) By employing Theorem 1. 1+q (y + p)(1 + q) n = 0.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when (q − 1)y < 2p and unstable (a saddle point) when (q − 1)y > 2p. F (u) = (1 + q)u2 − u − p. 1. qyn + yn−1 αC γ2 n = 0. (2. 2)-type Eq(6. .) Eq(6.6 The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn C α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (2. .27) has the unique positive equilibrium y= 1+ 1 + 4p(1 + q) 2(1 + q) .27) was investigated in [45].27) about y is zn+1 + q qy − p zn − zn−1 = 0.27) and q = (Eq(6.29) . The linearized equation associated with Eq(6. C (6. Clearly the equilibrium y is the positive solution of the quadratic equation (1 + q)y 2 − y − p = 0.6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + yn−1 . (6. .29) is satisfied if and only if either q≤1 or q > 1 and F 2p q−1 > 0.30) (6. . . 1. .1.92 Chapter 6. (6. If we now set it is easy to see that (6. B . 2)-Type Equations 6. .

q−1 . .2 Eq(6.1 Let Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles .6.6. be a period-two cycle of Eq(6. . φ.32) (6.32) holds.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.31) 6. when q > 1 + 4p. ψ. . the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − t + p = 0. .27) has a prime period-two solution . .27). . ψ. (6. .30) is satisfied if and only if q > 1 and F 2p q−1 < 0. φ. and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium. The following result is now a consequence of the above discussion and some simple calculations: Theorem 6. ψ. .6. Furthermore when (6.6. . φ.6. Then φ= p+φ qψ + φ and ψ = p+ψ .27) is locally asymptotically stable when q < 1 + 4p and unstable. . if and only if q > 1 + 4p. . φ. . qφ + ψ It now follows after some calculations that the following result is true: Theorem 6. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 93 Similarly (6. ψ.

evaluated at ψ We have  ∂g  ∂g (φ. ∞) defined by: T Then u v = v p+u qv+u . the second iterate of T . . . 2)-Type Equations for n = 0. φ. ψ. ∂v (qψ + φ)2 . ψ) ∂h (φ. we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn . v) + v and h(u. v) = p+u qv + u u v = g(u. ∂u (qψ + φ)2 ∂g (p + φ)q (φ. ∞) × (0. qg(u. 1. 1. φ ψ is a fixed point of T 2 . ψ) ∂u φ  JT 2 =   ψ ∂h (φ. . Jacobian matrix JT 2 . and write Eq(6. ψ) = . ψ) ∂u ∂v where. v) p+v .27) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn vn+1 = p+un qvn +un .94 To investigate the local stability of the two cycle . . v) = Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the φ lie inside the unit disk. . ∂g qψ − p (φ. . . . Let T be the function on (0. Chapter 6. . . By a simple calculation we find that T2 where g(u. v) h(u. ψ) = − . ψ. . . ψ) ∂v (φ. φ. n = 0. . (2.

ψ) = − . ψ) (φ. if and only if |S| < 1 + D < 2. Inequality (6. ψ) = .1 that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1.34).34) is equivalent to (6.1. ψ) ∂u ∂v ∂g ∂h ∂h ∂g (φ. + 2 (qψ + φ)2 ∂v (qφ + ψ) (qφ + ψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ.33) is equivalent to the following three inequalities: S <1+D −1 − D < S D < 1.34) (6. First we will establish Inequality (6. ∂u (qφ + ψ)2 (qψ + φ)2 ∂h q 2 (p + φ)(p + ψ) qφ − p (φ. p )[q − (1 + 4p)] < 0 p+1 .33) (6. To this end observe that (6.35) (6. ψ) + (φ. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 95 q(p + ψ)(qψ − p) ∂h (φ. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the Then it follows from Theorem 1. ψ).6. ψ) (φ. ψ) − (φ.36) (qψ − p)(qφ + ψ)2 + (qφ − p)(qψ + φ)2 + q 2 (p + ψ)(p + φ) − (qψ − p)(qφ − p) < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if p (q 3 + 2q 2 − 4qp + 2q 2 p + 2p − 3q) + q − p + q 2 p2 + qp − p2 < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 q−1 which is true if and only if −q 3 p + 7q 2 p − 8qp2 + 4q 2 p2 + 4p2 − 7qp + 2q 2 − q + p − q 3 < 0 which is true if and only if −(p + 1)(q − 1)(q − which is true because q > 1 + 4p.6.

Observe that (6.35) is equivalent to −(qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if < (qψ − p)(qφ + ψ)2 + (qφ − p)2 (qψ + φ)2 + q 2 (p + ψ)(p + φ) + (qψ − p)(qφ − p) −(qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 < p (q 3 + 4q 2 − 4qp + 2q 2 p + 2p − 3q) − p + q 2 p2 q−1 which is true if and only if q 2 + 2pq + 2p2 q 2 − p2 + qp2 − q 3 − 3q 3 p − 2q 3 p2 − p < 0 which is true if and only if p2 (−2q 3 + 2q 2 + q − 1) + p(−3q 3 + 2q − 1) − q 3 + q 2 < 0 which is true because q > 1. we establish Inequality (6. Observe that (6. p ≤ yN ≤ 1. q .3 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. Finally. q Then p ≤ yn ≤ 1 for all n ≥ N.27).6.2 Invariant Intervals Here we show that the interval I with end points one and p is an invariant interval for q Eq(6. 6. Theorem 6. More precisely we show that the values of any solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.96 Chapter 6.36) is true if and only if (qψ − p)(qφ − p) < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if p [q 2 − (q − 1)(q − p)] < (pq − p + q)2 q−1 which is true if and only if q(pq − p + q)(pq − 2p + q − 1) > 0 which is true because q > 1 + 4p.6. (2. (a) Assume that p ≤ q and that for some N ≥ 0. 2)-Type Equations Next we will establish Inequality (6.35).27) either remain forever outside the interval I or the solution is eventually trapped into I.36). Then the following statements are true.27).

27). for n ≥ 0.3 Semicycle Analysis Here we present a thorough semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.27) relative to the equilibrium y and relative to the end points of the invariant interval of Eq(6. p 1 ≤ yN ≤ . Then observe that the following identities are true: p − yn for n ≥ 0. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 97 (b) Assume that p ≥ q and that for some N ≥ 0. (6. p + yN −1 p + yN −1 ≥ = q qyN + yN −1 (pyN + p yN −1 ) p q and the proof follows by induction.27).38) (6.6.37) yn+1 − 1 = q q qyn + yn−1 qyn−1 (1 − p ) + pq(1 − yn ) p q yn+1 − = q q(qyn + yn−1 ) yn − yn+2 = q(p + yn−1 ) + yn (qyn + yn−1 ) for n ≥ 0.6. (b) Clearly. yN +1 = and yN +1 = p + yN −1 p + yN −1 =1 ≥ qyN + yN −1 p + yN −1 p q p + yN −1 ≤ pyN + p yN −1 q p q p p + yN −1 = p + yN −1 q 2 p + yN −1 = qyN + yN −1 and the proof follows by induction. (6.6. Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. 6.39) 2 qyn−1 (yn − p ) + (yn − 1)(yn−1 yn + qyn ) q . (a) Indeed we have yN +1 = and yN +1 = p + yN −1 p + yN −1 ≤ =1 qyN + yN −1 p + yN −1 p q p + yN −1 p = p + yN −1 q p q for all n ≥ N. q Then 1 ≤ yn ≤ Proof.

yN ≤ p . yN ≥ p . In particular [1. (vii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN > p .98 When p=q that is for the difference equation yn+1 = p + yn−1 . . then yN +1 = 1. pyn + yn−1 Chapter 6. yN < 1. then yN +1 < 1. . .41) 2 pyn−1 + yn−1 yn + pyn p(p + yn−1 ) + yn (pyn + yn−1 ) (6. yN ≥ 1.42).42) The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of (6.27). q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. 1. Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0.27). then yN +1 < p . p ] for n ≥ N .37)-(6.40) the above identities reduce to the following: yn+1 − 1 = p and yn − yn+2 = (yn − 1) 1 − yn pyn + yn−1 for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0. then yN +1 > 1. (2. (6.2 Assume that p=q ∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. yN ≤ 1. p ] is an q q q invariant interval for Eq(6. then yN +2 < yN . yN < p . Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0. q Lemma 6. then yN +2 > yN . q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0.6. (6. then yn ∈ [1. (viii) p 1<y< . yN = p . Lemma 6.6. 2)-Type Equations n = 0. then yN +1 > 1. q (v) If for some N ≥ 0.27). q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0.1 Assume that p>q and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. .

then yN < yN +2 < 1. then yn ∈ [ p . then yN +2 < yN .3 Assume that p<q ∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.6. then yN +1 = 1.3: . then yN +1 > 1.6. q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0.6.7. then yN +1 > p . The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 99 (ii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN = p . 1] for n ≥ N . (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. yN > 1.6. yN ≤ p . then yN +2 > yN . yN ≤ 1. yN ≤ p . q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN > yN +2 > 1.6. q (v) If for some N ≥ 0.2 and Lemmas 6. In particular [ p . 1] is an q q invariant interval for Eq(6. Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0.7. v) = p+v qu + v is always decreasing in u but in v it is decreasing when u < p and increasing when u > p . (v) If for some N ≥ 0. q q The following result is now a consequence of Theorems 1.27). Lemma 6. then yN +1 < 1. q (viii) If for some N ≥ 0.1-6. (vii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN > p . yN = 1.27). (ix) p < y < 1. q Note that the function f (u. yN < p . then yN +1 ≥ 1. then yN +1 < 1. yN > 1. yN < 1. then yN +1 = 1. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN ≤ 1. (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN ≥ 1. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0.1 and 1.

ψ.45). φ.31) holds.27) is global attractor.27) either eventually enters the interval I with end points 1 and p and remains there. q Now when q ≤ 1 + 4p Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6. q−1 (6. (6. any solution which remains forever outside the interval I = [ p . .46) Also recall that a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.27) eventually enters and remains in the interval I. . and only then. .7. . 2)-Type Equations Then either all the even terms of the solution lie in J and all odd terms lie in K. with φ + ψ = 1 and φψ = p . yn ∈ I for n ≥ N.4.27) has a “unique” prime period-two solution .6.6 and 1. On the other hand when (6. except for the length of the first semicycle of the solution.6. . 1] must converge to the two cycle (6.4. When (6.43) holds.4 Global Behavior of Solutions Recall that Eq(6.32) holds. while if p>q the length is at most two. But this two cycle lies q inside the interval I. The above observations are summarized in the following theorem: Theorem 6. must converge to y. or for some N ≥ 0. Hence.27) has a unique equilibrium y which is locally stable when (6.6. or stays forever outside I. ∞).32) holds.5 (a) Assume q ≤ 1 + 4p. . Eq(6. or vice-versa. (2. (6. When (6. p<q the length is one. when (6. .44) (6. if Theorem 6.27).44)-(6. The character of these solutions remains an open question. Let I be the closed interval p with end points 1 and q and let J and K be the intervals which are disjoint from I and such that I ∪ J ∪ K = (0.32) holds.43) 6. φ. every solution of Eq(6.45) there are no period-two solutions and so the solutions must eventually enter and remain in I and. in view of Theorems 1.100 Chapter 6. ψ.4 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.

) The equilibrium points of Eq(6. . . 1 + yn n = 0.7. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is globally asymptotically stable. A A (Eq(6.1 (a) Assume p + q ≤ 1.3. More precisely it is a saddle point when 1−p<q <1+p and a repeller when q > 1 + p.47).27) eventually enters and remains in the interval [ p . and when p + q > 1. The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = (b) Assume βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 101 q > 1 + 4p.1 and the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.47) was investigated in [52]. The following result follows from Theorem 1. 2)-type equation Eq(6. 1].47) are the solutions of the equation p= y= py + qy . q 6.1: Theorem 6.6.7.47) is unstable. y = p + q − 1 is the only positive equilibrium point of Eq(6. (b) Assume p + q > 1. . Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6. (6. .47) β γ and q = . 1. Then every solution of Eq(6. 1+y So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point.7 The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = A yn B βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn This is the (2.7) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where pyn + qyn−1 .

7. .48) holds.47). ψ. (6. ψ. Theorem 6.47) eventually enters the interval (0.7. [ p .47). . Concerning prime period-two solutions it follows from Sections 2. . φ.50) Then every solution of Eq(6. (2. . if and only if q = 1 + p.47) eventually enters the interval [ p . p ].1 Invariant Intervals q=1 (6.49) The main result here is the following theorem about Eq(6. . ∞) is an invariant interval for Eq(6. 2)-Type Equations 1 − p < q < 1 + p. p ] is an invariant interval for Eq(6. the values of φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions are given by: pφ {φ. Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6. every solution of Eq(6. That is. Furthermore.7.47) q with initial conditions in (0. q (b) Assume that q > 1.47) is locally asymptotically stable.51) Then every solution of Eq(6.102 (c) Assume Chapter 6. φ.47) with q = 1. The case is treated in Section 6.47) is an unstable saddle point. φ−p 6. remains in this interval. Furtherq more. q . . ∞). p ]. Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6. (6.5 that the following result is true: Theorem 6.3 (a) Assume that q < 1. ψ ∈ (p. (6. q (0. ∞) : ψ = = 2p}. (d) Assume q > 1 + p.47) has a prime period-two solution .3.7.48) Furthermore when (6.2 Eq(6.

∞).4 Suppose Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. Then for any k. Lemma 6. Then for any k. Then the following statements are true for every n ≥ 0: p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1. that is. y) = px + qy .6. yk ≥ and yk+2 ≤ p p =⇒ yk+2 ≥ p > q q p p =⇒ yk > m+1 > p.51) holds.50) holds.7.47) when p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1. ∞) denote the function f (x. Hereafter.1 (a) Assume that (6. ∞) defined by g(x) = (p + q)x . ∞) − {x}. x) − x) < 0 for x ∈ (0.7. whose proof is straightforward and will be omitted. (x − x)(f (x.7. 1+x Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1 Then f satisfies the negative feedback condition. Theorem 6.47). m ∈ N. m q q (b) Assume that (6. ∞) × [0. m ∈ N. qm q 6. ∞) → [0. 1+x Observe that g(y) = y and that g increases on [0. . Let f : [0.7. y refers to the positive equilibrium p + q − 1 of Eq(6. yk ≤ and yk+2 ≥ p p =⇒ yk+2 ≤ p < q q p p =⇒ yk > m+1 > p.47).2 Here we discuss the behavior of the semicycles of solutions of Eq(6. The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 103 The proof of the above theorem is an elementary consequence of the following lemma. ∞) → [0. Consider the function g : [0.

2−q Chapter 6. 1 + yn 1 + yn−1 yn+1 = The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property. which is equivalent to q ≤ 1. yn . yn } ≤ yn+1 < y. yn } pyn + qyn−1 ≥ = min{yn−1 . yn ≤ y. 1 + yn 1+y Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that yn−1 < y or yn < y. 2)-Type Equations then then then then y ≤ yn+1 ≤ max{yn−1 . Then yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 (p + q)yn (1 + y)yn < = < yn . 1 + yn 1+y px + qx . yn ≤ y. yn }. . Then yn+1 = y . yn } pyn + qyn−1 ≤ = max{yn−1 . 1 + yn 1 + yn Since the function Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that yn−1 > y or yn > y. yn }. Thus px+qyn−1 1+x p − qyn−1 > p − qy = (1 − q)(p + q) ≥ 0. (d) If yn < y ≤ yn−1 . then {yn } decreases to the equilibrium y. yn }. (p + q) max{yn−1 .104 (a) If y ≤ yn−1 . (2. (b) Suppose yn−1 . yn < yn+1 < yn−1 . Then in view of the previous case yn+1 = and pyn + qy pyn + qyn−1 ≤ < g(y) = y 1 + yn 1 + yn (p + q) min{yn−1 . (c) If yn−1 < y ≤ yn . yn−1 < yn+1 < yn . we obtain q yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 pyn + qy ≥ ≥ g(y) = y. 1 + yn 1 + yn 1 + yn Since q ≤ 1 and yn−1 < y. min{yn−1 . (a) Suppose y ≤ yn−1 . (b) If yn−1 . (e) If y < yk < Proof. yn+1 = (c) Suppose yn−1 < y ≤ yn . yn . increases in x and so pyn + qyn−1 pyn−1 + qyn−1 > = g(yn−1 ) > yn−1 . 1+x is increasing for y < p . for every k ≥ −1.

yn−1 ≥ qyn−1 > y + (q − 1)yn > yn 2 pyn + qyn−1 qyn−1 (yn + 1) < ≤ yn−1 . The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = (d) Suppose yn < y ≤ yn−1 .3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1 q = 1.52) holds. Then yn+1 = (e) Observe that yn+1 = and so from which the result follows. (a) Assume y−1 ≥ p and y0 ≥ p. .52) (b) Assume y−1 ≤ p and y0 ≤ p. Then px+qyn−1 increases in x and so 1+x yn+1 = pyn−1 + qyn−1 pyn + qyn−1 ≤ < yn−1 . Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6.7.47) is globally asymptotically stable. Theorem 6.47) when Here the positive equilibrium of Eq(6. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 oscillates about the equilibrium p with semicycles of length one and (6. (6. Case 2. 1 + yn 1 + yn−1 The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property. (c) Assume either y−1 < p < y0 or y−1 > p > y0 . 1 + yn 1 + yn pyn + qyn−1 >y =p+q−1 1 + yn 6.52) holds. we must consider two cases: Case 1. Suppose p − qyn−1 < 0.5 Suppose that q = 1 and let y−1 + y0 > 0.6.7.7. Then yn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 105 pyn + qyn pyn + qyn−1 > = g(yn ) > yn 1 + yn 1 + yn by the negative feedback property.47) is y = p. To see that yn+1 < yn−1 . More precisely the following statements are true. Then yn ≥ p for all n > 0 and n→∞ lim yn = p. Then yn ≤ p for all n > 0 and (6. Suppose p − qyn−1 ≥ 0. Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.

. since y−1 + py0 > y−1 + y−1 y0 then y1 = py0 + y−1 > y−1 1 + y0 . it follows that m = M = p and the proof of part (a) is complete. As Eq(6. We will assume that y−1 ≥ p and y0 > p. (a) The case where y−1 = y0 = p is trivial. The case y−1 > p and y0 ≥ p is similar and will be omitted. there exist m ≥ p and M ≥ p such that k→∞ lim y2k+1 = m and k→∞ lim y2k = M. The proof when y0 < p < y−1 is similar and will be omitted. Furthermore. and so convergent. Thus. py0 + y−1 py0 + p y1 = < = p. Then y1 = and py0 + p py0 + y−1 ≥ = p. > p. (c) Assume y−1 < p < y0 .106 Chapter 6. 1 + y0 1 + y0 py1 + y0 py1 + p > = p. . . In fact. 1 + y1 1 + y1 It follows by induction that yn ≥ p for all n > 0. we claim that the subsequence {y2k+1 }∞ k=−1 is increasing. (2.47) has no period-two solutions when q = 1. 1 + y0 1 + y0 and py1 + p py1 + y0 > = p. . It is interesting to note that y−1 = p ⇒ y2k+1 = p for k ≥ 0 and y0 = p ⇒ y2k = p for k ≥ 0. y2 = 1 + y1 1 + y1 It follows by induction that the solution oscillates about p with semicycles of length one. ≥ p and y0 > y2 > y4 > . Next. 1 + y0 1 + y0 Similarly. y−1 ≥ p implies that y2 = py0 + y−1 ≤ y−1 y0 + y−1 and so y−1 y0 + y−1 py0 + y−1 ≤ = y−1 . we can show that y2 < y0 and by induction y1 = y−1 ≥ y1 ≥ y3 ≥ . 2)-Type Equations Proof. (b) The proof of (b) is similar to the proof of (a) and will be omitted.

Concerning the long-term behavior of solutions of Eq(6. Observe that the consistency condition y ≤ p is equivalent to the condition q q ≤ 1.7. and so convergent.6. y) = px + qy 1+x satisfies the hypotheses of Theorem 1. ∞). 2 6. every positive solution of Eq(6.47) when which is equivalent to p y> .7. Proof.47) lies eventually in the interval [p. without loss of generality.7. that y−1 . The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 107 and the claim follows by induction. p ].4 Global Attractivity When q < 1 1 − p < q < 1. Here we consider the case where and we show that the equilibrium point y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6.5 in the interval I from which the result follows.7. 2 6. Theorem 6.47). Now clearly the function q f (x. ∞).6 Assume 1 − p < q < 1. In a similar way we can show that the subsequence {y2k }∞ is decreasing. By Theorem 6.5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1 q>1 Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.7.3 (a) we may assume that the initial conditions y−1 and y0 lie in the interval I = (0. y0 ∈ [p. Then every positive solution of Eq(6.47) we may assume. there exist m ≤ p and M ≥ p such k=0 that lim y2k+1 = m and lim y2k = M k→∞ k→∞ and as in (a). q In this case.47) is global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium y.4. m = M . Thus. .

5 to Eq(6. The character of solutions of Eq(6. 2)-Type Equations p(q − 1) + qun−1 1 + p + un (6. transforms Eq(6. (c) Assume q > 1 + p.8 (a) Assume q = 1 + p.47) to the equation un+1 = Chapter 6. (2. we obtain the following theorems about the solutions of Eq(6.108 Then the change of variable yn = un + p. Then every solution of Eq(6.7.7. (b) Assume 1 < q < 1 + p.47) converges to a period-two solution. Theorem 6. Then Eq(6.47) has unbounded solutions.7 After the first semicycle.47) oscillates about the positive equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.53) where un ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.53).47). an oscillatory solution of Eq(6. Then every positive solution of Eq(6.53) was investigated in Section 6.5. By applying the results of Section 6. .47) converges to the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.47) when q > 1: Theorem 6.

8) which by the change of variables reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= pyn + yn−1 .55) holds. γ (6.54) is globally asymptotically stable. . 2)-type Eq(6.54) is locally asymptotically stable. 1. (b) Assume p + 1 > q. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.54) and q = (Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.) The equilibrium points of Eq(6. q + yn−1 β γ n = 0.54) was investigated in [53]. The following result follows from Theorems 1. q+y So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point of Eq(6. the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.55) Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.1 and 1. Eq(6. The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1 109 βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1 6.54) and when p + 1 > q. (6. .54) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q.1.8.6. Our goal is to show that when (6. Theorem 6.54) is unstable and the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.54) and so we will assume without further mention that (6. . .8. A .1 (a) Assume p + 1 ≤ q. In the remainder of this section we will investigate the character of the positive equilibrium of Eq(6. Furthermore the zero equilibrium is a saddle point when 1−p<q <1+p and a repeller when q < 1 − p.3.55) holds and y−1 + y0 > 0.54) are the solutions of the equation y= py + y .1.8 The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 = xn = γ yn C This is the (2.

Then the following identities are easily established: q yn − p yn+1 − 1 = p for n ≥ 0. (6. . 1.61) The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of the above identities. Then the following statements are true: . for n ≥ 0.58) reduce to the following: yn+1 − 1 = (yn − 1) and yn+1 − yn = (1 − yn ) p p + yn−1 yn−1 p + yn−1 for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.8.59)    the identities (6.58) Note that the positive equilibrium y =p+1−q of Eq(6. (6. (6.56)-(6.54).62) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. 2)-Type Equations 6.1 Assume that p<q (6. . p + yn−1 n = 0. (6.110 Chapter 6.54). When p=q that is for the difference equation yn+1 = pyn + yn−1 . Lemma 6.54) is such that: < 1 if p < q < p + 1 y is  = 1 if p = q  > 1 if p > q.1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. (2. .60) (6.57) and yn+1 − yn = (p − q)yn + (1 − yn )yn−1 q + yn−1 (6.8.56) q + yn−1 q p2 [yn − p ] + (p − q)yn−1 q yn+1 − = p p(q + yn−1 ) 2 for n ≥ 0.

then for n ≥ 0. (v) If for some N ≥ 0.6. Then the following statements are true: (i) If y0 < 1.54). (iii) If y0 > 1. Lemma 6. yN > p . yN ≤ 1. yN > p . yn > 1 and the solution is strictly decreasing. . then yN +1 = 1. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 > 1. (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 > yN . yN ≥ 1. Then the following statements are true: q (i) If for some N ≥ 0.2 Assume that p=q (6. (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1 111 q (i) If for some N ≥ 0. p q then yN +1 > p .8.54). then yN +1 > q p and yN +2 > 1. yN < p . then yN +1 > 1.8. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 < yN . p q then yN +1 < p . yN > q 2 .63) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. then yN +1 = 1. yN > q 2 . Lemma 6.64) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. yN < p . (v) If for some N ≥ 0. (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 < 1. (ii) If y0 = 1. yN ≥ 1.3 Assume that p>q (6. (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. yN = p . q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0.8. then for n ≥ 0. then yn = 1 for n ≥ 0. yN = p . then yN +1 < 1. yn < 1 and the solution is strictly increasing. yN ≤ 1. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 < 1.

Next.8. 2)-Type Equations 6.65) with positive parameters and positive initial conditions.64) holds.54) is globally asymptotically stable. 1.54) converges to the equilibrium y = 1.3. Without loss of generality we will assume that yn > 1 for n ≥ −1. it follows from Lemma 6. This is impossible because y < 1.3 that every solution of Eq(6. Here it is clear from Lemma 6. When (6. 2)-type equation was investigated in Section 6.1.2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium When (6. .8. ∞). Set yn = 1 + (q + 1)un for n ≥ −1.2 that every solution of Eq(6. by Lemma 6.8. every positive solution of Eq(6. This (2. Now in the interval (0. . . y is a global attractor.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (0. .1 we have the following result: Theorem 6. v) = pu + v q+v is increasing in both arguments and by Theorem 1. (6.8. Hence.112 Chapter 6. assume that (6. (2.62) holds. Then we can see that {un }∞ n=−1 satisfies the difference equation un+1 = p−q (q+1)2 + p u q+1 n 1 + un−1 .3 that every solution converges to its positive equilibrium u= p−q . n = 0.3 where we established in Theorem 6.8. 1).8. 1) the function f (u.1 that if a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 is such that yn ≥ 1 for all n ≥ 0 then the solution decreases and its limit lies in the interval [1. ∞).2 Assume that p + 1 > q and that y−1 + y0 > 0.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (1.4.63) holds. it follows from Lemma 6.8. Then the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6. q+1 From the above observations and in view of Theorem 6.8.

. (Eq(6. 1. . .) The only equilibrium point of Eq(6. 2)-type Eq(6. (p + 1)(q + 1) (p + 1)(q + 1) n = 0. .66) was investigated in [54]. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.1 (a) Assume that p > q.66) about y is zn+1 − p−q p−q zn + zn−1 = 0.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 6. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 113 βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 6. γ C To avoid a degenerate situation we will also assume that p= p = q.9.66) is y= p+1 q+1 and the linearized equation of Eq(6.66) is locally asymptotically stable.66) is locally asymptotically stable when q < pq + 1 + 3p and is unstable (and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium) when q > pq + 1 + 3p.9) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where pyn + yn−1 .9 The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn C This is the (2. (6. .6. . 1.67) . .66) B β and q = . (b) Assume that p < q.68) (6. (6.9. qyn + yn−1 n = 0. By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.1.

ψ. . (2. qv Let T be the function on (0. (6. and write Eq(6. . . One can see that T2 where pv + u g(u. One can see that ψ JT 2 φ ψ =    (p−q)ψ − (qψ+φ)2 (p−q) ψ − (qψ+φ)2 (qφ+ψ)2 2 2 (p−q)φ (qψ+φ)2 (p−q)φ (qφ+ψ)2 (p−q)ψ (qψ+φ)2 −1   . q−1 In order to investigate the stability nature of this prime period-two solution. is a fixed point of T 2 . v) = qv + u and h(u. . .114 Chapter 6.  . . v) p pv+u + v qv+u q pv+u + v qv+u v pv+u qv+u . . n = 0. 1. Eq(6. 1. 2)-Type Equations 6. the second iterate of T . Eq(6. ψ. evaluated at lie inside the unit disk.66) possesses a unique prime period-two solution: .70) t2 − (1 − p)t + = 0. . .69) where the values of φ and ψ are the (positive and distinct) solutions of the quadratic equation p(1 − p) (6. v) h(u. we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn for n = 0. . .66) has no prime period-two solutions. . ∞) × (0. ∞) defined by: T Then u v = φ ψ u v g(u.69) is asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the φ Jacobian matrix JT 2 . .5 that when p > q.9.1 Existence of a Two Cycle It follows from Section 2. On the other hand when p<q and q > pq + 1 + 3p. φ. φ.66) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn n +un vn+1 = pvn +un . The prime period-two solution (6. v) = = .

φ= pψ + φ qψ + φ φψ = p(1 − p) q−1 pφ + ψ . The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = Set P = Then JT 2 βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 115 p−q . We will use the fact that φ + ψ = 1 − p.71) is equivalent to (p − q)φ (p − q)ψ + +1>0 (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if (q − p)[(qφ + ψ)2 ψ + (qψ + φ)2 φ] < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 .71).72) φ ψ and ψ = Inequality (6. P < 0 and Q < 0 and so Inequality (6.9. By applying Theorem 1.1 (c). it follows that both eigenvalues of JT 2 lie inside the unit disk if and only if |P ψ + Qφ − P Qφψ| < 1 + P Qφψ < 2 or equivalently if and only if the following three inequalities hold: P ψ + Qφ + 1 > 0 P ψ + Qφ < 1 + 2P Qφψ and P Qφψ < 1.72) is always true.6.73) (6. ψ > 0. Next we will establish Inequality (6.71) (6. qφ + ψ (6. (qφ + ψ)2 p−q (qψ + φ)2 φ ψ = and Q = and its characteristic equation is Pφ −P ψ −P Qψ 2 P Qφψ − Qφ λ2 + (P ψ + Qφ − P Qφψ)λ + P Qφψ = 0.1. Observe that φ > 0.

Inequality (6. 2)-Type Equations (q − p)[(qφ + ψ)(pφ + ψ) + (qψ + φ)(pψ + φ)] < [(qφ + ψ)(qψ + φ)]2 . (2.73) is equivalent to (p − q)2 φψ < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if (q − p) φψ < (qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ) if and only if if and only if if and only if if and only if (q − p) φψ < (q 2 + 1)φψ + q(φ2 + ψ 2 ) (q − p) φψ < (q 2 + 1)φψ + q[(φ + ψ)2 − 2φψ] (q − p) φψ < (q − 1)2 φψ + q(φ + ψ)2 (q − p) φψ < (q − 1)2 if and only if p(1 − p) + q(1 − p)2 q−1 = (1 − p)2 (q − p)2 . II = [(qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)]2 = [(q 2 + 1)ψφ + q(φ2 + ψ 2 )]2 = [q(1 − p)2 + (q − 1)p(1 − p)]2 Hence. Finally.74) is I = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(φ2 + ψ 2 ) + 2(p + q)φψ] = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(φ + ψ)2 − 2φψ(qp + 1 − p − q)] = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(1 − p)2 − 2 The righthand side of (6.68) holds.74) is p(1 − p) (p − 1)(q − 1)] q−1 (6.74) = (q − p)(1 − p)2 (qp + 1 + 2p).116 if and only if Chapter 6. = [q(φ + ψ)2 + (q − 1)2 φψ]2 (q − p) φψ < (1 − p)(q − p) . Inequality (6. Now observe that the lefthand side of (6.71) is true if and only if (6.

9. ψ. y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.3 Let {yn } be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6. .7. . The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the first term if the semicycle has two terms and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms.70).2 Assume that Condition (6. .2 Semicycle Analysis In this section. In summary. we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.9.9. ψ.67) holds.66). φ.4 by observing that the condition p > q implies that the function px + y f (x. after the first semicycle.3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q The main result in this section is the following Theorem 6. .66). Then Eq(6. the following result is true about the local stability of the prime periodtwo solution (6. (b) Assume p < q. Furthermore this prime period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable.9. where φ and ψ are the two positive and distinct roots of the quadratic Eq(6.9. (b) The proof follows from Theorem 1. Then {yn } oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length two or three. Theorem 6. 6. .69) of Eq(6.9. the function 2 f (x. except possibly for the first semicycle which may have length one.4 Assume that p<q and (6.66): Theorem 6.35). Then the following statements are true: (a) Assume p > q. This function also satisfies Condition (1. (a) The proof follows from Theorem 1.7. φ. Then either {yn } oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one. 6. . Proof. y) = qx + y is increasing in x and decreasing in y. . or {yn } converges monotonically to y.1 by observing that when p < q.66) is globally asymptotically stable.6. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = if and only if βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 117 p(1 − p) < (1 − p)2 q−1 if and only if q > pq + 1 which is clearly true.68) holds.66) posseses the prime period-two solution . Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6.

.67). φ) = φ and in general yN +2k ≥ ψ and yN +2k+1 ≤ φ for k = 0. y) ≤ 1 for all x. φ. ψ. yi+1 lie between m and M . y > 0. (6. 2)-Type Equations and note that f (x. y) is decreasing in x for each fixed y. y) = px + y . Let φ. ψ. Now the conclusion of Theorem 6. Proof.67). with φ < ψ. Also clearly. Assume that (6. Theorem 6. .75) yN ≥ ψ and yN +1 ≤ φ.4. Set f (x. ψ. .4 follows as a consequence of Theorem 1.5 Assume that (6. ψ) = ψ.9. Then this solution converges to the two cycle φ. .66) converge to the two cycle (6.68) holds.6 and the fact that y is locally asymptotically stable.6 can also be used to establish that certain solutions of Eq(6. q Finally in view of (6.. . . Assume that for some solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.4. We consider first the case where eventually consecutive terms yi . yN ) ≥ f (φ.118 Proof. . . Eq(6. yN +2 = f (yN +1 . and increasing in y for each fixed x. .69) when instead of (6. qx + y Chapter 6. .6 lim sup yn = ψ n→∞ px + y . 2 Next we want to find more cases where the conclusion of the last theorem holds. p ≤ f (x. and lim inf yn = φ n→∞ Now as in the proof of Theorem 1.9. Set f (x. (6. φ. (2.68) holds.75) holds. . y) = Then clearly.66). qx + y from which we conclude that limk→∞ yN +2k = ψ and limk→∞ yN +2k+1 = φ. ψ.4. 2 The method employed in the proof of Theorem 1. . yN +3 = f (yN +2 . yN +1 ) ≤ f (ψ. 1.66) has no prime period-two solution. denote the two cycle of Eq(6.66) and for some index N ≥ −1.

66) we have y2n+1 = and so y2n − y2n y2n+2 . M ]. . Hence limn→∞ y2n = M .9. M ] is answered by Theorem 6.6. m ≤ yi . (D) y2n+1 < m and m ≤ y2n < M for every n. 2 If we never get two successive terms in the interval [m. m= 2 Since the case in which the solution lies outside of the interval [m. Proof. .5.1 Suppose that for some i ≥ 0. φ. From Eq(6. M ) = M. Lemma 6. then we have one of the following four cases: (A) y2n > M and M ≥ y2n+1 > m for every n. M ] and if we never get two successive terms outside of the interval [m. Using the monotonic character of the function f we have m = f (M. we are left with the case in which the solution lies eventually in [m. . The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 119 Lemma 6.9. m) ≤ f (yi+1 . M ] (that is. M ) = pm + M qm + M for m we find Thus. n→∞ qM − p On the other hand by solving the equation M = f (m.9. . . and the result follows by induction. By our earlier observation we have that M ≥ lim supi→∞ yi . Since the proofs are similar for all cases we will give the details in case (A). M ] for every k > i. ψ. ψ. limn→∞ y2n+1 M − M2 . (B) y2n+1 > M and M ≥ y2n > m for every n.9. qM − p = m and the proof is complete. yi+1 ≤ M. yi ) = yi+2 ≤ f (m. . Proof. φ. . qy2n+2 − p M − M2 lim y2n+1 = . (C) y2n < m and m ≤ y2n+1 < M for every n. either yi > M and yi+1 < m or yi < m and yi+1 > M ). and so M ≥ lim supn→∞ y2n ≥ lim inf n→∞ y2n ≥ M. Then yk ∈ [m. for every i.2 In all cases (A)-(D) the corresponding solution {yn } converges to the two cycle .

both subsequences converge and their limits form a two cycle. in which case Eq(6.120 Chapter 6. yi ) = yi+2 and yi+5 = f (yi+4 . Thus. yi+2 ) ≥ f (yi+1 . and for m < y < y. . yi ) ≤ yi .3 Suppose M ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ m and not both yi+2 and yi+3 are equal to y. Proof.9. (2) x > y if and only if x < y . y ) > y and y > y. φ. y ) < y and y > y . The correspondence between y and y has the following properties: Lemma 6. Proof. the sequence {yi+2k } is non decreasing and bounded above by M . yi+1 ) = yi+3 . Let us consider the first case. f (y.76) It makes sense to consider this equation only for y ∈ ( p . . Therefore.4 (1) f (x. as the following results show. . (6. ψ. Induction on i then establishes the monotonicity of the two sequences. . 1). ψ. which of course depends on y. . y) = y. φ. 2 Using a similar technique one can prove that if M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ y ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ m or M ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ y ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ m we would get convergence to y . but this situation cannot occur. We denote this value by y . the proof is complete. so we are led to the general equation f (x. Here we have yi+4 = f (yi+3 .76) has a q unique positive solution for x. . In this case we need to know more about the condition yi+2 = f (yi+1 . (2.The case M ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ y ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ m is handled in a similar way. Thus f (y . (3) For y < y < M. yi+1 is different from y. Then {yn } converges to the two cycle . and the sequence {yi+2k+1 } is a non increasing sequence and bounded below by m. y) > y if and only if x < y . yi+3 ) ≤ f (yi+2 . y) = y.9. f (y. The second case can be handled in a similar way. In view of the uniqueness of the two cycle and the fact that at least one of yi . 2)-Type Equations Lemma 6. .

5 Assume that for some i.6.9. qy − p The discriminant of the numerator is 4p2 − 4pq = 4p(p − q) < 0. for m < y < y. f (y. Hence q m < y < y ⇒ f (y. (2) Solving f (y . y ) < y . g (y) < 0. M < y <⇒ f (y. so y is decreasing function q of y. x < y if and only if f (x. (3) Eliminating y from the equations y = f (y . y) and y = f (y. (p − qy)2 y − y2 . y) = y. y ) we get px + x − x2 = qx − p qx + x−x2 qx−p x−x2 qx−p . y < y < M ⇒ f (y. m. y ) > y . Simplifying this equation we get a fourth degree polynomial equation with roots 0. 2 Now we will use this result to prove the following: Lemma 6. y) = y for y gives y = g(y) = Computing the derivative of g we get g (y) = − p − 2y + qy 2 . M . Then yi+3 ≤ yi+1 with equality only in the case of a two cycle. y ) < 1. y ) < y . However q p < f (y. so the roots of the numerator are not real. y>y .9. By (1) then. M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ m. and for y < y < M. y) > f (y . Thus for y < m. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 121 (1) Since f is decreasing in the first variable and f (y . Clearly as y approaches p y approaches ∞. y ) > y . y. y) = y. Thus each of these roots is simple and so f (y. For y ∈ ( p . y ) − y changes sign as y passes each of these values. 1). y < y . .

it follows by Theorem 6. This can only happen if yi+2n = M 2 for all n. in which case yi+2n+1 = m for all n. Remark.66) are generated by initial values {y−1 . ≥ m. the second case is similar.6 Unless {yn } is a period-two solution. solving for limn→∞ yi+2n gives limn→∞ yi+2n = M . Thus yi+2 ≥ yi+1 . since m ≤ yi+1 ≤ y. as required. so either c = y or c = m. . To get equality we must have yi+1 = yi or equivalently yi+2 = yi . or M ≥ . yi ) ≤ yi . ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ y ≥ .6 that all such pairs belong to the stable manifold of the two cycle. and solving for yi+2n we see yi+2n = y also.6 Assume that p < q. . Since some of the oscillatory solutions of Eq(6. and our solution is a two cycle. To show yi+3 = f (yi+2 . .. We also obtain the following lemma: Lemma 6. as well as 2 yi+3 = yi+1 . and that Eq(6. Thus by (2) of the previous lemma yi ≥ yi+1 . 2)-Type Equations Proof. The above sequence of lemmas leads to the following result: Theorem 6.122 Chapter 6. .69). y0 } that are on opposite sides of the equilibrium y. . Then every oscillatory solution of Eq(6. f (yi+1 . Since yi+2 = f (yi+1 . there is no i such that either M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ . We will consider the first case. . . Since f is increasing in the second argument and yi ≥ yi+1 we get yi+2 = f (yi+1 .66) converges to this two cycle.9. yi+1 ). then yi+2n+1 = y for all n. which also gives a two cycle. If c = y. The case m ≤ yi ≤ yi+2 ≤ y ≤ yi+1 ≤ M is similar. (2. .66) possesses the two-cycle solution (6. By (3) of the previous lemma. we must show yi+2 ≥ yi+1 . we have yi+1 ≥ yi . yi+1 ) ≤ yi+1 . If c = m. Proof. . . Since {yi+2k+1 } is a bounded monotonic sequence it has a limit c. ≥ m. yi ) ≥ f (yi+1 .9. and by (3) yi ≥ yi . Thus yi ≥ yi+1 . yi+1 ) ≥ yi+1 .9. Thus equality occurs only in the case of a two cycle. The value c will be one value in a two cycle. ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ . . ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ . But then yi = yi+1 = y.

7 Assume that p>q and p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q. and is decreasing in y for each fixed x.4. the only solution of the system M= is m = M.5.77) and observe that when p > q.10. . To this end. x0 ) ∈ F. Now the result is a consequence of Theorem 1. . Open Problem 6. Open Problems and Conjectures 123 6. qM + m m= pm + M . set f (x. b. qm + M 6. .9. qx + y (6. Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6. / (b) For every point (x−1 . the function f (x. d ∈ R. We will employ Theorem 1. c.77) holds.10 Open Problems and Conjectures a.5. . 1.10. y) = px + y . y) ≤ p q for all x. investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic ∞ nature of the solution {xn }n=−1 .1 (See [64]) Assume that (a) Investigate the forbidden set F of the difference equation xn+1 = axn + bxn−1 xn .9. Finally observe that when (6.4. y > 0. cxn + dxn−1 n = 0.66) is globally asymptotically stable. Also 1 ≤ f (x. Proof. 2 pM + m .4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q Here we have the following result: Theorem 6.6. . y) is increasing in x for each fixed y.

.2 Assume that αn . .5. (Note that by Theorem 6.3.2 Assume that p.10. q ∈ (0. An . See also [36].10) has a finite limit. ∞). q ∈ (0. 2)-Type Equations Open Problem 6. period-two solution. 1. (Note that by Theorem 6. Bn ∈ R for n = 0.6.10. Investigate the forbidden set and the asymptotic character of solutions of the nonautonomous Riccati equation xn+1 = αn + βn xn .4.) Conjecture 6.) Conjecture 6.3. (2.) .6 for the autonomous case. .10.4. . we need only to confirm this conjecture for p > 2(q +1) and q ≥ 1. . has a positive and monotonically decreasing solution. (See Section 1. . .) Chapter 6. this conjecture has been confirmed for q ≤ 1 + 4p. 1 + yn n = 0.10. 1. (Note that by Theorem 6.11) has a finite limit.) Conjecture 6. βn . . 1. are convergent sequences of real numbers with finite limits. ∞). .124 (See Section 1. Show that the equation yn+1 = p + yn−1 . ∞). Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.1 Assume p. .2. not necessarily prime. An + Bn xn n = 0.3 Assume p ∈ (0. Show that every positive solution of Eq(6. every positive solution converges to a.

10.10. ∞) and q > pq + 1 + 3p. ∞) and q > 1 + 4p. 125 Show that every positive solution of Eq(6. Open Problem 6.6.27). q ∈ (0.4 Assume that p.3 Assume that p.66) has a finite limit.) Open Problem 6. Conjecture 6. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 6. this conjecture has been confirmed for p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the solution of the equation yn+1 = yn + yn−1 1 + yn is well defined and converges to 1.7. q ∈ (0.10.10.9.) Open Problem 6.5 Assume p > q.27) either converges to a finite limit or to a two cycle. (See Section 6. as n → ∞.10. . ∞). Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.6.66). Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.10. (Note that by Theorem 6. Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.5 Find the set of all initial conditions (y−1 . q ∈ (0.4 Assume that p.

1. (6. A. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of solutions of the difference equation αxn + βxn−1 + γxn−2 . xn+1 = Axn + Bxn−1 + Cxn−2 Extend and generalize. B. Open Problem 6. . as n → ∞. .78) (6. C ∈ (0.82) (6. n = 0.6 Find the set of all initial conditions (y−1 .7 For each of the following difference equations determine the “good” set G ⊂ R × R of initial conditions (y−1 .83) yn − yn−1 yn − 1 yn − yn−1 1 − yn−1 1 − yn−1 yn − yn−1 yn + yn−1 . γ. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the solution of the equation yn+1 = yn + yn−1 1 + yn−1 is well defined and converges to 1.10. extend your result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.84) yn − yn−1 For those equations from the above list for which you were successful. β. ∞).126 Chapter 6.79) (6. . (2. Open Problem 6. .10.81) (6.80) (6. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0. . 2)-Type Equations Open Problem 6.10. investigate the long-term behavior of the solution {yn }∞ : n=−1 yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 − yn 1 − yn−1 yn − 1 yn − yn−1 1 − yn−1 1 − yn (6.8 Assume α. y0 ) ∈ G.Then for every (y−1 .

92) pn + qn yn . p = n→∞ pn lim lim and q = n→∞ qn . Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }∞ . Open Problem 6. . n = 0. . 1. . .10.10.10 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are period-two sequences n=0 n=0 of nonnegative real numbers. .10. . 1. 1. qn yn + yn−1 yn+1 = yn+1 = Open Problem 6. (6. 1. . y0 ) ∈ B. . Open Problems and Conjectures 127 ∞ Open Problem 6. ∞). . .85) (6. qn + yn−1 pn yn + yn−1 . 1. y0 ) ∈ (0.85)-(6.92). Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(6. n = 0.86) (6.6. . . (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . n = 0.90) (6. . . qn yn + yn−1 pn yn + qn yn−1 . .88) (6. ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. . Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following eight difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + yn . . . 1. Extend and generalize. ∞) × (0. n=−1 . . .89) (6. 1 + yn−1 yn + pn . (b) Let (y−1 . 1. n = 0. .11 Assume q ∈ (1.9 Assume that {pn }n=0 and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 nonnegative real numbers with finite limits. . yn + qn yn−1 pn + qn yn−1 .23) are bounded. n = 0. . qn + yn n = 0. 1 + yn pn + yn−1 . n = 0.87) (6. . 1 + yn pn yn + yn−1 .10. 1. n = 0.91) (6. .

2)-Type Equations (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . β ∈ (0.10.94). Investigate the boundedness character.14 (Discrete Epidemic Models. and the asymptotic behavior of the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. x0 ) ∈ G. ∞). (6. ∞ (b) Let (y−1 .6 Assume x0 .128 Open Problem 6. ∞). See [9]. and [2]) Assume α ∈ (1.10. 1 β = 1 and γ = .93) Conjecture 6. . y0 ) ∈ (0. 1) with α + β > 1 + β . ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. [3]. (b) Let (x−1 .12 Assume q ∈ (1. ∞) through which the solutions {xn }∞ n=−1 of the difference equation xn+1 = (1 − xn − xn−1 )(1 − e−Axn ). . Open Problem 6.10. and γ ∈ (0.93) is globally asymptotically stable. . y0 ) ∈ B. (2. the periodic nature.) Let A ∈ (0. 3). ∞) × (0.47) are bounded. y0 ∈ (0. (a) Determine the set G of initial conditions (y−1 . See [14]. ∞). n = 0. . 1. . Open Problem 6. ∞) × (0.13 (A Plant-Herbivore System. 1. ∞) and that α ∈ (2. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 . y0 ) ∈ (0. Chapter 6. n = 0.94) . (6. ∞). (c) Extend and generalize. 2 Show that the positive equilibrium of System (6. .10. are nonnegative. . γ Obtain conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium of the system xn+1 = αxn βxn +eyn yn+1 = γ(xn + 1)yn      .

100) (6. . Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference equations: p + qyn yn+1 = . b ∈ (0. .96) (6. . . 1. n = 0. n = 0.101) . . . ∞) and k ∈ {2. . q + yn−k pyn + yn−k . n = 0. 1. .97) (6. with positive initial conditions. yn + qyn−k p + qyn−k . . 1. .   Open Problem 6. (6. . .10. . 1. ∞) with c1 + c2 > 0.16 (A Population Model) Assume α ∈ (0. Open Problem 6.17 Assume that p. . . . 1) and xn+1 = αxn e−yn + β yn+1 = αxn (1 − e −yn β ∈ (1.10. . (6. . Assume a ∈ (0. . . . 1).    Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of the system .10. q ∈ [0.10. qyn + yn−k n = 0.6. n = 0. . 129 Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the Flour Beetle Model: xn+1 = axn + bxn−2 e−c1 xn −c2 xn−2 . n = 0. ) which may be viewed as a population model. .95) 1 + yn−k yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn + p . n = 0. and c1 . 1 + yn p + yn−k .}. . 1.99) (6. 1. n = 0. yn + q pyn + yn−k . . . . . qyn + yn−k yn + pyn−k . . 1. Open Problems and Conjectures Open Problem 6. n = 0. . 3.98) (6. 1. ∞). ∞). 1. See [48]).15 (The Flour Beetle Model. . . c2 ∈ [0.

20 Assume that Eq(6. Open Problem 6.11) and (6. . which extends and unifies the global asymptotic stability results for Eqs(6. xn−1 ). n = 0. 1.10.27). (6. also converges to a period-two solution. Extend and generalize.103) Open Problem 6.10. n = 0. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = f (xn−2 . 1.18 Obtain a general result for an equation of the form yn+1 = f (yn . n = 0.102) has a two cycle which is locally asymptotically stable.130 Chapter 6. yn−1 ). (6. . . 2)-Type Equations Open Problem 6.103). Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on f so that the same two cycle is a locally asymptotically stable solution of Eq(6.10.102) converges to a period-two solution. . 1. . .19 Assume that every positive solution of an equation of the form xn+1 = f (xn . xn−1 ). . . . (2. .

(7. . A2 . 1. (7. . . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. . .2 The Case β = γ = 0 : xn+1 = α yn A α A+Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (1. 1 + pyn + qyn−1 αB A2 and q = 131 n = 0.1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= 1 . 1. 3)-type Eq. . 1. n = 0.1 Introduction xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = γxn−1 .2) Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1. 3)-type: Please recall our classification convention in which all the parameters in the above (1.(7. . . 3)-type equations are positive and that the initial conditions are nonnegative.Chapter 7 (1. . .1) (7. . . 3)-Type Equations 7. 7.4) αC .3) α . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 βxn . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. . (7. 1.

3. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7. Theorem 7. .5) is globally asymptotically stable. q+1 The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1.4. 3)-type Eq(7.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters and that Eq(7.4. (7.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where yn .5) always has zero as an equilibrium point and when p>1 it also has the unique positive equilibrium point y= p−1 . 1].5) is globally asymptotically stable.3.2 Assume that y−1 . The following result is now a straightforward consequence of either the stability trichotomy Theorem 1. p ].3 The Case α = γ = 0 : xn+1 = A yn C βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (1.132 Chapter 7.4. The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1. . .2. or Theorem 1. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(7. A C Eq(7. 3)-Type Equations One can easily see that the positive equilibrium of Eq(7. 1 + pyn + qyn−1 p= n = 0.1. q Theorem 7.3.5 in the interval [0. ∞) and p > 1. 7.4) has no prime period two solutions. Theorem 7.4.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(7. . y0 ∈ (0. 1.1 Assume p ≤ 1.7 in the interval [0.2. It also follows by applying Theorem 1.4) is globally asymptotically stable.5) β B and q = .4. (1.

ψ. . . . ψ.1.1. φ. Theorem 7. . (b) Assume that p < 1.6) and q = Eq(7.6) is globally asymptotically stable when p≥1 and is unstable (a repeller) when p < 1.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where p= yn−1 . B . 3)-type Eq(7. . φ. if and only if p < 1.6) is locally asymptotically stable when q<1 and is unstable (a saddle point) when q > 1. .6) has a prime periodtwo solution . C (7.4.1 and 1.4. . Concerning prime period-two solutions one can see that Eq(7. .1 (a) The zero equilibrium of Eq(7. 1+q The subsequent result is a straightforward application of Theorems 1. The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 = γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 133 γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 7. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.7.6) always has the zero equilibrium and when p<1 it also has the unique positive equilibrium y= 1−p .3. p + qyn + yn−1 A γ n = 0. 1.4 The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn C This is the (1. . .

.7) both eigenvalues of JT 2 7. .8) is locally asymptotically stable.4. . 2 and q > 1. 1 − p. 2 and in view of (7. . .8) 0  p  0 lie in the disk |λ| < 1. . 1 − p. It follows from Section 2. φ.2 Assume that p<1 Then the period-two solution . 1 − p − φ.5 Open Problems and Conjectures p. . Conjecture 7. . . 1 − p. . q ∈ (0. 0. . of Eq(7. . 3)-Type Equations p < 1 and q = 1 the only prime period-two solution is .7) (7.5.134 Furthermore when Chapter 7.6) is locally asymptotically stable.6 that here JT 2 0 1−p =  1 p+q(1−p) q(1−p) − p+q(1−p) 1−p . φ. .6) has a finite limit. On the other hand.6) are given by . when p < 1 and q = 1 all prime period-two solutions of Eq(7. 0.1 Assume Show that every positive solution of Eq(7. (1. (7. . Therefore 1−p the prime period-two solution (7. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 1 − p and φ = Theorem 7. . . 1). . Proof. . . 1 − p. 0. 1 − p − φ. . 0.

0.5.6) converges to a. ∞).5. xn−2 . .5. of Eq(7. . . Open Problem 7. not necessarily prime. Open Problem 7. 1) and q ∈ (1.5.5.9) (7. . 1 + pxn + qxn−1 + xn−2 n = 0.2 Investigate the asymptotic character and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the difference equation xn+1 = where p. let (x−1 . q ∈ [0.1 Assume p ∈ (0. .11) Now for each of the equations (7. x0 ) ∈ G be an initial point through which the corresponding equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0. find the set G of all points (x−1 . 1. 1 − p. and investigate ∞ the long term-behavior of the solution {xn }n=−1 . Find the basin of attraction of the two cycle . .2 Assume p < 1 and q ≥ 1.11). x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0: xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 = 1 1 + xn + xn−1 xn 1 + xn + xn−1 xn−1 . 1 − p. Extend and generalize. ∞). . Open Problem 7.9)-(7.7.10) (7. 135 Show that every positive solution of Eq(7.3 For each of the equations given below. . periodtwo solution. 1 + xn + xn−1 (7. .6). . 0. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 7.

(7.136 Chapter 7. . 1 + pn yn + qn yn−1 yn−1 .13) (7. . . Extend and generalize. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(7.4 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers with finite limits. 1. .12)-(7.5 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are period-two sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers.12) (7. . (1. 1. . p = lim pn n→∞ and q = n→∞ qn . . n = 0. . . n = 0.5. . 1 + pn yn + qn yn−1 yn . .14) Open Problem 7. 1.5. lim Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 . 3)-Type Equations Open Problem 7. pn + qn yn + yn−1 n = 0.14).

.1) (8.1) is a linear difference equation and can be solved explicitly.3) n = 0. n = 0. . A α + βxn + γxn−1 . B is reduced to a (2. .5). C . Eq(8. Eq(8. Cxn−1 n = 0. 1. 3)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 .2) by the change of the variables xn = yn + β . 1. . . 1. . yn+1 = (α + βγ ) + γyn−1 B .2) Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. (8. Eq(8.3) by the change of the variables xn = yn + 137 γ . β + Byn n = 0. .Chapter 8 (3. . 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6. the initial conditions are nonnegative. Bxn Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1. .1 Introduction α + βxn + γxn−1 . . . 1. . namely. (8. . 1)-Type Equations 8. . and the denominators are always positive.4) (see Section 6.

= γ + Cyn−1 n = 0.138 Chapter 8.4 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 .4).4) be a period-two solution of Eq(8. . Determine the set of initial conditions (x−1 .2 (a) Assume γ = β and let . Hence there is nothing else remaining to do about these equations other than to pose some Open Problems and Conjectures. 1)-Type Equations is reduced to a (2.2) which converges to (8.2) are bounded. . 8. n=−1 . (3. Open Problem 8. 1. n=−1 Open Problem 8.2.2.1 Show that every positive solution of Eq(8. . φ.1 Assume γ > β. . ψ. yn+1 (α + βγ ) + βyn C . Open Problem 8. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = xn−1 is well defined for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . (b) Let {xn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(8. ∞) × (0.2. . .2 Open Problems and Conjectures Open Problem 8. . x0 ) ∈ (0. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = xn is well defined for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6.4). Conjecture 8. (8. . φ.3) converges to the positive equilibrium of the equation.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . . Determine the values of φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x−1 and x0 . Determine the basin of attraction of (8.2). ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(8.2.2) (see Section 6. ψ. .2.3) namely.

8.2. Open Problems and Conjectures

139

Open Problem 8.2.5 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers with finite limits, lim p = n→∞ pn and q = n→∞ qn . lim

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following two difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + xn + xn−1 , q n xn pn + xn + xn−1 , qn xn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (8.5)

n = 0, 1, . . . .

(8.6)

∞ ∞ Open Problem 8.2.6 Assume that {pn }n=0 and {qn }n=0 are period-two sequences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(8.5) and (8.6). Extend and generalize.

Chapter 9 (2, 3)-Type Equations
9.1 Introduction
α + βxn , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 α + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 βxn + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (2, 3)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.3) n = 0, 1, . . . n = 0, 1, . . . (9.1) (9.2)

Please recall our classification convention in which all the parameters in the above (2, 3)-type equations are positive and the initial conditions are nonnegative.

9.2

The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn , 1 + yn + ryn−1 q= β , A n = 0, 1, . . . C . B (9.4) A yn B

αB , A2

and r =

141

142

Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

(Eq(9.4) was investigated in [51].) Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. Eq(9.4) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p(r + 1) 2(r + 1) .

By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1, we obtain the following result: Theorem 9.2.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p, q and r.

9.2.1

Boundedness of Solutions

We will prove that all solutions of Eq(9.4) are bounded. Theorem 9.2.2 Every solution of Eq(9.4) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants. Proof. Let {yn } be a solution of Eq(9.4). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from above by a constant M , then p yn+1 ≥ 1 + (1 + r)M and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y1+nk }∞ such k=0 that
k→∞

lim nk = ∞,

k→∞

lim y1+nk = ∞,

and y1+nk = max{yn : n ≤ nk } for k ≥ 0.

From (9.4) we see that yn+1 < qyn + p for n ≥ 0 and so
k→∞

lim ynk = lim ynk −1 = ∞.
k→∞

Hence for sufficiently large k, 0 < y1+nk − ynk = p + [(q − 1) − ynk − rynk −1 ]ynk <0 1 + ynk + rynk −1 2

which is a contradiction and the proof is complete.

The above proof has an advantage that extends to several equations of the form of Eq(9.1) with nonnegative parameters. The boundedness of solutions of the special

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

143

equation (9.4) with positive parameters immediately follows from the observation that if M = max{1, p, q} then yn+1 ≤ M + M yn =M 1 + yn f or n ≥ 0.

9.2.2

Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9.4). Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever, yN , yN +1 ∈ I then yn ∈ I (a) for n ≥ N. Lemma 9.2.1 Eq(9.4) possesses the following invariant intervals:

for some integer N ≥ 0,

0,

q−1+

(q − 1)2 + 4p 2

,

when p ≤ q;

(b) p−q ,q , qr (c) q, p−q , qr when p > q(rq + 1). when q < p < q(rq + 1);

Proof. (a) Set q − 1 + (q − 1)2 + 4p p + qx and b = 1+x 2 and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ [0, b], then g(x) = yk+1 = p + qyk p + qyk ≤ = g(yk ) ≤ g(b) ≤ b. 1 + yk + ryk−1 1 + yk

The proof follows by induction.

144 (b) It is clear that the function f (x, y) =

Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

p + qx 1 + x + ry
p−q ,q qr

is increasing in x for y > p−q . Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ qr then p + qyk p−q = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≤ f q, = q. yk+1 = 1 + yk + ryk−1 qr Also by using the condition p < q(rq + 1) we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + ryk−1

,

p−q q(pr + p − q) p−q > ,q = . 2 + rq + p − q qr (rq) qr

The proof follows by the induction. (c) It is clear that the function f (x, y) = p + qx 1 + x + ry

is decreasing in x for y < p−q . Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ q, p−q , qr qr then p + qyk p−q p−q yk+1 = = q. , = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + ryk−1 qr qr Also by using the condition p > q(rq + 1) we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk p−q p + q2 < . = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≤ f (q, q) = 1 + yk + ryk−1 1 + (r + 1)q qr

The proof follows by induction. 2

9.2.3

Semicycle Analysis
qr( p−q − yn−1 ) qr 1 + yn + ryn−1

Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following identitites are true for n ≥ 0: yn+1 − q = qr q − p−q yn+1 − = qr
p−q qr

, + pr(q − yn−1 )

(9.5)

qr(1 + yn + ryn−1 ) yn − yn+4 =

yn + qr yn−1 −

p−q qr

,

(9.6)

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 = qr yn −
p−q qr

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

145

2 yn+1 + (yn − q)(yn+1 yn+3 + yn+3 + yn+1 + ryn yn+3 ) + yn + ryn − p

(1 + yn+3 )(1 + yn+1 + ryn ) + r(p + qyn+1 )

,

(9.7) yn+1 − y = (y − q)(y − yn ) + yr(y − yn−1 ) . 1 + yn + ryn−1 (9.8)

The proofs of the following two lemmas are straightforward consequences of the Identities (9.5)- (9.8) and will be omitted. Lemma 9.2.2 Assume p > q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, (v) If for some N ≥ 0, (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, (vii) q < y <
p−q . qr

yN > yN = yN <

p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q , qr

then then then
p−q , qr

yN +2 < q; yN +2 = q; yN +2 > q; q < yN +2 <
p−q ; qr

q < yN <

then

y ≥ yN −1 and y ≥ yN , then y < yN −1 and y < yN , then

yN +1 ≥ y; yN +1 < y;

Lemma 9.2.3 Assume q < p < q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, (v)
p−q qr

yN < yN = yN > yN >

p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q qr

then then then

yN +2 > q; yN +2 = q; yN +2 < q; then q > yN +2 >
p−q ; qr

and yN < q

< y < q.

3 Suppose that p = q + rq 2 and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(9.10) Proof. The proof follows from identity (9.4). . 3)-Type Equations qr (q − yn−1 ). 2 Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9. In this case Eq(9. then n→∞ Chapter 9. and the only equilibrium point is y = q.146 Lemma 9. 2 .9) follows by straightforward computation. Identity (9. Proof. y4k ≥ 1. y4k+1 > q.4) becomes yn+1 = q + rq 2 + qyn . y4k ≥ 1. 1. (ii) y−1 < q and y0 ≥ q =⇒ y4k−1 < q.4) when p = q(1 + rq).4 Assume p = q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9. Then yn+1 − q = Furthermore when qr < 1. (iii) y−1 > q and y0 ≥ q =⇒ y4k−1 > q. .4) has no period-two solution. and y4k+2 ≥ q. 1 + yn + ryn−1 n = 0.4). y4k+1 > q. Then this solution is oscillatory and the sum of the lengths of two consecutive semicycles. . and y4k+2 ≤ q. (2. (9. y4k+1 < q. y4k ≤ 1. 1 + yn + ryn−1 lim yn = y. and y4k+2 ≥ q. More precisely. Theorem 9. The limit (9. and y4k+2 ≤ q.2.10) is a consequence of the fact that in this case qr ∈ (0.9) (9. is equal to four. excluding the first.2. (iv) y−1 < q and y0 ≤ q =⇒ y4k−1 < q. ∞) and Eq(9. y4k ≤ 1. the following statements are true for all k ≥ 0: (i) y−1 > q and y0 ≤ q =⇒ y4k−1 > q. y4k+1 < q.5).

Next assume that q < p < q(qr + 1) and.2. q−1+ (q−1) +4p ] if p ≤ q. for the sake of contradiction. if for some N . yN ≤ b. then yN +1 < b.2.4 Global Asymptotic Stability The following lemma establishes that when p = q(qr + 1). qr and yN +2 < . every solution of Eq(9. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that yn > b for n > 0. Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.5 Let I denote the interval which is defined as follows: √  2   [0.2.2. Then every solution of Eq(9. qr n→∞ lim yn = y ∈ I and yN +2 < p−q . yN +1 < p−q . (1 + yn + ryn−1 )(1 + b) n ≥ 0. First assume that p ≤ q.4) is eventually trapped into one of the three invariant intervals of Eq(9. More precisely. q] qr [q. (ii) yN > q.3.   2 I=             [ p−q . qr p−q .4).4) lies eventually in I. p−q ] qr if if q < p < q(qr + 1). Then clearly.9.4) described in Lemma 9. ∞ Proof. the following is true: Lemma 9. y ∈ I. also assume that the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 is not eventually in the interval I. Set b= and observe that yn+1 − b = (q − p)(yn − b) − r(p + qb)yn−1 . there exists N > 0 such that one of the following three cases holds: (i) yN > q.1. yN +1 > q. p > q(qr + 1). The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1 147 9. Then by Lemma 9.2. q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2 Hence. Then yn > y for n ≥ 0 and so which is a contradiction.

Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.7 and 1.4. (2. For example.7) from which it follows that for j ∈ {0. and (q − 1)2 (r − 1) ≤ 4p. each subsequence {yn+4k+j }∞ with all its terms outside k=0 the interval I converges monotonically and enters in the interval I. 3)-Type Equations ≤ yN +1 ≤ q.4): Theorem 9. then yN + ryN − p < 0.4) is globally asymptotically stable.2.1. then yN + ryN − p > 0 and 2 if yN ≤ p−q . p< p≤q or q < p < q + q2r and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied: (i) q ≤ 1. or q . qr Also observe that 2 if yN ≥ q. p−q qr Chapter 9.148 (iii) yN > q. together with the appropriate convergence Theorems 1. and yN +2 < p−q . By using the monotonic character of the function f (x. .2. the following results are true for Eq(9. 2. (b) Assume that either (iii) r > 1 (ii) r ≤ 1.5. Proof. 3}.4.4 (a) Assume that either p ≥ q + q 2 r. 1. qr The desired contradiction is now obtained by using the Identity (9. we can obtain some global asymptotic stability results for the solutions of Eq(9. 1+r Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9. The proof when p > q(qr + 1) is similar and will be omitted. y) = p + qx 1 + x + ry 2 in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.4) is globally asymptotically stable.4).

C .5.2. . then yn ∈ 2 √ √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p for all n ≥ 0. . We will employ Theorem 1.4.2. 1 + yn + ryn−1 q= γ .1 we see that when y−1 . A n = 0.1 and Theorem 1.4.4. The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 149 (a) The proof follows from Lemmas 9. the function f increases in x and and that in the interval 0. 2 decreases in y. Now if m + M = q − 1.2. y0 ∈ 0.9. 1. . This system has the form m= p + qm 1 + m + rM and M = p + qM . 2 2 √ 2 +4p q−1+ (q−1) . then M = m.7 and 1. M ) and M = f (M.4. A2 and r = . 3)-type Eq(9.1 and 9. m) then M = m.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn−1 .2.11) A yn B αB . 2 9. . √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p (b) In view of Lemma 9. If m + M = q − 1 then m and M satisfy the equation (r − 1)m2 + (r − 1)(1 − q)m + p = 0. The proof when q < p < q + q 2 r holds follows from Lemma 9. For instance. 0. this is the case if Condition (i) is satisfied. Clearly now if Condition (ii) or (iii) is satisfied.3 The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (2. m = M from which the result follows.4 and Theorems 1.3.5 and so it remains to be shown that if m = f (m. B (9. 1 + M + rm Hence (M − m)(1 − q + M + m) = 0. It is easy to check that y ∈ 0.2.

invariant intervals. (2. .12) 9.11) has a prime period-two solution . . . (b) The equilibrium y of Eq(9. ψ.1 Eq(9. and more precisely a saddle point. . By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. . t+ r 1−r . φ. . Eq(9. . 1 + φ + rψ It now follows after some calculation that the following result is true. Then φ= p + qφ 1 + ψ + rφ and ψ = p + qψ .1 Let Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles .11). when q > 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 < 0. ψ. 3)-Type Equations This equation has not been investigated yet. the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − p q−1 = 0.11) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p(r + 1) 2(r + 1) .12) holds. if and only if (9. φ.3.1 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(9. φ. (9. be a period-two cycle of Eq(9.1. φ.11) is unstable. ψ. . Theorem 9.3. Lemma 9.11) is locally asymptotically stable when either q≤1 or q > 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 > 0. . . and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions.3. ψ. Furthermore when (9.12) holds. .150 Chapter 9.1 we obtain the following result. .

. the second iterate of T . φ. .11) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn vn+1 = p+qun 1+vn +run . v) = p + qu 1 + v + ru u v = g(u. and write Eq(9.9. .3. . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 151 To investigate the local stability of the two cycle . 1. we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn . (φ. lie inside the unit disk. v) h(u. . ψ) = . ψ) ∂u φ  = JT 2 . . ∂v (1 + ψ + rφ)2 . Let T be the function on (0. evaluated at ψ We have   ∂g ∂g (φ. ψ. v) = Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the φ . ψ) ∂u where ∂g q − pr + qψ . . v) + rv and h(u. . Jacobian matrix JT 2 . ∞) defined by: T Then u v = v p+qu 1+v+ru . v) p + qv . ψ) ∂v (φ. . .  ψ ∂h ∂h (φ. 1. By a simple calculation we find that T2 where g(u. . . . ψ) = ∂u (1 + ψ + rφ)2 ∂g −p − qφ (φ. 1 + g(u. ψ. φ ψ is a fixed point of T 2 . n = 0. ψ) ∂v (φ. φ. for n = 0. ∞) × (0.

152 Chapter 9. ψ) + (φ. 2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 ∂v (1 + ψ + rφ) (1 + φ + rψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ.16) First we will establish Inequality (9. Inequality (9. ψ) = + .15) (9. This inequality is equivalent to (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 < 0. Observe that. ψ) − (φ.13) is equivalent to the following three inequalities: D<1 S <1+D −1 − D < S. ψ) = . ψ) (φ.1.1 that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1. ψ) ∂u ∂v ∂h ∂g ∂h ∂g (φ. Thus . ψ) (φ.14). (9. 3)-Type Equations ∂h (p + qψ)(pr − q − qψ) (φ.13) (9. (2. if and only if |S| < 1 + D < 2.14) (9. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the Then it follows from Theorem 1. (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) = (q − pr)2 + q(q − pr)(φ + ψ) + q 2 φψ = = −2q 2 r + q 2 r2 + 3qpr2 − 2qpr3 − p2 r3 + p2 r4 − q 3 + rq 3 + q 2 − pr2 q 2 − qpr r (−1 + r) (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 = 1 + φ + rψ + ψ + ψφ + rψ 2 + rφ + φ2 r + r2 φψ = −pr2 + qr + pr − q + q 2 r 2 2 and that . ψ). ∂u (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 ∂h (p + qψ)(p + qφ) q − pr + qφ (φ.

12). In summary.12) we see that (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 = q 2 r − 2qr + r − q 2 + 2q − 1 + 4r2 p < 0 and so 2r2 p − rp + q − q 2 − qr + q 2 r < 2r2 p − rp + q − qr + 2qr − r − 2q + 1 − 4r2 p = −2r2 p − rp − q + qr − r + 1 = −2r2 p − rp + (r − 1) (q − 1) < 0 from which the result follows. Finally Inequality (9. Next we turn to Inequality (9.16) is equivalent to (q − pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)2 + (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q − pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)2 + (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) + (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 > 0.9.12). After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is also a consequence of Condition (9. This inequality is equivalent to (q − pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)2 + (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q − pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)2 − (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 < 0. After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is a consequence of Condition (9.15). Also by using Condition (9. r2 (1 − r) −r2 p + rp − q + q 2 + qr = rp(1 − r) + q(q − 1) + qr > 0.3. we have established the following result: . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 153 (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 = −pr3 q 2 + 2q 2 r − q 2 r2 − q 2 + 3p2 r3 − 2p2 r4 − 3rq 3 + 3qpr3 − 5qpr2 r2 (1 − r) + 2qpr + 4pr2 q 2 + 2q 3 + q 4 r − p2 r2 − 2prq 2 − q 4 + r2 q 3 r2 (1 − r) Note that (2r2 p − rp + q − q 2 − qr + q 2 r) (−r2 p + rp − q + q 2 + qr) = .

r r Proof.11) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a)    0. ψ. (b) pr − q q .12) holds. r when 1 < q < pr < q + q2 q − .11). (a) Set g(x) = p + qx 1 + rx and b = q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. b].2 Eq(9. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9.11) we see that when yk−1 . yk ∈ [0. 9.3. φ. q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r when pr ≤ q. Using Eq(9.154 Chapter 9. φ. which can be established by direct calculation. 3)-Type Equations Theorem 9. .12) holds. .3. . Lemma 9.2 Eq(9. (2. Furthermore when (9.2 Invariant Intervals The following result.11) has a unique prime period-two solution . ψ. 1 + yk + qyk−1 1 + ryk−1 The proof follows by induction. . r q when pr ≥ q + q2 . then yk+1 = p + qyk−1 p + qyk−1 ≤ = g(yk−1 ) ≤ g(b) ≤ b. . . . if and only if (9. this period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable.3. q r (c) q pr − q .

q r q = . yk ∈ p + qyk−1 = f (yk . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 155 (b) It is clear that the function f (x. y) is decreasing in both arguments and the condition pr > q + rq2 we obtain yk+1 = q q p + qyk−1 = f (yk . yk−1 ) ≥ f . yk−1 ) ≤ f 1 + yk + ryk−1 pr − q q . ≥ yk+1 = 1 + yk + ryk−1 r q q . . yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + qyk−1 pr − q pr − q . q r pr−q .11) we see that when yk−1 . < r + (r + 1)q q The proof follows by induction.r q is increasing in y for x > pr−q . then yk+1 = Using Eq(9. (c) It is clear that the function f (x. yk−1 ) ≤ f .3. q q q = .11) we see that when yk−1 . y) and the condition 2 q < pr < q + qr we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk−1 = f (yk . yk ∈ q then q pr − q p + qyk−1 pr − q = f (yk . r The proof follows by induction. Now by using the monotonic character of the function f (x. y) = p + qy 1 + x + ry pr−q q . r By using the fact that f (x. 1 + yk + qyk−1 r r = pr + q 2 pr − q . Using Eq(9. y) = is decreasing in y for x < q pr−q . 2 .9. q p + qy 1 + x + ry .

3.6.3 Convergence of Solutions p + qy 1 + x + ry By using the monotonic character of the function f (x.3 Assume that pr ≤ q and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied: (i) q ≤ 1.4.156 Chapter 9. together with the appropriate convergence theorem (from among Theorems 1. 3)-Type Equations 9. .11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0.3. (2. 2 Theorem 9. y0 ∈ 0.3. 2 q−1+ √ (q−1)2 +4pr (ii) r < 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 ≥ 0.4 (a) Assume that 1 < q < pr < q+ qr − q and that one of the following r conditions is also satisfied: (i) r ≥ 1.3. (ii) r ≥ 1.2 we see that when y−1 . the function f decreases in x and increases 2r in y.3.5-1. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1. In view of Lemma 9. . y) = in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.4. For example. q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r  converges to the equilibrium y.   Then every solution of Eq(9. (iii) r < 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 ≥ 0. 2r √ √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr yn ∈ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈ 0.2. for all n ≥ 0. 2r 2r √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr and that in the interval 0.4. then Proof.8) we can obtain some convergence results for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. the following results are true for Eq(9.11): Theorem 9.

11).3.4 Global Stability By applying Theorem 1.r q pr−q q .5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q + Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9. r q converges to the equilibrium y.3.2 we conclude that yn ∈ for all n ≥ 0.6. . The result now follows by employing Theorem 1. r 9. It is easy to 9.11) when pr = q + this case Eq(9. q2 r q2 . Theorem 9. 2 q pr−q .7.3. (a) In view of Lemma 9.3. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.9. y) decreases in x and increases in y.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval q pr − q .4.5 Assume r ≥ 1 and pr ≤ q.3. we obtain the following global asymptotic stability result.4. the function f decreases check that y ∈ q . 1.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval pr − q q . Then every solution of Eq(9. . pr−q and that in the r q in both x and in y.3 to Eq(9. . It is easy to (b) In view of Lemma 9. r2 + r2 yn + r3 yn−1 n = 0. pr−q r q for all n ≥ 0. The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 157 Then every solution of Eq(9. Proof.r q 2 check that y ∈ and that the function f (x. r . q r converges to the equilibrium y.3. (b) Assume that pr > q + qr .11) becomes yn+1 = qr + q 2 + qr2 yn−1 . q r interval q .4. In and the only positive equilibrium is y = q .11) is globally asymptotically stable.2 we conclude that yn ∈ pr−q q . Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.

11).3. . The equilibrium points of Eq(9.17) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation y= (p + 1)y . (9. .18) The following theorem is a consequence of Theorem 1. The proof follows from the relation yn+1 − q q qr2 = ( − yn ) 3 . 1. . 3)-Type Equations Theorem 9. (2. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. .3. q+1 (9. r r r (1 + yn + ryn−1 ) 2 9.1. Then after the first semicycle. r + (1 + q)y Hence zero is always an equilibrium point and when p + 1 > r. Eq(9. γ q= B . Proof. γ This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. 3)-type Eq(9. C and r = A . invariant intervals.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= pyn + yn−1 . r + qyn + yn−1 β .1.6 Suppose that pr = q + qr and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(9. the solution oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.4 The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (2.158 2 Chapter 9.17) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y= p+1−r .17) γ yn .1 and Theorem 1. C n = 0.

φ.2 Assume that (9.4.18) holds. it follows from Section 2. The following result is a consequence of Theorem 1. . Furthermore the zero equilibrium is a saddle point when 1−p<r <1+p and a repeller when r < 1 − p.4. (p + 1)(q + 1) (p + 1)(q + 1) n = 0.1.5 that the following result is true. φ. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.3 Eq(9. . and unstable (a saddle point) when q + r > 3p + 1 + qr + pq. Furthermore when (9. (9. .20) (9. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9. .20) holds there is a unique period-two solution and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − (1 − p − r)t + p(1 − p − r) = 0. The linearized equation associated with Eq(9. .17) about its positive equilibrium y is zn+1 − p − q + qr q−p+r zn − zn−1 = 0.20) holds. 1. if and only if (9. .17) is unstable.1 βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 159 (a) Assume that p + 1 ≤ r. ψ. The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = Theorem 9. (b) Assume that p + 1 > r.19) Concerning prime period-two solutions for Eq(9.4. . ψ.4.17) has a prime period-two solution .17). . . q−1 .17) is locally asymptotically stable when q + r < 3p + 1 + qr + pq.17) is globally asymptotically stable.9.1. Theorem 9. Theorem 9.

1 Invariant Intervals The following result. K2 −p [0. q2 pr −p (q − r)(p − q 2 ) − qr + [0. 3)-Type Equations 9. K] when q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 and p + q ≤ r. K1 p − q2 K1 = (c) 0.1 Eq(9. Lemma 9. (2.160 Chapter 9.17) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) 0. when q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 and p + q > r. p+q−r q+1 when p = q 2 and q 2 + q > r where K > 0 is an arbitrary number and qr . K] when q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r and p + q ≤ r. q2 where K2 = when q 2 > p + qr. and [0. where K > 0 is an arbitrary number and pr . when p > q 2 + r where ((r − q)(p − q 2 ) + qr)2 + 4q 3 r(p − q 2 ) 2q(p − q 2 ) . and q 2 + q ≤ r.4. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9. (b) 0. which can be established by direct calculation. .4. qr p − q2 when q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r and p + q > r.17). ((q − r)(q 2 − p))2 + 4p3 qr2 2pqr (q − r)(q 2 − p) + . K] when p = q 2 where K > 0 is an arbitrary number.

r + (q + 1)K pr . p−q2 we obtain qr . 2 p−q p − q2 pr .9. q 2 −p (c) It is clear that the function f (x. this inequality is satisfied for any K > 0. First assume that q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r . 2 pr pr . yk ∈ f one can see that ≤ K2 . Then for yk−1 . qr Hence for yk−1 . Therefore for any K > 0. while when q 2 + q > r the inequality is true when p+q−r K≥ . K) = (p + q)K with K = pr . K2 ≤ yk+1 = f (yk . K) = (p + q)K Second assume that p > q 2 + r. ) ≤ K1 . K2 q 2 −p Second assume that p < q 2 − qr. y) is increasing in both arguments for x < qr and it is increasing in x and decreasing in y for x ≥ p−q2 . y) is increasing in both arguments for y < and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for y ≥ q2pr . it is satisfied under the condition r + q 2 > p. βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 161 (a) It is easy to see that when p = q 2 the function px + qy f (x. yk−1 ) ≤ f (K1 . y) = r + qx + y is increasing in both arguments. yk−1 ) ≤ f (K. yk ∈ f qr . q+1 (b) It is clear that the function f (x. The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = Proof. K) ≤ K is equivalent to q 2 +q−r ≤ (q+1)K. K1 p−q 2 we can see that qr qr . yk+1 = f (yk . When q 2 + q ≤ r. yk−1 ) ≤ f (K. yk ∈ 0. K). r + (q + 1)K qr where we set K = p−q2 . p−q 2 0 ≤ f (x. Then for yk−1 .4. yk−1 ) ≤ f K2 . 1 ≤ K. yk ∈ 0. The last inequality is always satisfied when p + q ≤ r and when p + q > r. q2pr we obtain −p yk+1 = f (yk . −p Then one can see that for yk−1 . K1 ≤ yk+1 = f (yk . 2 q2 − p q −p . 1 ≤ K. Now observe that the inequality f (K. y) ≤ f (K. q 2 −p First assume that q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 .

converges to the equilibrium y.2 Convergence of Solutions px + qy r + qx + y By using the monotonic character of the function f (x.5-1. converges to the equilibrium y.4.8.1.1 and Theorem 1. K].4. K]. Assume that q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 and p + q ≤ r. converges to the equilibrium y. Then every solution of Eq(9. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0.4 (a) Assume that p = q 2 and q 2 + q > r. Assume that q 2 + r ≥ p > q 2 and p + q ≤ r.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0. (2.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0.162 Chapter 9. (c) Assume that q 2 − qr ≥ p < q 2 and p + q > r. for any K > 0.4.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0. 2 q2 pr −p qr p − q2 q2 + q − r q+1 . Then every solution of Eq(9.4. Then every solution of Eq(9. Then every solution of Eq(9. Then every solution of Eq(9. 3)-Type Equations 9.4. K]. for any K > 0.17): Theorem 9. converges to the equilibrium y. together with the appropriate convergence theorem (from among Theorems 1. converges to the equilibrium y.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0. For example. converges to the equilibrium y. the following results are true for Eq(9.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0.4. Proof. Then every solution of Eq(9.8). (b) Assume that q 2 + r ≥ p > q 2 and p + q > r. for any K > 0. y) = in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.4. Assume that p = q 2 and q 2 + q ≤ r. we can obtain some convergence results for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals.

5 Assume that p > q2 + r and that one of the following conditions is also satisfied: (i) p ≤ q + r.9.3 Assume β.6 Assume that q 2 > p + qr and that Condition (9. β. A.3) is bounded.1) has a finite limit. The proof is a consequence of Lemma 9. B. p−q 2 Proof. 2 Theorem 9. ∞). B. Conjecture 9. A.20) is not satisfied.1 Assume Show that every positive solution of Eq(9. (iii) q < 1 qr . The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9. C ∈ (0. ∞).5.4. A. C ∈ (0.1 and Theorem 1. C ∈ (0. Conjecture 9.6.5.4.1 and Theorem 1.4. (ii) q ≥ 1. 2 9.2 Assume α.5 Open Problems and Conjectures α. Proof. B.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval qr . γ.4.4.4. Show that every positive solution of Eq(9. ∞).2) is bounded. Then every solution of Eq(9. K2 converges to the equilibrium y. . Conjecture 9. Open Problems and Conjectures Theorem 9.5. 1−q 163 and p ≤ Then every solution of Eq(9. γ.5.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval converges to the equilibrium y.5. Show that every positive solution of Eq(9. K1 p−q 2 3q 2 +q−qr+r .

3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . n=−1 .5. B. and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . Conjecture 9. x0 ∈ [0. Open Problem 9. n=−1 Open Problem 9.4 Assume Chapter 9. ∞) with x−1 + x0 > 0 and that β. and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . ∞) and suppose that Eq(9. Extend and generalize. Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.5.2) is globally asymptotically stable. and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ .5 Assume that x−1 .5.2) has no prime period-two solutions.5.2 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . C ∈ (0. Suppose that Eq(9.3) is globally asymptotically stable. γ. Extend and generalize. 3)-Type Equations α. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn + xn−1 xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well defined for all n ≥ 0. C ∈ (0. γ. A.3) has no prime period-two solutions. B. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well defined for all n ≥ 0.1 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . Extend and generalize. (2. ∞). x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn−1 xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.5.164 Conjecture 9. n=−1 Open Problem 9. A.

. p = lim pn .21)-(9.5 Assume that {pn }∞ . .17). . . . of Eq(9.20) holds.22) (9. . lim Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + qn yn . 1 + yn + rn yn−1 pn + qn yn−1 .7 Assume that (9.9.5. .12) holds. φ.4 Assume that {pn }∞ . . . . . . φ. (9. φ. . lim and r = n→∞ rn . n = 0. Open Problems and Conjectures 165 Open Problem 9. . Open Problem 9. . ψ. . . n→∞ q = n→∞ qn . Investigate the basin of attraction of the two cycle .23) pn yn + yn−1 .17) is locally asymptotically stable. . . ψ. .5. . of Eq(9. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(9. 1 + yn + rn yn−1 n = 0.5. Conjecture 9. φ. . φ. φ. Show that the period-two solution .23).21) (9. ψ. ψ.11).5.6 Assume that (9.5.5. . Extend and generalize.20) holds. . 1. {qn }∞ . . rn + qn yn + yn−1 ∞ Open Problem 9. n = 0. and {rn }∞ are convergent sen=0 n=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits. 1. 1. . Open Problem 9. and {rn }∞ are period-two sen=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers. ψ.6 Assume that (9. ψ. Investigate the basin of attraction of the two cycle . . . {qn }n=0 . . of Eq(9.

1 + yn + ryn−k yn+1 = yn+1 = p + qyn−k . 3)-Type Equations k ∈ {2. (2. . q. (9. 1 + yn + ryn−k pyn + yn−k . . .8 Assume that p. 3.5. . . n = 0.166 Open Problem 9. Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference equations: p + qyn (9. . n = 0. .26) . .24) yn+1 = . 1. r + qyn + yn−k n = 0.25) (9. . . . .}. . 1. r ∈ [0. 1. ∞) and Chapter 9.

.2 The Case C = 0 : xn+1 = A yn B α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn This is the (3. 1. 2)-Type Equations 10. n = 0. xn+1 = n = 0. 1. 2)-type Eq(10. . . n = 0. . 1 + yn αB . . (10. and the denominators are always positive. γ . . . A + Bxn α + βxn + γxn−1 .Chapter 10 (3. A n = 0. . the initial conditions are nonnegative. 2)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and α + βxn + γxn−1 .4) and r = 167 . A + Cxn−1 Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (3. A2 q= β . .1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn + ryn−1 .1 Introduction α + βxn + γxn−1 .3) Bxn + Cxn−1 Please recall our classification convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive.2) 10.1) (10. (10. . . 1. A (10. 1. . .

7) (10.4) was investigated in [29].7.2 below.7.4) possesses prime period-two solutions.1.1 are given in Sections 10.5 and 2.4) about its unique equilibrium y= is zn+1 − q+r−1+ (q + r − 1)2 + 4p 2 q − p − ry r zn − zn−1 = 0.4) converges to a period-two solution.4) is globally asymptotically stable. Then the equilibrium of Eq(10. By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1 was given.4) possesses unbounded solutions.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when r <1+q and is an unstable (saddle point) equilibrium when r > 1 + q. Theorem 10. Then Eq(10. (10. .4) exhibit the following trichotomy character.2. for a more general equation. The proof of part (a) of Theorem 10.1 (a) Assume that r = q + 1.1 and 10.) The linearized equation of Eq(10.2.168 Chapter 10. 2)-Type Equations (Eq(10. . in Section 2.2. The proofs of parts (b) and (c) of Theorem 10. The main result in this section is that the solutions of Eq(10. (b) Assume that r < q + 1. (c) Assume that r > q + 1. 2 (1 + y) 1+y n = 0. Then every solution of Eq(10.5) . 1. .2. (3.2.6) (10. See Sections 2. When r =q+1 Eq(10. .

n = 0. Observe that (p − q) + ryn−1 yn+1 = q + . .1 Here we assume that Eq(10.5 and therefore the proof is complete when (10.6) holds and we prove that the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is attracted to the equilibrium. 1 + yn and so when p≥q we have yn ≥ q Therefore the change of variables yn = q + zn transforms Eq(10.4) to the difference equation zn+1 = (p + rq − q) + rzn−1 .10. (1 + q) + zn n = 1. .23) which was investigated in Section 6. So in the remaining part of the proof we assume that p < q.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10. . (10.8) holds. 1 + yn p <1 q (10.10) .2.4) satisfy the following identity yn+1 − q = Note that when q= that is when p + qr − q = 0 the Identity (10.10) reduces to yn+1 − q = Also in this case 0<r =1− r (yn − q) for n ≥ 0.6) holds the equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that every solution of Eq(10. 2)-type Eq(6.9) for n ≥ 1. . (10. Now observe that the solutions of Eq(10.2. The Case C = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 169 10.2. We know already that when Eq(10. . (10.12) (10.8) which is of the form of the (2.11) q−p r yn−1 − 1 + yn r q−p r for n ≥ 0.4) is globally asymptotically stable. . 1.

170 and the equilibrium of Eq(10. It follows from (10.16) (10. (10. note that now q−p <q r and employ (10. (3. To complete the proof in this case it is sufficient to show that eventually (10.12) that Chapter 10. Then we can see from (10.15) is not eventually true then either y2n < or y2n−1 < This is because when yN −1 > then it follows from (10.10). We will assume that (10.13) (10. If (10.13) holds.18) q−p q−p r y2n − > r y2n − 1 + yn+1 r r . (10.4) is equal to q. The case where (10. q−p r q−p r for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0. 2)-Type Equations |yn+1 − q| < r|yn+1 − q| and so n→∞ lim yn = q which completes the proof when (10.17) q−p r for some N ≥ 0. To this end.17) holds is similar and will be omitted. Still to be considered are cases where p + qr − q > 0 and p + qr − q < 0.9).11) holds.10) that y2n+2 − q = and so y2n+2 > ry2n + p for n ≥ 0.16) holds. (10.15) yn ≥ q and then use the known result for Eq(10.14) First assume that (10.10) that yN +1+2K > q for all K ≥ 0.

8 and the fact that in this case the function f (x. + rp + p r and so p q−p ≥ r 1−r which contradicts (10. Then from (10. + rp + p r which implies that p q−p ≤ . The Case C = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn 171 This is impossible when r ≥ 1.10) and r the fact that now q−p q< . . Note that in this case r < 1 and so q−p < y2n+2 < rn+1 y0 + rn p + . Once we establish this result. .14) and completes the proof of part (b) of Theorem 10.4) lies eventually in the interval 0. r that either q−p y2n > for n ≥ 0 (10.13) and completes the proof when (10. Now we claim that every solution of Eq(10.1. To this end assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not eventually in the interval 0.16) and (10. the proof that the r equilibrium is a global attractor of all solutions would be a consequence of Theorem 1.19) holds.14) holds. because by (10.13) holds. Next assume that (10. q−p . Then one can see from (10.2. q−p r q−p < r y2n − y2n − 1 + y2n+1 r r . On the other hand.2. .20) r We will assume that (10.20) holds is similar and will be omitted.19) r or q−p for n ≥ 0.10. The case where (10.10) we see that y2n+2 − q = and so y2n+2 < ry2n + p for n ≥ 0.16) the solution is bounded. it follows from (10. y2n−1 > (10. when r < 1. . y) = p + qx + ry 1+x is increasing in both arguments. r 1−r This contradicts (10.18) that q−p > y2n+2 > rn+1 y0 + rn p + .4. q−p .

∞). . γ .5 for appropriate initial conditions y−1 and y0 . A (10. To this end observe that yn+1 = q + q p + r(yn−1 − r ) 1 + yn for n ≥ 0 and so when (10. 2)-type Eq(10.4) to Eq(10. (3. 10. It should be mentioned that when (10.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn + ryn−1 . A n = 0.4) is a saddle point and so by the stable manifold theorem.3 The Case B = 0 : xn+1 = A yn C α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1 This is the (3. the equilibrium of Eq(10. 1 + yn−1 q= β .4) with initial conditions such that q ≤ y−1 < r − 1 and y0 > r−1 + p + q(r − 1) r−1−q for n ≥ 0. have the property that the subsequences of even terms converge to ∞ while the subsequences of odd terms converge to q. That is when y−1 .21) αC .9) and the conclusion of part (c) follows from Section 6. then yn ≥ q Now the change of variables yn = q + zn transforms Eq(10. y0 ∈ [q. 2)-Type Equations 10. A2 and r = .7) holds the interval [q.7) holds.2.4) possesses bounded solutions which in fact converge to the equilibrium of Eq(10.172 Chapter 10. More specifically the solutions of Eq(10.4).4) possesses unbounded solutions. . . Eq(10.7) holds and show that Eq(10.2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10. in addition to unbounded solutions. 1. ∞) is invariant.2.1 Here we assume that (10.

1. p 1−q when q < 1 and p ≥ r. for some integer N ≥ 0. yN +1 ∈ I then yn ∈ I for n ≥ N.21) about its positive equilibrium y= is zn+1 − q+r−1+ (q + r − 1)2 + 4p 2 q p − r + qy zn = 0.3. yn+1 = r + 1 + yn−1 and so when p≥r Global Stability When p ≥ r . invariant intervals.21). and convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. q. . . . and r. Lemma 10.21) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) 0. The Case B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1 173 This equation has not been investigated yet. Observe that (p − r) + qyn . Recall that I is an invariant interval. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. 1. yN . r−p q when q < 1 and p ≥ r(1 − q). . 1.3.1 Invariant Intervals The following result. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(10. n = 0.21) when p ≥ r.2 Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10. .10. .1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p.3. zn + 1+y (1 + y)2 n = 0. which can be established by direct calculation.1 Eq(10. The linearized equation of Eq(10. if whenever. By applying Theorem 1.3. (b) 0. 10. 10. .

n = 1.1 Assume p ≥ r.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0. converges to the equilibrium y. 1−q Then every solution of Eq(10. r−p q . 10. .21) is globally asymptotically stable if one of the following conditions holds: (i) q < 1. The following result is now a consequence of the above observations and the results in Section 6. which is of the form of the (2. Theorem 10. (1 + r) + zn−1 Chapter 10.2 (a) Assume that q < 1 and r ≥ p . (a) Every positive solution of Eq(10. (3. .21) is bounded. 2)-type Eq(6. (ii) q≥1 and either p + qr − r ≤ q or q < p + qr − r ≤ 2(q + 1). Theorem 10. Then the following statements are true.3.174 yn ≥ r Therefore the change of variables yn = r + zn transforms Eq(10.3.3.2) which was investigated in Section 6.3. . 2)-Type Equations for n ≥ 1. (b) The positive equilibrium of Eq(10.21) when p < r.3 Convergence of Solutions Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10. 2.21) to the difference equation zn+1 = p + qr − r + qzn .3.

5. 2)-type Eq(10. qyn + yn−1 q= B . y) increases in both x and y. γ2 (10. r−p q q the function f (x. y) increases in x and decreases in y. y0 ∈ 0. The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = (b) Suppose that either or Set α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 175 0≤q−1<r q<1 and p < r p .1 we see that when y−1 . 1−q and p < r < Then every solution of Eq(10.K q converges to the equilibrium y. 2 10.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the difference equation yn+1 = where p= r + pyn + yn−1 .8.K q pq + r2 − pr . It is easy to check that y ∈ 0.3. r−p and that in the interval 0. γ and r = . . then yn ∈ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈ r−p . (a) In view of Lemma 10. Proof. r−p .K q and that in the interval . The result is now a consequence of Theorem 1.3.10.4.K q the function f (x. K= q + r − p − q2 (b) In view of Lemma 10. . r−p q q for all n ≥ 0. then yn ∈ r−p . 1. r−p .4 The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = γ yn C α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 This is the (3. y0 ∈ for all n ≥ 0.4. αC .4.1 we see that when y−1 .21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval r−p . . The result is now a consequence of Theorem 1. C n = 0.22) β .K q r−p .

(10. (1 + p) + (1 + p)2 + 4r(1 + q) 2(1 + q) By applying Theorem 1.176 Chapter 10. ψ.22) about its positive equilibrium y= is zn+1 − (p − q)y − qr (p − q)y + r zn + zn−1 = 0. 1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when either q ≤ pq + 1 + 3p or q > pq + 1 + 3p and F where F (u) = (q + 1)u2 − (p + 1)u − r. Concerning prime period-two solution. φ. . . . When r = 0. . The second condition reduces to q > pq + 1 + 3p. q−1 .24) 2r q − pq − 1 − 3p >0 (10. as in Section 6. φ. ψ. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. . . .23) is strict and Condition (10. (10. . invariant intervals.23) It is interesting to note that the above condition for the local asymptotic stability of y requires the assumption that r > 0. (q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y) (q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y) n = 0.5 that a period-two solution exists if and only if p < 1. the inequality in (10.9. The linearized equation of Eq(10. it follows from Section 2. 2)-Type Equations This equation has not been investigated yet. .25) Furthermore in this case the prime period-two solution . . (3. q > 1 and 4r < (1 − p)(q − pq − 3p − 1).24) is void. is unique and the values φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − (1 − p)t + r + p(1 − p) = 0.1.

p−q q (c) 1. q p−q qr p . b) ≤ f (x. r q−p r . We consider the cases where p = q. The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 177 10. y) = is decreasing in both arguments. b] when p = q a and b are positive numbers such that r + (p + 1)a ≤ (q + 1)ab ≤ r + (p + 1)b. y) ≤ f (a.1 q−p Proof.26) when p > q and p2 − pq < r.10. (b) p qr . p > q. (q + 1)b (q + 1)a qr . Hence a≤ r + (p + 1)b r + (p + 1)a = f (b. First assume that p > q and p2 −pq q2 and it < r.4.4. Lemma 10. a) = ≤ b.21) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) [a.21). p−q and (10.1 Invariant Intervals Here we present some results about invariant intervals for Eq(10. y) is decreasing in both arguments when y < qr is increasing in x and decreasing in y for y ≥ p−q . q2 p2 − pq > r. q2 when p > q and when p < q < p + r. r + px + y qx + y (b) Clearly the function f (x.4. . and p < q. when q > p + r.1 Eq(10. (a) It is easy to see that when p = q the function f (x.

q q = qr qr + p(p + 1) ≤ . 1 = 1. q−p (c) It is clear that the function f (x. we obtain 1=f The inequalities r r . y) ≤ f r . p−q q ≤ f (x. y ∈ qr p . 2)-Type Equations we obtain ≤ f (x. . Using the decreasing character of f . q (qr + p)(p − q) + pq 2 r =f q 3 r + p(p − q) The inequalities (qr + p)(p − q) + pq 2 r qr ≥ 3 r + p(p − q) q p−q follow from the inequality p2 −pq q2 and qr p > q p−q > r.178 Then for x. we obtain r (p + r)(q − p) + r = f 1. p(q + 1) p−q qr qr . Using the decreasing character of f in x and the increasing character of f in y. y) ≤ f (1. p−q p−q The inequalities qr + p(p + 1) qr ≤ p(q + 1) p−q are equivalent to the inequality Next assume that p > q and For x. q−p q−p 1< ≤ f (x. p2 −pq q2 > r. p−q . we obtain qr p . p−q q p2 −pq q2 and p qr < q p−q < r. y ∈ p =f q p qr . q p−q p = . assume that p < q < p + r. 1) = r+p+1 r ≤ . (3. First. y) is decreasing in both arguments for x < r and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for x ≥ q−p . y) ≤ f p qr . r . Next assume that q > p + r. y) ≤ f p p . q p−q Chapter 10. q(q − p) + r q−p ≤ f (x. q+1 q−p r+p+1 r r < and q−p q+1 q−p are equivalent to the inequality q < p + r.

2 Convergence of Solutions Here we obtain some convergence results for Eq(10. p + r < q.26) converges to the equilibrium y.1 and Theorem 1. Proof. (b) Assume that p > q and r > p2 −pq . 2 . Then every solution of Eq(10.7.4.4. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval [a. qr p .25) is not satisfied. 2 Theorem 10. and that Condition (10. q2 Then every solution of Eq(10.22).4. r < p2 −pq . q p−q conditions in the invariant interval converges to the equilibrium y. Theorem 10.1 and Theorem 1.4. The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = The inequalities α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1 179 (p + r)(q − p) + r r ≥ q(q − p) + r q−p follow from the inequality q > p + r. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.6.4. where 0 < a < b satisfy (10. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval converges to the equilibrium y.4.4.22) with initial conditions r in the invariant interval 1.2 Assume that p > q.4.1 and Theorem 1. q−p Proof.3 Assume that p < q.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval r . The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10. q2 and that either p≤1 or p > 1 and (q − 1)[(p − 1)2 (q − 1) − 4q(1 − p − qr)] ≤ 0. p−q q Proof. q−p converges to the equilibrium y.4.4.5. 1 converges to the equilibrium y. (c) Assume that p < q < p+r. b].22) with initial p qr . and r <1 q−p 2 10.4. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.1 (a) Assume that p = q.10. Then every solution of Eq(10. 2 Theorem 10.

. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 . (10. . (a) Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 and y0 for which φ = ψ. y0 ) ∈ B.5.30) xn+1 = xn + xn−1 Extend and generalize. determine the set G of all initial conditions (x−1 . . .1 We know that every solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(10. 2)-Type Equations 10. . x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well defined for all n ≥ 0. Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 and y0 for which {yn }∞ n=−1 converges to (10. ψ.5.2 Assume r > q + 1. ψ. Open Problem 10. y0 ) ∈ (0.5 Open Problems and Conjectures ∞ Open Problem 10. . if and only if r = 1 + q.28) 1 + xn 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = (10. φ.5.29) 1 + xn−1 1 + xn + xn−1 .4) are bounded.3 For each of the equations listed below.21) converges to the positive equilibrium of the equation.27). and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the corresponding solution: 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = (10. ∞) such that the ∞ solutions {yn }n=−1 of Eq(10.27) is a prime period-two solution of Eq(10.27) (b) Assume (10. .4) converges to a not necessarily prime period-two solution . ∞) × (0. (10. (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . (3. Open Problem 10.180 Chapter 10. ∞ (b) Let (y−1 . Conjecture 10.1 Every positive solution of Eq(10. φ.4).5.

22) has no prime period-two solutions the equilibrium y is globally asymptotically stable.31)-(10.32) (10. the equilibrium y is a saddle point. (d) The period-two solution of Eq(10. when it exists. and {rn }n=0 are convergent sen=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits. . lim lim and r = n→∞ rn .31) yn+1 = yn+1 = n = 0. (10.5. q. . ∞ Open Problem 10. . .10. n→∞ q = n→∞ qn . {qn }∞ . . {qn }∞ . ∞).5. . Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 10. 1 + yn−1 rn + pn yn + yn−1 . r ∈ (0. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(10. and {rn }∞ are period-two sen=0 n=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers.22) (a) Local stability of the positive equilibrium implies global stability.5 Assume that {pn }∞ . . 1.5.5.22).2 Assume that p. .4 Assume that {pn }∞ . Then the following statements are true for Eq(10. (c) When Eq(10.33) Open Problem 10. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three difference equations: yn+1 = pn + qn yn + rn yn−1 .22) possesses a period-two solution. p = lim pn . (10.33). qn yn + yn−1 n = 0. but not globally. . . is locally asymptotically stable. . Extend and generalize. 181 (b) When Eq(10. 1 + yn pn + qn yn + rn yn−1 . 1. 1. n = 0.

. . . Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following difference equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = p + qyn + ryn−k . . (10.35) (10.182 Open Problem 10.}. (3. 1 + yn p + qyn + ryn−k . 1.36) . ∞) and k ∈ {2. . . . n = 0.6 Assume that Chapter 10. r ∈ [0. 2)-Type Equations p. 1. . . . . qyn + yn−k n = 0. 1.34) (10. . n = 0. . 1 + yn−k p + qyn + ryn−1 .5. 3. q.

. x= β+γ−A+ (A − β − γ)2 + 4α(B + C) 2(B + C) . − z 2 + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x n−1 A A2 183 n = 0. . 3)-Type Equation α+βx xn+1 = A+Bxn+γxn−1 n+Cx n−1 In this chapter we discuss the (3. 1.3) zn+1 − (βA − Bα) + (βC − Bγ)x zn + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x (γA − Cα) − (βC − γB)x = 0. This equation has not been investigated yet. 1. . and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. .Chapter 11 The (3. Eq(11. invariant intervals.2) . .1) has a unique equilibrium which is the positive solution of the quadratic equation That is. (11. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability.1) Please recall our classification convention in which all coefficients of this equation are now assumed to be positive and the initial conditions nonnegative.1 Linearized Stability Analysis (B + C)x2 − (β + γ − A)x − α = 0. 3)-type equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. 11. . . The linearized equation about x is (see Section 2. (11. .

γ > β+A. then clearly fx = M = βC − γB. yN +1 ∈ I then for some integer N ≥ 0. is discussed in Section 2. ψ.4. ψ. (11. 2 (A + Bx + Cy) (A + Bx + Cy)2 Recall that an interval I is an invariant interval for Eq(11. . φ. If we set L = βA − αB. and α < (γ − β − A)[B(γ − β − A) − C(γ + 3β − A)] . .31) and (2. and (2. .5. Conditions (2.1) by testing whether the hypotheses of one of the four Theorems 1.8 are satisfied. B > C. .3).1) then we may be able to obtain a convergence result for the solutions of Eq(11. and N = γA − αC α + βx + γy A + Bx + Cy L + My N − My and fy = .184 Chapter 11. φ. . that is.32) are satisfied.1) if whenever. .4) The local asymptotic stability of the two cycle 11. . The (3. (11. Eq(11. see Section 2. for n ≥ N. y) = is increasing or decreasing in x and y. ψ. φ.1). 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 The equilibrium x is locally asymptotically stable if Conditions (2. These intervals are derived by analyzing the intervals where the function f (x. C C(B − C) . yn ∈ I . when (11.13).3) 4C 2 Furthermore.6.15) are satisfied. (2. Once we have an invariant interval for Eq(11. .5-1. holds the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 + γ−β−A αC + β(γ − β − A) t+ = 0. . .1) has a prime period-two solution . ψ. φ.14). . if. yN . .2 Invariant Intervals Here we obtain several invariant intervals for Eq(11.4.

y) is increasing in both variables. (v) Assume that α β γ γA − αC > . y) is decreasing in both variables.2.1) and in this interval the function f (x. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11. B is an invariant interval for Eq(11. A B C α Then 0. < < < B C A βC − γB α Then 0. . y) is increasing in both variables. (iii) Assume that β α γ > > C B A and β+γ αB − βA ≤ .11. Invariant Intervals Lemma 11. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.1) and in this interval the function f (x. C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11. ≥ > βC − γB A B C γA−αC Then 0. C B A 185 α β Then A .1) and in this interval the function f (x. C B A β α Then B . (iv) Assume that β α γ = < . (ii) Assume that β γ α > > B C A and γ N ≤ . y) is increasing in both variables. C M α γ Then A .1) and in this interval the function f (x. (vii) Assume that α β γ = > .1) and in this interval the function f (x.1) and in this interval the function f (x. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function f (x. y) is decreasing in both variables. (vi) Assume that β γ α γA − αC .2.1 (i) Assume that β α γ = > . B+C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. B+C βC − γB α β+γ Then A . y) is decreasing in both variables. βC−γB is an invariant interval for Eq(11.

1) and in this interval the function f (x. The (3. y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. y ∈ α γ . assuming C ≤ M we obtain N N γ α = f (0. Proof. in this case the function f is increasing in x. B+C B γ β α (ii) The condition B > C > A is equivalent to M > 0. which in turn imply that N > 0. (ix) Assume that α β γ = < . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 β α γ > ≥ . C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. in this case the function f is increasing in both variables for all values of x and y and α β+γ β β β = . γ β α (i) The condition C = B > A is equivalent to M = 0 and L > 0. L > 0. u) is increasing and consequently f (u. = f (0. B A C γ Then 0. In addition. B A C β Then 0. 0) ≤ f (x. and N > 0. A M M C for all x. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y. B is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function f (x. C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. Thus. y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. u) ≤ β β+γ = . Thus. Thus. . (x) Assume that β α γ < ≤ .1) and in this interval the function f (x. ) = . A C .186 (viii) Assume that Chapter 11. 0) ≤ f (x. for every x. ) ≤ A B B B+C B Here we used the fact that under the condition γ β α = > C B A the function f (u. this function γ N N is increasing in y for x < M . y) ≤ f ( . A B C γ Then 0. y) ≤ f ( .

and N < 0. y ∈ 0. u) is decreasing and consequently f (u. Invariant Intervals 187 γ β α (iii) The condition C > B > A is equivalent to M < 0 and L > 0. 0) ≤ f (x. in this case the function f is decreasing in y. α L ≤− . in this case the function f is increasing in y. Thus. Thus. Thus. which imply that N < 0. 0) = α for all x. Thus assuming A ≤ − M . in this case the function f is decreasing in x. α = f (0. for every x. α L L this function is decreasing in x for y < − M . u) ≥ β+γ β = . we obtain. for every y. in this case the function f is decreasing in both variables for all values of x and y and α α β α ≤f . Thus assuming A ≤ M . In β+γ L L addition. A M γ β α (vi) The condition A > C > B is equivalent to M < 0. B A A A Here we used the fact that under the condition β α γ = < C B A the function f (u. − M . this function is increasing in x for y < − M . y) ≤ f A for all x. which in turn imply that N < 0. this function α N N is decreasing in y for x < M .11. L < 0. which in turn imply that N > 0. we obtain 0 ≤ f (x. A B+C β+γ β+γ . In addition. A . y) ≤ f (0. y) ≤ f (0. B+C B+C ≤ β+γ . 0) = L for all x. γ β α (iv) The condition C = B < A is equivalent to M = 0 and L < 0. we obtain 0 ≤ f (x. y ∈ 0. In addition. B+C . B+C B β γ α (v) The condition A > B > C is equivalent to M > 0 and L < 0. Thus. y) ≤ f (0.2. 0) = . α . Thus assuming B+C ≤ − M . ≤ f (x. y ∈ α β+γ . A . for every y.

A A β γ α (viii) The condition B > A > C is equivalent to M > 0. γ C = γ . . Using this we obtain. Thus. C .0 = . in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y. v) ≤ = lim f (0. and N < 0.188 Chapter 11. γ C ≤ γ . v) is increasing in v when N > 0 and so γ f (0. L < 0. γ for all x. 0 ≤ f (x. and N ≥ 0. y) < f β for all x. B . C γ for all x. which in turn imply that N > 0. A . Using this we obtain. Thus. 0 ≤ f (x. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 β γ α (vii) The condition A = B > C is equivalent to M > 0 and L = 0. Thus. y) ≤ f α for all x. 2 The next table summarizes more complicated invariant intervals with the signs of the partial derivatives fx and fy . in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y. y) < f 0. in this case the function f is decreasing in x and increasing in y for all values of x and y. Using this we obtain. in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y. Thus. v). C v→∞ for all v. y) ≤ f 0. y ∈ 0. α α . which in turn imply that N < 0. 0 ≤ f (x. Using this we obtain. Here we use the fact that the function f (0. y ∈ 0. y ∈ 0. C γ β α (x) The condition B < A ≤ C is equivalent to M < 0. The (3. B B β γ α (ix) The condition A = B < C is equivalent to M < 0 and L = 0. 0 ≤ f (x. C . y ∈ 0. L > 0.0 = . β β .

Convergence Results 189 Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Invariant intervals αM +(β+γ)N N [0. fy < 0 if x > N M (β−A)2 +4Bα ] 2B (β+γ−A)2 +4α(B+C) ] 2(B+C) αM −(β+γ)L L L [0. − M ] if AM −L(B+C) < − M αM −βL+γM L L [− M .2. K4 ] if AM +BK+CNM > M M N M where K1 = K2 = K3 = K4 = (β − A)M − CN + (A − γ)M − BL + (β − A)M + LC + (γ − A)M − BN + ((β − A)M − N C)2 + 4BM (αM + γN ) 2BM ((A − γ)M − BL)2 + 4CM (αM − βL) ((β − A)M + LC)2 + 4BM (αM − γL) 2BM 2CM −2CM .1 and Theorems 1. K2 ] if BM K+AM −γL > − M −CL β+γ−A+ β [0. Theorem 11. M ] if AM +(B+C)N < αM +βK+γN N N [ M .3. n→∞ .4. .5-1. fx < 0 if y < − M fy < 0 fx < 0 fy < 0 fx < 0 N N fy > 0 if x > M .4. K3 ] if AM −BL+CMK > − M K α [0.8. K1 ] β−A+ Signs of derivatives N M [0. − M ] if AM −(B+C)L < − M βM K+αM L L [− M .1). fy < 0 if x < M αM +(β+γ)N αM +(β+γ)N N [ AM +(B+C)N .3 Convergence Results The following result is a consequence of Lemma 11. A ] √ L L fx > 0 if y < − M . C ] αM −L(β+γ) αM −L(β+γ) L L [ AM −L(B+C) . M ] if AM +(B+C)N < N [ M . fx < 0 if y > − M fy > 0 fx > 0 fy < 0 fx < 0 fy > 0 L L fx > 0 if y > − M . . [0. B ] γ [0. if √ αM +(β+γ)N AM +(B+C)N > N M fx > 0 fy > 0 if x < fx > 0 fy < 0 fx > 0 fy > 0 N M . ((γ − A)M − BN )2 + 4BM (αM + βN ) 11.11.1 Let {xn } be a solution of Eq(11. Then in each of the following cases lim xn = x. .3.

190 (i) Chapter 11. The (3. . β γ α = > . βC − γB α . x0 ∈ 0. γA − αC . x0 ∈ 0. B A C . . . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 γ β α = > C B A (ii) β γ α > > . . B < C. A B+C γ γA − αC ≤ . B A and x−1 . B+C βC − γB and x−1 . A β γ α γA − αC < < < B C A βC − γB and x−1 . β α γ > ≥ . x0 ∈ αB − βA β+γ ≤ . x0 ∈ 0. B : β > γ + A. α (vii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisfied and x−1 . A B C β (viii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisfied and x−1 . and or (C − B)[(C − B)(β − γ − A)2 − 4B(αB + γ(β − γ − A))] > 0. x0 ∈ 0. A B α γ . A C α β+γ . x0 ∈ α β . and or (C − B)[(C − B)(β − γ − A)2 − 4B(αB + γ(β − γ − A))] > 0. C βC − γB and x−1 . A : β > γ + A. B C A (iii) γ β α > > . C B A (iv) γ β α = < C B A (v) and x−1 . x0 ∈ α β γ γA − αC ≥ > > βC − γB A B C (vi) and x−1 . x0 ∈ β α . B < C.

4. The proofs of statements (i-iii) follow by applying Lemma 11.11. Theorem 1.3. The proofs of statements (vii) and (viii) follow by applying Lemma 11. The proofs of statements (ix) and (x) follow by applying Lemma 11. C B A Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. C and x−1 .4. and by observing that Eq(11.1) we obtain the following global asymptotic result.4.2 Assume that γ β α < min . m).4.2 and linearized stability imply the following global stability result: Theorem 11.4. γ . M = f (M. .5.1 (vii) and (viii) respectively. Convergence Results (ix) Condition (11.3 to Eq(11. M ). x0 ∈ 0. α γ β < ≤ B A C and x−1 . A + Bm + CM M= α + βM + γm A + BM + Cm is m = M .7. β γ α = < A B C (x) Condition (11. γ .2.6.3) is not satisfied. By applying Theorem 1.1) is globally asymptotically stable. .3) is not satisfied.1 (i-iii) and Theorem 1. C 191 Proof. The proofs of statements (iv-vi) follow by applying Lemma 11. and by observing that the only solution of the system of equations m = f (m.1) does not possess a prime period-two solution.1 Global Stability Theorem 1.8.3. m= α + βm + γM . that is.2. Theorem 1.4.1 (iv-vi) and Theorem 1. x0 ∈ 0. 2 11.1 (ix) and (x) respectively.2.3.2.

4 (a) Assume that αC ≥ γA.1) has no positive prime period-two solution. ∞) and that Eq(11. Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(11. αB > βA. β. Show that every positive solution of Eq(11. The following global stability result is a consequence of linearized stability and the Trichotomy Theorem 1. γB > βC. C ∈ (0.4.1) converges to the positive equilibrium.3 Assume α. ∞).1) is bounded. A.2 Assume α. Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. γ. Theorem 11. C ∈ (0. (b) Assume that αB ≥ βA. A.4 Open Problems and Conjectures α. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 Theorem 11. Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. C ∈ (0.4. 11. and 3γB ≥ βC ≥ γB.1) is globally asymptotically stable. B.1 Assume Show that every positive solution of Eq(11. Conjecture 11. βA ≥ αB. and 3βC ≥ γB ≥ βC. Conjecture 11. B. β. γ. β.4.192 Chapter 11. ∞) and that Eq(11.1) is a saddle point and the period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable. and γA > αC. Conjecture 11. B.1) is globally asymptotically stable.4. A.3. The (3.1) is globally asymptotically stable.3.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. γ.4. Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. . γA ≥ αC.3 Assume that B ≤ C.

1. + ak xn−k . n = 0. n = 0.5 Assume that (11.6) holds. . Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of Eq(11.6) Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions so that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = has a finite limit. a + a0 xn + .7) is periodic with period-k.1) cannot have a prime period-k solution for any k ≥ 3.4 Assume α.6) holds. . . C ∈ (0. Ai ∈ [0.2 Assume that the parameters in Eq(11. {Bn }∞ . ai . Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11. ∞). Open Problem 11. A. {Cn }∞ n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 are convergent sequences of nonnegative real numbers with finite limits.4. . 193 ∞ ∞ Open Problem 11.4 Assume that (11.4.4. (11. . A.4. 1. In particular. . . {An }n=0 . Show that Eq(11. .5) An + Bn xn + Cn xn−1 Open Problem 11.4. investigate the cases where 2 ≤ k ≤ 8. γ. xn+1 = (11.5).5) are period-two sequences of positive real numbers. .4. + Ak xn−k (11. 1. .7) converges to a period-two solution. Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11. . . ∞) for i = 0. k ≥ 2. {βn }∞ . . B.7) Open Problem 11. {γn }∞ . k. .11. . Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the difference equation αn + βn xn + γn xn−1 .4. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 11.3 Assume that a.1 Assume {αn }n=0 . A + A0 xn + . . Open Problem 11. β. .

. q ∈ [0. and the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the difference equation xn+1 = (See [8] and [61]. ∞). (See [32] for the two dimensional case.4. Show that every positive solution of the difference equation xn+1 = xn + . . . n = 0. . .8) converges to a period-two solution. + xn−k + xn−k−1 xn−k−2 . .194 Chapter 11. 1. . .) αxn + βxn−1 xn−2 .4. . and [60]. . The (3. the periodic nature.4.4. γxn xn−1 + δxn−2 Conjecture 11. [47]. (See [8]. Extend to equations with real parameters. + xn−k−2 converges to 1. γ. j ∈ {1. Show that every positive solution of the system xn+1 = yn+1 = zn+1 = a11 xn a21 xn a31 xn + + + a12 yn a22 yn a32 yn + + + a13 zn a23 zn a33 zn                .6 Let aij ∈ (0. . . Extend and generalize. 2.) Conjecture 11.7 Assume that p.6 Let α. xn xn−1 + xn−2 + . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 Open Problem 11. . 3}.5 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer. Investigate the boundedness character. 1. ∞) for i. n = 0. ∞) with γ + δ > 0. (11. . n = 0.) Conjecture 11. β. 1. δ ∈ [0. .

11.9 Assume that p. q ∈ [0. . Conjecture 11. (b) Show that when p<1 the positive equilibrium x = 1 1+p is globally asymptotically stable. . converges to a period-two solution if p ≥ 1. . q + xn−2 n = 0. 1. (c) Show that when p>1+q the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. ∞). ∞). .4. (See [62]. xn−1 + pxn−2 n = 0.8 Assume that p ∈ (0.) Conjecture 11. (a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−1 . . .4. 195 converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1 + q. . (b) Show that when p<1+q every positive solution has a finite limit.4. Open Problems and Conjectures (a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = pxn−1 + xn−2 . 1.

xn n = 0. . (See [62]. . 1. .) Conjecture 11. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 (a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−1 + p .) . 1.4. (iii) When p < 1 there exist positive unbounded solutions. . (See [62]. . . . xn−1 n = 0. The (3. xn−2 + q n = 0. .11 Show that the difference equation xn+1 = p + xn−2 .10 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn + xn−2 .196 Chapter 11.) Conjecture 11. (c) Show that when q<1 the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. has the following trichotomy character: (i) When p > 1 every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium. (See [62]. (ii) When p = 1 every positive solution converges to a period-five solution. converges to a period-four solution. 1. converges to a period-two solution if and only if q = 1. (b) Show that when q>1 the positive equilibrium of the equation is globally asymptotically stable.4. .

.4. .) ψ 1 1 φ . 197 converges to a period-six solution of the form .7 Consider the difference equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 + δxn−2 . φ. ψ ∈ (0. What other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11. xn−1 + xn−2 n = 0.9) has prime period-two solutions if and only if γ = β + δ + A.10) (a) In addition to (11. 1. 1. ψ.4.9) converges to a period-two solution? (b) Assume γ < β + δ + A.9) with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that B + D > 0 and A + Bxn + Dxn−2 > 0 for n ≥ 0.9) possesses unbounded solutions? (See [6]. . . (11. what other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11. (See [62]. where φ. n = 0. . What other conditions are needed so that Eq(11. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 11. Then one can show that Eq(11.. . .12 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + xn .11. ∞).4. .9) converges to the positive equilibrium? (c) Assume γ > β + δ + A. .. . .) .. A + Bxn + Dxn−2 (11.10). . φ φ ψ ψ Open Problem 11.

Conjecture 11.16 Consider the difference equation xn+1 = where p ∈ [0.4. . 1 + xn + xn−2 n = 0. 1. .4. p + qxn + rxn−2 . . 1. . (See [6]. (b) Show that when q>r every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium. 1.13 Show that every positive solution of each of the two equations xn+1 = and xn+1 = 1 + xn−1 + xn−2 . .) Conjecture 11. . . 1. . .4. r ∈ (0. converges to a period-two solution. 1. . (See [6]. .15 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−2 . xn−2 n = 0. xn−1 + xn−2 + xn−3 n = 0. ∞) and q. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 Conjecture 11. . . . The (3. .198 Chapter 11.) Conjecture 11. . xn 1 + xn−1 + xn−2 . xn−1 n = 0. (a) Show that when q=r every positive solution converges to a period-four solution. converges to a period-two solution. ∞).14 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + xn−1 . converges to a period-three solution.4. n = 0.

. 1 + xn + xn−3 n = 0. . + Bk xn−k n = 0.) . ∞) with i=0 Bi > 0. converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of this equation. . B0 .4. . xn−2 + xn−3 . . 1 + xn−3 . . .4. B1 . xn−1 . . . 1. . A + B0 xn + . 1. xn n = 0. 1. xn + xn−2 + xn−3 n = 0. Bk ∈ [0. B1 . . Open Problems and Conjectures (c) Show that when q<r the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. . . . Open Problem 11. . . .9 Assume that k is a positive integer and that k A. . (See [62]. 1. 1. .4.) 199 Open Problem 11.11.8 Determine whether every positive solution of each of the following equations converges to a periodic solution of the corresponding equation: (a) xn+1 = (b) xn+1 = (c) xn+1 = (d) xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−3 . . . Obtain necessary and sufficient conditions on the parameters A and B0 . Bk so that every positive solution of the difference equation xn+1 = xn−k . . xn−2 n = 0. . (See [6]. .

.) Conjecture 11.200 Chapter 11.. 0. . . . . Then we can easily see that every nonnegative solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−k .4. . . . .11) converges to a period-(k+1) solution of the form (11. The (3. . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1 Open Problem 11.10 Assume that k is a positive integer. . in terms of the nonnegative initial conditions x−k . (c) Determine the set of all nonnegative initial conditions x−k . x0 . 1.17 Let k be a positive integer.4.12) with φ ≥ 0. . . k−terms (11. . xn−k+1 n = 0.12) which corresponds to the nonnegative solution {xn }∞ n=−k of Eq(11. converges to a periodic solution of period 2k. . φ. .11) converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of the form . 0. . . . . the value of φ in (11. . 1 + xn + . .11) possess a positive solution which converges to zero? (b) Determine. x0 for which the ∞ corresponding solution {xn }n=−k of Eq(11.. . (11. 0.11). (a) Does Eq(11.. . Show that every positive solution of xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−k . + xn−k+1 n = 0. 1.12) with a given φ ≥ 0 ? (See [6].

x−2 ∈ I. We state the results for third order equations from which higher order extensions will become clear. 201 . y.1) converges to x. z) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments. (b) The equation f (x. has a unique solution in the interval [a. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. x−1 . . z) is monotonic in its arguments. Then for every set of initial conditions x0 .5-1.0. Theorem A. b] and every solution of Eq(A. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. x) = x. (A.4. xn−1 .Appendix A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations In this appendix we present some global attractivity results for higher order difference equations which are analogous to Theorems 1. the difference equation xn+1 = f (xn . Let I be some interval of real numbers and let f :I ×I ×I →I be a continuously differentiable function.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.1) ∞ has a unique solution {xn }n=−2 . b]3 → [a. . very often a good strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(A. or non decreasing in all three. x. y.1 Let [a. z) is non decreasing in all three arguments.4. Then Eq(A.1) is to work in the regions where the function f (x. 1. y. n = 0. . or non increasing in one and non decreasing in the other two.8. b]. As we have seen in previous chapters. xn−2 ). In this regard there are eight possible scenarios depending on whether f (x. or non increasing in two arguments and non decreasing in the third.

Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. M ). b] for each x and y ∈ [a. M. b]. M ) ∈ [a. m) and M = f (M.2 Let [a.0. b] is a solution of the system m = f (m. . . z) is non-decreasing in x and y ∈ [a. . . set Mi = f (Mi−1 . . (b) If (m.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. m = f (m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. In view of (b). b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. m = M = x. mi−1 ). and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ Appendix for k ≥ 3i + 1. . m) then m = M. ≤ mi ≤ . mi−1 . . m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . 2. ≤ Mi ≤ . M ) and M = f (M. . . b] × [a. from which the result follows. b] for each z ∈ [a. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . (A. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . b]. . b] and every solution of Eq(A. 2 Theorem A. Mi−1 .2) Then M ≥ lim sup xi ≥ lim inf xi ≥ m i→∞ i→∞ and by the continuity of f . M.202 Proof. b]3 → [a. y. m. Then Eq(A.1) converges to x. m. and is nonincreasing in z ∈ [a.

m. b] is a solution of the system M = f (M. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. . Then Eq(A. z) is non-decreasing in x and z in [a. m) then m = M. M. b] for each x and z in [a. . b]3 → [a. m. b].1) converges to x. M. Then (A. and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ 203 for k ≥ 3i + 1. M ) and m = f (m. . b] × [a. Mi ≤ . M1 ≤ M0 = b. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a.3 Let [a. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. 2. mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . set Mi = f (Mi−1 . b] and every solution of Eq(A.2) holds and by the continuity of f . (b) If (m. m). b].1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. 2 Theorem A. m = f (m.Appendix Proof. . . Mi−1 ). . Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the result follows. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . b] for each z ∈ [a. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 a = m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . Mi−1 . M ) ∈ [a. mi−1 . M ) and M = f (M.0. and is nonincreasing in y ∈ [a. . y. . . . ≤ mi ≤ .

2. b]. M. set Mi = f (Mi−1 . m.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. 2 and M = f (M. M ) ∈ [a. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 a = m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . m. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . b] and is non-decreasing in y and z for each x. y ∈ [a. .204 Proof. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. b] and every solution of Eq(A. y. Mi−1 . Theorem A.0. Then Eq(A. M ) and m = f (M. .2) holds and by the continuity of f . (b) If (m. . z) is non-increasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. . m) . and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ Appendix for k ≥ 3i + 1. b]3 → [a. M. m) then m = M. m = f (m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. Mi ≤ . . Then (A. M1 ≤ M0 = b. M ) Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows.1) converges to x.4 Let [a. . mi−1 ) . . . ≤ mi ≤ . i→∞ and M = lim Mi . . . mi−1 . b] × [a.

. mi−1 ). Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . M ) and m = f (M. . . Mi−1 . . b] × [a. (b) If (m.Appendix Proof. .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. m) and m = f (m. ≤ mi ≤ . Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. . . b] is a solution of the system M = f (M. 2 Theorem A.0.2) holds and by the continuity of f . y. M. b] and every solution of Eq(A.5 Let [a. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. mi−1 . b]3 → [a. Mi ≤ . M = f (m. 2. b] and is non-increasing in y and z for each x ∈ [a. M ) then m = M. . Then Eq(A. M ) ∈ [a. M. Then (A. . m). set Mi = f (mi−1 .1) converges to x. m. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ 205 for k ≥ 3i + 1. z) is non-decreasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a. b]. .

. y. . set Mi = f (Mi−1 . Then (A. .2) holds and by the continuity of f . M ) then m = M. m. 2 Theorem A. mi−1 . ≤ mi ≤ . b]. .206 Proof. Mi ≤ . M ) ∈ [a. 2.0. mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . . b] × [a. (b) If (m. . M ). m) and m = f (M.1) converges to x. Mi−1 ). Mi−1 . M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ Appendix for k ≥ 3i + 1. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. b] and is non-increasing in x and z for each y ∈ [a. . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . m) and m = f (m. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . .6 Let [a. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. Then Eq(A. . . M. b] and every solution of Eq(A. b]3 → [a. M = f (M. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. z) is non-decreasing in y for each x and z ∈ [a. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. M. m.

M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ 207 for k ≥ 3i + 1. . Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. m) and m = f (M. b] × [a. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.1) converges to x. .7 Let [a. ≤ mi ≤ . b]3 → [a. mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . .2) holds and by the continuity of f . 2 Theorem A. (b) If (m.Appendix Proof. y. set Mi = f (mi−1 . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. b] and every solution of Eq(A. . m) then m = M. M ). b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. Then (A. M.0. Mi ≤ . m. Then Eq(A. . M ) and m = f (M. m. Mi−1 ). . M. . b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. M ) ∈ [a. b] and is non-increasing in x and y for each z ∈ [a. mi−1 . i→∞ and M = lim Mi . . b]. z) is non-decreasing in z for each x and y in [a. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . . Mi−1 . . M = f (m. 2.

m. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . . M = f (m. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. b] × [a. . y. Then (A. Mi−1 . . . M. m). b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. mi−1 ). Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. y.2) holds and by the continuity of f . m) and m = f (M. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. z in [a. z) is non-increasing in all three variables x. Mi ≤ . M. . b] and every solution of Eq(A. b].8 Let [a. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. . Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 .208 Proof. . (b) If (m.0. mi−1 . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. b]3 → [a. Then Eq(A. . M ) ∈ [a. 2 Theorem A.1) converges to x. . M ) and m = f (M. M ) then m = M. m. 2. set Mi = f (mi−1 . . M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ Appendix for k ≥ 3i + 1. ≤ mi ≤ .

3) 2 The above theorems can be easily extended to the general difference equation of order . mi−1 . p xn+1 = f (xn . .0. where is a continuous function. m) and m = f (M. there are 2p possibilities for the function f to be non decreasing in some arguments and non increasing in the remaining arguments. . 2. 1. Let us formulate one of these results. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .8. .Appendix Proof. Theorem A. . . up ) is non decreasing in the second and the third variables u2 and u3 and is non increasing in all other variables.9 Let [a. M ). Then (A. f : Ip → I n = 0. . . ≤ mi ≤ . b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (u1 . u2 .0. . M. (A. Mi ≤ . set Mi = f (mi−1 . . This gives 2p results of the type found in Theorems A. . M1 ≤ M0 = b and m i ≤ x k ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi i→∞ 209 for k ≥ 3i + 1. .0. b]p → [a. i→∞ and M = lim Mi . . mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . . xn−p+1 ). b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. . . M = f (m.2) holds and by the continuity of f . xn−1 . In this case. m. . . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. . Mi−1 . Mi−1 ).1-A. . .

. m) and m = f (M. m. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. .210 (b) If (m.3) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. m. m. . b] and every solution of Eq(A. M. Appendix Then Eq(A. M. b] × [a. . . M ) ∈ [a. . . .3) converges to x. M ) then m = M. M. .

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123–130. 32 local stability of the zero equilibrium. 1. 7 repeller. 17. 25 oscillate about zero. 57 Plant-herbivore system. 72–75.Index basin of attraction of a two cycle. 180–182. 7 periodic solutions with the same period. 18 saddle point. 129 positive equilibrium. 38 sink. 30 217 locally asymptotically stable. 129 forbidden set. 38 Discrete Epidemic Models. 43–46. 70 May’s host parasitoid model. 6 local asymptotic stability of a two cycle. 49–51. 3 convergence to period-two solutions. 192–200 oscillate about x. 5 Flour Beetle Model. 25 open problems and conjectures. 29 existence of prime period-two solution. 9–14 global attractor. 6 globally asymptotically stable. 16 gingerbreadman map. 17 full limiting sequence. 31 global attractivity of the positive equilibrium. 7 semicycle analysis. 128 equilibrium point. 25 nonoscillatory. 38 classification of equation types. 41–42. 15 full limiting solution. 75 global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium. 35 existence of solutions. 6 invariant. 9 negative semicycle. 5. 6 Lyness’ equation. 66. 71 invariant interval. 75 negative feedback condition. 128 population model. 78 Riccati number. 15 linearized stability analysis. 2 fixed point. 134– 136. 24–28 signum invariant. 2. 6 locally stable. 2. 66 Pielou’s equation. 138–139. 64–68. 9. 33 Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model. 9 positive semicycle. 6. 7 . 7 Riccati difference equation. 2. 24 prime period p solution. 5. 163–166. 25 periodic solution. 183 linearized stability theorem. 36 local stability of the positive equilibrium . 184–189 limiting solution.

47–48 (1. 6 stability of equilibrium. 10 stable manifold. 6 unstable manifold. 3)-type. 2)-type. 1)-type. 137 (3. 189 trichotomy character. 1)-type. 131 (2. 42. 25 table of invariant intervals. 8 stable manifold theorem in the plane. 7 strictly oscillatory. 183 unstable equilibrium.218 source. 167 (3. 69–70 (2. 3)-type. 8 INDEX . 77–78 (2. 3)-type. 53–54 (1. 168 type of equation (1. 1)-type. 141 (3. 2)-type. 2)-type. 5 stability trichotomy.

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