# DYNAMICS of

SECOND ORDER

RATIONAL DIFFERENCE

EQUATIONS

With Open Problems and Conjectures

CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC

DYNAMICS of

SECOND ORDER

RATIONAL DIFFERENCE

EQUATIONS

M. R. S. Kulenovi´c

G. Ladas

Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

With Open Problems and Conjectures

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International Standard Book Number 1-58488-275-1

Library of Congress Card Number 20010370

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kulenovi´ c, M.R.S. (Mustafa R.S.)

Dynamics of second order rational difference equations : with

open problems and conjectures / M.R.S. Kulenovi´ c, G. Ladas.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 1-58488-275-1

1. Difference equations—Numerical solutions. I. Ladas, G.E.

II. Title.

QA431 .K84 2001

515

′

.625—dc21 20010370

disclaimer Page 1 Monday, June 18, 2001 9:53 AM

Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Introduction and Classiﬁcation of Equation Types 1

1 Preliminary Results 5

1.1 Deﬁnitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 Limiting Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.6 The Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.7 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2 Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals 29

2.1 Equilibrium Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2.3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? . . . . . . . . . 33

2.5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When

C = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

2.8 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2.9 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3 (1, 1)-Type Equations 47

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3.3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

3.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

v

vi Contents

4 (1, 2)-Type Equations 53

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

A+Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

- Pielou’s Equation . . . . . . 57

4.5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.7.1 The Case p < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4.7.2 The Case p = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.7.3 The Case p > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.8 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5 (2, 1)-Type Equations 69

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

5.2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Cx

n−1

- Lyness’ Equation . . . . . . . 70

5.3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

5.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6 (2, 2)-Type Equations 77

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

6.2 The Case γ = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

- Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . . 78

6.3 The Case γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

6.4 The Case γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

6.4.2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.4.3 Global Stability and Boundedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

6.5 The Case β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

6.5.1 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

6.5.2 The Case q < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

6.5.3 The Case q > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

6.6 The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

6.6.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . . . . . . . . 93

6.6.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

6.6.3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

6.6.4 Global Behavior of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

6.7 The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6.7.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

6.7.2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

6.7.3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1 . . . . . . 105

6.7.4 Global Attractivity When q < 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Contents vii

6.7.5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6.8 The Case α = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

6.8.1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

6.8.2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

6.9 The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

6.9.1 Existence of a Two Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

6.9.2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

6.9.3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

6.9.4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

6.10 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7 (1, 3)-Type Equations 131

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

7.2 The Case β = γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

7.3 The Case α = γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

7.4 The Case α = β = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

7.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

8 (3, 1)-Type Equations 137

8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

8.2 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

9 (2, 3)-Type Equations 141

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

9.2 The Case γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

9.2.1 Boundedness of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

9.2.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

9.2.3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

9.2.4 Global Asymptotic Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

9.3 The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

9.3.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . . . . . . . . 150

9.3.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

9.3.3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

9.3.4 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

9.3.5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q +

q

2

r

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

9.4 The Case α = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

9.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

9.4.2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

9.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

viii Contents

10 (3, 2)-Type Equations 167

10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

10.2 The Case C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

10.2.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

10.2.2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

10.3 The Case B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

10.3.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

10.3.2 Global Stability When p ≥ r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

10.3.3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

10.4 The Case A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

10.4.1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

10.4.2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

10.5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

11 The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

183

11.1 Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

11.2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

11.3 Convergence Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

11.3.1 Global Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

11.4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations 201

Bibliography 211

Index 217

Preface

In this monograph, we present the known results and derive several new ones on the

boundedness, the global stability, and the periodicity of solutions of all rational diﬀerence

equations of the form

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1)

where the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C and the initial conditions x

−1

and x

0

are nonneg-

ative real numbers.

We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own

right and furthermore we believe that these results oﬀer prototypes towards the devel-

opment of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear diﬀerence

equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results which we develop in

this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in ana-

lyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other

applications.

It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains, as special cases, a large number of equations

whose dynamics have not been thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge

for further investigation. To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjec-

tures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding

of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations.

Chapter 1 contains some basic deﬁnitions and some general results which are used

throughout the book. In this sense, this is a self-contained monograph and the main

prerequisite that the reader needs to understand the material presented here and to be

able to attack the open problems and conjectures is a good foundation in analysis. In an

appendix, at the end of this monograph, we present some global attractivity results for

higher order diﬀerence equations which may be useful for extensions and generalizations.

In Chapter 2 we present some general results about periodic solutions and invariant

intervals of Eq(1). In particular we present necessary and suﬃcient conditions for Eq(1)

to have period-two solutions and we also present a table of invariant intervals.

In Chapters 3 to 11 we present the known results and derive several new ones on the

various types of equations which comprise Eq(1).

Every chapter in this monograph contains several open problems and conjectures

related to the particular equation which is investigated and its generalizations.

ix

Acknowledgements

This monograph is the outgrowth of lecture notes and seminars which were given at the

University of Rhode Island during the last ﬁve years. We are thankful to Professors R.

D. Driver, E. A. Grove, J. Hoag, W. Kosmala, L. F. Martins, O. Merino, S. Schultz,

and W. S. Sizer and to our graduate students A. M. Amleh, W. Briden, E. Camouzis,

C. A. Clark, K. Cunningham, R. C. DeVault, H. El-Metwally, J. Feuer, C. Gibbons, E.

Janowski, C. Kent, L. McGrath, M. Predescu, N. Prokup, M. Radin, I. W. Rodrigues,

C. T. Teixeira, S. Valicenti, and K. P. Wilkinson for their enthusiastic participation and

useful suggestions which helped to improve the exposition.

xi

To

Senada and Theodora

Introduction and Classiﬁcation of

Equation Types

In this monograph, we present the known results and derive several new ones on the

boundedness, the global stability, and the periodicity of solutions of all rational diﬀerence

equations of the form

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1)

where the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C are nonnegative real numbers and the initial con-

ditions x

−1

and x

0

are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

> 0 for all n ≥ 0.

We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own

right and furthermore we believe that these results oﬀer prototypes towards the devel-

opment of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear diﬀerence

equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results which we develop in

this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in ana-

lyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other

applications.

It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains as special cases, a large number of equa-

tions whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. To this end we pose

several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further

interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional

generalizations.

Eq(1) includes among others the following well known classes of equations:

1. The Riccati diﬀerence equation when

γ = C = 0.

This equation is studied in many textbooks on diﬀerence equations, such as [1], [21],

[41], [42], etc. See Section 1.6 where, in addition to the basic description of the solutions

1

2 Introduction and Classiﬁcation

of the Riccati equation, we introduce the forbidden set of the equation. This is the

set F of all initial conditions x

0

∈ R through which the equation

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A + Bx

n

(2)

is not well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. Hence the solution {x

n

} of Eq(2) exists for all n ≥ 0,

if and only if x

0

/ ∈ F.

The problem of existence of solutions for diﬀerence equations is of paramount

importance but so far has been systematically neglected. See [13], [18], [32], [69], and

Section 1.6 for some results in this regard.

Throughout this monograph we pose several open problems related to the existence

of solutions of some simple equations with the hope that their investigation may throw

some light into this very diﬃcult problem.

An example of such a problem is the following:

Open Problem Find all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R×R through which the equa-

tion

x

n+1

= −1 +

x

n−1

x

n

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. See [13].

2. Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model when

α = γ = B = 0.

See ([42], p. 75), [55], [66], [67], and Section 4.4.

We believe that the techniques which we develop in this monograph to understand

the dynamics of Eq(1) will also be of paramount importance in analyzing the equations

in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. For

example, it is interesting to note the similarities of the dynamics of the population model

x

n+1

= α + βx

n−1

e

−x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and the rational equation

x

n+1

=

α + αx

n

+ βx

n−1

1 + x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

See [24] and Sections 2.7 and 10.2.

3. Lyness’ equation when

γ = A = B = 0.

See [42], [44], [49], [57], and Section 5.2. This is a fascinating equation with many

interesting extensions and generalizations. A characteristic feature of this equation is

that it possesses an invariant which can be used to understand the character of its

Introduction and Classiﬁcation 3

solutions. Without the use of this invariant we are still unable to show, for example,

that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

α + x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

where α ∈ (0, ∞), is bounded.

It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains, as special cases, a large number of equations

whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet.

For convenience we classify all the special cases of Eq(1) as follows.

Let k and l be positive integers from the set {1, 2, 3}. We will say that a special case

of Eq(1) is of (k, l)-type if the equation is of the form of Eq(1) with k positive parameters

in the numerator and l positive parameters in the denominator.

For example the following equations

x

n+1

=

x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

γ + x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

are of types (1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 1), and (2, 3) respectively.

In this sense, Eq(1) contains 49 equations as follows:

9 equations of type (1, 1)

9 equations of type (1, 2)

9 equations of type (2, 1)

9 equations of type (2, 2)

3 equations of type (1, 3)

3 equations of type (3, 1)

3 equations of type (2, 3)

3 equations of type (3, 2)

1 equation of type (3, 3).

Of these 49 equations, 21 are either trivial, or linear, or of the Riccati type. The

remaining 28 are quite interesting nonlinear diﬀerence equations. Some of them have

been recently investigated and have led to the development of some general theory about

diﬀerence equations. See [7], [15], [28], [29], [42], [43], [45] and [52]-[54]. However to this

day, many special cases of Eq(1) are not thoroughly understood yet and remain a great

challenge for further investigation.

Our goal in this monograph is to familiarize readers with the recent techniques and

results related to Eq(1) and its extensions, and to bring to their attention several Open

Research Problems and Conjectures related to this equation and its functional

generalization.

Chapter 1

Preliminary Results

In this chapter we state some known results and prove some new ones about diﬀerence

equations which will be useful in our investigation of Eq(1).

The reader may just glance at the results in this chapter and return for the details

when they are needed in the sequel. See also [1], [4], [16], [21], [22], [33], [34], [41], [63],

and [68].

1.1 Deﬁnitions of Stability and Linearized Stability

Analysis

Let I be some interval of real numbers and let

f : I ×I →I

be a continuously diﬀerentiable function.

Then for every set of initial conditions x

0

, x

−1

∈ I, the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.1)

has a unique solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

A point x ∈ I is called an equilibrium point of Eq(1.1) if

x = f(x, x);

that is,

x

n

= x for n ≥ 0

is a solution of Eq(1.1), or equivalently, x is a ﬁxed point of f.

Deﬁnition 1.1.1 Let x be an equilibrium point of Eq(1.1).

5

6 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

(i) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called locally stable if for every ε > 0, there

exists δ > 0 such that for all x

0

, x

−1

∈ I with |x

0

−x| +|x

−1

−x| < δ,

we have

|x

n

−x| < ε for all n ≥ −1.

(ii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called locally asymptotically stable if it is

locally stable, and if there exists γ > 0 such that for all x

0

, x

−1

∈ I with |x

0

−x| +

|x

−1

−x| < γ,

we have

lim

n→∞

x

n

= x.

(iii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called a global attractor if for every x

0

, x

−1

∈ I

we have

lim

n→∞

x

n

= x.

(iv) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called globally asymptotically stable if it is

locally stable and a global attractor.

(v) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called unstable if it is not stable.

(vi) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is called a source, or a repeller, if there exists r > 0

such that for all x

0

, x

−1

∈ I with 0 < |x

0

−x| +|x

−1

−x| < r, there exists N ≥ 1

such that

|x

N

−x| ≥ r.

Clearly a source is an unstable equilibrium.

Let

p =

∂f

∂u

(x, x) and q =

∂f

∂v

(x, x)

denote the partial derivatives of f(u, v) evaluated at the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1).

Then the equation

y

n+1

= py

n

+ qy

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.2)

is called the linearized equation associated with Eq(1.1) about the equilibrium point x.

Theorem 1.1.1 (Linearized Stability)

(a) If both roots of the quadratic equation

λ

2

−pλ −q = 0 (1.3)

lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1, then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is locally

asymptotically stable.

1.2. The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane 7

(b) If at least one of the roots of Eq(1.3) has absolute value greater than one, then the

equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is unstable.

(c) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to lie in the open

unit disk |λ| < 1, is

|p| < 1 −q < 2. (1.4)

In this case the locally asymptotically stable equilibrium x is also called a sink.

(d) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value

greater than one is

|q| > 1 and |p| < |1 −q| .

In this case x is a repeller.

(e) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for one root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value

greater than one and for the other to have absolute value less than one is

p

2

+ 4q > 0 and |p| > |1 −q| .

In this case the unstable equilibrium x is called a saddle point.

(f ) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for a root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value

equal to one is

|p| = |1 −q|

or

q = −1 and |p| ≤ 2.

In this case the equilibrium x is called a nonhyperbolic point.

Deﬁnition 1.1.2 (a) A solution {x

n

} of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with period p

if

x

n+p

= x

n

for all n ≥ −1. (1.5)

(b) A solution {x

n

} of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with prime period p, or a

p-cycle if it is periodic with period p and p is the least positive integer for which

(1.5) holds.

1.2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane

Let T be a diﬀeomorphism in I × I, i.e., one-to-one, smooth mapping, with smooth

inverse.

Assume that p ∈ I ×I is a saddle ﬁxed point of T, i.e., T(p) = p and the Jacobian

J

T

(p) has one eigenvalue s with |s| < 1 and one eigenvalue u with |u| > 1.

8 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Let v

s

be an eigenvector corresponding to s and let v

u

be an eigenvector correspond-

ing to u.

Let S be the stable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose forward orbits

(under iteration by T)

p, T(p), T

2

(p), . . .

converge to p.

Let U be the unstable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose backward

orbits (under iteration by the inverse of T)

p, T

−1

(p), T

−2

(p), . . .

converge to p. Then, both S and U are one dimensional manifolds (curves) that contain

p. Furthermore, the vectors v

s

and v

u

are tangent to S and U at p, respectively.

The map T for Eq(1.1) is found as follows:

Set

u

n

= x

n−1

and v

n

= x

n

for n ≥ 0.

Then

u

n+1

= x

n

and v

n+1

= f(v

n

, u

n

) for n ≥ 0

and so

T

u

v

=

v

f(v, u)

.

Therefore the eigenvalues of the Jacobian J

T

x

x

**at the equilibrium point x of Eq(1.1)
**

are the roots of Eq(1.3).

In this monograph, the way we will make use of the Stable Manifold Theorem in our

investigation of the rational diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.6)

is as follows:

Under certain conditions the positive equilibrium of Eq(1.6) will be a saddle point

and under the same conditions Eq(1.6) will have a two cycle

. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (1.7)

which is locally asymptotically stable. Under these conditions, the two cycle (1.7) cannot

be a global attractor of all non-equilibrium solutions. See, for example, Sections 6.6 and

6.9.

1.3. Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium 9

1.3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equi-

librium

When zero is an equilibrium point of the Eq(1.6), which we are investigating in this

monograph (with β > 0), then the following theorem will be employed to establish

conditions for its global asymptotic stability. Amazingly the same theorem is a powerful

tool for establishing the global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium of several

biological models. See, for example, [31] and [48].

Theorem 1.3.1 ([31]. See also [48], and [70]) Consider the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f

0

(x

n

, x

n−1

)x

n

+ f

1

(x

n

, x

n−1

)x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.8)

with nonnegative initial conditions and

f

0

, f

1

∈ C[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), [0, 1)].

Assume that the following hypotheses hold:

(i) f

0

and f

1

are non-increasing in each of their arguments;

(ii) f

0

(x, x) > 0 for all x ≥ 0;

(iii) f

0

(x, y) + f

1

(x, y) < 1 for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞).

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(1.8) is globally asymptotically stable.

1.4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium

Unfortunately when it comes to establishing the global attractivity of the positive equi-

librium of the Eq(1.6) which we are investigating in this monograph, there are not

enough results in the literature to cover all various cases. We strongly believe that the

investigation of the various special cases of our equation has already played and will

continue to play an important role in the development of the stability theory of general

diﬀerence equations of orders greater than one.

The ﬁrst theorem, which has also been very useful in applications to mathematical

biology, see [31] and [48], was really motivated by a problem in [35].

Theorem 1.4.1 ([31]. See also [35], [48], and ([42], p. 53). Let I ⊆ [0, ∞) be some

interval and assume that f ∈ C[I ×I, (0, ∞)] satisﬁes the following conditions:

(i) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;

(ii) Eq(1.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x ∈ I and the function f(x, x)

satisﬁes the negative feedback condition:

(x −x)(f(x, x) −x) < 0 for every x ∈ I −{x}.

Then every positive solution of Eq(1.1) with initial conditions in I converges to x.

10 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

The following theorem was inspired by the results in [55] that deal with the global

asymptotic stability of Pielou’s equation (see Section 4.4), which is a special case of

the equation that we are investigating in this monograph.

Theorem 1.4.2 ([42], p. 27) Assume

(i) f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)];

(ii) f(x, y) is nonincreasing in x and decreasing in y;

(iii) xf(x, x) is increasing in x;

(iv) The equation

x

n+1

= x

n

f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.9)

has a unique positive equilibrium x.

Then x is globally asymptotically stable.

Theorem 1.4.3 ([27]) Assume

(i) f ∈ C[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), (0, ∞)];

(ii) f(x, y) is nonincreasing in each argument;

(iii) xf(x, y) is nondecreasing in x;

(iv) f(x, y) < f(y, x) ⇐⇒x > y;

(v) The equation

x

n+1

= x

n−1

f(x

n−1

, x

n

), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.10)

has a unique positive equilibrium x.

Then x is a global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(1.10).

The next result is known as the stability trichotomy result:

Theorem 1.4.4 ([46]) Assume

f ∈ C

1

[[0, ∞) ×[0, ∞), [0, ∞)]

is such that

x

∂f

∂x

+ y

∂f

∂y

< f(x, y) for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). (1.11)

Then Eq(1.1) has stability trichotomy, that is exactly one of the following three cases

holds for all solutions of Eq(1.1):

(i) lim

n→∞

x

n

= ∞ for all (x

−1

, x

0

) = (0, 0) .

(ii) lim

n→∞

x

n

= 0 for all initial points and 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.1).

(iii) lim

n→∞

x

n

= x ∈ (0, ∞) for all (x

−1

, x

0

) = (0, 0) and x is the only positive equi-

librium of Eq(1.1).

1.4. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium 11

Very often the best strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(1.1) is

to work in the regions where the function f(x, y) is monotonic in its arguments. In this

regard there are four possible scenarios depending on whether f(x, y) is nondecreasing

in both arguments, or nonincreasing in both arguments, or nonincreasing in one and

nondecreasing in the other.

The next two theorems are slight modiﬁcations of results which were obtained in [54]

and were developed while we were working on a special case of the equation that we are

investigating in this monograph. (See Section 6.9.) The ﬁrst theorem deals with the case

where the function f(x, y) is non-decreasing in x and non-increasing in y and the second

theorem deals with the case where the function f(x, y) is non-increasing in x and non-

decreasing in y. Theorems 1.4.8 and 1.4.7 below are new and deal with the remaining

two cases relative to the monotonic character of f(x, y). See Sections 6.4 and 6.8 where

these theorems are utilized. See also the Appendix, at the end of this monograph, which

describes the extension of these results to higher order diﬀerence equations.

Theorem 1.4.5 ([54]) Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in x ∈ [a, b] for each y ∈ [a, b], and f(x, y) is non-

increasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

f(m, M) = m and f(M, m) = M,

then m = M.

Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-

verges to x.

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(M

i−1

, m

i−1

) and m

i

= f(m

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

1

≤ M

0

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 2i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

12 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Then

M ≥ limsup

i→∞

x

i

≥ liminf

i→∞

x

i

≥ m (1.12)

and by the continuity of f,

m = f(m, M) and M = f(M, m).

Therefore in view of (b),

m = M

from which the result follows. 2

Theorem 1.4.6 ([54]) Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y) is non-increasing in x ∈ [a, b] for each y ∈ [a, b], and f(x, y) is non-

decreasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x ∈ [a, b];

(b) The diﬀerence equation Eq(1.1) has no solutions of prime period two in [a, b].

Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) converges

to x.

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, M

i−1

) and m

i

= f(M

i−1

, m

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

1

≤ M

0

,

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 2i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then clearly (1.12) holds and by the continuity of f,

m = f(M, m) and M = f(m, M).

In view of (b),

m = M

from which the result follows. 2

1.4. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium 13

Theorem 1.4.7 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y) is non-increasing in each of its arguments;

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

f(m, m) = M and f(M, M) = m,

then m = M.

Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-

verges to x.

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

) and m

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

1

≤ M

0

,

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 2i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then clearly (1.12) holds and by the continuity of f,

m = f(M, M) and M = f(m, m).

In view of (b),

m = M = x

from which the result follows. 2

Theorem 1.4.8 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b] ×[a, b] →[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;

(b) The equation

f(x, x) = x,

has a unique positive solution.

Then Eq(1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(1.1) con-

verges to x.

14 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

) and m

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

1

≤ M

0

,

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 2i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then clearly the inequality (1.12) is satisﬁed and by the continuity of f,

m = f(m, m) and M = f(M, M).

In view of (b),

m = M = x,

from which the result follows. 2

1.5 Limiting Solutions

The concept of limiting solutions was introduced by Karakostas [37] (see also [40]) and

is a useful tool in establishing that under certain conditions a solution of a diﬀerence

equation which is bounded from above and from below has a limit.

In this section we ﬁrst give a self-contained version of limiting solutions the way we

will use them in this monograph.

Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J ×J, J], and let k ≥ 1 be a positive

integer. Assume that {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

is a solution of Eq(1.1) such that

A ≤ x

n

≤ B for all n ≥ −1,

where A, B ∈ J. Let L be a limit point of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

(For example L is the

limit superior S or the limit inferior I of the solution). Now with the above hypotheses,

we will show that there exists a solution {L

n

}

∞

n=−k

of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n ≥ −k + 1, . . . (1.13)

1.5. Limiting Solutions 15

such that

L

0

= L

and for every N ≥ −k, the term L

N

is a limit point of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

The solution {L

n

}

∞

n=−k

is called a limiting solution of Eq(1.13) associated with the

solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(1.1).

Karakostas takes k = ∞and calls the solution {L

n

}

∞

n=−∞

a full limiting sequence

of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), (1.14)

associated with the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(1.1). (See Theorem 1.5.2 below.)

We now proceed to show the existence of a limiting solution {L

n

}

∞

n=−k

.

Clearly there exists a subsequence {x

n

i

}

∞

i=1

of {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

such that

lim

i→∞

x

n

i

= L.

Next the subsequence {x

n

i

−1

}

∞

i=1

of {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

also lies in interval [A, B] and so it has a

further subsequence {x

n

i

j

}

∞

j=1

which converges to some limit which we call L

−1

. There-

fore,

lim

i→∞

x

n

i

j

= L and lim

i→∞

x

n

i

j

−1

= L

−1

.

Continuing in this way and by considering further and further subsequences we obtain

numbers L

−2

, L

−3

, . . . , L

−k

and a subsequence {x

n

j

}

∞

n=−1

such that

lim

j→∞

x

n

j

= L

lim

j→∞

x

n

j

−1

= L

−1

. . .

lim

j→∞

x

n

j

−k

= L

−k

.

Let {

n

}

∞

n=−k

be the solution of Eq(1.13) with

−k

= L

−k

and

−k+1

= L

−k+1

.

Then clearly,

−k+2

= f(

−k+1

,

−k

) = f(L

−k+1

, L

−k

)

= lim

j→∞

f(x

n

j

−k+1

, x

n

j

−k

) = lim

j→∞

x

n

j

−k+2

= L

−k+2

.

It follows by induction that the sequence

L

−k

, L

−k+1

, . . . , L

−1

, L

0

= L =

0

, L

1

=

1

, . . .

satisﬁes Eq(1.13) and every term of this sequence is a limit point of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

The following result, which is a consequence of the above discussion, is stated in the

way we will use it in this monograph:

16 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Theorem 1.5.1 Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J ×J, J], and let k ≥ 1

be a positive integer. Suppose that {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

is a bounded solution of Eq(1.1) with limit

inferior I and limit superior S, with I, S ∈ J. Then Eq(1.13) has two solutions {I

n

}

∞

n=−k

and {S

n

}

∞

n=−k

with the following properties:

I

0

= I, S

0

= S

and

I

n

, S

n

∈ [I, S] for n ≥ −k.

We now state the complete version of full limiting sequences, as developed by Karakostas.

Theorem 1.5.2 ([37]) Let J be some interval of real numbers, f ∈ C[J

ν+1

, J], and let

{x

n

}

∞

n=−ν

be a bounded solution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, . . . , x

n−ν

), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.15)

with

I = liminf

n→∞

x

n

, S = limsup

n→∞

x

n

and with I, S ∈ J.

Let Z denote the set of all integers {. . . , −1, 0, 1, . . .}. Then there exist two solutions

{I

n

}

∞

n=−∞

and {S

n

}

∞

n=−∞

of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, . . . , x

n−ν

) (1.16)

which satisfy the equation for all n ∈ Z, with

I

0

= I, S

0

= S, I

n

, S

n

∈ [I, S] for all n ∈ Z

and such that for every N ∈ Z, I

N

and S

N

are limit points of {x

n

}

∞

n=−ν

.

Furthermore for every m ≤ −ν, there exist two subsequences {x

r

n

} and {x

l

n

} of the

solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−ν

such that the following are true:

lim

n→∞

x

r

n

+N

= I

N

and lim

n→∞

x

l

n

+N

= S

N

for every N ≥ m.

The solutions {I

n

}

∞

n=−∞

and {S

n

}

∞

n=−∞

of the diﬀerence equation (1.16) are called

full limiting solutions of Eq(1.16) associated with the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−k

of Eq(1.15).

See [23] and [25] for an application of Theorem 1.5.2 to diﬀerence equations of the form

x

n+1

=

k

i=0

A

i

x

n−i

, n = 0, 1, . . .

which by the change of variables x

n

=

1

y

n

reduce to rational diﬀerence equations of the

form

y

n+1

=

1

k

i=0

A

i

y

n−i

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

1.6. The Riccati Equation 17

1.6 The Riccati Equation

A diﬀerence equation of the form

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.17)

where the parameters α, β, A, B and the initial condition x

0

are real numbers is called a

Riccati diﬀerence equation.

To avoid degenerate cases, we will assume that

B = 0 and αB −βA = 0. (1.18)

Indeed when B = 0, Eq(1.17) is a linear equation and when αB − βA = 0, Eq(1.17)

reduces to

x

n+1

=

βA

B

+ βx

n

A + Bx

n

=

β

B

for all n ≥ 0.

The set of initial conditions x

0

∈ R through which the denominator A+Bx

n

in Eq(1.17)

will become zero for some value of n ≥ 0 is called the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17).

One of our goals in this section is to determine the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17). It

should be mentioned here that there is practically nothing known about the forbidden

set of Eq(1) (when the parameters α, β, γ, A, B, C and the initial conditions x

−1

, x

0

are

all real numbers) other than the material presented here, which is extracted from [32].

(See also [13] and [69].)

The other goal we have is to describe in detail the long- and short-term behavior of

solutions of Eq(1.17) when x

0

/ ∈ F.

The ﬁrst result in this section addresses a very special case of Eq(1.17) regarding

period-two solutions. The proof is straightforward and will be omitted.

Theorem 1.6.1 Assume that (1.18) holds and that Eq(1.17) possesses a prime period-

two solution. Then

β + A = 0. (1.19)

Furthermore when (1.19) holds every solution of Eq(1.17) with

x

0

=

β

B

(1.20)

is periodic with period two.

In the sequel, in addition to (1.18), we will assume that

β + A = 0. (1.21)

18 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Now observe that the change of variable

x

n

=

β + A

B

w

n

−

A

B

for n ≥ 0 (1.22)

transforms Eq(1.17) into the diﬀerence equation

w

n+1

= 1 −

R

w

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.23)

where

R =

βA −αB

(β + A)

2

is a nonzero real number, called the Riccati number of Eq(1.17).

It is interesting to note that the four parameters of Eq(1.17) have been reduced to

the single parameter R of Eq(1.23). If we set

y = g(w) = 1 −

R

w

then we note that the two asymptotes

x = −

A

B

and y =

β

B

of the function

y = f(x) =

α + βx

A + Bx

have now been reduced to the two asymptotes

w = 0 and y = 1

of the function

y = 1 −

R

w

.

Also note that the signum of R is equal to the signum of the derivative

f

(x) =

βA −αB

(A + Bx)

2

.

For the remainder of this section we focus on Eq(1.23) and present its forbidden set F

and the character of its solutions. Similar results can be obtained for Eq(1.17) through

the change of variables (1.22).

From Eq(1.23) it follows that when

R <

1

4

1.6. The Riccati Equation 19

Eq(1.23) has the two equilibrium points w

−

and w

+

with

w

−

=

1 −

√

1 −4R

2

<

1 +

√

1 −4R

2

= w

+

and

|w

−

| < w

+

.

Also

w

−

< 0 if R < 0

and

w

−

> 0 if R ∈ (0,

1

4

).

When

R =

1

4

,

Eq(1.23) has exactly one equilibrium point namely,

w =

1

2

.

Finally, when

R >

1

4

,

Eq(1.23) has no equilibrium points.

Now observe that the change of variables

w

n

=

y

n+1

y

n

for n = 0, 1, . . .

with

y

0

= 1 and y

1

= w

0

reduces Eq(1.23) to the second order linear diﬀerence equation

y

n+2

−y

n+1

+ Ry

n

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.24)

which can be solved explicitly.

The forbidden set of Eq(1.23) is clearly the set of points where the sequence {y

n

}

∞

n=0

vanishes.

The next two theorems deal with the cases R <

1

4

and R =

1

4

, respectively, where

the characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) are real numbers. Note that in these two cases the

characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) are the equilibrium points of Eq(1.23).

20 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Theorem 1.6.2 Assume

R <

1

4

.

Then

w

−

=

1 −

√

1 −4R

2

and w

+

=

1 +

√

1 −4R

2

are the only equilibrium points of Eq(1.23).

The forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points

f

n

=

w

n−1

+

−w

n−1

−

w

n

+

−w

n

−

w

+

w

−

for n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.25)

When w

0

/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by

w

n

=

(w

0

−w

−

)w

n+1

+

−(w

+

−w

0

)w

n+1

−

(w

0

−w

−

)w

n

+

−(w

+

−w

0

)w

n

−

, n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.26)

It is now clear from Theorem 1.6.2 that

lim

n→∞

f

n

= w

−

,

and

f

n

< w

−

if R > 0

while

(f

n

−w

−

)(f

n+1

−w

−

) < 0 if R < 0.

The equilibrium w

+

is a global attractor as long as

w

0

/ ∈ F ∪ {w

−

}

and the equilibrium w

−

is a repeller.

Theorem 1.6.3 Assume

R =

1

4

.

Then

w =

1

2

is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.23).

The forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points

f

n

=

n −1

2n

for n = 1, 2, . . . , (1.27)

1.6. The Riccati Equation 21

which converges to the equilibrium from the left.

When w

0

/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by

w

n

=

1 + (2w

0

−1)(n + 1)

2 + 2(2w

0

−1)n

for n = 0, 1, . . . . (1.28)

From Theorem 1.6.3 it follows that the equilibrium w =

1

2

of Eq(1.23) is a global

attractor for all solutions with w

0

/ ∈ F but is locally unstable, more precisely, it is a sink

from the right and a source from the left.

Finally consider the case

R >

1

4

.

The characteristic roots of Eq(1.24) in this case are

λ

±

=

1

2

±i

√

4R −1

2

with

|λ

±

| =

√

R.

Let

φ ∈ (0,

π

2

)

be such that

cos φ =

1

2

√

R

and sin φ =

√

4R −1

2

√

R

.

Then

y

n

= R

n

2

(C

1

cos(nφ) + C

2

sin(nφ)), n = 0, 1, . . .

with

C

1

= y

0

= 1

and

√

R(C

1

cos φ + C

2

sin φ) = y

1

= w

0

.

It follows that

C

1

= 1 and C

2

=

2w

0

−1

√

4R −1

.

Hence

w

n

=

√

R

√

4R −1 cos(n + 1)φ + (2w

0

−1) sin(n + 1)φ

√

4R −1 cos(nφ) + (2w

0

−1) sin(nφ)

, n = 0, 1, . . . (1.29)

22 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

as long as the denominator is diﬀerent from zero, that is,

w

0

=

1

2

−

√

4R −1

2

cot(nφ) for n = 1, 2, . . . .

The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.

Theorem 1.6.4 Assume that

R >

1

4

and let φ ∈ (0,

π

2

) be such that

cos φ =

1

2

√

R

and sin φ =

√

4R −1

2

√

R

.

Then the forbidden set F of Eq(1.23) is the sequence of points

f

n

=

1

2

−

√

4R −1

2

cot(nφ) for n = 1, 2, . . . . (1.30)

When w

0

/ ∈ F, the solution of Eq(1.23) is given by (1.29).

Clearly when R >

1

4

the character of the solution {w

n

} and the forbidden set F

depends on whether or not the number φ ∈ (0,

π

2

) is a rational multiple of π.

Let θ ∈ (−

π

2

,

π

2

) be such that

cos θ =

√

4R −1

r

and sin θ =

2x

0

−1

r

where

r =

(4R −1)

2

+ (2x

0

−1)

2

.

Then we obtain,

w

n

=

√

R

cos(nφ + φ −θ)

cos(nφ −θ)

=

√

R

cos(nφ −θ) cos φ −sin(nφ −θ) sin φ

cos(nφ −θ)

=

√

R(cos φ −sin φtan(nφ −θ))

and so

w

n

=

1

2

−

√

4R −1

2

tan(nφ −θ), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.31)

from which the character of the solutions of Eq(1.23), when R >

1

4

, can now be easily

revealed.

For example, assume φ is a rational multiple of π, that is,

φ =

k

N

π ∈ (0,

π

2

) (1.32)

1.6. The Riccati Equation 23

for some

k, N ∈ {1, 2, . . .} with 2k < N.

Then

w

N

=

1

2

−

√

4R −1

2

tan(kπ −θ) =

1

2

−

√

4R −1

2

tan(−θ) = w

0

and so every solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic with period N.

Equivalently assume that

A =

1

4 cos

2

φ

with φ =

k

N

π

where

k, N ∈ {1, 2, . . .} and 2k < N,

then every solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic with period N.

The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.

Theorem 1.6.5 Assume that

φ =

k

p

π ∈ (0,

π

2

)

where k and p are positive comprimes and suppose that

cos φ =

1

2

√

R

and sin φ =

√

4R −1

2

√

R

,

or equivalently

4Rcos

2

(

k

p

π) = 1.

Then every solution of Eq(1.23) with

w

0

=

sin(n

k

p

π) −

√

4R −1 cos(n

k

p

π)

2 sin(n

k

p

π)

for n = 1, 2, . . . , p −1

is periodic with period p.

When the number φ in Theorem 1.6.5 is not a rational multiple of π, then the

following result is true:

Theorem 1.6.6 Assume that the number φ in Theorem 1.6.5 is not a rational multiple

of π. Then the following statements are true:

(i) No solution of Eq(1.23) is periodic.

(ii) The set of limit points of a solution of Eq(1.23) with w

0

/ ∈ F is dense in R.

24 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Proof. Statement (i) is true because,

w

k

= w

l

if and only if

tan(kφ −θ) = tan(lφ −θ)

if and only if for some integer N

kφ −θ −(lφ −θ) = Nπ

if and only if

(k −l)φ = Nπ

that is,

φ is a rational multiple of π.

The proof of statement (ii) is a consequence of the form of the solution of Eq(1.23) and

the fact that when φ is not a rational multiple of π, then the values

(nφ −θ)(mod π) for n = 0, 1, . . .

are dense in the interval (−

π

2

,

π

2

). 2

1.7 Semicycle Analysis

We strongly believe that a semicycle analysis of the solutions of a scalar diﬀerence equa-

tion is a powerful tool for a detailed understanding of the entire character of solutions

and often leads to straightforward proofs of their long term behavior.

In this section, we present some results about the semicycle character of solutions of

some general diﬀerence equations of the form

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.33)

under appropriate hypotheses on the function f.

First we give the deﬁnitions for the positive and negative semicycle of a solution of

Eq(1.33) relative to an equilibrium point x.

A positive semicycle of a solution {x

n

} of Eq(1.1) consists of a “string” of terms

{x

l

, x

l+1

, . . . , x

m

}, all greater than or equal to the equilibrium x, with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞

and such that

either l = −1, or l > −1 and x

l−1

< x

and

either m = ∞, or m < ∞ and x

m+1

< x.

1.7. Semicycle Analysis 25

A negative semicycle of a solution {x

n

} of Eq(1.33) consists of a “string” of terms

{x

l

, x

l+1

, . . . , x

m

}, all less than the equilibrium x, with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such

that

either l = −1, or l > −1 and x

l−1

≥ x

and

either m = ∞, or m < ∞ and x

m+1

≥ x.

Deﬁnition 1.7.1 (Oscillation)

(a) A sequence {x

n

} is said to oscillate about zero or simply to oscillate if the terms

x

n

are neither eventually all positive nor eventually all negative. Otherwise the

sequence is called nonoscillatory. A sequence {x

n

} is called strictly oscillatory

if for every n

0

≥ 0, there exist n

1

, n

2

≥ n

0

such that x

n

1

x

n

2

< 0.

(b) A sequence {x

n

} is said to oscillate about x if the sequence x

n

− x oscillates.

The sequence {x

n

} is called strictly oscillatory about x if the sequence x

n

−x

is strictly oscillatory.

The ﬁrst result was established in [28] while we were working on a special case of the

equation we are investigating in this monograph. (See Section 6.5.)

Theorem 1.7.1 ([28]) Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:

f(x, y) is decreasing in x for each ﬁxed y, and f(x, y) is increasing in y for each ﬁxed

x.

Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then except possibly for the ﬁrst semi-

cycle, every solution of Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length one.

Proof. Let {x

n

} be a solution of Eq(1.33) with at least two semicycles. Then there

exists N ≥ 0 such that either

x

N−1

< x ≤ x

N

or

x

N−1

≥ x > x

N

.

We will assume that

x

N−1

< x ≤ x

N

.

All other cases are similar and will be omitted. Then by using the monotonic character

of f(x, y) we have

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) < f(x, x) = x

and

x

N+2

= f(x

N+1

, x

N

) > f(x, x) = x.

Thus

x

N+1

< x < x

N+2

26 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

and the proof follows by induction. 2

The next result applies when the function f is decreasing in both arguments.

Theorem 1.7.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞)×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that f(x, y) is decreas-

ing in both arguments.

Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then every oscillatory solution of

Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length at most two.

Proof. Assume that {x

n

} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x

N−1

and x

N

in a positive semicycle

x

N−1

≥ x and x

N

≥ x

with at least one of the inequalities being strict. The proof in the case of negative

semicycle is similar and is omitted. Then by using the decreasing character of f we

obtain:

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) < f(x, x) = x

which completes the proof. 2

The next result applies when the function f is increasing in both arguments.

Theorem 1.7.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞)×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that f(x, y) is increas-

ing in both arguments.

Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Then except possibly for the ﬁrst semi-

cycle, every oscillatory solution of Eq(1.33) has semicycles of length one.

Proof. Assume that {x

n

} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x

N−1

and x

N

in a positive semicycle

x

N−1

≥ x and x

N

≥ x,

with at least one of the inequalities being strict. The proof in the case of negative

semicycle is similar and is omitted. Then by using the increasing character of f we

obtain:

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) > f(x, x) = x

which shows that the next term x

N+1

also belongs to the positive semicycle. It follows by

induction that all future terms of this solution belong to this positive semicycle, which

is a contradiction. 2

The next result applies when the function f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing

in y.

1.7. Semicycle Analysis 27

Theorem 1.7.4 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:

f(x, y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y, and f(x, y) is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed

x.

Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33).

Then, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, every oscillatory solution of Eq(1.33)

has semicycles of length at least two.

Furthermore, if we assume that

f(u, u) = x for every u (1.34)

and

f(x, y) < x for every x > y > x (1.35)

then {x

n

} oscillates about the equilibrium x with semicycles of length two or three, except

possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle which may have length one. The extreme in each semicycle

occurs in the ﬁrst term if the semicycle has two terms, and in the second term if the

semicycle has three terms.

Proof. Assume that {x

n

} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms x

N−1

and x

N

such that

x

N−1

< x ≤ x

N

.

Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) > f(x, x) = x

which shows that the next term x

N+1

also belongs to the positive semicycle. The proof

in the case

x

N−1

≥ x > x

N

,

is similar and is omitted.

Now also assume that {x

n

} is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms

x

N−1

and x

N

such that

x

N−1

> x

N

≥ x and x

N−2

< x.

Then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.34) we obtain

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) < f(x

N

, x

N

) = x

which shows that the positive semicycle has length two. If

x

N

> x

N−1

> x

then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.34) we obtain:

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) > f(x

N

, x

N

) = x

28 Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

and by using Condition (1.35) we ﬁnd

x

N+1

= f(x

N

, x

N−1

) < x

N

and the proof is complete.

2

Condition (1.34) is not enough to guarantee the above result. If, instead of Condition

(1.35), we assume

f(x, y) > x for every x > y > x. (1.36)

then Eq(1.33) has monotonic solutions.

Theorem 1.7.5 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that:

f(x, y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y, and f(x, y) is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed

x.

Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.33). Assume that f satisﬁes Conditions (1.34)

and (1.36).

Then if x

0

> x

−1

> x, the corresponding solution is increasing.

If, on the other hand, f satisﬁes Condition (1.34), and

f(x, y) < x for every x < y < x (1.37)

then if x

0

< x

−1

< x, the corresponding solution is decreasing.

Proof. First, assume that Condition (1.36) is satisﬁed and that x

0

> x

−1

> x. Then

by the monotonic character of f and (1.34), we obtain

x

1

= f(x

0

, x

−1

) > f(x

−1

, x

−1

) = x.

In view of Condition (1.36) we get

x

1

= f(x

0

, x

−1

) > x

0

.

and the proof follows by induction.

The proof of the remaining case is similar and will be omitted. 2

Chapter 2

Local Stability, Semicycles,

Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

2.1 Equilibrium Points

Here we investigate the equilibrium points of the general equation

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

+γx

n−1

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.1)

where

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞) with α +β + γ, B +C ∈ (0, ∞) (2.2)

and where the initial conditions x

−1

and x

0

are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such

that the right hand side of Eq(2.1) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

In view of the above restriction on the initial conditions of Eq(2.1), the equilibrium

points of Eq(2.1) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation

x =

α + (β +γ)x

A + (B +C)x

(2.3)

or equivalently

(B +C)x

2

−(β + γ −A)x −α = 0. (2.4)

Zero is an equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) if and only if

α = 0 and A > 0. (2.5)

When (2.5) holds, in addition to the zero equilibrium , Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium

if and only if

β +γ > A.

29

30 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

In fact in this case the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.1) is unique and is given by

x =

β +γ −A

B +C

. (2.6)

When

α = 0 and A = 0

the only equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) is positive and is given by

x =

β +γ

B +C

. (2.7)

Note that in view of Condition (2.2), when α = 0, the quantity β +γ is positive.

Finally when

α > 0

the only equilibrium point of Eq(2.1) is the positive solution

x =

β +γ −A +

(β + γ −A)

2

+ 4α(B + C)

2(B +C)

(2.8)

of the quadratic equation (2.4).

If we had allowed negative initial conditions then the negative solution of Eq(2.4)

would also be an equilibrium worth investigating. The problem of investigating Eq(2.1)

when the initial conditions and the coeﬃcients of the equation are real numbers is of

great mathematical importance and, except for our presentation in Section 1.6 about

the Riccati equation

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

A +Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . ,

there is very little known. (See [13], [18], [32], and [69] for some results in this regard.)

In summary, it is interesting to observe that when Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium

x, then x is unique, it satisﬁes Eqs(2.3) and (2.4), and it is given by (2.8). This ob-

servation simpliﬁes the investigation of the local stability of the positive equilibrium of

Eq(2.1).

2.2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium

Here we investigate the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1).

Set

f(u, v) =

α +βu + γv

A +Bu + Cv

and observe that

f

u

(u, v) =

(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)v

(A +Bu +Cv)

2

(2.9)

2.2. Stability of the Zero Equilibrium 31

and

f

v

(u, v) =

(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)u

(A +Bu +Cv)

2

. (2.10)

If x denotes an equilibrium point of Eq(2.1), then the linearized equation associated

with Eq(2.1) about the equilibrium point x is

z

n+1

−pz

n

−qz

n−1

= 0

where

p = f

u

(x, x) and q = f

v

(x, x).

The local stability character of x is now described by the linearized stability Theorem

1.1.1.

For the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1) we have

p =

β

A

and q =

γ

A

and so the linearized equation associated with Eq(2.1) about the zero equilibrium point

is

z

n+1

−

β

A

z

n

−

γ

A

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

For the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1), in addition to the local stability The-

orem 1.1.1, we have the luxury of the global stability Theorem 1.3.1. As a consequence

of these two theorems we obtain the following global result:

Theorem 2.2.1 Assume that A > 0. Then the zero equilibrium point of the equation

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

is globally asymptotically stable when

β + γ ≤ A

and is unstable when

β +γ > A.

Furthermore the zero equilibrium point is

a sink when A > β +γ

a saddle point when A < β +γ < A + 2β

a repeller when β +γ > A + 2β.

32 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

2.3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium

As we mentioned in Section 2.1, Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium when either

α = 0 and β +γ > A

or

α > 0.

In these cases the positive equilibrium x is unique, it satisﬁes Eqs(2.3) and (2.4), and it

is given by (2.8). By using the identity

(B +C)x

2

= (β + γ −A)x +α,

we see that

p = f

u

(x, x) =

(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)x

(A + (B +C)x)

2

=

(βA −αB) + (βC −γB)x

A

2

+ α(B +C) + (B +C)(A +β + γ)x

and

q = f

v

(x, x) =

(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)x

(A + (B +C)x)

2

=

(γA −αC) −(βC −γB)x

A

2

+α(B +C) + (B +C)(A +β +γ)x

.

Hence the conditions for the local asymptotic stability of x are (see Theorem 1.1.1) the

following:

|p| < 1 −q (2.11)

and

q > −1. (2.12)

Inequalities (2.11) and (2.12) are equivalent to the following three inequalities:

¸

A +β + γ + 2

βC −γB

B + C

¸

x > −α −

A

2

+ (βA −αB) −(γA −αC)

B +C

(2.13)

(A +β +γ)x > −α −

A

2

−(βA −αB) −(γA −αC)

B + C

(2.14)

¸

A +β + γ −

βC −γB

B +C

¸

x > −α −

A

2

+ (γA −αC)

B +C

. (2.15)

Out of these inequalities we will obtain explicit stability conditions by using the following

procedure:

First we observe that Inequalities (2.13)-(2.15), are equivalent to some inequalities

of the form

x > ρ

2.4. When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? 33

and/or

x < σ

for some ρ, σ ∈ [0, ∞).

Now if we set

F(u) = (B +C)u

2

−(β +γ −A)u −α,

it is clear that

F(x) = 0

and that

x > ρ if and only if F(ρ) < 0

while

x < σ if and only if F(σ) > 0.

2.4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same

Period?

The following four special examples of Eq(2.1)

x

n+1

=

1

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.16)

x

n+1

=

1

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.17)

x

n+1

=

1 +x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.18)

x

n+1

=

x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.19)

are remarkable in the sense that all positive solutions of each of these four nontrivial

equations are periodic with periods 2, 4, 5, and 6 respectively.

The following result characterizes all possible special cases of equations of the form

of Eq(2.1) with the property that every solution of the equation is periodic with the

same period. (See also [75], [73], and [74].)

Theorem 2.4.1 Let p ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that every positive solution

of Eq(2.1) is periodic with period p. Then the following statements are true:

(i) Assume C > 0. Then A = B = γ = 0.

(ii) Assume C = 0. Then γ(α +β) = 0.

34 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

Proof. Consider the solution with

x

−1

= 1 and x

0

∈ (0, ∞).

Then clearly

x

0

= x

p

and x

p−1

= x

−1

= 1

and so from Eq(2.1)

x

p

=

α +β + γx

p−2

A + B +Cx

p−2

= x

0

.

Hence

(A +B)x

0

+ (Cx

0

−γ)x

p−2

= α +β. (2.20)

(i) Assume that C > 0. Then we claim that

A = B = 0. (2.21)

Otherwise A +B > 0 and by choosing

x

0

> max

α +β

A +B

,

γ

C

¸

we see that (2.20) is impossible. Hence (2.21) holds. In addition to (2.21) we now

claim that also

γ = 0. (2.22)

Otherwise γ > 0 and by choosing

x

0

< min

α +β

A +B

,

γ

C

¸

we see that (2.20) is impossible. Thus (2.22) holds .

(ii) Assume C = 0 and, for the sake of contradiction, assume that

γ(α +β) > 0.

Then by choosing x

0

suﬃciently small, we see that (2.20) is impossible.

The proof is complete. 2

Corollary 2.4.1 Let p ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Assume that every positive solution of Eq(2.1)

is periodic with period p. Then up to a change of variables of the form

x

n

= λy

n

Eq(2.1) reduces to one of the equations (2.16)-(2.19) .

2.5. Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions 35

2.5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions

In this section we give necessary and suﬃcient conditions for Eq(2.1) to have a prime

period-two solution and we exhibit all prime period-two solutions of the equation. (See

[50].)

Furthermore we are interested in conditions under which every solution of Eq(2.1)

converges to a period-two solution in a nontrivial way according to the following con-

vention.

Convention Throughout this book when we say that “every solution of a certain

diﬀerence equation converges to a periodic solution with period p” we mean that every

solution converges to a, not necessarily prime, solution with period p and furthermore

the set of solutions of the equation with prime period p is nonempty.

Assume that

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2.1). Then

φ =

α +βψ +γφ

A +Bψ + Cφ

and

ψ =

α + βφ +γψ

A +Bφ +Cψ

from which we ﬁnd that

C(φ +ψ) = γ −β −A (2.23)

and when

C > 0 (2.24)

we also ﬁnd that

(B −C)φψ =

αC +β(γ −β −A)

C

. (2.25)

One can show that when

C = 0 and B > 0 (2.26)

Eq(2.1) has a prime period-two solution if and only if

γ = β + A. (2.27)

Furthermore when (2.26) and (2.27) hold

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2.1) if and only if

α + β(φ +ψ) = Bφψ with φ, ψ ∈ [0, ∞) and φ = ψ

36 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

or equivalently

φ >

β

B

, φ =

β +

√

β

2

+ αB

B

, and ψ =

α + βφ

−β +Bφ

. (2.28)

Next assume that (2.24) holds and that Eq(2.1) possesses a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .

Then it follows from (2.23) and (2.25) that one of the following three conditions must

be satisﬁed:

B = C, α = β = 0, and φψ = 0; (2.29)

γ > β + A and B = C, α = β = 0, and φψ ≥ 0; (2.30)

B > C, α + β > 0, and φψ > 0. (2.31)

When (2.29) holds, the two cycle is

. . . , 0,

γ −A

C

, 0,

γ −A

C

, . . . .

When (2.30) holds, the two cycle is

. . . , φ,

γ −A

C

−φ, φ,

γ −A

C

−φ, . . . with 0 ≤ φ <

γ −A

C

.

Finally when (2.31) holds, the values φ and ψ of the two cycle are given by the two roots

of the quadratic equation

t

2

−

γ −β −A

C

t +

αC +β(γ −β −A)

C(B −C)

= 0

and we should also require that the discriminant of this quadratic equation be positive.

That is,

α <

(γ −β −A)[B(γ −β −A) −C(γ + 3β −A)]

4C

2

. (2.32)

2.6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle

Let

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

be a two cycle of the diﬀerence equation (2.1).

Set

u

n

= x

n−1

and v

n

= x

n

for n = 0, 1, . . .

2.6. Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle 37

and write Eq(2.1) in the equivalent form:

u

n+1

= v

n

v

n+1

=

α+βv

n

+γu

n

A+Bv

n

+Cu

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Let T be the function on [0, ∞) ×[0, ∞) deﬁned by:

T

u

v

=

v

βv+γu+α

Bv+Cu+A

.

Then

φ

ψ

**is a ﬁxed point of T
**

2

, the second iterate of T. Furthermore

T

2

u

v

=

g(u, v)

h(u, v)

where

g(u, v) =

α +βv + γu

A + Bv +Cu

and h(u, v) =

α +β

α+βv+γu

A+Bv+Cu

+γv

A +B

α+βv+γu

A+Bv+Cu

+ Cv

.

The two cycle is locally asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix

J

T

2, evaluated at

φ

ψ

**lie inside the unit disk.
**

By deﬁnition

J

T

2

φ

ψ

=

¸

¸

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

¸

.

By computing the partial derivatives of g and h and by using the fact that

φ =

α +βψ + γφ

A +Bψ +Cφ

and ψ =

α +βφ + γψ

A + Bφ +Cψ

we ﬁnd the following identities:

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) =

(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)ψ

(A +Bψ +Cφ)

2

,

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ) =

(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)φ

(A +Bψ +Cφ)

2

,

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ) =

[(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)ψ][(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)ψ]

(A +Bφ +Cψ)

2

(A + Bψ +Cφ)

2

,

38 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) =

[(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)ψ][(βA −αB) −(γB −βC)φ]

(A + Bφ +Cψ)

2

(A +Bψ + Cφ)

2

+

(γA −αC) + (γB −βC)φ

(A +Bφ + Cψ)

2

.

Set

S =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) +

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

and

D =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) −

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ).

Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 (c) that both eigenvalues of J

T

2

φ

ψ

**lie inside the
**

unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if

|S| < 1 +D and D < 1.

See Sections 6.6, 6.9, and 7.4 for some applications.

Deﬁnition 2.6.1 (Basin of Attraction of a Two Cycle)

Let

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

be a two cycle of Eq(2.1). The basin of attraction of this two cycle is the set B of all

initial conditions (x

−1

, x

0

) through which the solution of Eq(2.1) converges to the two

cycle.

2.7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When

C = 0

In this section we consider the equation

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

+γx

n−1

A +Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.33)

where

α, β, γ, A, B ∈ [0, ∞) with α + β +γ, A +B ∈ (0, ∞)

and nonnegative initial conditions and obtain a signum invariant for its solutions which

will be used in the sequel (See Sections 4.7, 6.5, 6.7, and 10.2) to obtain conditions on

α, β, γ, A and B so that every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-two solution.

That is, every solution converges to a (not necessarily prime) period-two solution and

2.7. Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C = 0 39

there exist prime period-two solutions. (See also Section 10.2 where we present the

complete character of solutions of Eq(2.33).)

Now before we see that when B > 0 every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-

two solution if and only if (2.27) holds, we need the following result, the proof of which

follows by straightforward computations.

Lemma 2.7.1 Assume that (2.27) holds, and let {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(2.33).

Set

J

n

= α +β(x

n−1

+x

n

) −Bx

n−1

x

n

for n ≥ 0. (2.34)

Then the following statements are true:

(a)

J

n+1

=

β +A

A +Bx

n

J

n

for n ≥ 0.

In particular, the sign of the quantity J

n

is constant along each solution.

(b)

x

n+1

−x

n−1

=

J

n

A +Bx

n

for n ≥ 0.

In particular, one and only one of the following three statements is true for each solution

of Eq(2.33):

(i)

x

n+1

−x

n−1

= 0 for all n ≥ 0;

(ii)

x

n+1

−x

n−1

< 0 for all n ≥ 0;

(iii)

x

n+1

−x

n−1

> 0 for all n ≥ 0.

Clearly (i) holds, if and only if, (β + A)J

0

= 0. In this case, the solution {x

n

} is

periodic with period-two.

Statement (ii) holds if and only if J

0

< 0 and β+A > 0. In this case the subsequences

{x

2n

}

∞

n=0

and {x

2n−1

}

∞

n=0

of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=0

are both decreasing to ﬁnite limits and

so in this case the solution converges to a period-two solution.

Finally (iii) holds, if and only if J

0

> 0 and β +A > 0. In this case the subsequences

{x

2n

}

∞

n=0

and {x

2n−1

}

∞

n=0

of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=0

are both increasing and so if we can

show that they are bounded, the solution would converge to a period-two solution.

Now observe that

x

n+1

−x

n−1

=

β +A

A +Bx

n

(x

n

−x

n−2

) for n ≥ 1

40 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

and so

x

n+1

−x

n−1

= (x

1

−x

−1

)

n

¸

k=1

β +A

A + Bx

k

. (2.35)

We will now employ (2.35) to show that the subsequences of even and odd terms of

the solution are bounded. We will give the details for the subsequence of even terms.

The proof for the subsequence of odd terms is similar and will be omitted. To this end

assume, for the sake of contradiction, that the subsequence of even terms increases to

∞. Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that

ρ =

A +β

A + Bx

2N+1

A +β

A +Bx

2N

< 1.

Clearly for all n > N,

A +β

A +Bx

2n+1

A + β

A +Bx

2n

<

A + β

A +Bx

2N+1

A +β

A +Bx

2N

= ρ.

Set

K = |x

2N

−x

2N−2

|.

Then

|x

2N+2

−x

2N

| =

A + β

A +Bx

2N+1

A +β

A +Bx

2N

|x

2N

−x

2N−2

| < Kρ

|x

2N+4

−x

2N+2

| =

A + β

A + Bx

2N+3

A + β

A + Bx

2N+2

|x

2N+2

−x

2N

| < Kρ

2

and by induction

|x

2N+2m

−x

2N+2(m−1)

| < Kρ

m

for m = 1, 2, . . . .

But then

x

2N+2m

≤ |x

2N+2m

−x

2N+2m−2

| +. . . +|x

2N+2

−x

2N

| +x

2N

≤ K

m

¸

i=1

ρ

i

+x

2N

<

Kρ

1 −ρ

+x

2N

which contradicts the hypothesis that the subsequence of even terms is unbounded.

In summary we have established the following result.

Theorem 2.7.1 Assume B > 0. Then the following statements hold:

(a) Eq(2.33) has a prime period-two solution if and only if (2.27) holds.

(b) When (2.27) holds all prime period-two solutions

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

of Eq(2.33) are given by (2.28).

(c) When (2.27) holds every solution of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-two solution.

2.8. Invariant Intervals 41

2.8 Invariant Intervals

An invariant interval for Eq(2.1) is an interval I with the property that if two con-

secutive terms of the solution fall in I then all the subsequent terms of the solution also

belong to I. In other words I is an invariant interval for the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (2.36)

if x

N−1

, x

N

∈ I for some N ≥ 0, then x

n

∈ I for every n > N.

Invariant intervals for Eq(2.36) are determined from the intervals where the function

f(x, y) is monotonic in its arguments.

For Eq(2.1) the partial derivatives are given by (2.9) and (2.10) and are

f

x

(x, y) =

L +My

(A +Bx + Cy)

2

and f

y

(x, y) =

N −Mx

(A +Bx + Cy)

2

,

where

L = βA −αB, M = βC −γB, and N = γA −αC.

The following table gives the signs of f

x

and f

y

in all possible nondegenerate cases.

Case L M N Signs of derivatives f

x

and f

y

1 + + +

f

x

> 0

f

y

> 0 if x <

N

M

; f

y

< 0 if x >

N

M

2 + + 0 f

x

> 0 and f

y

< 0

3 + + − f

x

> 0 and f

y

< 0

4 + 0 + f

x

> 0 and f

y

> 0

5 + 0 0 f

x

> 0 and f

y

= 0

6 + − +

f

x

> 0 if y < −

L

M

; f

x

< 0 if y > −

L

M

f

y

> 0

7 0 + 0 f

x

> 0 and f

y

< 0

8 0 + − f

x

> 0 and f

y

< 0

9 0 − + f

x

< 0 and f

y

> 0

10 0 − 0 f

x

< 0 and f

y

> 0

11 − + −

f

x

> 0 if y > −

L

M

; f

x

< 0 if y < −

L

M

f

y

< 0

12 − 0 0 f

x

< 0 and f

y

= 0

13 − 0 − f

x

< 0 and f

y

< 0

14 − − + f

x

< 0 and f

y

> 0

15 − − 0 f

x

< 0 and f

y

> 0

16 − − −

f

x

< 0

f

y

> 0 if x >

N

M

; f

y

< 0 if x <

N

M

Using this table, we obtain the following table of invariant intervals for Eq(2.1).

42 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

Case Invariant intervals

1

[0,

N

M

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

<

N

M

[

N

M

,

(β−A)M−CN+

√

((β−A)M−NC)

2

+4BM(αM+γN)

2BM

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

>

N

M

and B > 0

[

N

M

,

αM+γN

(A−β)M+CN

] if B = 0 and (A−β)M +CN > 0

2

[0,

β−A+

√

(β−A)

2

+4Bα

2B

] if B > 0

[0,

α

A−β

] if B = 0, α > 0 and A > β

3

[0,

β−A+

√

(β−A)

2

+4Bα

2B

] if B > 0

[0,

α

A−β

] if B = 0, α > 0 and A > β

4 [0,

β+γ−A+

√

(β+γ−A)

2

+4α(B+C)

2(B+C)

] if B +C > 0

5

[

α

A

,

β−A+

√

(β−A)

2

+4αB

2B

] if B > 0

[

α

A

,

α

A−β

] if B = 0 and A > β

6

[0, −

L

M

] if

αM−(β+γ)L

AM−(B+C)L

< −

L

M

[−

L

M

,

(A−γ)M−BL+

√

((A−γ)M−BL)

2

+4CM(αM−βL)

−2CM

] if C = 0 and

βMK+αM−γL

BMK+AM−CL

> −

L

M

[−

L

M

,

βL−αM

(γ−A)M+BL

] if C = 0, (γ −A)M +BL > 0 and −(βM +BL)K ≥ αM +AL

7

[

γ

C

,

β

B

] if B > 0

[

γ

C

,

γ

2

C(γ−β)

] if B = 0 and β < γ

8

[0,

β

B

] if B = 0

[

γ

C

,

αC+γ

2

γ−βC

] if B = 0 and γ > βC

9

[0,

γ

C

] if C > 0

[k, K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α +βk + (γ −A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α +βK −Ak

10

[

β

B

,

γ

C

] if C > 0

[

β

B

,

β

2

B(β−γ)

] if C = 0 and β > γ

11

[

αM−L(β+γ)

AM−L(B+C)

, −

L

M

] if

αM−L(β+γ)

AM−L(B+C)

< −

L

M

[−

L

M

,

(β−A)M+LC+

√

((β−A)M+LC)

2

+4BM(αM−γL)

2BM

] if

αM−βL+γMK

AM−BL+CMK

> −

L

M

12

[

α(A+β)

A

2

+Bα

,

α

A

] if A > 0

[

β

B

,

β

B

+

α

β

] if A = 0 and β > 0

13

[0,

α

A

] if A > 0

[k, K] if A = 0 where k and K satisfy

α+(β+γ)k

B+C

≤ kK ≤

α+(β+γ)K

B+C

14

[0,

γ

C

] if C > 0

[k, K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α +βk + (γ −A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α +βK −Ak

15

[0,

γ

C

] if C > 0

[

β

B

,

αB+β

2

B(β−γ)

] if A = 0 and β > γ

16

[

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

,

N

M

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

<

N

M

[

N

M

,

(γ−A)M−BN+

√

((γ−A)M−BN)

2

+4BM(αM+βN)

2CM

] if

αM+βK+γNM

AM+BK+CNM

>

N

M

2.9. Open Problems and Conjectures 43

2.9 Open Problems and Conjectures

What is it that makes all solutions of a nonlinear diﬀerence equation periodic with the

same period?

For a linear equation, every solution is periodic with period p ≥ 2, if and only if

every root of the characteristic equation is a pth root of unity.

Open Problem 2.9.1 Assume that f ∈ C

1

[(0, ∞) × (0, ∞), (0, ∞)] is such that every

positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (2.37)

is periodic with period p ≥ 2.

Is it true that the linearized equation about a positive equilibrium point of Eq(2.37)

has the property that every one of its solutions is also periodic with the same period p?

What is it that makes every positive solution of a diﬀerence equation converge to a

periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 ?

Open Problem 2.9.2 Let f ∈ C

1

[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, ∞)] and let p ≥ 2 be an integer.

Find necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every nonnegative solution of the diﬀer-

ence equation (2.37) converges to a periodic solution with period p. In particular address

the case p = 2.

Open Problem 2.9.3 Let p ≥ 2 be an integer and assume that every positive solution

of Eq(2.1) with

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞)

converges to a solution with period p . Is it true that

p ∈ {2, 4, 5, 6}?

Open Problem 2.9.4 It is known (see Sections 2.7, 4.7, 6.5, and 6.7) that every pos-

itive solution of each of the following three equations

x

n+1

= 1 +

x

n−1

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.38)

x

n+1

=

1 +x

n−1

1 + x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.39)

x

n+1

=

x

n

+ 2x

n−1

1 + x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (2.40)

44 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

converges to a solution with (not necessarily prime) period-two:

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . . (2.41)

In each case, determine φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x

−1

and x

0

.

Conversely, if (2.41) is a period-two solution of Eq(2.38) or Eq(2.39) or Eq(2.40), de-

termine all initial conditions (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ (0, ∞)×(0, ∞) for which the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

converges to the period-two solution (2.41).

Conjecture 2.9.1 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(2.1) is bounded.

Open Problem 2.9.5 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B ∈ (0, ∞) and γ > β +A.

Determine the set of initial conditions x

−1

and x

0

for which the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

of

Eq(2.33) is bounded.

(See Sections 2.7, 4.7, 6.5, 6.7, and 10.2.)

Conjecture 2.9.2 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)

and that Eq(2.1) has no period-two solution. Show that the positive equilibrium is globally

asymptotically stable.

Conjecture 2.9.3 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)

and that Eq(2.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. Show that the positive equi-

librium of Eq(2.1) is a saddle point.

2.9. Open Problems and Conjectures 45

Open Problem 2.9.6 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞).

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions in terms of the coeﬃcients so that every

positive solution of Eq(2.1) is bounded.

Conjecture 2.9.4 Assume that

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ [0, ∞).

Show that Eq(2.1) cannot have a positive prime two cycle which attracts all positive

non-equilibrium solutions.

Open Problem 2.9.7 Assume f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient

conditions on f for every solution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

f(x

n

)

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

to be bounded.

(See Section 5.2).

Open Problem 2.9.8 Assume f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient

conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

= 1 +

f(x

n−1

)

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

to converge to a period-two solution.

(See Section 4.7).

Open Problem 2.9.9 Extend Theorem 2.7.1 to third order diﬀerence equations

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

+δx

n−2

A +Bx

n−1

+ Dx

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that

γ = β +δ +A.

What additional conditions should the parameters satisfy?

46 Chapter 2. Local Stability, Semicycles, Periodicity, and Invariant Intervals

Open Problem 2.9.10 Extend the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 to third order dif-

ference equations

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, x

n−2

), n = 0, 1, . . . . (2.42)

For the equation

λ

3

+aλ

2

+ bλ +c = 0

one can see that all roots lie inside the unit disk |λ| < 1 if and only if

|a +c| < 1 +b

|a −3c| < 3 −b

b +c

2

< 1 +ac

.

But how about necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the equilibrium of Eq(2.42) to

be a repeller, or a saddle point, or nonhyperbolic?

Extend these results to fourth order diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, x

n−2

, x

n−3

), n = 0, 1, . . . .

Chapter 3

(1, 1)-Type Equations

3.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1, 1)-type:

x

n+1

=

α

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.1)

x

n+1

=

α

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.2)

x

n+1

=

α

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.3)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.4)

x

n+1

=

β

B

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.5)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.6)

47

48 Chapter 3. (1, 1)-Type Equations

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.7)

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.8)

and

x

n+1

=

γ

C

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.9)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

Of these nine equations, Eqs(3.1), (3.5), and (3.9) are trivial. Eqs (3.4) and (3.7)

are linear diﬀerence equation. Every solution of Eq(3.2) is periodic with period two and

every solution of Eq(3.4) is periodic with period four. The remaining two equations,

namely, Eqs(3.6) and (3.8), are treated in the next two sections.

3.2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 1)-type Eq(3.6) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

β

C

y

n

reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.10)

It is easy to see that every positive solution of Eq(3.10) is periodic with period six.

Indeed the solution with initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

is the six-cycle:

y

−1

, y

0

,

y

0

y

−1

,

1

y

−1

,

1

y

0

,

y

−1

y

0

, . . . .

It is interesting to note that except for the equilibrium solution y = 1, every other

solution of Eq(3.10) has prime period six.

3.3. The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

49

3.3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

This is the (1, 1)-type Eq(3.8) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

B

e

y

n

reduces to the linear equation

y

n+1

+ y

n

−y

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.11)

The general solution of Eq(3.11) is

y

n

= C

1

−1 +

√

5

2

n

+ C

2

−1 −

√

5

2

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

from which the behavior of solutions is easily derived.

3.4 Open Problems and Conjectures

Of the nine equations in this chapter we would like to single out the two nonlinear

equations, (3.2) and (3.6), which possess the property that every positive nontrivial

solution of each of these two equations is periodic with the same prime period, namely

two and six, respectively. Eq(3.3) also has the property that every nontrivial positive

solution is periodic with prime period four but this equation is really a variant of Eq(3.2).

Also every solution of Eq(3.7) is periodic with period two but this is a linear equation.

Eq(3.2) is of the form

x

n+1

= f(x

n

), n = 0, 1, . . . (3.12)

where

f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)], (3.13)

while Eq(3.6) is of the form

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (3.14)

where

f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. (3.15)

What is it that makes every solution of a nonlinear diﬀerence equation periodic with the

same period? We believe this is a question of paramount importance and so we pose the

following open problems.

50 Chapter 3. (1, 1)-Type Equations

Open Problem 3.4.1 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3.13) holds.

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.12)

is periodic with period k.

Open Problem 3.4.2 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3.15) holds.

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.14)

is periodic with period k. In particular address the cases

k = 4, 5, 6.

Open Problem 3.4.3 Let k be a positive integer and assume that

α, β, γ ∈ (−∞, ∞).

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on α, β, γ so that every solution of the equa-

tion

x

n+1

= α|x

n

| + βx

n−1

+ γ, n = 0, 1, . . .

with real initial conditions is periodic with period k. In particular address the cases:

k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

(See [10], [17], and [59].)

Conjecture 3.4.1 Let f ∈ C

1

[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial so-

lution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

f(x

n

)

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.16)

is periodic with prime period six. Show that

f(x) = x.

Conjecture 3.4.2 Let f ∈ C

1

[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial so-

lution of the diﬀerence equation (3.16) is periodic with prime period ﬁve. Show that

f(x) = 1 + x.

3.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 51

Open Problem 3.4.4 Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f ∈ C[[0, ∞), [0, ∞)]

such that every positive nontrivial solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

f(x

n

)

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (3.17)

is periodic with prime period three.

Open Problem 3.4.5 Let {p

n

}

∞

n=0

be a sequence of nonzero real numbers. In each of

the following cases investigate the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the

diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

p

n

x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (3.18)

(i) {p

n

}

∞

n=0

converges to a ﬁnite limit;

(ii) {p

n

}

∞

n=0

converges to ±∞;

(iii) {p

n

}

∞

n=0

is periodic with prime period k ≥ 2.

Chapter 4

(1, 2)-Type Equations

4.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1, 2)-type:

x

n+1

=

α

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.1)

x

n+1

=

α

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.2)

x

n+1

=

α

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.3)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.4)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.5)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.6)

53

54 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.7)

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.8)

and

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.9)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

Two of these equations, namely Eqs(4.1) and (4.4) are Riccati-type diﬀerence equa-

tions. (See Section 1.6 in the Preliminary Results). Also Eqs(4.2) and (4.8) are essen-

tially Riccati equations. Indeed if {x

n

} is a solution of Eq(4.2), then the subsequences

{x

2n−1

} and {x

2n

} satisfy the Riccati equation of the form of Eq(4.1). Similarly, if {x

n

}

is a solution of Eq(4.8), then the subsequences {x

2n−1

} and {x

2n

} satisfy the Riccati

equation

y

n+1

=

γy

n

A + Cy

n

n = 0, 1, . . . .

It is also interesting to note that the change of variables

x

n

=

1

y

n

reduces the Riccati equation (4.4) to the linear equation

y

n+1

=

A

β

y

n

+

B

β

, n = 0, 1, . . .

from which the global behavior of solutions is easily derived.

In view of the above, Eqs(4.2), (4.4), and (4.8) will not be discussed any further in

this chapter.

4.2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

A+Bx

n

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.1) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

4.3. The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

55

reduces to the Riccati equation

y

n+1

=

p

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.10)

where

p =

αB

A

2

.

The Riccati number associated with this equation (see Section 1.6) is

R = −p < 0

and so the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.6.2.

Theorem 4.2.1 The positive equilibrium

y =

−1 +

√

1 + 4p

2

of Eq(4.10) is globally asymptotically stable.

4.3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.3) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

√

α

y

n

(4.11)

is transformed to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

B

y

n

+

C

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.12)

Eq(4.12) was investigated in [65]. (See also [12].)

We will ﬁrst show that every solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded and then we will use

the method of “limiting solutions” to show that every solution of Eq(4.12) converges to

its equilibrium

√

B + C.

Theorem 4.3.1 Every solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded and persists.

Proof. It is easy to see that if a solution of Eq(4.12) is bounded from above then it is

also bounded from below and vice-versa. So if the theorem is false there should exist a

solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

which is neither bounded from above nor from below. That is,

limsup

n→∞

y

n

= ∞ and liminf

n→∞

y

n

= 0.

56 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

Then clearly we can ﬁnd indices i and j with 1 ≤ i < j such that

y

i

> y

n

> y

j

for all n ∈ {−1, . . . , j −1}.

Hence

y

j

=

B

y

j−1

+

C

y

j−2

>

B + C

y

i

and

y

i

=

B

y

i−1

+

C

y

i−2

≤

B + C

y

j

.

That is ,

B + C < y

i

y

j

≤ B + C

which is impossible. 2

Theorem 4.3.2 The equilibrium y =

√

B + C of Eq(4.12) is globally asymptotically

stable.

Proof. The linearized equation of Eq(4.12) about the equilibrium y =

√

B + C is

z

n+1

= −

B

B + C

z

n

−

C

B + C

z

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.13)

and by Theorem 1.1.1, y is locally asymptotically stable for all positive values of B and

C.

It remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(4.12). To

this end, let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.12). Then by Theorem 4.3.1 , {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

is

bounded and persists. Therefore there exist positive numbers m and M such that

m ≤ y

n

≤ M for n ≥ −1.

Let

I = liminf

n→∞

y

n

and S = limsup

n→∞

y

n

.

We will show that

I = S.

By the theory of limiting solutions (see Section 1.5) there exist two solutions {I

n

}

∞

n=−3

and {S

n

}

∞

n=−3

of the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

B

y

n

+

C

y

n−1

, n = −3, −2, . . .

with the following properties:

I

0

= I, S

0

= S

4.4. The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

- Pielou’s Equation 57

and

I

n

, S

n

∈ [I, S] for n ≥ −3.

Then

S =

B

S

−1

+

C

S

−2

≤

B + C

I

and

I =

B

I

−1

+

C

I

−2

≥

B + C

S

.

Hence

B + C = SI.

Thus

B

S

−1

+

C

S

−2

= S =

B + C

I

=

B

I

+

C

I

from which it follows that

S

−1

= S

−2

= I. (4.14)

Therefore

B

S

+

C

S

= I = S

−1

=

B

S

−2

+

C

S

−3

from which it follows that

S = S

−2

. (4.15)

From (4.14) and (4.15) we conclude that

S = I

and the proof is complete. 2

4.4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

- Pielou’s

Equation

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.5) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

C

y

n

,

reduces to Pielou’s diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.16)

where

p =

β

A

.

58 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

This equation was proposed by Pielou in her books ([66], p.22) and ([67], p.79) as a

discrete analogue of the delay logistic equation

dN

dt

= rN(t)

1 −

N(t −τ)

P

, t ≥ 0

which is a prototype of modelling the dynamics of single-species.

Eq(4.16) was investigated in [55]. (See also ([42], p.75).)

When

p ≤ 1,

it follows from Eq(4.16) that every positive solution converges to 0.

Furthermore, 0 is locally asymptotically stable when p ≤ 1 and unstable when p > 1.

So the interesting case for Eq(4.16) is when

p > 1. (4.17)

In this case the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is unstable and Eq(4.16) possesses the

unique positive equilibrium

y = p −1,

which is locally asymptotically stable.

In fact by employing Theorem 1.4.2, it follows that when (4.17) holds, x is globally

asymptotically stable.

We summarize the above discussion in the following theorem.

Theorem 4.4.1 (a) Assume

p ≤ 1.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume y

0

∈ (0, ∞) and

p > 1.

Then the positive equilibrium y = p −1 of Eq(4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.

4.5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.6) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

β

B + Cy

n

,

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n

p + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.18)

4.6. The Case α = β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

59

where

p =

B

C

.

Eq(4.18) was investigated in ([42] Corollary 3.4.1 (e), p. 73) where it was shown that

its equilibrium one is globally asymptotically stable .

4.6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.7) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

B

y

n

,

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

p + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.19)

where

p =

A

γ

∈ (0, ∞).

Eq(4.19) was investigated in [28].

The following local result is a straightforward application of the linearized stability

Theorem 1.1.1.

Lemma 4.6.1 (a) Assume

p > 1.

Then 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.19) and it is locally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume

p < 1.

Then 0 and y = 1 − p are the only equilibrium points of Eq(4.19) and they are both

unstable. In fact, 0 is a repeller and y = 1 −p is a saddle point equilibrium.

The oscillatory character of the solutions of Eq(4.19) is a consequence of Theorem

1.7.1. That is, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, every solution of Eq(4.19) has

semicycles of length one.

It follows directly from Eq(4.19) (see also Section 2.5) that

y

n+1

<

1

p

y

n−1

for n ≥ 0

and so when

p > 1

60 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.19) is globally asymptotically stable. On the other hand

when

p = 1,

y

n+1

< y

n−1

for n ≥ 0

and so every positive solution of Eq(4.19) converges to a period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .

Furthermore we can see that

φψ = 0

but whether there exists solutions with

φ = ψ = 0

remains an open question.

Finally when

p < 1

by invoking the stable manifold theory one can see that there exist nonoscillatory solu-

tions which converge monotonically to the positive equilibrium 1−p. It follows from the

identity

y

n+1

−y

n−1

=

(1 −p) −y

n

p + y

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

that every oscillatory solution is such that the subsequences of even and odd terms

converge monotonically one to ∞ and the other to 0.

4.7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 2)-type Eq(4.9) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

By

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

= p +

y

n−1

y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.20)

where

p =

C

B

∈ (0, ∞).

This equation was investigated in [7] where it was shown that the following statements

are true:

4.7. The Case α = β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

61

(i) p ≥ 1 is a necessary and suﬃcient condition for every solution of Eq(4.20) to be

bounded;

(ii) When p = 1, every solution of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution;

(iii) When p > 1, the equilibrium y = p + 1 of Eq(4.20) is globally asymptotically

stable.

We now proceed to establish the above results.

Clearly the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.20) is y = p + 1.

The linearized equation of Eq(4.20) about the equilibrium point y = p + 1 is

z

n+1

+

1

p + 1

z

n

−

1

p + 1

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.21)

As a simple consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following

result:

Theorem 4.7.1 The equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4.20) is locally asymptotically

stable when p > 1 and is an unstable saddle point when p < 1.

The next result about semicycles is an immediate consequence of some straightfor-

ward arguments and Theorem 1.7.1.

Theorem 4.7.2 (a) Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20) which consists of at least

two semicycles. Then {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

is oscillatory. Moreover, with the possible excep-

tion of the ﬁrst semicycle, every semicycle has length one.

(b) Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20) which consists of a single semicycle. Then

{y

n

}

∞

n=−1

converges monotonically to y = p + 1.

4.7.1 The Case p < 1

Here we show that there exist solutions of Eq(4.20) which are unbounded. In fact the

following result is true.

Theorem 4.7.3 Let p < 1, and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20) such that 0 <

y

−1

≤ 1 and y

0

≥

1

1−p

. Then the following statements are true:

1. lim

n→∞

y

2n

= ∞.

2. lim

n→∞

y

2n+1

= p.

Proof. Note that

1

1−p

> p + 1, and so y

0

> p + 1. It suﬃces to show that

y

1

∈ (p, 1] and y

2

≥ p + y

0

and use induction to complete the proof.

62 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

Indeed y

1

= p +

y

1

y

0

> p. Also,

y

1

= p +

y

−1

y

0

≤ p +

1

y

0

≤ 1,

and so y

1

∈ (p, 1]. Hence y

2

= p +

y

0

y

1

≥ p + y

0

. 2

4.7.2 The Case p = 1

The following result follows from Lemma 2.7.1 and some straightforward arguments. See

also Section 2.5.

Theorem 4.7.4 Let p = 1, and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20). Then the

following statements are true.

(a) Suppose {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

consists of a single semicycle. Then {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

converges mono-

tonically to y = 2.

(b) Suppose {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

consists of at least two semicycles. Then {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

converges to

a prime period-two solution of Eq(4.20).

(c) Every solution of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1.

4.7.3 The Case p > 1

Here we show that the equilibrium point y = p+1 of Eq(4.20) is globally asymptotically

stable. The following result will be useful.

Lemma 4.7.1 Let p > 1, and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20). Then

p +

p −1

p

≤ liminf

n→∞

y

n

≤ limsup

n→∞

y

n

≤

p

2

p −1

.

Proof. It follows from Theorem 4.7.2 that we may assume that every semicycle of

{y

n

}

∞

n=−1

has length one, that p < y

n

for all n ≥ −1, and that p < y

0

< p + 1 < y

−1

.

We shall ﬁrst show that limsup

n→∞

y

n

≤

p

2

p−1

. Note that for n ≥ 0,

y

2n+1

< p +

y

2n−1

p

.

So as every solution of the diﬀerence equation

y

m+1

= p +

1

p

y

m

, m = 0, 1, . . .

4.7. The Case α = β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

63

converges to

p

2

p−1

, it follows that limsup

n→∞

y

n

≤

p

2

p−1

.

We shall next show that p +

p−1

p

≤ liminf

n→∞

y

n

. Let > 0. There clearly exists

N ≥ 0 such that for all n ≥ N,

y

2n−1

<

p

2

+

p −1

.

Let n ≥ N. Then

y

2n

= p +

y

2n−2

y

2n−1

> p + p

p −1

p

2

+

=

p

3

+ p + p(p −1)

p

2

+

.

So as is arbitrary, we have

liminf

n→∞

y

n

≥

p

3

+ p(p −1)

p

2

= p +

p −1

p

.

2

We are now ready for the following result.

Theorem 4.7.5 Let p > 1. Then the equilibrium y = p + 1 is globally asymptotically

stable.

Proof. We know by Theorem 4.7.1 that y = p + 1 is a locally asymptotically stable

equilibrium point of Eq(4.20). So let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(4.20). It suﬃces to

show that

lim

n→∞

y

n

= p + 1.

For x, y ∈ (0, ∞), set

f(x, y) = p +

y

x

.

Then f ∈ C[(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] , f is decreasing in x ∈ (0, ∞) for each y ∈ (0, ∞),

and f is increasing in y ∈ (0, ∞) for each x ∈ (0, ∞). Recall that by Theorem 4.7.4,

there exist no solutions of Eq(4.20) with prime period two. Let > 0, and set

a = p and b =

p

2

+

p −1

.

Note that

f

p

2

+

p −1

, p

= p + p

p −1

p

2

+

> p

and

f

p,

p

2

+

p −1

=

p

3

+ p

p

2

−p

=

p

2

+

p −1

.

Hence

p < f(x, y) <

p

2

+

p −1

for all x, y ∈

p,

p

2

+

p −1

.

64 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

Finally note that by Lemma 4.7.1,

p < p +

p −1

p

≤ liminf

n→∞

y

n

≤ limsup

n→∞

y

n

≤

p

2

p −1

<

p

2

+

p −1

and so by Theorem 1.4.6,

lim

n→∞

y

n

= p + 1.

2

4.8 Open Problems and Conjectures

Conjecture 4.8.1 Consider the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

A

x

n−k

+

B

x

n−l

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.22)

where

A, B ∈ (0, ∞) and k, l ∈ {0, 1, . . .} with k < l.

and where the initial conditions x

−l

, . . . , x

0

are arbitrary positive real numbers.

Show that every solution of Eq(4.22) converges, either to the equilibrium or to a

periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 and that what happens and the exact value of p are

uniquely determined from the characteristic roots of the linearized equation

λ

l+1

+

A

A + B

λ

l−k

+

B

A + B

= 0.

(See [19], [23], [25], [60], and [61].)

Open Problem 4.8.1 Let

. . . , φ

1

, φ

2

, . . . , φ

p

, . . .

be a given prime period p solution of Eq(4.22). Determine the set of all positive initial

conditions x

−l

, . . . , x

0

such that {x

n

}

∞

n=−l

converges to this periodic solution.

Open Problem 4.8.2 (see [18]) Assume that A, B ∈ (0, ∞).

(a) Find all initial conditions y

−1

, y

0

with

y

−1

y

0

< 0

for which the equation

y

n+1

=

A

y

n

+

B

y

n−1

, (4.23)

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

(b) Assume that the initial conditions y

−1

, y

0

are such that y

−1

y

0

< 0 and such that

Eq(4.23) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. Investigate the global behavior of the solution

{y

n

}. Is it bounded? Does lim

n→∞

y

n

exist? When does {y

n

} converge to a two cycle?

4.8. Open Problems and Conjectures 65

Conjecture 4.8.2 Assume that p = 1. Show that Eq(4.19) has a solution which con-

verges to zero.

Open Problem 4.8.3 Assume that p < 1. Determine the set of initial conditions

y

−1

, y

0

∈ (0, ∞)

for which the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(4.19) is bounded.

Open Problem 4.8.4 Determine the set G of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

1 + y

n

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0 and, for these initial points, investigate the global character

of {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

Conjecture 4.8.3 Show that Eq(4.20) possesses a solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

which remains

above the equilibrium for all n ≥ −1.

Open Problem 4.8.5 (a) Assume p ∈ (0, ∞). Determine all initial conditions y

−1

, y

0

∈

R such that the equation (4.20) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

(b) Let y

−1

, y

0

∈ R be such that Eq(4.20) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. For such an

initial point, investigate the boundedness, the asymptotic behavior, and the periodic

nature of the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(4.20).

(c) Discuss (a) and (b) when p < 0.

Open Problem 4.8.6 (See [13]) Find the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R ×R

through which the equation

x

n+1

= −1 +

x

n−1

x

n

(4.24)

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

Conjecture 4.8.4 Assume that (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R is such that the equation (4.24) is

well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0 and bounded. Show that {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

is a three cycle.

66 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

Open Problem 4.8.7 Let f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient con-

ditions on f for every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

f(x

n

)

x

n

+ x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

to be bounded.

Open Problem 4.8.8 Let a, a

i

∈ (0, ∞) for i = 0, . . . , k. Investigate the global asymp-

totic stability of the equilibrium points of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

x

n

a + a

0

x

n

+ . . . + a

k

x

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . .

with positive initial conditions.

Conjecture 4.8.5 (See [27]) Assume r ∈ (0, ∞). Show that every positive solution of

the population model

J

n+1

= J

n−1

e

r−(J

n

+J

n−1

)

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution.

Conjecture 4.8.6 (Pielou’s Discrete Logistic Model; see [55], [66], and [67].) As-

sume

α ∈ (1, ∞) and k ∈ {0, 1, . . .}.

Show that the positive equilibrium of Pielou’s discrete logistic model

x

n+1

=

αx

n

1 + x

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . .

with positive initial conditions is globally asymptotically stable if and only if

α −1

α

< 2 cos

kπ

2k + 1

.

Open Problem 4.8.9 (See [5]) For which initial values x

−1

, x

0

∈ (0, ∞) does the se-

quence deﬁned by

x

n+1

= 1 +

x

n−1

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to two?

4.8. Open Problems and Conjectures 67

(See also Section 4.7)

Open Problem 4.8.10 (See [31]) Consider the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

= y

n−1

e

−y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.25)

with nonnegative initial conditions.

One can easily see that every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(4.25) converges to a period-two

solution

. . . , , 0, , 0, . . . .

More precisely, each of the subsequences {y

2n

}

∞

n=0

and {y

2n+1

}

∞

n=−1

is decreasing and

[ lim

n→∞

y

2n

][ lim

n→∞

y

2n+1

] = 0.

(a) Find all initial points y

−1

, y

0

∈ [0, ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(4.25)

converge to zero. In other words, ﬁnd the basin of attraction of the equilibrium of

Eq(4.25).

(b) Determine the limits of the subsequences of even and odd terms of every solution

of Eq(4.25), in terms of the initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

of the solution.

Open Problem 4.8.11 Assume p ∈ (0, 1).

(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions y

−1

, y

0

∈ (0, ∞) such that the solutions

{y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(4.20) are bounded.

(b) Let y

−1

, y

0

∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

Open Problem 4.8.12 Let {p

n

}

∞

n=0

be a convergent sequence of nonnegative real num-

bers with a ﬁnite limit,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

+

1

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.26)

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.27)

68 Chapter 4. (1, 2)-Type Equations

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ y

n

p

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.28)

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

p

n

+ y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (4.29)

y

n+1

= p

n

+

y

n−1

y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (4.30)

Open Problem 4.8.13 Let {p

n

}

∞

n=0

be a periodic sequence of nonnegative real numbers

with period k ≥ 2. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of each of

Eqs(4.26) - (4.30).

Open Problem 4.8.14 For each of the following diﬀerence equations determine the

“good” set G ⊂ R × R of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R × R through which the

equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. Then for every (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ G, investigate the long

term behavior of the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

:

y

n+1

=

y

n

1 −y

n−1

, (4.31)

y

n+1

=

1 + y

n

1 −y

n−1

, (4.32)

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

1 −y

n

, (4.33)

y

n+1

= −1 +

y

n−1

y

n

. (4.34)

For those equations from the above list for which you were successful, extend your result

by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.

Chapter 5

(2, 1)-Type Equations

5.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2, 1)-type:

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.1)

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.2)

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.3)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.4)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.5)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.6)

69

70 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.7)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.8)

and

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (5.9)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

Of these nine equations, Eqs(5.1), (5.4) and (5.7) are linear. Eq(5.2) is a Riccati

equation and Eq(5.6) is essentially like Eq(5.2).

The change of variables

x

n

=

γ

B

y

n

,

reduces Eq(5.8) to Eq(4.20) with p =

β

γ

, which was investigated in Section 4.7.

Finally the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

+

β

C

y

n

,

reduces Eq(5.9) to Eq(4.18) with p =

γ

β

, which was investigated in Section 4.5.

Therefore there remain Eqs(5.3) and (5.5), which will be investigated in the next two

sections.

5.2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Cx

n−1

- Lyness’

Equation

This is the (2, 1)-type Eq(5.3) which by the change of variables reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.10)

5.2. The Case γ = A = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Cx

n−1

- Lyness’ Equation 71

where

p =

αC

β

2

.

The special case of Eq(5.10) where

p = 1

was discovered by Lyness in 1942 while he was working on a problem in Number Theory.

(See ([42], p. 131) for the history of the problem.) In this special case, the equation

becomes

y

n+1

=

1 + y

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.11)

every solution of which is periodic with period ﬁve. Indeed the solution of Eq(5.11) with

initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

is the ﬁve-cycle:

y

−1

, y

0

,

1 + y

0

y

−1

,

1 + y

−1

+ y

0

y

−1

y

0

,

1 + y

−1

y

0

, . . . .

Eq(5.10) possesses the invariant

I

n

= (p + y

n−1

+ y

n

)

1 +

1

y

n−1

1 +

1

y

n

= constant (5.12)

from which it follows that every solution of Eq(5.10) is bounded from above and from

below by positive constants.

It was shown in [30] that no nontrivial solution of Eq(5.10) has a limit.

It was also shown in [44] by using KAM theory that the positive equilibrium y of

Eq(5.10) is stable but not asymptotically stable. This result was also established in [49]

by using a Lyapunov function.

Concerning the semicycles of solutions of Eq(5.10) the following result was established

in [43]:

Theorem 5.2.1 Assume that p > 0. Then the following statements about the positive

solutions of Eq(5.10) are true:

(a) The absolute extreme in a semicycle occurs in the ﬁrst or in the second term.

(b) Every nontrivial semicycle, after the ﬁrst one, contains at least two and at most

three terms.

There is substantial literature on Lyness’ Equation. See [11], [42], [43], [57]-[59], [71],

and [72] and the references cited therein.

72 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations

5.3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

This is the (2, 1)-type Eq(5.5) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

B

y

n

reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n−1

y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.13)

where

p =

αB

γ

2

.

Eq(5.13) was investigated in [28].

By the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 one can see that the unique equilibrium

point

y =

1 +

√

1 + 4p

2

of Eq(5.13) is a saddle point.

By Theorem 1.7.1 one can see that except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, every

oscillatory solution of Eq(5.13) has semicycles of length one.

Concerning the nonoscillatory solutions of Eq(5.13) one can easily see that every

nonoscillatory solution of Eq(5.13) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y.

The global character of solutions of Eq(5.13) is a consequence of the identity

y

n+1

−y

n−1

=

y

n−1

−y

n−2

y

n

for n ≥ 1.

From this it follows that a solution of Eq(5.13) either approaches the positive equilibrium

y monotonically or it oscillates about y with semicycles of length one in such a way that

{y

2n

} and {y

2n+1

} converge monotonically one to zero and other to ∞.

5.4 Open Problems and Conjectures

By using the invariant (5.12), one can easily see that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5.10)

is bounded from above and from below by positive numbers. To this day we have not

found a proof for the boundedness of solutions of Eq(5.10) without using essentially the

invariant.

Open Problem 5.4.1 Show that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5.10) is bounded without

using the invariant (5.12).

5.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 73

Open Problem 5.4.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃ-

cient conditions in terms of f so that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

f(x

n

)

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.14)

is bounded.

What is it that makes Lyness’ equation possess an invariant? What type of diﬀerence

equations possess an invariant? Along these lines, we oﬀer the following open problems

and conjectures.

Open Problem 5.4.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃ-

cient conditions in terms of f so that the diﬀerence equation (5.14) possesses a (non-

trivial) invariant.

Conjecture 5.4.1 Assume that f ∈ C[(0, ∞), (0, ∞)] and that the diﬀerence equation

(5.14) possesses a unique positive equilibrium point x and a nontrivial invariant. Show

that the linearized equation of Eq(5.14) about x does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| < 1

and does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| > 1.

When we allow the initial conditions to be real numbers the equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n

y

n−1

(5.15)

may not even be well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. To illustrate, we oﬀer the following open

problems and conjectures.

Open Problem 5.4.4 (See [26].) Assume p ∈ (−∞, ∞). Determine the set G of all

initial conditions y

−1

, y

0

∈ (−∞, ∞) through which Eq(5.15) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

Conjecture 5.4.2 Let G be the set of initial conditions deﬁned in the Open problem

5.4.4. Show that the subset of G through which the solutions of Eq(5.15) are unbounded

is a set of measure zero.

74 Chapter 5. (2, 1)-Type Equations

Conjecture 5.4.3 Assume p ∈ (−∞, ∞). Show that the set of points (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈

(−∞, ∞) × (−∞, ∞) through which Eq(5.15) is not well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0, is a

set of points without interior.

Open Problem 5.4.5 Determine all positive integers k with the property that every

positive solution of the equation

y

n+1

=

1 + . . . + y

n−k

y

n−k−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

is periodic.

Conjecture 5.4.4 Show that every positive solution of the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

y

n−1

+

y

n−4

y

n−3

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-six solution.

Conjecture 5.4.5 (See [20]) Show that every positive solution of the equation

y

n+1

=

1

y

n

y

n−1

+

1

y

n−3

y

n−4

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-three solution.

Conjecture 5.4.6 Show that the equation

y

n+1

=

1 + y

n−1

y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

has a nontrivial positive solution which decreases monotonically to the equilibrium of the

equation.

Open Problem 5.4.6 Find the set G of all initial points (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R × R through

which the equation

y

n+1

=

1 + y

n−1

y

n

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. Determine the periodic character and the asymptotic

behavior of all solutions with (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ G.

5.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 75

Conjecture 5.4.7 (May’s Host Parasitoid Model; see [59]) Assume α > 1. Show

that every positive solution of May’s Host Parasitoid Model

x

n+1

=

αx

2

n

(1 + x

n

)x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

is bounded.

Conjecture 5.4.8 (The Gingerbreadman Map; see [59]) Let A ∈ (0, ∞). Show that

every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

max{x

2

n

, A}

x

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.16)

is bounded.

Note that the change of variables

x

n

=

A

1+y

n

2

if A > 1

e

y

n

2

if A = 1

A

−1+y

n

2

if A < 1

reduces Eq(5.16) to

y

n+1

= |y

n

| −y

n−1

+ δ, n = 0, 1, . . . (5.17)

where

δ =

1 if A < 1

0 if A = 1

−1 if A > 1.

When δ = 1, Eq(5.17) is called the Gingerbreadman Map and was investigated

by Devaney [17].

Chapter 6

(2, 2)-Type Equations

6.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2, 2)-type:

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.1)

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.2)

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.3)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.4)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.5)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.6)

77

78 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.7)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.8)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.9)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

Eq(6.5) is essentially similar to Eq(6.1). In fact if {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

is a positive solution of

Eq(6.5) then {x

2n

}

∞

n=0

and {x

2n−1

}

∞

n=0

are both solutions of the Riccati equations

z

n+1

=

α + γz

n

A + Cz

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

with

z

n

= x

2n

for n ≥ 0

and

z

n+1

=

α + γz

n

A + Cz

n

, n = −1, 0, . . .

with

z

n

= x

2n+1

for n ≥ −1,

respectively.

Therefore we will omit any further discussion of Eq(6.5).

6.2 The Case γ = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

- Riccati

Equation

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.1) which is in fact a Riccati equation. See Section 1.6.

To avoid a degenerate situation we will assume that

αB −βA = 0.

6.3. The Case γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

79

The Riccati number associated with this equation is

R =

βA −αB

(β + A)

2

and clearly

R <

1

4

.

Now the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.6.2:

Theorem 6.2.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

6.3 The Case γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.2) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

C

y

n

reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.10)

where

p =

αC

A

2

and q =

β

A

.

(Eq(6.10) was investigated in [42] and [43]. See also [36].)

Eq(6.10) has the unique positive equilibrium y given by

y =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p

2

.

By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result.

Lemma 6.3.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.10) is locally asymptotically stable for all val-

ues of the parameters p and q.

Eq(6.10) is a very simple looking equation for which it has long been conjectured

that its equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. To this day, the conjecture has

not been proven or refuted.

The main results known about Eq(6.10) are the following:

Theorem 6.3.1 Every solution of Eq(6.10) is bounded from above and from below by

positive constants.

80 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Proof. Let {y

n

} be a solution of Eq(6.10). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from

above by a constant M, then

y

n+1

≥

p

1 + M

and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the

solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y

1+n

k

}

∞

k=0

such

that

lim

k→∞

n

k

= ∞, lim

k→∞

y

1+n

k

= ∞, and y

1+n

k

= max{y

n

: n ≤ n

k

} for k ≥ 0.

From (6.10) we see that

y

n+1

< qy

n

+ p for n ≥ 0

and so

lim

k→∞

y

n

k

= lim

k→∞

y

n

k

−1

= ∞.

Hence, for suﬃciently large k,

0 ≤ y

1+n

k

−y

n

k

=

p + [(q −1) −y

n

k

−1

]y

n

k

1 + y

n

k

−1

< 0

which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. 2

The oscillatory character of solutions for Eq(6.10) is described by the following result:

Theorem 6.3.2 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.10). Then the following

statements are true:

(i) Every semicycle, except perhaps for the ﬁrst one, has at least two terms.

(ii) The extreme in each semicycle occurs at either the ﬁrst term or the second. Fur-

thermore after the ﬁrst, the remaining terms in a positive semicycle are strictly

decreasing and in a negative semicycle are strictly increasing.

(iii) In any two consecutive semicycles, their extrema cannot be consecutive terms.

(iv) Assume

q ≤ p.

Then, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, every semicycle contains two or three

terms. Furthermore, in every semicycle, there is at most one term which follows

the extreme.

Proof. We present the proofs for positive semicycles only. The proofs for negative

semicycles are similar and will be omitted.

6.3. The Case γ = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Cx

n−1

81

(i) Assume that for some N ≥ 0,

y

N−1

< y and y

N

≥ y.

Then

y

N+1

=

p + qy

N

1 + y

N−1

>

p + qy

1 + y

= y.

(ii) Assume that for some N ≥ 0, the ﬁrst two terms in a positive semicycle are y

N

and y

N+1

. Then

y

N

≥ y, y

N+1

> y

and

y

N+2

y

N+1

=

1

y

N+1

p + qy

N+1

1 + y

N

=

p

y

N+1

+ q

1 + y

N

<

p

y

+ q

1 + y

= 1.

(iii) We consider the case where a negative semicycle is followed by a positive one. The

opposite case is similar and will be omitted. So assume that for some N ≥ 0 the

last two terms in a negative semicycle are y

N−1

and y

N

with

y

N−1

≥ y

N

.

Then

y

N+1

=

p + qy

N

1 + y

N−1

<

p + qy

N+1

1 + y

N

= y

N+2

.

(iv) Assume that for some N ≥ 0, the terms y

N

, y

N+1

, and y

N+2

are all in a positive

semicycle. Then

y

N+3

=

p + qy

N+2

1 + y

N+1

<

p + qy

N+1

1 + y

N+1

<

p + qy

1 + y

= y.

2

Theorem 6.3.3 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6.10) is globally asymptotically stable if

one of the following two conditions holds:

(i)

q < 1;

(ii)

q ≥ 1

and

either p ≤ q or q < p ≤ 2(q + 1).

82 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Proof.

(i) In view of Lemma 6.3.1, it remains to show that every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.10)

tends to y as n →∞. To this end, let

i = liminf

n→∞

y

n

and s = limsup

n→∞

y

n

which by Theorem 6.3.1 exist and are positive numbers. Then Eq(6.10) yields

i ≥

p + qi

1 + s

and s ≤

p + qs

1 + i

.

Hence

p + (q −1)i ≤ is ≤ p + (q −1)s

and so because q < 1,

i ≥ s

from which the result follows.

(ii) The proof when

p < q

follows by applying Theorem 1.4.2. This result was ﬁrst established in [43].

For the proof when

1 ≤ q ≤ p ≤ 2(q + 1)

see ([42], Theorem 3.4.3 (f), p. 71).

2

6.4 The Case γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.3) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

β

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ p

y

n

+ qy

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.11)

where

p =

αB

β

2

and q =

C

B

.

Eq(6.11) was investigated in [15].

The following result is a consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1.

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

83

Theorem 6.4.1 The unique positive equilibrium point

y =

1 +

1 + 4p(q + 1)

2(q + 1)

of Eq(6.11) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q.

6.4.1 Invariant Intervals

The following result establishes that the interval I with end points 1 and

p

q

is an invari-

ant interval for Eq(6.11) in the sense that if, for some k ≥ 0, two consecutive values

y

k−1

and y

k

of a solution lie in I, then y

m

∈ I for all m > k.

Lemma 6.4.1 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements

are true:

(a) Assume p < q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0,

y

k−1

, y

k

∈

¸

p

q

, 1

¸

.

Then

y

n

∈

¸

p

q

, 1

¸

for all n > k.

(b) Assume p > q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0,

y

k−1

, y

k

∈

¸

1,

p

q

¸

.

Then

y

n

∈

¸

1,

p

q

¸

for all n > k.

Proof.

(a) The basic ingredient behind the proof is the fact that when u, v ∈ [

p

q

, ∞), the

function

f(u, v) =

u + p

u + qv

is increasing in u and decreasing in v. Indeed,

y

k+1

=

y

k

+ p

y

k

+ qy

k−1

≤

y

k

+ p

y

k

+ q

p

q

= 1,

y

k+1

=

y

k

+ p

y

k

+ qy

k−1

≥

p

q

+ p

p

q

+ q

>

p

q

and the proof follows by induction.

(b) The proof is similar and will be omitted. 2

84 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.4.2 Semicycle Analysis

Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then observe that the following identities are

true:

y

n+1

−1 = q

p

q

−y

n−1

y

n

+ qy

n−1

for n ≥ 0, (6.12)

y

n+1

−

p

q

=

(q −p) + pq(1 −y

n−1

)

q(y

n

+ qy

n−1

)

for n ≥ 0, (6.13)

and

y

n

−y

n+4

=

(y

n

−1)[qy

n

y

n+3

+ y

n+1

y

n+3

] + qy

n+1

(y

n

−

p

q

)

q(p + y

n+1

) + y

n+3

(y

n+1

+ qy

n

)

for n ≥ 0. (6.14)

First we will analyze the semicycles of the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

under the assumption

that

p > q. (6.15)

The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.15):

Lemma 6.4.2 Assume that (6.15) holds and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.11).

Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

<

p

q

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

=

p

q

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

>

p

q

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

≥ 1, then y

N+1

<

p

q

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

≤ 1, then y

N+1

> 1;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥

p

q

, then y

N+4

< y

N

;

(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

N+4

> y

N

;

(viii) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ y

N−1

≤

p

q

, then 1 ≤ y

N+1

≤

p

q

;

(ix) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ y

N−1

, y

N

≤

p

q

, then y

n

∈ [1,

p

q

] for n ≥ N. That is [1,

p

q

] is

an invariant interval for Eq(6.11);

(x)

1 < y <

p

q

.

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

85

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.2, states that when (6.15)

holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11), which lies in the interval

[1,

p

q

], oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one or two.

Theorem 6.4.2 Assume that Eq(6.11) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory

solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [1,

p

q

], oscillates about y with semicycles

of length one or two.

Next we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

under the assumption

that

q = p. (6.16)

In this case, Eq(6.11) reduces to

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ p

y

n

+ py

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.17)

with the unique equilibrium point

y = 1.

Also identities (6.12)-(6.14) reduce to

y

n+1

−1 = p

1 −y

n−1

y

n

+ py

n−1

for n ≥ 0 (6.18)

and

y

n

−y

n+4

= (y

n

−1)

py

n+1

+ py

n

y

n+3

+ y

n+1

y

n+3

p(p + y

n+1

) + y

n+3

(y

n+1

+ py

n

)

for n ≥ 0. (6.19)

and so the following results follow immediately:

Lemma 6.4.3 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.17). Then the following statements

are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

< 1, then y

N+1

> 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

= 1, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

> 1, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

< 1, then y

N

< y

N+4

< 1;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

> 1, then y

N

> y

N+4

> 1.

Corollary 6.4.1 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.17). Then {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

oscillates about the equilibrium 1 and, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, the following

are true:

86 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(i) If y

−1

= 1 or y

0

= 1, then the positive semicycle has length three and the negative

semicycle has length one.

(ii) If (1 −y

−1

)(1 −y

0

) = 0, then every semicycle has length two.

Finally we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

under the assumption

that

p < q. (6.20)

The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.14) and (6.20).

Lemma 6.4.4 Assume that (6.20) holds and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.11).

Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

<

p

q

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

=

p

q

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

>

p

q

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

≤ 1, then y

N+1

>

p

q

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N−1

≤

p

q

, then y

N+1

>

p

q

;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥ 1, then y

N+4

< y

N

;

(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤

p

q

, then y

N+4

> y

N

;

(viii) If for some N ≥ 0,

p

q

≤ y

N−1

≤ 1, then

p

q

≤ y

N+1

≤ 1;

(ix) If for some N ≥ 0,

p

q

≤ y

N−1

, y

N

≤ 1, then y

n

∈ [

p

q

, 1] for n ≥ N. That is, [

p

q

, 1] is

an invariant interval for Eq(6.11);

(x)

p

q

< y < 1.

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.4, states that when (6.20)

holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval

[

p

q

, 1], after the ﬁrst semicycle, oscillates with semicycles of length at least two.

Theorem 6.4.3 Assume that (6.20) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solu-

tion of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [

p

q

, 1], after the ﬁrst semicycle, oscillates with

semicycles of length at least two.

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

87

How do solutions which do not eventually lie in the invariant interval behave?

First assume that

p > q

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution which does not eventually lie in the interval I = [1,

p

q

].

Then one can see that the solution oscillates relative to the interval [1,

p

q

], essentially in

one of the following two ways:

(i) Two consecutive terms in (

p

q

, ∞) are followed by two consecutive terms in (0, 1),

are followed by two consecutive terms in (

p

q

, ∞), and so on. The solution never visits

the interval (1,

p

q

).

(ii) There exists exactly one term in (

p

q

, ∞), which is followed by exactly one term in

(1,

p

q

), which is followed by exactly one term in (0, 1), which is followed by exactly one

term in (1,

p

q

), which is followed by exactly one term in (

p

q

, ∞), and so on. The solution

visits consecutively the intervals

. . . ,

p

q

, ∞

,

1,

p

q

, (0, 1),

1,

p

q

,

p

q

, ∞

, . . .

in this order with one term per interval.

The situation is essentially the same relative to the interval [

p

q

, 1] when

p < q.

6.4.3 Global Stability and Boundedness

Our goal in this section is to establish the following result:

Theorem 6.4.4 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(6.11) is globally asymptotically stable

when

q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.21)

(b) Assume that

q > 1 + 4p.

Then every solution of Eq(6.11) lies eventually in the interval

p

q

, 1

.

Proof.

(a) We have already shown that the equilibrium y is locally asymptotically stable so

it remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of

Eq(6.11).

Case 1 Assume p = q. It follows from (6.19) that each of the four subsequences

{y

4n+i

}

∞

n=0

for i = 1, 2, 3, 4

88 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

is either identically equal to one or else it is strictly monotonically convergent. Set

L

i

= lim

n→∞

y

4n+i

for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.

Thus clearly

. . . , L

1

, L

2

, L

3

, L

4

, . . . (6.22)

is a periodic solution of Eq(6.11) with period four. By applying (6.19) to the

solution (6.22) we see that

L

i

= 1 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4

and so

lim

n→∞

y

n

= 1.

Case 2 Assume p = q. First, we assume that p > q.

Recall from Lemma 6.4.2 that [1,

p

q

] is an invariant interval. In this interval the

function

f(u, v) =

u + p

u + qv

is decreasing in both variables and so it follows by applying Theorem 1.4.7 that

every solution of Eq(6.11) with two consecutive values in [1,

p

q

] converges to y. By

using an argument similar to that in the case p = q, we can see that if a solution is

not eventually in [1,

p

q

], it converges to a periodic solution with period-four which

is not the equilibrium. By applying (6.14) to this period four solution we obtain a

contradiction and so every solution of Eq(6.11) must lie eventually in [1,

p

q

].

Hence for every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.11)

lim

n→∞

y

n

= y

and the proof is complete.

Now, assume that p < q.

As in Case 2 we can see that every solution of Eq(6.11) must eventually lie in the

interval [

p

q

, 1]. In this interval the function

f(u, v) =

u + p

u + qv

is increasing in u and decreasing in v. Under the assumption that q ≤ 1 + 4p,

Theorem 1.4.5 applies and so every solution of Eq(6.11) converges to y.

(b) The proof follows from the discussion in part (a).

2

6.5. The Case β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

89

6.5 The Case β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.4) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.23)

where

p =

αB

A

2

and q =

γ

A

.

(Eq(6.23) was investigated in [28].)

The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.23) is

y =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p

2

and by applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result:

Theorem 6.5.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.23) is locally asymptotically stable when

q < 1,

and is an unstable saddle point when

q > 1.

Concerning prime period-two solutions, the following result is a consequence of the

results in Section 2.7.

Theorem 6.5.2 (a) Eq(6.23) has a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.24)

if and only if

q = 1. (6.25)

(b) Assume (6.25) holds. Then the values φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions

(6.24) are given by

{φ, ψ ∈ (0, ∞) : φψ = p}.

(c) Assume that (6.25) holds. Then every solution of Eq(6.23) converges to a period

two solution.

90 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.5.1 Semicycle Analysis

Our results on the semicycles of solutions for Eq(6.23) are as follows:

Theorem 6.5.3 Let {y

n

} be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.23) and let y denote the

unique positive equilibrium of Eq(6.23). Then the following statements are true:

(a) After the ﬁrst semicycle, an oscillatory solution {y

n

} of Eq(6.23) oscillates about

the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.

(b) Assume p ≥ q. Then every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.23) converges mono-

tonically to the equilibrium y.

Proof. (a) This follows immediately from Theorem 1.7.1

(b) Let {y

n

} be a nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.23). We will assume that there exists

a positive integer K such that y

n−1

≥ y for every n ≥ K. The case where y

n−1

< y for

n ≥ K is similar and will be omitted. It is suﬃcient to show that {y

n

} is a decreasing

sequence for n ≥ K. So assume for the sake of contradiction that for some n

0

≥ K,

y

n

0

> y

n

0

−1

.

Clearly, the condition p ≥ q implies that the function

f(x) =

p + qx

1 + x

is decreasing. Then

y

n

0

+1

=

p + qy

n

0

−1

1 + y

n

0

= f(y

n

0

, y

n

0

−1

) < f(y

n

0

, y

n

0

) < f(y, y) = y,

which is impossible. 2

6.5.2 The Case q < 1

The main result in this section is the following:

Theorem 6.5.4 Assume that

q < 1.

Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.23) is globally asymptotically stable.

Proof. Clearly

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n−1

1 + y

n

< p + qy

n−1

, n ≥ 0. (6.26)

Set

M =

p

1 −q

+ ,

6.5. The Case β = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

91

where is some positive number.

From Eq(6.26) and Eq(6.23), it now follows that every solution of Eq(6.23) lies

eventually in the interval [0, M].

Set

f(x, y) =

p + qy

1 + x

, a = 0, and b =

p

1 −q

+ .

Then clearly,

a ≤ f(x, y) ≤ b,

for all (x, y) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b]. By applying Theorem 1.4.6 it follows that y is a global at-

tractor of all solutions of Eq(6.23). The local stability of y was established in Theorem

6.5.1. The proof is complete. 2

6.5.3 The Case q > 1

In this case we will show that there exist solutions that have two subsequences, one of

which is monotonically approaching 0 and the other is monotonically approaching ∞.

In fact this is true for every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

whose initial conditions are such that the

following inequalities are true:

y

−1

< q −1 and y

0

> q −1 +

p

q −1

.

To this end observe that

y

1

=

p + qy

−1

1 + y

0

<

p + q(q −1)

1 + y

0

< q −1

and

y

2

=

p + qy

0

1 + y

1

>

p + qy

0

q

= y

0

+

p

q

and by induction,

y

2n−1

< q −1 and y

2n

> y

0

+ n

p

q

for n ≥ 1.

Hence

lim

n→∞

y

2n

= ∞

and

lim

n→∞

y

2n+1

= lim

n→∞

p + qy

2n−1

1 + y

2n

= 0

and the proof is complete.

92 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.6 The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.6) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n−1

qy

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.27)

where

p =

αC

γ

2

and q =

B

C

.

(Eq(6.27) was investigated in [45].)

Eq(6.27) has the unique positive equilibrium

y =

1 +

1 + 4p(1 + q)

2(1 + q)

.

The linearized equation associated with Eq(6.27) about y is

z

n+1

+

q

1 + q

z

n

−

qy −p

(y + p)(1 + q)

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.28)

By employing Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when

(q −1)y < 2p (6.29)

and unstable (a saddle point) when

(q −1)y > 2p. (6.30)

Clearly the equilibrium y is the positive solution of the quadratic equation

(1 + q)y

2

−y −p = 0.

If we now set

F(u) = (1 + q)u

2

−u −p,

it is easy to see that (6.29) is satisﬁed if and only if either

q ≤ 1

or

q > 1 and F

2p

q −1

> 0.

6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

93

Similarly (6.30) is satisﬁed if and only if

q > 1 and F

2p

q −1

< 0.

The following result is now a consequence of the above discussion and some simple

calculations:

Theorem 6.6.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.27) is locally asymptotically stable when

q < 1 + 4p (6.31)

and unstable, and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium, when

q > 1 + 4p. (6.32)

6.6.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles

Let

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

be a period-two cycle of Eq(6.27). Then

φ =

p + φ

qψ + φ

and ψ =

p + ψ

qφ + ψ

.

It now follows after some calculations that the following result is true:

Theorem 6.6.2 Eq(6.27) has a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if

q > 1 + 4p.

Furthermore when (6.32) holds, the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ

and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation

t

2

−t +

p

q −1

= 0.

94 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

To investigate the local stability of the two cycle

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

we set

u

n

= y

n−1

and v

n

= y

n

, for n = 0, 1, . . .

and write Eq(6.27) in the equivalent form:

u

n+1

= v

n

v

n+1

=

p+u

n

qv

n

+u

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) deﬁned by:

T

u

v

=

v

p+u

qv+u

.

Then

φ

ψ

**is a ﬁxed point of T
**

2

, the second iterate of T. By a simple calculation we ﬁnd that

T

2

u

v

=

g(u, v)

h(u, v)

where

g(u, v) =

p + u

qv + u

and h(u, v) =

p + v

qg(u, v) + v

.

Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the

Jacobian matrix J

T

2, evaluated at

φ

ψ

**lie inside the unit disk.
**

We have

J

T

2

φ

ψ

=

¸

¸

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

¸

where,

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) =

qψ −p

(qψ + φ)

2

,

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ) = −

(p + φ)q

(qψ + φ)

2

,

6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

95

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ) = −

q(p + ψ)(qψ −p)

(qφ + ψ)

2

(qψ + φ)

2

,

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) =

q

2

(p + φ)(p + ψ)

(qφ + ψ)

2

(qψ + φ)

2

+

qφ −p

(qφ + ψ)

2

.

Set

S =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) +

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

and

D =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) −

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ).

Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 that both eigenvalues of J

T

2

φ

ψ

**lie inside the
**

unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if

|S| < 1 +D < 2. (6.33)

Inequality (6.33) is equivalent to the following three inequalities:

S < 1 +D (6.34)

−1 −D < S (6.35)

D < 1. (6.36)

First we will establish Inequality (6.34).

To this end observe that (6.34) is equivalent to

(qψ −p)(qφ + ψ)

2

+ (qφ −p)(qψ + φ)

2

+ q

2

(p + ψ)(p + φ) −(qψ −p)(qφ −p)

< (qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

which is true if and only if

p

q −1

(q

3

+ 2q

2

−4qp + 2q

2

p + 2p −3q) + q −p + q

2

p

2

+ qp −p

2

< (qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

which is true if and only if

−q

3

p + 7q

2

p −8qp

2

+ 4q

2

p

2

+ 4p

2

−7qp + 2q

2

−q + p −q

3

< 0

which is true if and only if

−(p + 1)(q −1)(q −

p

p + 1

)[q −(1 + 4p)] < 0

which is true because q > 1 + 4p.

96 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Next we will establish Inequality (6.35). Observe that (6.35) is equivalent to

−(qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

< (qψ −p)(qφ + ψ)

2

+ (qφ −p)

2

(qψ + φ)

2

+ q

2

(p + ψ)(p + φ) + (qψ −p)(qφ −p)

which is true if and only if

−(qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

<

p

q −1

(q

3

+ 4q

2

−4qp + 2q

2

p + 2p −3q) −p + q

2

p

2

which is true if and only if

q

2

+ 2pq + 2p

2

q

2

−p

2

+ qp

2

−q

3

−3q

3

p −2q

3

p

2

−p < 0

which is true if and only if

p

2

(−2q

3

+ 2q

2

+ q −1) + p(−3q

3

+ 2q −1) −q

3

+ q

2

< 0

which is true because q > 1.

Finally, we establish Inequality (6.36). Observe that (6.36) is true if and only if

(qψ −p)(qφ −p) < (qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

which is true if and only if

p

q −1

[q

2

−(q −1)(q −p)] < (pq −p + q)

2

which is true if and only if

q(pq −p + q)(pq −2p + q −1) > 0

which is true because q > 1 + 4p.

6.6.2 Invariant Intervals

Here we show that the interval I with end points one and

p

q

is an invariant interval for

Eq(6.27). More precisely we show that the values of any solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.27)

either remain forever outside the interval I or the solution is eventually trapped into I.

Theorem 6.6.3 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements

are true.

(a) Assume that p ≤ q and that for some N ≥ 0,

p

q

≤ y

N

≤ 1.

Then

p

q

≤ y

n

≤ 1 for all n ≥ N.

6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

97

(b) Assume that p ≥ q and that for some N ≥ 0,

1 ≤ y

N

≤

p

q

.

Then

1 ≤ y

n

≤

p

q

for all n ≥ N.

Proof.

(a) Indeed we have

y

N+1

=

p + y

N−1

qy

N

+ y

N−1

≤

p + y

N−1

p + y

N−1

= 1

and

y

N+1

=

p + y

N−1

qy

N

+ y

N−1

=

p + y

N−1

q

p

(py

N

+

p

q

y

N−1

)

≥

p

q

p + y

N−1

p + y

N−1

=

p

q

and the proof follows by induction.

(b) Clearly,

y

N+1

=

p + y

N−1

qy

N

+ y

N−1

≥

p + y

N−1

p + y

N−1

= 1

and

y

N+1

=

p + y

N−1

qy

N

+ y

N−1

=

p

q

p + y

N−1

py

N

+

p

q

y

N−1

≤

p

q

p + y

N−1

p + y

N−1

=

p

q

and the proof follows by induction.

2

6.6.3 Semicycle Analysis

Here we present a thorough semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.27) relative to

the equilibrium y and relative to the end points of the invariant interval of Eq(6.27).

Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then observe that the following identities

are true:

y

n+1

−1 = q

p

q

−y

n

qy

n

+ y

n−1

for n ≥ 0, (6.37)

y

n+1

−

p

q

=

qy

n−1

(1 −

p

q

) + pq(1 −y

n

)

q(qy

n

+ y

n−1

)

for n ≥ 0, (6.38)

y

n

−y

n+2

=

qy

n−1

(y

n

−

p

q

) + (y

n

−1)(y

n−1

y

n

+ qy

2

n

)

q(p + y

n−1

) + y

n

(qy

n

+ y

n−1

)

for n ≥ 0. (6.39)

98 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

When

p = q

that is for the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n−1

py

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.40)

the above identities reduce to the following:

y

n+1

−1 = p

1 −y

n

py

n

+ y

n−1

for n ≥ 0 (6.41)

and

y

n

−y

n+2

= (y

n

−1)

py

n−1

+ y

n−1

y

n

+ py

2

n

p(p + y

n−1

) + y

n

(py

n

+ y

n−1

)

for n ≥ 0. (6.42)

The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of (6.37)-(6.42).

Lemma 6.6.1 Assume that

p > q

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

p

q

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

p

q

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

p

q

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥ 1, then y

N+1

<

p

q

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥

p

q

, then y

N+2

< y

N

;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

N+2

> y

N

;

(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤

p

q

, then y

n

∈ [1,

p

q

] for n ≥ N. In particular [1,

p

q

] is an

invariant interval for Eq(6.27);

(viii)

1 < y <

p

q

.

Lemma 6.6.2 Assume that

p = q

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

< 1, then y

N+1

> 1;

6.6. The Case β = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

99

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

= 1, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

> 1, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

< 1, then y

N

< y

N+2

< 1;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

> 1, then y

N

> y

N+2

> 1.

Lemma 6.6.3 Assume that

p < q

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

p

q

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

p

q

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

p

q

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

N+1

>

p

q

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤

p

q

, then y

N+1

≥ 1;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥ 1, then y

N+2

< y

N

;

(vii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤

p

q

, then y

N+2

> y

N

;

(viii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

n

∈ [

p

q

, 1] for n ≥ N. In particular [

p

q

, 1] is an

invariant interval for Eq(6.27);

(ix)

p

q

< y < 1.

Note that the function

f(u, v) =

p + v

qu + v

is always decreasing in u but in v it is decreasing when u <

p

q

and increasing when u >

p

q

.

The following result is now a consequence of Theorems 1.7.1 and 1.7.2 and Lemmas

6.6.1-6.6.3:

100 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Theorem 6.6.4 Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(6.27). Let I be the closed interval

with end points 1 and

p

q

and let J and K be the intervals which are disjoint from I and

such that

I ∪ J ∪ K = (0, ∞).

Then either all the even terms of the solution lie in J and all odd terms lie in K, or

vice-versa, or for some N ≥ 0,

y

n

∈ I for n ≥ N. (6.43)

When (6.43) holds, except for the length of the ﬁrst semicycle of the solution, if

p < q

the length is one, while if

p > q

the length is at most two.

6.6.4 Global Behavior of Solutions

Recall that Eq(6.27) has a unique equilibrium y which is locally stable when (6.31) holds.

When (6.32) holds, and only then, Eq(6.27) has a “unique” prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.44)

with

φ + ψ = 1 and φψ =

p

q −1

. (6.45)

Also recall that a solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.27) either eventually enters the interval I

with end points 1 and

p

q

and remains there, or stays forever outside I.

Now when

q ≤ 1 + 4p

there are no period-two solutions and so the solutions must eventually enter and remain

in I and, in view of Theorems 1.4.6 and 1.4.7, must converge to y.

On the other hand when (6.32) holds, any solution which remains forever outside the

interval I = [

p

q

, 1] must converge to the two cycle (6.44)-(6.45). But this two cycle lies

inside the interval I. Hence, when (6.32) holds, every solution of Eq(6.27) eventually

enters and remains in the interval I.

The character of these solutions remains an open question.

The above observations are summarized in the following theorem:

Theorem 6.6.5 (a) Assume

q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.46)

Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6.27) is global attractor.

6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

101

(b) Assume

q > 1 + 4p.

Then every solution of Eq(6.27) eventually enters and remains in the interval [

p

q

, 1].

6.7 The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

This is the (2, 2)-type equation Eq(6.7) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.47)

where

p =

β

A

and q =

γ

A

.

(Eq(6.47) was investigated in [52].)

The equilibrium points of Eq(6.47) are the solutions of the equation

y =

py + qy

1 + y

.

So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point, and when

p + q > 1,

y = p + q −1 is the only positive equilibrium point of Eq(6.47).

The following result follows from Theorem 1.3.1 and the linearized stability Theorem

1.1.1:

Theorem 6.7.1 (a) Assume

p + q ≤ 1.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume

p + q > 1.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is unstable. More precisely it is a saddle

point when

1 −p < q < 1 + p

and a repeller when

q > 1 + p.

102 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(c) Assume

1 −p < q < 1 + p.

Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6.47) is locally asymptotically

stable.

(d) Assume

q > 1 + p.

Then the positive equilibrium y = p+q −1 of Eq(6.47) is an unstable saddle point.

Concerning prime period-two solutions it follows from Sections 2.5 that the following

result is true:

Theorem 6.7.2 Eq(6.47) has a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if

q = 1 + p. (6.48)

Furthermore when (6.48) holds, the values of φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions

are given by:

{φ, ψ ∈ (p, ∞) : ψ =

pφ

φ −p

= 2p}.

6.7.1 Invariant Intervals

The main result here is the following theorem about Eq(6.47) with q = 1. The case

q = 1 (6.49)

is treated in Section 6.7.3.

Theorem 6.7.3 (a) Assume that

q < 1. (6.50)

Then every solution of Eq(6.47) eventually enters the interval (0,

p

q

]. Furthermore,

(0,

p

q

] is an invariant interval for Eq(6.47). That is, every solution of Eq(6.47)

with initial conditions in (0,

p

q

], remains in this interval.

(b) Assume that

q > 1. (6.51)

Then every solution of Eq(6.47) eventually enters the interval [

p

q

, ∞). Further-

more, [

p

q

, ∞) is an invariant interval for Eq(6.47).

6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

103

The proof of the above theorem is an elementary consequence of the following lemma,

whose proof is straightforward and will be omitted.

Lemma 6.7.1 (a) Assume that (6.50) holds. Then for any k, m ∈ N,

y

k

≤

p

q

=⇒y

k+2

≤ p <

p

q

and

y

k+2

≥

p

q

m

=⇒y

k

>

p

q

m+1

> p.

(b) Assume that (6.51) holds. Then for any k, m ∈ N,

y

k

≥

p

q

=⇒y

k+2

≥ p >

p

q

and

y

k+2

≤

p

q

m

=⇒y

k

>

p

q

m+1

> p.

6.7.2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1

Here we discuss the behavior of the semicycles of solutions of Eq(6.47) when

p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1.

Hereafter, y refers to the positive equilibrium p + q −1 of Eq(6.47).

Let f : [0, ∞) ×[0, ∞) →[0, ∞) denote the function

f(x, y) =

px + qy

1 + x

.

Then f satisﬁes the negative feedback condition; that is,

(x −x)(f(x, x) −x) < 0 for x ∈ (0, ∞) −{x}.

Consider the function g : [0, ∞) →[0, ∞) deﬁned by

g(x) =

(p + q)x

1 + x

.

Observe that g(y) = y and that g increases on [0, ∞).

Theorem 6.7.4 Suppose

p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1.

Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(6.47). Then the following statements are true

for every n ≥ 0:

104 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(a) If y ≤ y

n−1

, y

n

, then y ≤ y

n+1

≤ max{y

n−1

, y

n

}.

(b) If y

n−1

, y

n

≤ y, then min{y

n−1

, y

n

} ≤ y

n+1

< y.

(c) If y

n−1

< y ≤ y

n

, then y

n−1

< y

n+1

< y

n

.

(d) If y

n

< y ≤ y

n−1

, then y

n

< y

n+1

< y

n−1

.

(e) If y < y

k

<

y

2−q

, for every k ≥ −1, then {y

n

} decreases to the equilibrium y.

Proof.

(a) Suppose y ≤ y

n−1

, y

n

. Then

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

≤

(p + q) max{y

n−1

, y

n

}

1 + y

= max{y

n−1

, y

n

}.

Since the function

px + qx

1 + x

,

is increasing for y <

p

q

, which is equivalent to q ≤ 1, we obtain

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

≥

py

n

+ qy

1 + y

n

≥ g(y) = y.

Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that y

n−1

> y or y

n

> y.

(b) Suppose y

n−1

, y

n

≤ y. Then in view of the previous case

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

≤

py

n

+ qy

1 + y

n

< g(y) = y

and

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

≥

(p + q) min{y

n−1

, y

n

}

1 + y

= min{y

n−1

, y

n

}.

Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that y

n−1

< y or y

n

< y.

(c) Suppose y

n−1

< y ≤ y

n

. Then

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

<

(p + q)y

n

1 + y

n

=

(1 + y)y

n

1 + y

n

< y

n

.

Since q ≤ 1 and y

n−1

< y,

p −qy

n−1

> p −qy = (1 −q)(p + q) ≥ 0.

Thus

px+qy

n−1

1+x

increases in x and so

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

>

py

n−1

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n−1

= g(y

n−1

) > y

n−1

.

The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property.

6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

105

(d) Suppose y

n

< y ≤ y

n−1

. Then

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

>

py

n

+ qy

n

1 + y

n

= g(y

n

) > y

n

by the negative feedback property.

To see that y

n+1

< y

n−1

, we must consider two cases:

Case 1. Suppose p −qy

n−1

≥ 0. Then

px+qy

n−1

1+x

increases in x and so

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

≤

py

n−1

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n−1

< y

n−1

.

The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property.

Case 2. Suppose p −qy

n−1

< 0. Then

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

<

qy

n−1

(y

n

+ 1)

1 + y

n

≤ y

n−1

.

(e) Observe that

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ qy

n−1

1 + y

n

> y = p + q −1

and so

y

n−1

≥ qy

n−1

> y + (q −1)y

n

> y

n

from which the result follows.

2

6.7.3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1

Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.47) when

q = 1.

Here the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.47) is

y = p.

Theorem 6.7.5 Suppose that q = 1 and let y

−1

+ y

0

> 0. Then the equilibrium y of

Eq(6.47) is globally asymptotically stable. More precisely the following statements are

true.

(a) Assume y

−1

≥ p and y

0

≥ p. Then y

n

≥ p for all n > 0 and

lim

n→∞

y

n

= p. (6.52)

(b) Assume y

−1

≤ p and y

0

≤ p. Then y

n

≤ p for all n > 0 and (6.52) holds.

(c) Assume either y

−1

< p < y

0

or y

−1

> p > y

0

. Then {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

oscillates about the

equilibrium p with semicycles of length one and (6.52) holds.

106 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Proof. (a) The case where y

−1

= y

0

= p is trivial. We will assume that y

−1

≥ p and

y

0

> p. The case y

−1

> p and y

0

≥ p is similar and will be omitted. Then

y

1

=

py

0

+ y

−1

1 + y

0

≥

py

0

+ p

1 + y

0

= p,

and

y

2

=

py

1

+ y

0

1 + y

1

>

py

1

+ p

1 + y

1

= p.

It follows by induction that y

n

≥ p for all n > 0. Furthermore, y

−1

≥ p implies that

py

0

+ y

−1

≤ y

−1

y

0

+ y

−1

and so

y

1

=

py

0

+ y

−1

1 + y

0

≤

y

−1

y

0

+ y

−1

1 + y

0

= y

−1

.

Similarly, we can show that y

2

< y

0

and by induction

y

−1

≥ y

1

≥ y

3

≥ . . . ≥ p

and

y

0

> y

2

> y

4

> . . . > p.

Thus, there exist m ≥ p and M ≥ p such that

lim

k→∞

y

2k+1

= m and lim

k→∞

y

2k

= M.

As Eq(6.47) has no period-two solutions when q = 1, it follows that m = M = p and

the proof of part (a) is complete.

It is interesting to note that

y

−1

= p ⇒y

2k+1

= p for k ≥ 0 and y

0

= p ⇒y

2k

= p for k ≥ 0.

(b) The proof of (b) is similar to the proof of (a) and will be omitted.

(c) Assume y

−1

< p < y

0

. The proof when y

0

< p < y

−1

is similar and will be

omitted.

y

1

=

py

0

+ y

−1

1 + y

0

<

py

0

+ p

1 + y

0

= p,

and

y

2

=

py

1

+ y

0

1 + y

1

>

py

1

+ p

1 + y

1

= p.

It follows by induction that the solution oscillates about p with semicycles of length one.

Next, we claim that the subsequence {y

2k+1

}

∞

k=−1

is increasing, and so convergent. In

fact, since y

−1

+ py

0

> y

−1

+ y

−1

y

0

then

y

1

=

py

0

+ y

−1

1 + y

0

> y

−1

6.7. The Case α = C = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

107

and the claim follows by induction. In a similar way we can show that the subsequence

{y

2k

}

∞

k=0

is decreasing, and so convergent. Thus, there exist m ≤ p and M ≥ p such

that

lim

k→∞

y

2k+1

= m and lim

k→∞

y

2k

= M

and as in (a), m = M. 2

6.7.4 Global Attractivity When q < 1

Here we consider the case where

1 −p < q < 1,

and we show that the equilibrium point y = p + q −1 of Eq(6.47) is global attractor of

all positive solutions of Eq(6.47).

Theorem 6.7.6 Assume

1 −p < q < 1.

Then every positive solution of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium y.

Proof. Observe that the consistency condition y ≤

p

q

is equivalent to the condition

q ≤ 1. By Theorem 6.7.3 (a) we may assume that the initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

lie

in the interval I = (0,

p

q

]. Now clearly the function

f(x, y) =

px + qy

1 + x

satisﬁes the hypotheses of Theorem 1.4.5 in the interval I from which the result follows.

2

6.7.5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1

Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.47) when

q > 1

which is equivalent to

y >

p

q

.

In this case, every positive solution of Eq(6.47) lies eventually in the interval [p, ∞).

Concerning the long-term behavior of solutions of Eq(6.47) we may assume, without

loss of generality, that

y

−1

, y

0

∈ [p, ∞).

108 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Then the change of variable

y

n

= u

n

+ p,

transforms Eq(6.47) to the equation

u

n+1

=

p(q −1) + qu

n−1

1 + p + u

n

(6.53)

where u

n

≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.

The character of solutions of Eq(6.53) was investigated in Section 6.5. By apply-

ing the results of Section 6.5 to Eq(6.53), we obtain the following theorems about the

solutions of Eq(6.47) when q > 1:

Theorem 6.7.7 After the ﬁrst semicycle, an oscillatory solution of Eq(6.47) oscillates

about the positive equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.

Theorem 6.7.8 (a) Assume

q = 1 + p.

Then every solution of Eq(6.47) converges to a period-two solution.

(b) Assume

1 < q < 1 + p.

Then every positive solution of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium of

Eq(6.47).

(c) Assume

q > 1 + p.

Then Eq(6.47) has unbounded solutions.

6.8. The Case α = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

109

6.8 The Case α = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.8) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−1

q + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.54)

where

p =

β

γ

and q =

A

γ

.

(Eq(6.54) was investigated in [53].)

The equilibrium points of Eq(6.54) are the solutions of the equation

y =

py + y

q + y

.

So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point of Eq(6.54) and when

p + 1 > q,

Eq(6.54) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p + 1 −q.

The following result follows from Theorems 1.1.1 and 1.3.1.

Theorem 6.8.1 (a) Assume

p + 1 ≤ q.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume

p + 1 > q. (6.55)

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.54) is unstable and the positive equilibrium

y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.54) is locally asymptotically stable. Furthermore the zero

equilibrium is a saddle point when

1 −p < q < 1 + p

and a repeller when

q < 1 −p.

In the remainder of this section we will investigate the character of the positive

equilibrium of Eq(6.54) and so we will assume without further mention that (6.55) holds.

Our goal is to show that when (6.55) holds and y

−1

+ y

0

> 0, the positive equilibrium

y = p + 1 −q of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.

110 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.8.1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis

Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following identities are easily

established:

y

n+1

−1 = p

y

n

−

q

p

q + y

n−1

for n ≥ 0, (6.56)

y

n+1

−

q

p

=

p

2

[y

n

−

q

p

2

] + (p −q)y

n−1

p(q + y

n−1

)

for n ≥ 0, (6.57)

and

y

n+1

−y

n

=

(p −q)y

n

+ (1 −y

n

)y

n−1

q + y

n−1

for n ≥ 0. (6.58)

Note that the positive equilibrium

y = p + 1 −q

of Eq(6.54) is such that:

y is

< 1 if p < q < p + 1

= 1 if p = q

> 1 if p > q.

When

p = q

that is for the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−1

p + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.59)

the identities (6.56)-(6.58) reduce to the following:

y

n+1

−1 = (y

n

−1)

p

p + y

n−1

for n ≥ 0 (6.60)

and

y

n+1

−y

n

= (1 −y

n

)

y

n−1

p + y

n−1

for n ≥ 0. (6.61)

The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of the above identities.

Lemma 6.8.1 Assume that

p < q (6.62)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are

true:

6.8. The Case α = B = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

111

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

q

p

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

q

p

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

q

p

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

q

p

2

, then y

N+1

<

q

p

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

N+1

< 1;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥ 1, then y

N+1

< y

N

.

Lemma 6.8.2 Assume that

p = q (6.63)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are

true:

(i) If y

0

< 1, then for n ≥ 0, y

n

< 1 and the solution is strictly increasing;

(ii) If y

0

= 1, then y

n

= 1 for n ≥ 0;

(iii) If y

0

> 1, then for n ≥ 0, y

n

> 1 and the solution is strictly decreasing.

Lemma 6.8.3 Assume that

p > q (6.64)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(6.54). Then the following statements are

true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

q

p

, then y

N+1

< 1;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

q

p

, then y

N+1

= 1;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

q

p

, then y

N+1

> 1;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

q

p

2

, then y

N+1

>

q

p

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≤ 1, then y

N+1

> y

N

;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

≥ 1, then y

N+1

>

q

p

and y

N+2

> 1.

112 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.8.2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium

When (6.62) holds, it follows from Lemma 6.8.1 that if a solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

is such that

y

n

≥ 1 for all n ≥ 0

then the solution decreases and its limit lies in the interval [1, ∞). This is impossible

because y < 1. Hence, by Lemma 6.8.1, every positive solution of Eq(6.54) eventually

enters and remains in the interval (0, 1). Now in the interval (0, 1) the function

f(u, v) =

pu + v

q + v

is increasing in both arguments and by Theorem 1.4.8, y is a global attractor.

When (6.63) holds, it follows from Lemma 6.8.2 that every solution of Eq(6.54)

converges to the equilibrium y = 1.

Next, assume that (6.64) holds. Here it is clear from Lemma 6.8.3 that every solu-

tion of Eq(6.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (1, ∞). Without loss of

generality we will assume that

y

n

> 1 for n ≥ −1.

Set

y

n

= 1 + (q + 1)u

n

for n ≥ −1.

Then we can see that {u

n

}

∞

n=−1

satisﬁes the diﬀerence equation

u

n+1

=

p−q

(q+1)

2

+

p

q+1

u

n

1 + u

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.65)

with positive parameters and positive initial conditions. This (2, 2)-type equation was

investigated in Section 6.3 where we established in Theorem 6.3.3 that every solution

converges to its positive equilibrium

u =

p −q

q + 1

.

From the above observations and in view of Theorem 6.8.1 we have the following

result:

Theorem 6.8.2 Assume that p + 1 > q and that y

−1

+ y

0

> 0. Then the positive

equilibrium y = p + 1 −q of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable.

6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

113

6.9 The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.9) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−1

qy

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.66)

where

p =

β

γ

and q =

B

C

.

To avoid a degenerate situation we will also assume that

p = q.

(Eq(6.66) was investigated in [54].)

The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.66) is

y =

p + 1

q + 1

and the linearized equation of Eq(6.66) about y is

z

n+1

−

p −q

(p + 1)(q + 1)

z

n

+

p −q

(p + 1)(q + 1)

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result:

Theorem 6.9.1 (a) Assume that

p > q.

Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.66) is locally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume that

p < q.

Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.66) is locally asymptotically stable when

q < pq + 1 + 3p (6.67)

and is unstable (and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium) when

q > pq + 1 + 3p. (6.68)

114 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.9.1 Existence of a Two Cycle

It follows from Section 2.5 that when p > q, Eq(6.66) has no prime period-two solutions.

On the other hand when

p < q

and

q > pq + 1 + 3p,

Eq(6.66) possesses a unique prime period-two solution:

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (6.69)

where the values of φ and ψ are the (positive and distinct) solutions of the quadratic

equation

t

2

−(1 −p)t +

p(1 −p)

q −1

= 0. (6.70)

In order to investigate the stability nature of this prime period-two solution, we set

u

n

= y

n−1

and v

n

= y

n

for n = 0, 1, . . .

and write Eq(6.66) in the equivalent form:

u

n+1

= v

n

v

n+1

=

pv

n

+u

n

qv

n

+u

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) deﬁned by:

T

u

v

=

v

pv+u

qv+u

.

Then

φ

ψ

**is a ﬁxed point of T
**

2

, the second iterate of T. One can see that

T

2

u

v

=

g(u, v)

h(u, v)

where

g(u, v) =

pv + u

qv + u

and h(u, v) =

p

pv+u

qv+u

+ v

q

pv+u

qv+u

+ v

.

The prime period-two solution (6.69) is asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the

Jacobian matrix J

T

2, evaluated at

φ

ψ

**lie inside the unit disk. One can see that
**

J

T

2

φ

ψ

=

¸

¸

¸

−

(p−q)ψ

(qψ+φ)

2

(p−q)φ

(qψ+φ)

2

−

(p−q)

2

ψ

2

(qψ+φ)

2

(qφ+ψ)

2

(p−q)φ

(qφ+ψ)

2

(p−q)ψ

(qψ+φ)

2

−1

¸

.

6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

115

Set

P =

p −q

(qψ + φ)

2

and Q =

p −q

(qφ + ψ)

2

.

Then

J

T

2

φ

ψ

=

−Pψ Pφ

−PQψ

2

PQφψ −Qφ

**and its characteristic equation is
**

λ

2

+ (Pψ + Qφ −PQφψ)λ + PQφψ = 0.

By applying Theorem 1.1.1 (c), it follows that both eigenvalues of

J

T

2

φ

ψ

**lie inside the unit disk if and only if
**

|Pψ + Qφ −PQφψ| < 1 + PQφψ < 2

or equivalently if and only if the following three inequalities hold:

Pψ + Qφ + 1 > 0 (6.71)

Pψ + Qφ < 1 + 2PQφψ (6.72)

and

PQφψ < 1. (6.73)

Observe that

φ > 0, ψ > 0, P < 0 and Q < 0

and so Inequality (6.72) is always true.

Next we will establish Inequality (6.71). We will use the fact that

φ + ψ = 1 −p, φψ =

p(1 −p)

q −1

φ =

pψ + φ

qψ + φ

and ψ =

pφ + ψ

qφ + ψ

.

Inequality (6.71) is equivalent to

(p −q)ψ

(qψ + φ)

2

+

(p −q)φ

(qφ + ψ)

2

+ 1 > 0

which is true if and only if

(q −p)[(qφ + ψ)

2

ψ + (qψ + φ)

2

φ] < (qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

116 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

if and only if

(q −p)[(qφ + ψ)(pφ + ψ) + (qψ + φ)(pψ + φ)] < [(qφ + ψ)(qψ + φ)]

2

. (6.74)

Now observe that the lefthand side of (6.74) is

I = (q −p)[(qp + 1)(φ

2

+ ψ

2

) + 2(p + q)φψ]

= (q −p)[(qp + 1)(φ + ψ)

2

−2φψ(qp + 1 −p −q)]

= (q −p)[(qp + 1)(1 −p)

2

−2

p(1 −p)

q −1

(p −1)(q −1)]

= (q −p)(1 −p)

2

(qp + 1 + 2p).

The righthand side of (6.74) is

II = [(qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)]

2

= [(q

2

+ 1)ψφ + q(φ

2

+ ψ

2

)]

2

= [q(φ + ψ)

2

+ (q −1)

2

φψ]

2

= [q(1 −p)

2

+ (q −1)p(1 −p)]

2

= (1 −p)

2

(q −p)

2

.

Hence, Inequality (6.71) is true if and only if (6.68) holds.

Finally, Inequality (6.73) is equivalent to

(p −q)

2

φψ < (qψ + φ)

2

(qφ + ψ)

2

which is true if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)

if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (q

2

+ 1)φψ + q(φ

2

+ ψ

2

)

if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (q

2

+ 1)φψ + q[(φ + ψ)

2

−2φψ]

if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (q −1)

2

φψ + q(φ + ψ)

2

if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (q −1)

2

p(1 −p)

q −1

+ q(1 −p)

2

if and only if

(q −p)

φψ < (1 −p)(q −p)

6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

117

if and only if

p(1 −p)

q −1

< (1 −p)

2

if and only if q > pq + 1 which is clearly true.

In summary, the following result is true about the local stability of the prime period-

two solution (6.69) of Eq(6.66):

Theorem 6.9.2 Assume that Condition (6.68) holds. Then Eq(6.66) posseses the prime

period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

where φ and ψ are the two positive and distinct roots of the quadratic Eq(6.70). Fur-

thermore this prime period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable.

6.9.2 Semicycle Analysis

In this section, we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6.66).

Theorem 6.9.3 Let {y

n

} be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.66). Then the following state-

ments are true:

(a) Assume p > q. Then {y

n

} oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of

length two or three, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle which may have length one.

The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the ﬁrst term if the semicycle has two terms

and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms.

(b) Assume p < q. Then either {y

n

} oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles

of length one, after the ﬁrst semicycle, or {y

n

} converges monotonically to y.

Proof. (a) The proof follows from Theorem 1.7.4 by observing that the condition p > q

implies that the function

f(x, y) =

px + y

qx + y

is increasing in x and decreasing in y. This function also satisﬁes Condition (1.35).

(b) The proof follows from Theorem 1.7.1 by observing that when p < q, the function

f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. 2

6.9.3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q

The main result in this section is the following

Theorem 6.9.4 Assume that

p < q

and (6.67) holds. Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6.66) is globally asymptotically

stable.

118 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Proof. Set

f(x, y) =

px + y

qx + y

,

and note that f(x, y) is decreasing in x for each ﬁxed y, and increasing in y for each

ﬁxed x. Also clearly,

p

q

≤ f(x, y) ≤ 1 for all x, y > 0.

Finally in view of (6.67), Eq(6.66) has no prime period-two solution. Now the conclusion

of Theorem 6.9.4 follows as a consequence of Theorem 1.4.6 and the fact that y is locally

asymptotically stable. 2

The method employed in the proof of Theorem 1.4.6 can also be used to establish

that certain solutions of Eq(6.66) converge to the two cycle (6.69) when instead of (6.67),

(6.68) holds.

Theorem 6.9.5 Assume that (6.68) holds. Let φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . ., with φ < ψ, denote the

two cycle of Eq(6.66). Assume that for some solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.66) and for

some index N ≥ −1,

y

N

≥ ψ and y

N+1

≤ φ. (6.75)

Then this solution converges to the two cycle φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . ..

Proof. Assume that (6.75) holds. Set

f(x, y) =

px + y

qx + y

.

Then clearly,

y

N+2

= f(y

N+1

, y

N

) ≥ f(φ, ψ) = ψ,

y

N+3

= f(y

N+2

, y

N+1

) ≤ f(ψ, φ) = φ

and in general

y

N+2k

≥ ψ and y

N+2k+1

≤ φ for k = 0, 1, . . . .

Now as in the proof of Theorem 1.4.6

limsup

n→∞

y

n

= ψ and liminf

n→∞

y

n

= φ

from which we conclude that

lim

k→∞

y

N+2k

= ψ and lim

k→∞

y

N+2k+1

= φ.

2

Next we want to ﬁnd more cases where the conclusion of the last theorem holds. We

consider ﬁrst the case where eventually consecutive terms y

i

, y

i+1

lie between m and M.

6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

119

Lemma 6.9.1 Suppose that for some i ≥ 0,

m ≤ y

i

, y

i+1

≤ M.

Then y

k

∈ [m, M] for every k > i.

Proof. Using the monotonic character of the function f we have

m = f(M, m) ≤ f(y

i+1

, y

i

) = y

i+2

≤ f(m, M) = M,

and the result follows by induction. 2

If we never get two successive terms in the interval [m, M] and if we never get two

successive terms outside of the interval [m, M] (that is, for every i, either y

i

> M and

y

i+1

< m or y

i

< m and y

i+1

> M), then we have one of the following four cases:

(A) y

2n

> M and M ≥ y

2n+1

> m for every n;

(B) y

2n+1

> M and M ≥ y

2n

> m for every n;

(C) y

2n

< m and m ≤ y

2n+1

< M for every n;

(D) y

2n+1

< m and m ≤ y

2n

< M for every n.

Lemma 6.9.2 In all cases (A)-(D) the corresponding solution {y

n

} converges to the

two cycle

. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .

Proof. Since the proofs are similar for all cases we will give the details in case (A). By

our earlier observation we have that M ≥ limsup

i→∞

y

i

, and so

M ≥ limsup

n→∞

y

2n

≥ liminf

n→∞

y

2n

≥ M.

Hence lim

n→∞

y

2n

= M. From Eq(6.66) we have

y

2n+1

=

y

2n

−y

2n

y

2n+2

qy

2n+2

−p

.

and so

lim

n→∞

y

2n+1

=

M −M

2

qM −p

.

On the other hand by solving the equation

M = f(m, M) =

pm + M

qm + M

for m we ﬁnd

m =

M −M

2

qM −p

.

Thus, lim

n→∞

y

2n+1

= m and the proof is complete. 2

Since the case in which the solution lies outside of the interval [m, M] is answered by

Theorem 6.9.5, we are left with the case in which the solution lies eventually in [m, M].

120 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Lemma 6.9.3 Suppose M ≥ y

i+2

≥ y

i

≥ y ≥ y

i+1

≥ y

i+3

≥ m and not both y

i+2

and

y

i+3

are equal to y. Then {y

n

} converges to the two cycle

. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . .

Proof. Here we have

y

i+4

= f(y

i+3

, y

i+2

) ≥ f(y

i+1

, y

i

) = y

i+2

and

y

i+5

= f(y

i+4

, y

i+3

) ≤ f(y

i+2

, y

i+1

) = y

i+3

.

Induction on i then establishes the monotonicity of the two sequences. Thus, the se-

quence {y

i+2k

} is non decreasing and bounded above by M, and the sequence {y

i+2k+1

}

is a non increasing sequence and bounded below by m. Therefore, both subsequences

converge and their limits form a two cycle. In view of the uniqueness of the two cycle

and the fact that at least one of y

i

, y

i+1

is diﬀerent from y, the proof is complete.The

case M ≥ y

i+3

≥ y

i+1

≥ y ≥ y

i

≥ y

i+2

≥ m is handled in a similar way. 2

Using a similar technique one can prove that if

M ≥ y

i

≥ y

i+2

≥ y ≥ y

i+3

≥ y

i+1

≥ m

or

M ≥ y

i+1

≥ y

i+3

≥ y ≥ y

i+2

≥ y

i

≥ m

we would get convergence to y , but this situation cannot occur, as the following results

show. Let us consider the ﬁrst case. The second case can be handled in a similar way.

In this case we need to know more about the condition y

i+2

= f(y

i+1

, y

i

) ≤ y

i

, so we are

led to the general equation

f(x, y) = y. (6.76)

It makes sense to consider this equation only for y ∈ (

p

q

, 1), in which case Eq(6.76) has a

unique positive solution for x, which of course depends on y. We denote this value by y

.

Thus f(y

, y) = y. The correspondence between y and y

**has the following properties:
**

Lemma 6.9.4 (1) f(x, y) > y if and only if x < y

.

(2) x > y if and only if x

< y

.

(3) For y < y < M, f(y, y

) < y

and y > y

, and for m < y < y, f(y, y

) > y

and y

> y.

Proof.

6.9. The Case α = A = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

121

(1) Since f is decreasing in the ﬁrst variable and f(y

, y) = y, x < y

**if and only if
**

f(x, y) > f(y

, y) = y.

(2) Solving f(y

, y) = y for y

gives

y

= g(y) =

y −y

2

qy −p

.

Computing the derivative of g we get

g

(y) = −

p −2y + qy

2

(p −qy)

2

.

The discriminant of the numerator is 4p

2

− 4pq = 4p(p − q) < 0, so the roots of

the numerator are not real. For y ∈ (

p

q

, 1), g

(y) < 0, so y

**is decreasing function
**

of y.

(3) Eliminating y

from the equations y = f(y

, y) and y

= f(y, y

) we get

x −x

2

qx −p

=

px +

x−x

2

qx−p

qx +

x−x

2

qx−p

.

Simplifying this equation we get a fourth degree polynomial equation with roots

0, y, m, M. Thus each of these roots is simple and so f(y, y

)−y

changes sign as y

passes each of these values. Clearly as y approaches

p

q

y

approaches ∞. However

p

q

< f(y, y

) < 1. Thus for y < m, f(y, y

) < y

. Hence

m < y < y ⇒f(y, y

) > y

,

y < y < M ⇒f(y, y

) < y

,

M < y <⇒f(y, y

) > y

.

By (1) then, for m < y < y, y < y

, and for y < y < M, y > y

.

2

Now we will use this result to prove the following:

Lemma 6.9.5 Assume that for some i,

M ≥ y

i

≥ y

i+2

≥ y ≥ y

i+1

≥ m.

Then y

i+3

≤ y

i+1

with equality only in the case of a two cycle.

122 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Proof. To show y

i+3

= f(y

i+2

, y

i+1

) ≤ y

i+1

, we must show y

i+2

≥ y

i+1

.

Since y

i+2

= f(y

i+1

, y

i

) ≤ y

i

, we have y

i+1

≥ y

i

. Thus by (2) of the previous lemma

y

i

≥ y

i+1

, and by (3) y

i

≥ y

i

. Thus y

i

≥ y

i+1

. Since f is increasing in the second

argument and y

i

≥ y

i+1

we get

y

i+2

= f(y

i+1

, y

i

) ≥ f(y

i+1

, y

i+1

).

By (3) of the previous lemma, since m ≤ y

i+1

≤ y, f(y

i+1

, y

i+1

) ≥ y

i+1

. Thus y

i+2

≥ y

i+1

,

as required. To get equality we must have y

i+1

= y

i

or equivalently y

i+2

= y

i

, as well as

y

i+3

= y

i+1

. Thus equality occurs only in the case of a two cycle. 2

The case

m ≤ y

i

≤ y

i+2

≤ y ≤ y

i+1

≤ M

is similar.

We also obtain the following lemma:

Lemma 6.9.6 Unless {y

n

} is a period-two solution, there is no i such that either

M ≥ y

i

≥ y

i+2

≥ . . . ≥ y ≥ y

i+1

≥ y

i+3

≥ . . . ≥ m,

or

M ≥ . . . ≥ y

i+2

≥ y

i

≥ y ≥ . . . ≥ y

i+3

≥ y

i+1

≥ . . . ≥ m.

Proof. We will consider the ﬁrst case; the second case is similar. Since {y

i+2k+1

} is a

bounded monotonic sequence it has a limit c. The value c will be one value in a two

cycle, so either c = y or c = m. If c = y, then y

i+2n+1

= y for all n, and solving for y

i+2n

we see y

i+2n

= y also. But then y

i

= y

i+1

= y, and our solution is a two cycle.. If c = m,

solving for lim

n→∞

y

i+2n

gives lim

n→∞

y

i+2n

= M. This can only happen if y

i+2n

= M

for all n, in which case y

i+2n+1

= m for all n, which also gives a two cycle. 2

The above sequence of lemmas leads to the following result:

Theorem 6.9.6 Assume that

p < q,

and that Eq(6.66) possesses the two-cycle solution (6.69). Then every oscillatory solution

of Eq(6.66) converges to this two cycle.

Remark. Since some of the oscillatory solutions of Eq(6.66) are generated by initial

values {y

−1

, y

0

} that are on opposite sides of the equilibrium y, it follows by Theorem

6.9.6 that all such pairs belong to the stable manifold of the two cycle.

6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 123

6.9.4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q

Here we have the following result:

Theorem 6.9.7 Assume that

p > q

and

p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q. (6.77)

Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6.66) is globally asymptotically stable.

Proof. We will employ Theorem 1.4.5. To this end, set

f(x, y) =

px + y

qx + y

,

and observe that when p > q, the function f(x, y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y, and

is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed x. Also

1 ≤ f(x, y) ≤

p

q

for all x, y > 0.

Finally observe that when (6.77) holds, the only solution of the system

M =

pM + m

qM + m

, m =

pm + M

qm + M

,

is

m = M.

Now the result is a consequence of Theorem 1.4.5. 2

6.10 Open Problems and Conjectures

Open Problem 6.10.1 (See [64]) Assume that

a, b, c, d ∈ R.

(a) Investigate the forbidden set F of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

ax

n

+ bx

n−1

cx

n

+ dx

n−1

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

(b) For every point (x

−1

, x

0

) / ∈ F, investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic

nature of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

124 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(See Section 1.6.)

Open Problem 6.10.2 Assume that

α

n

, β

n

, A

n

, B

n

∈ R for n = 0, 1, . . .

are convergent sequences of real numbers with ﬁnite limits. Investigate the forbidden set

and the asymptotic character of solutions of the nonautonomous Riccati equation

x

n+1

=

α

n

+ β

n

x

n

A

n

+ B

n

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

(See Section 1.6 for the autonomous case.)

Conjecture 6.10.1 Assume

p, q ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.10) has a ﬁnite limit.

(Note that by Theorem 6.3.3, we need only to conﬁrm this conjecture for p > 2(q +1)

and q ≥ 1. See also [36].)

Conjecture 6.10.2 Assume that

p, q ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.11) has a ﬁnite limit.

(Note that by Theorem 6.4.4, this conjecture has been conﬁrmed for q ≤ 1 + 4p.)

Conjecture 6.10.3 Assume p ∈ (0, ∞). Show that the equation

y

n+1

=

p + y

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

has a positive and monotonically decreasing solution.

(Note that by Theorem 6.5.2, every positive solution converges to a, not necessarily

prime, period-two solution.)

6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 125

Conjecture 6.10.4 Assume that

p, q ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.27) either converges to a ﬁnite limit or to a

two cycle.

(See Section 6.6.)

Open Problem 6.10.3 Assume that

p, q ∈ (0, ∞)

and

q > 1 + 4p.

Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.27).

Open Problem 6.10.4 Assume that

p, q ∈ (0, ∞)

and

q > pq + 1 + 3p.

Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6.66).

Conjecture 6.10.5 Assume

p > q.

Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.66) has a ﬁnite limit.

(Note that by Theorem 6.9.7, this conjecture has been conﬁrmed for p ≤ pq +1+3q.)

Open Problem 6.10.5 Find the set of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R×R through

which the solution of the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ y

n−1

1 + y

n

is well deﬁned and converges to 1, as n →∞.

126 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Open Problem 6.10.6 Find the set of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R×R through

which the solution of the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ y

n−1

1 + y

n−1

is well deﬁned and converges to 1, as n →∞.

Open Problem 6.10.7 For each of the following diﬀerence equations determine the

“good” set G ⊂ R×R of initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ R×R through which the equation

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.Then for every (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ G, investigate the long-term

behavior of the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

:

y

n+1

=

1 −y

n

1 −y

n−1

(6.78)

y

n+1

=

y

n

−1

y

n

−y

n−1

(6.79)

y

n+1

=

1 −y

n−1

1 −y

n

(6.80)

y

n+1

=

1 −y

n−1

y

n

−y

n−1

(6.81)

y

n+1

=

y

n

−y

n−1

y

n

−1

(6.82)

y

n+1

=

y

n

−y

n−1

1 −y

n−1

(6.83)

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ y

n−1

y

n

−y

n−1

. (6.84)

For those equations from the above list for which you were successful, extend your

result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.

Open Problem 6.10.8 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of solutions of the diﬀerence

equation

x

n+1

=

αx

n

+ βx

n−1

+ γx

n−2

Ax

n

+ Bx

n−1

+ Cx

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Extend and generalize.

6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 127

Open Problem 6.10.9 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent sequences of

nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

and q = lim

n→∞

q

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following eight diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ y

n

q

n

+ y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.85)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.86)

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ p

n

y

n

+ q

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.87)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.88)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ y

n−1

q

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.89)

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

+ q

n

y

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.90)

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

q

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.91)

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

q

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.92)

Open Problem 6.10.10 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are period-two sequences

of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of

Eqs(6.85)-(6.92). Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 6.10.11 Assume q ∈ (1, ∞).

(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the

solutions {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.23) are bounded.

(b) Let (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

128 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Open Problem 6.10.12 Assume q ∈ (1, ∞).

(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the

solutions {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.47) are bounded.

(b) Let (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

Open Problem 6.10.13 (A Plant-Herbivore System; See [9], [3], and [2]) Assume

α ∈ (1, ∞), β ∈ (0, ∞), and γ ∈ (0, 1) with α + β > 1 +

β

γ

.

Obtain conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium of the

system

x

n+1

=

αx

n

βx

n

+e

y

n

y

n+1

= γ(x

n

+ 1)y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.93)

Conjecture 6.10.6 Assume x

0

, y

0

∈ (0, ∞) and that

α ∈ (2, 3), β = 1 and γ =

1

2

.

Show that the positive equilibrium of System (6.93) is globally asymptotically stable.

Open Problem 6.10.14 (Discrete Epidemic Models; See [14].) Let A ∈ (0, ∞).

(a) Determine the set G of initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) through which

the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= (1 −x

n

−x

n−1

)(1 −e

−Ax

n

), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.94)

are nonnegative.

(b) Let (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ G. Investigate the boundedness character, the periodic nature, and

the asymptotic behavior of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(6.94).

(c) Extend and generalize.

6.10. Open Problems and Conjectures 129

Open Problem 6.10.15 (The Flour Beetle Model; See [48]). Assume

a ∈ (0, 1), b ∈ (0, ∞), and c

1

, c

2

∈ [0, ∞) with c

1

+ c

2

> 0.

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the Flour

Beetle Model:

x

n+1

= ax

n

+ bx

n−2

e

−c

1

x

n

−c

2

x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

with positive initial conditions.

Open Problem 6.10.16 (A Population Model) Assume

α ∈ (0, 1) and β ∈ (1, ∞).

Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of the system

x

n+1

= αx

n

e

−y

n

+ β

y

n+1

= αx

n

(1 −e

−y

n

)

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

which may be viewed as a population model.

Open Problem 6.10.17 Assume that

p, q ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.

Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence

equations:

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

1 + y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.95)

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ p

y

n

+ qy

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.96)

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n−k

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.97)

y

n+1

=

p + y

n−k

qy

n

+ y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.98)

y

n+1

=

y

n

+ py

n−k

y

n

+ q

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.99)

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−k

q + y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (6.100)

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−k

qy

n

+ y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (6.101)

130 Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

Open Problem 6.10.18 Obtain a general result for an equation of the form

y

n+1

= f(y

n

, y

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . .

which extends and uniﬁes the global asymptotic stability results for Eqs(6.11) and (6.27).

Open Problem 6.10.19 Assume that every positive solution of an equation of the form

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.102)

converges to a period-two solution. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so

that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n−2

, x

n−1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (6.103)

also converges to a period-two solution.

Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 6.10.20 Assume that Eq(6.102) has a two cycle which is locally asymp-

totically stable. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that the same two

cycle is a locally asymptotically stable solution of Eq(6.103).

Chapter 7

(1, 3)-Type Equations

7.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1, 3)-type:

x

n+1

=

α

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.1)

x

n+1

=

βx

n

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.2)

and

x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A +Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (7.3)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all the parameters in the above

(1, 3)-type equations are positive and that the initial conditions are nonnegative.

7.2 The Case β = γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 3)-type Eq.(7.1) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

α

A

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

1

1 +py

n

+qy

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.4)

where

p =

αB

A

2

and q =

αC

A

2

.

131

132 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations

One can easily see that the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.4) is locally asymptotically stable

for all values of the parameters and that Eq(7.4) has no prime period two solutions.

The following result is now a straightforward consequence of either the stability

trichotomy Theorem 1.4.4, or Theorem 1.4.7 in the interval [0, 1].

Theorem 7.2.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(7.4) is globally asymptotically stable.

7.3 The Case α = γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 3)-type Eq(7.2) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

C

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

y

n

1 +py

n

+qy

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.5)

where

p =

β

A

and q =

B

C

.

Eq(7.5) always has zero as an equilibrium point and when

p > 1

it also has the unique positive equilibrium point

y =

p −1

q + 1

.

The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1.3.1.

Theorem 7.3.1 Assume

p ≤ 1.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(7.5) is globally asymptotically stable.

The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1.4.2. It also follows

by applying Theorem 1.4.5 in the interval [0,

p

q

].

Theorem 7.3.2 Assume that y

−1

, y

0

∈ (0, ∞) and

p > 1.

Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.5) is globally asymptotically stable.

7.4. The Case α = β = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

133

7.4 The Case α = β = 0 : x

n+1

=

γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (1, 3)-type Eq(7.3) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

reduces to the equation

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

p +qy

n

+y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.6)

where

p =

A

γ

and q =

B

C

.

Eq(7.6) always has the zero equilibrium and when

p < 1

it also has the unique positive equilibrium

y =

1 −p

1 +q

.

The subsequent result is a straightforward application of Theorems 1.1.1 and 1.3.1.

Theorem 7.4.1 (a) The zero equilibrium of Eq(7.6) is globally asymptotically stable

when

p ≥ 1

and is unstable (a repeller) when

p < 1.

(b) Assume that p < 1. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.6) is locally asymptot-

ically stable when

q < 1

and is unstable (a saddle point) when

q > 1.

Concerning prime period-two solutions one can see that Eq(7.6) has a prime period-

two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if

p < 1.

134 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations

Furthermore when

p < 1 and q = 1

the only prime period-two solution is

. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . . .

On the other hand, when

p < 1 and q = 1

all prime period-two solutions of Eq(7.6) are given by

. . . , φ, 1 −p −φ, φ, 1 −p −φ, . . .

with

0 ≤ φ ≤ 1 −p and φ =

1 −p

2

.

Theorem 7.4.2 Assume that

p < 1 and q > 1. (7.7)

Then the period-two solution

. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . . (7.8)

of Eq(7.6) is locally asymptotically stable.

Proof. It follows from Section 2.6 that here

J

T

2

0

1 −p

=

1

p+q(1−p)

0

−

q(1−p)

p+q(1−p)

p

and in view of (7.7) both eigenvalues of J

T

2

0

1 −p

**lie in the disk |λ| < 1. Therefore
**

the prime period-two solution (7.8) is locally asymptotically stable. 2

7.5 Open Problems and Conjectures

Conjecture 7.5.1 Assume

p, q ∈ (0, 1).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(7.6) has a ﬁnite limit.

7.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 135

Conjecture 7.5.2 Assume

p < 1 and q ≥ 1.

Show that every positive solution of Eq(7.6) converges to a, not necessarily prime, period-

two solution.

Open Problem 7.5.1 Assume

p ∈ (0, 1) and q ∈ (1, ∞).

Find the basin of attraction of the two cycle

. . . , 0, 1 −p, 0, 1 −p, . . .

of Eq(7.6).

Open Problem 7.5.2 Investigate the asymptotic character and the periodic nature of

all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−2

1 +px

n

+qx

n−1

+x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

where

p, q ∈ [0, ∞).

Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 7.5.3 For each of the equations given below, ﬁnd the set G of all points

(x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R ×R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0:

x

n+1

=

1

1 +x

n

+x

n−1

(7.9)

x

n+1

=

x

n

1 +x

n

+x

n−1

(7.10)

x

n+1

=

x

n−1

1 +x

n

+x

n−1

. (7.11)

Now for each of the equations (7.9)-(7.11), let (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ G be an initial point

through which the corresponding equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0, and investigate

the long term-behavior of the solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

136 Chapter 7. (1, 3)-Type Equations

Open Problem 7.5.4 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent sequences of

nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

and q = lim

n→∞

q

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following three diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

1

1 +p

n

y

n

+q

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.12)

y

n+1

=

y

n

1 +p

n

y

n

+q

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (7.13)

y

n+1

=

y

n−1

p

n

+q

n

y

n

+y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (7.14)

Open Problem 7.5.5 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are period-two sequences of

nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of

Eqs(7.12)-(7.14). Extend and generalize.

Chapter 8

(3, 1)-Type Equations

8.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1, 3)-type:

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

+γx

n−1

A

, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.1)

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.2)

and

x

n+1

=

α +βx

n

+γx

n−1

Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (8.3)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

Eq(8.1) is a linear diﬀerence equation and can be solved explicitly.

Eq(8.2) by the change of the variables

x

n

= y

n

+

β

B

,

is reduced to a (2, 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6.4) (see Section 6.5), namely,

y

n+1

=

(α +

βγ

B

) +γy

n−1

β +By

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Eq(8.3) by the change of the variables

x

n

= y

n

+

γ

C

,

137

138 Chapter 8. (3, 1)-Type Equations

is reduced to a (2, 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6.2) (see Section 6.3) namely,

y

n+1

=

(α +

βγ

C

) +βy

n

γ +Cy

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Hence there is nothing else remaining to do about these equations other than to pose

some Open Problems and Conjectures.

8.2 Open Problems and Conjectures

Open Problem 8.2.1 Assume γ > β. Determine the set of initial conditions (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈

(0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(8.2) are bounded.

Open Problem 8.2.2 (a) Assume γ = β and let

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (8.4)

be a period-two solution of Eq(8.2). Determine the basin of attraction of (8.4).

(b) Let {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a positive solution of Eq(8.2) which converges to (8.4). Determine

the values of φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x

−1

and x

0

.

Conjecture 8.2.1 Show that every positive solution of Eq(8.3) converges to the positive

equilibrium of the equation.

Open Problem 8.2.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

x

n+1

=

1 +x

n

+x

n−1

x

n

is well deﬁned for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of

the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

Open Problem 8.2.4 Determine the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

x

n+1

=

1 +x

n

+x

n−1

x

n−1

is well deﬁned for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of

the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

8.2. Open Problems and Conjectures 139

Open Problem 8.2.5 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent sequences of

nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

and q = lim

n→∞

q

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following two diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

p

n

+x

n

+x

n−1

q

n

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (8.5)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+x

n

+x

n−1

q

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (8.6)

Open Problem 8.2.6 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

and {q

n

}

∞

n=0

are period-two sequences of

nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of

Eqs(8.5) and (8.6). Extend and generalize.

Chapter 9

(2, 3)-Type Equations

9.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (2, 3)-type:

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.1)

x

n+1

=

α + γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.2)

and

x

n+1

=

βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.3)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all the parameters in the above

(2, 3)-type equations are positive and the initial conditions are nonnegative.

9.2 The Case γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.1) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.4)

where

p =

αB

A

2

, q =

β

A

, and r =

C

B

.

141

142 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

(Eq(9.4) was investigated in [51].)

Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability, invariant intervals,

and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions.

Eq(9.4) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by

y =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p(r + 1)

2(r + 1)

.

By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1, we obtain the following result:

Theorem 9.2.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all

values of the parameters p, q and r.

9.2.1 Boundedness of Solutions

We will prove that all solutions of Eq(9.4) are bounded.

Theorem 9.2.2 Every solution of Eq(9.4) is bounded from above and from below by

positive constants.

Proof. Let {y

n

} be a solution of Eq(9.4). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from above

by a constant M, then

y

n+1

≥

p

1 + (1 + r)M

and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the

solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y

1+n

k

}

∞

k=0

such

that

lim

k→∞

n

k

= ∞, lim

k→∞

y

1+n

k

= ∞, and y

1+n

k

= max{y

n

: n ≤ n

k

} for k ≥ 0.

From (9.4) we see that

y

n+1

< qy

n

+ p for n ≥ 0

and so

lim

k→∞

y

n

k

= lim

k→∞

y

n

k

−1

= ∞.

Hence for suﬃciently large k,

0 < y

1+n

k

−y

n

k

=

p + [(q −1) −y

n

k

−ry

n

k

−1

]y

n

k

1 + y

n

k

+ ry

n

k

−1

< 0

which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. 2

The above proof has an advantage that extends to several equations of the form

of Eq(9.1) with nonnegative parameters. The boundedness of solutions of the special

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

143

equation (9.4) with positive parameters immediately follows from the observation that

if

M = max{1, p, q}

then

y

n+1

≤

M + My

n

1 + y

n

= M for n ≥ 0.

9.2.2 Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-

variant intervals for Eq(9.4). Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever,

y

N

, y

N+1

∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,

then

y

n

∈ I for n ≥ N.

Lemma 9.2.1 Eq(9.4) possesses the following invariant intervals:

(a)

0,

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p

2

¸

¸

, when p ≤ q;

(b)

¸

p −q

qr

, q

¸

, when q < p < q(rq + 1);

(c)

¸

q,

p −q

qr

¸

, when p > q(rq + 1).

Proof.

(a) Set

g(x) =

p + qx

1 + x

and b =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p

2

and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.4) we see

that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈ [0, b], then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

≤

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

= g(y

k

) ≤ g(b) ≤ b.

The proof follows by induction.

144 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

(b) It is clear that the function

f(x, y) =

p + qx

1 + x + ry

is increasing in x for y >

p−q

qr

. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈

p−q

qr

, q

,

then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f

q,

p −q

qr

= q.

Also by using the condition p < q(rq + 1) we obtain

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≥ f

p −q

qr

, q

=

q(pr + p −q)

(rq)

2

+ rq + p −q

>

p −q

qr

.

The proof follows by the induction.

(c) It is clear that the function

f(x, y) =

p + qx

1 + x + ry

is decreasing in x for y <

p−q

qr

. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈

q,

p−q

qr

,

then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≥ f

p −q

qr

,

p −q

qr

= q.

Also by using the condition p > q(rq + 1) we obtain

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f(q, q) =

p + q

2

1 + (r + 1)q

<

p −q

qr

.

The proof follows by induction.

2

9.2.3 Semicycle Analysis

Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following identitites are true for n ≥ 0:

y

n+1

−q =

qr(

p−q

qr

−y

n−1

)

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

, (9.5)

y

n+1

−

p −q

qr

=

qr

q −

p−q

qr

y

n

+ qr

y

n−1

−

p−q

qr

+ pr(q −y

n−1

)

qr(1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

)

, (9.6)

y

n

−y

n+4

=

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

145

qr

y

n

−

p−q

qr

y

n+1

+ (y

n

−q)(y

n+1

y

n+3

+ y

n+3

+ y

n+1

+ ry

n

y

n+3

) + y

n

+ ry

2

n

−p

(1 + y

n+3

)(1 + y

n+1

+ ry

n

) + r(p + qy

n+1

)

,

(9.7)

y

n+1

−y =

(y −q)(y −y

n

) + yr(y −y

n−1

)

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

. (9.8)

The proofs of the following two lemmas are straightforward consequences of the Identities

(9.5)- (9.8) and will be omitted.

Lemma 9.2.2 Assume

p > q(qr + 1)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

< q;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

= q;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

> q;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, q < y

N

<

p−q

qr

, then q < y

N+2

<

p−q

qr

;

(v) If for some N ≥ 0, y ≥ y

N−1

and y ≥ y

N

, then y

N+1

≥ y;

(vi) If for some N ≥ 0, y < y

N−1

and y < y

N

, then y

N+1

< y;

(vii) q < y <

p−q

qr

.

Lemma 9.2.3 Assume

q < p < q(qr + 1)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

<

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

> q;

(ii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

=

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

= q;

(iii) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

p−q

qr

, then y

N+2

< q;

(iv) If for some N ≥ 0, y

N

>

p−q

qr

and y

N

< q then q > y

N+2

>

p−q

qr

;

(v)

p−q

qr

< y < q.

146 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

Lemma 9.2.4 Assume

p = q(qr + 1)

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then

y

n+1

−q =

qr

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

(q −y

n−1

). (9.9)

Furthermore when qr < 1, then

lim

n→∞

y

n

= y. (9.10)

Proof. Identity (9.9) follows by straightforward computation. The limit (9.10) is a

consequence of the fact that in this case qr ∈ (0, ∞) and Eq(9.4) has no period-two

solution. 2

Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.4) when p = q(1 +rq).

In this case Eq(9.4) becomes

y

n+1

=

q + rq

2

+ qy

n

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and the only equilibrium point is y = q.

Theorem 9.2.3 Suppose that p = q + rq

2

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a nontrivial solution of

Eq(9.4). Then this solution is oscillatory and the sum of the lengths of two consecutive

semicycles, excluding the ﬁrst, is equal to four. More precisely, the following statements

are true for all k ≥ 0:

(i)

y

−1

> q and y

0

≤ q =⇒y

4k−1

> q, y

4k

≤ 1, y

4k+1

< q, and y

4k+2

≥ q;

(ii)

y

−1

< q and y

0

≥ q =⇒y

4k−1

< q, y

4k

≥ 1, y

4k+1

> q, and y

4k+2

≤ q;

(iii)

y

−1

> q and y

0

≥ q =⇒y

4k−1

> q, y

4k

≥ 1, y

4k+1

< q, and y

4k+2

≤ q;

(iv)

y

−1

< q and y

0

≤ q =⇒y

4k−1

< q, y

4k

≤ 1, y

4k+1

> q, and y

4k+2

≥ q.

Proof. The proof follows from identity (9.5). 2

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

147

9.2.4 Global Asymptotic Stability

The following lemma establishes that when p = q(qr + 1), every solution of Eq(9.4)

is eventually trapped into one of the three invariant intervals of Eq(9.4) described in

Lemma 9.2.1. More precisely, the following is true:

Lemma 9.2.5 Let I denote the interval which is deﬁned as follows:

I =

[0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4p

2

] if p ≤ q;

[

p−q

qr

, q] if q < p < q(qr + 1);

[q,

p−q

qr

] if p > q(qr + 1).

Then every solution of Eq(9.4) lies eventually in I.

Proof. Let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a solution of Eq(9.4). First assume that

p ≤ q.

Then clearly, y ∈ I. Set

b =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p

2

and observe that

y

n+1

−b =

(q −p)(y

n

−b) −r(p + qb)y

n−1

(1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

)(1 + b)

, n ≥ 0.

Hence, if for some N, y

N

≤ b, then y

N+1

< b. Now assume for the sake of contradiction

that

y

n

> b for n > 0.

Then y

n

> y for n ≥ 0 and so

lim

n→∞

y

n

= y ∈ I

which is a contradiction.

Next assume that

q < p < q(qr + 1)

and, for the sake of contradiction, also assume that the solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

is not even-

tually in the interval I. Then by Lemma 9.2.3, there exists N > 0 such that one of the

following three cases holds:

(i) y

N

> q, y

N+1

> q, and y

N+2

<

p−q

qr

;

(ii) y

N

> q, y

N+1

<

p−q

qr

, and y

N+2

<

p−q

qr

;

148 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

(iii) y

N

> q,

p−q

qr

≤ y

N+1

≤ q, and y

N+2

<

p−q

qr

.

Also observe that

if y

N

≥ q, then y

N

+ ry

2

N

−p > 0

and

if y

N

≤

p−q

qr

, then y

N

+ ry

2

N

−p < 0.

The desired contradiction is now obtained by using the Identity (9.7) from which it

follows that for j ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3}, each subsequence {y

n+4k+j

}

∞

k=0

with all its terms outside

the interval I converges monotonically and enters in the interval I.

The proof when

p > q(qr + 1)

is similar and will be omitted. 2

By using the monotonic character of the function

f(x, y) =

p + qx

1 + x + ry

in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.2.1, together with the appropriate convergence

Theorems 1.4.7 and 1.4.5, we can obtain some global asymptotic stability results for the

solutions of Eq(9.4). For example, the following results are true for Eq(9.4):

Theorem 9.2.4 (a) Assume that either

p ≥ q + q

2

r,

or

p <

q

1 + r

.

Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume that either

p ≤ q

or

q < p < q + q

2

r

and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed:

(i) q ≤ 1;

(ii) r ≤ 1;

(iii) r > 1 and (q −1)

2

(r −1) ≤ 4p.

Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is globally asymptotically stable.

Proof.

9.3. The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

149

(a) The proof follows from Lemmas 9.2.1 and 9.2.4 and Theorems 1.4.7 and 1.4.2.

(b) In view of Lemma 9.2.1 we see that when y

−1

, y

0

∈

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4p

2

, then y

n

∈

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4p

2

**for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈
**

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4p

2

**and that in the interval
**

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4p

2

**, the function f increases in x and
**

decreases in y.

We will employ Theorem 1.4.5 and so it remains to be shown that if

m = f(m, M) and M = f(M, m)

then M = m. This system has the form

m =

p + qm

1 + m + rM

and M =

p + qM

1 + M + rm

.

Hence (M −m)(1 −q + M + m) = 0. Now if m + M = q −1, then M = m. For

instance, this is the case if Condition (i) is satisﬁed. If m + M = q − 1 then m

and M satisfy the equation

(r −1)m

2

+ (r −1)(1 −q)m + p = 0.

Clearly now if Condition (ii) or (iii) is satisﬁed, m = M from which the result

follows.

The proof when q < p < q + q

2

r holds follows from Lemma 9.2.1 and Theorem

1.4.5.

2

9.3 The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.2) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n−1

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.11)

where

p =

αB

A

2

, q =

γ

A

, and r =

C

B

.

150 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations

about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain

regions of initial conditions.

Eq(9.11) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by

y =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4p(r + 1)

2(r + 1)

.

By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we obtain the following result.

Theorem 9.3.1 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(9.11) is locally asymptotically stable when

either

q ≤ 1

or

q > 1 and (r −1)(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2

> 0.

(b) The equilibrium y of Eq(9.11) is unstable, and more precisely a saddle point,

when

q > 1 and (r −1)(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2

< 0. (9.12)

9.3.1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles

Let

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

be a period-two cycle of Eq(9.11). Then

φ =

p + qφ

1 + ψ + rφ

and ψ =

p + qψ

1 + φ + rψ

.

It now follows after some calculation that the following result is true.

Lemma 9.3.1 Eq(9.11) has a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if (9.12) holds.

Furthermore when (9.12) holds, the period-two solution is “unique” and the values

of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation

t

2

−

q −1

r

t +

p

1 −r

= 0.

9.3. The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

151

To investigate the local stability of the two cycle

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

we set

u

n

= y

n−1

and v

n

= y

n

, for n = 0, 1, . . .

and write Eq(9.11) in the equivalent form:

u

n+1

= v

n

v

n+1

=

p+qu

n

1+v

n

+ru

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Let T be the function on (0, ∞) ×(0, ∞) deﬁned by:

T

u

v

=

v

p+qu

1+v+ru

.

Then

φ

ψ

**is a ﬁxed point of T
**

2

, the second iterate of T. By a simple calculation we ﬁnd that

T

2

u

v

=

g(u, v)

h(u, v)

where

g(u, v) =

p + qu

1 + v + ru

and h(u, v) =

p + qv

1 + g(u, v) + rv

.

Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the

Jacobian matrix J

T

2, evaluated at

φ

ψ

**, lie inside the unit disk.
**

We have

J

T

2

φ

ψ

=

¸

¸

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

¸

,

where

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) =

q −pr + qψ

(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

,

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ) =

−p −qφ

(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

,

152 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ) =

(p + qψ)(pr −q −qψ)

(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

,

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) =

(p + qψ)(p + qφ)

(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

+

q −pr + qφ

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

.

Set

S =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ) +

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ)

and

D =

∂g

∂u

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂v

(φ, ψ) −

∂g

∂v

(φ, ψ)

∂h

∂u

(φ, ψ).

Then it follows from Theorem 1.1.1 that both eigenvalues of J

T

2

φ

ψ

**lie inside the
**

unit disk |λ| < 1, if and only if

|S| < 1 +D < 2. (9.13)

Inequality (9.13) is equivalent to the following three inequalities:

D < 1 (9.14)

S < 1 +D (9.15)

−1 −D < S. (9.16)

First we will establish Inequality (9.14). This inequality is equivalent to

(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

< 0.

Observe that,

(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) = (q −pr)

2

+ q(q −pr)(φ + ψ) + q

2

φψ =

=

−2q

2

r + q

2

r

2

+ 3qpr

2

−2qpr

3

−p

2

r

3

+ p

2

r

4

−q

3

+ rq

3

+ q

2

−pr

2

q

2

−qpr

r (−1 + r)

and that

(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

=

1 + φ + rψ + ψ + ψφ + rψ

2

+ rφ + φ

2

r + r

2

φψ

2

=

−pr

2

+ qr + pr −q + q

2

r

2

.

Thus

9.3. The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

153

(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

=

−pr

3

q

2

+ 2q

2

r −q

2

r

2

−q

2

+ 3p

2

r

3

−2p

2

r

4

−3rq

3

+ 3qpr

3

−5qpr

2

r

2

(1 −r)

+

2qpr + 4pr

2

q

2

+ 2q

3

+ q

4

r −p

2

r

2

−2prq

2

−q

4

+ r

2

q

3

r

2

(1 −r)

=

(2r

2

p −rp + q −q

2

−qr + q

2

r) (−r

2

p + rp −q + q

2

+ qr)

r

2

(1 −r)

.

Note that

−r

2

p + rp −q + q

2

+ qr = rp(1 −r) + q(q −1) + qr > 0.

Also by using Condition (9.12) we see that

(r −1)(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2

= q

2

r −2qr + r −q

2

+ 2q −1 + 4r

2

p < 0

and so

2r

2

p −rp + q −q

2

−qr + q

2

r < 2r

2

p −rp + q −qr + 2qr −r −2q + 1 −4r

2

p

= −2r

2

p −rp −q + qr −r + 1 = −2r

2

p −rp + (r −1) (q −1) < 0

from which the result follows.

Next we turn to Inequality (9.15). This inequality is equivalent to

(q −pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)

2

+ (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q −pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

−(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) −(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

< 0.

After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is a consequence of

Condition (9.12).

Finally Inequality (9.16) is equivalent to

(q −pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)

2

+ (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q −pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)

2

+(q −pr + qφ) (q −pr + qψ) + (1 + ψ + rφ)

2

(1 + φ + rψ)

2

> 0.

After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is also a consequence

of Condition (9.12).

In summary, we have established the following result:

154 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

Theorem 9.3.2 Eq(9.11) has a unique prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if (9.12) holds.

Furthermore when (9.12) holds, this period-two solution is locally asymptotically sta-

ble.

9.3.2 Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-

variant intervals for Eq(9.11).

Lemma 9.3.2 Eq(9.11) possesses the following invariant intervals:

(a)

0,

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2r

¸

¸

when pr ≤ q;

(b)

¸

pr −q

q

,

q

r

¸

when 1 < q < pr < q +

q

2

r

−

q

r

;

(c)

¸

q

r

,

pr −q

q

¸

when pr ≥ q +

q

2

r

.

Proof.

(a) Set

g(x) =

p + qx

1 + rx

and b =

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2r

and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.11) we see

that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈ [0, b], then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k−1

1 + y

k

+ qy

k−1

≤

p + qy

k−1

1 + ry

k−1

= g(y

k−1

) ≤ g(b) ≤ b.

The proof follows by induction.

9.3. The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

155

(b) It is clear that the function

f(x, y) =

p + qy

1 + x + ry

is increasing in y for x >

pr−q

q

. Using Eq(9.11) we see that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈

pr−q

q

,

q

r

,

then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k−1

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≥ f

q

r

,

pr −q

q

≥

pr −q

q

.

Now by using the monotonic character of the function f(x, y) and the condition

q < pr < q +

q

2

r

we obtain

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k−1

1 + y

k

+ ry

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f

pr −q

q

,

q

r

=

q

r

.

The proof follows by induction.

(c) It is clear that the function

f(x, y) =

p + qy

1 + x + ry

is decreasing in y for x <

pr−q

q

. Using Eq(9.11) we see that when y

k−1

, y

k

∈

q

r

,

pr−q

q

, then

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k−1

1 + y

k

+ qy

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≥ f

pr −q

q

,

pr −q

q

=

q

r

.

By using the fact that f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments and the condition

pr > q +

q

r

2

we obtain

y

k+1

=

p + qy

k−1

1 + y

k

+ qy

k−1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f

q

r

,

q

r

=

pr + q

2

r + (r + 1)q

<

pr −q

q

.

The proof follows by induction.

2

156 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

9.3.3 Convergence of Solutions

By using the monotonic character of the function

f(x, y) =

p + qy

1 + x + ry

in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.3.2, together with the appropriate convergence

theorem (from among Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8) we can obtain some convergence results for

the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. For example, the following

results are true for Eq(9.11):

Theorem 9.3.3 Assume that

pr ≤ q

and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed:

(i) q ≤ 1;

(ii) r ≥ 1;

(iii) r < 1 and (r −1)(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2

≥ 0.

Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

0,

q −1 +

(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2r

¸

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Proof. In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we see that when y

−1

, y

0

∈

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4pr

2r

, then

y

n

∈

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4pr

2r

**for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈
**

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4pr

2r

**and that in the interval
**

¸

0,

q−1+

√

(q−1)

2

+4pr

2r

**the function f decreases in x and increases
**

in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.6.

2

Theorem 9.3.4 (a) Assume that 1 < q < pr < q+

q

2

r

−

q

r

and that one of the following

conditions is also satisﬁed:

(i) r ≥ 1;

(ii) r < 1 and (r −1)(q −1)

2

+ 4pr

2

≥ 0.

9.3. The Case β = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

157

Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

pr −q

q

,

q

r

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

(b) Assume that pr > q +

q

2

r

. Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions

in the invariant interval

¸

q

r

,

pr −q

q

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Proof.

(a) In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we conclude that y

n

∈

pr−q

q

,

q

r

**for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to
**

check that y ∈

pr−q

q

,

q

r

**and that the function f(x, y) decreases in x and increases
**

in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.6.

(b) In view of Lemma 9.3.2 we conclude that y

n

∈

q

r

,

pr−q

q

**for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to
**

check that y ∈

q

r

,

pr−q

q

and that in the interval

q

r

,

pr−q

q

**the function f decreases
**

in both x and in y. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.4.7.

2

9.3.4 Global Stability

By applying Theorem 1.4.3 to Eq(9.11), we obtain the following global asymptotic sta-

bility result.

Theorem 9.3.5 Assume

r ≥ 1 and pr ≤ q.

Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.11) is globally asymptotically stable.

9.3.5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q +

q

2

r

Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.11) when pr = q +

q

2

r

. In

this case Eq(9.11) becomes

y

n+1

=

qr + q

2

+ qr

2

y

n−1

r

2

+ r

2

y

n

+ r

3

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and the only positive equilibrium is y =

q

r

.

158 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

Theorem 9.3.6 Suppose that pr = q +

q

2

r

and let {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

be a nontrivial solution of

Eq(9.11). Then after the ﬁrst semicycle, the solution oscillates about the equilibrium y

with semicycles of length one.

Proof. The proof follows from the relation

y

n+1

−

q

r

= (

q

r

−y

n

)

qr

2

r

3

(1 + y

n

+ ry

n−1

)

.

2

9.4 The Case α = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.3) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

,

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−1

r + qy

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.17)

where

p =

β

γ

, q =

B

C

, and r =

A

γ

.

This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations

about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain

regions of initial conditions.

The equilibrium points of Eq(9.17) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation

y =

(p + 1)y

r + (1 + q)y

.

Hence zero is always an equilibrium point and when

p + 1 > r, (9.18)

Eq(9.17) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium

y =

p + 1 −r

q + 1

.

The following theorem is a consequence of Theorem 1.1.1 and Theorem 1.3.1.

9.4. The Case α = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

159

Theorem 9.4.1 (a) Assume that

p + 1 ≤ r.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume that

p + 1 > r.

Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is unstable. Furthermore the zero equilibrium

is a saddle point when

1 −p < r < 1 + p

and a repeller when

r < 1 −p.

The linearized equation associated with Eq(9.17) about its positive equilibrium y is

z

n+1

−

p −q + qr

(p + 1)(q + 1)

z

n

−

q −p + r

(p + 1)(q + 1)

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

The following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.1.1.

Theorem 9.4.2 Assume that (9.18) holds. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.17)

is locally asymptotically stable when

q + r < 3p + 1 + qr + pq, (9.19)

and unstable (a saddle point) when

q + r > 3p + 1 + qr + pq. (9.20)

Concerning prime period-two solutions for Eq(9.17), it follows from Section 2.5 that the

following result is true.

Theorem 9.4.3 Eq(9.17) has a prime period-two solution

. . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if and only if (9.20) holds. Furthermore when (9.20) holds there is a unique period-two

solution and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation

t

2

−(1 −p −r)t +

p(1 −p −r)

q −1

= 0.

160 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

9.4.1 Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-

variant intervals for Eq(9.17).

Lemma 9.4.1 Eq(9.17) possesses the following invariant intervals:

(a)

¸

0,

p + q −r

q + 1

¸

when p = q

2

and q

2

+ q > r

and

[0, K] when p = q

2

and q

2

+ q ≤ r,

where K > 0 is an arbitrary number;

(b)

¸

0,

qr

p −q

2

¸

when q

2

< p ≤ q

2

+ r and p + q > r,

[0, K] when q

2

< p ≤ q

2

+ r and p + q ≤ r,

where K > 0 is an arbitrary number

and

¸

qr

p −q

2

, K

1

¸

when p > q

2

+ r

where

K

1

=

(q −r)(p −q

2

) −qr +

((r −q)(p −q

2

) + qr)

2

+ 4q

3

r(p −q

2

)

2q(p −q

2

)

;

(c)

¸

0,

pr

q

2

−p

¸

when q

2

−qr ≤ p < q

2

and p + q > r,

[0, K] when q

2

−qr ≤ p < q

2

and p + q ≤ r,

where K > 0 is an arbitrary number

and

¸

pr

q

2

−p

, K

2

¸

when q

2

> p + qr,

where

K

2

=

(q −r)(q

2

−p) +

((q −r)(q

2

−p))

2

+ 4p

3

qr

2

2pqr

.

9.4. The Case α = 0 : x

n+1

=

βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

161

Proof.

(a) It is easy to see that when p = q

2

the function

f(x, y) =

px + qy

r + qx + y

is increasing in both arguments. Therefore for any K > 0,

0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(K, K).

Now observe that the inequality f(K, K) ≤ K is equivalent to q

2

+q−r ≤ (q+1)K.

When q

2

+q ≤ r, this inequality is satisﬁed for any K > 0, while when q

2

+q > r

the inequality is true when

K ≥

p + q −r

q + 1

.

(b) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is increasing in both arguments for x <

qr

p−q

2

,

and it is increasing in x and decreasing in y for x ≥

qr

p−q

2

.

First assume that q

2

< p ≤ q

2

+ r .

Hence for y

k−1

, y

k

∈

0,

qr

p−q

2

we obtain

y

k+1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f(K, K) = (p + q)K

1

r + (q + 1)K

≤ K,

where we set K =

qr

p−q

2

. The last inequality is always satisﬁed when p +q ≤ r and

when p + q > r, it is satisﬁed under the condition r + q

2

> p.

Second assume that p > q

2

+ r.

Then for y

k−1

, y

k

∈

qr

p−q

2

, K

1

**we can see that
**

f

qr

p −q

2

, K

1

≤ y

k+1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f(K

1

,

qr

p −q

2

) ≤ K

1

.

(c) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is increasing in both arguments for y <

pr

q

2

−p

,

and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for y ≥

pr

q

2

−p

.

First assume that q

2

−qr ≤ p < q

2

.

Then one can see that for y

k−1

, y

k

∈

0,

pr

q

2

−p

we obtain

y

k+1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f(K, K) = (p + q)K

1

r + (q + 1)K

≤ K,

with K =

pr

q

2

−p

.

Second assume that p < q

2

−qr. Then for y

k−1

, y

k

∈

pr

q

2

−p

, K

2

**one can see that
**

f

pr

q

2

−p

, K

2

≤ y

k+1

= f(y

k

, y

k−1

) ≤ f

K

2

,

pr

q

2

−p

≤ K

2

.

2

162 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

9.4.2 Convergence of Solutions

By using the monotonic character of the function

f(x, y) =

px + qy

r + qx + y

in each of the intervals in Lemma 9.4.1, together with the appropriate convergence

theorem (from among Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8), we can obtain some convergence results

for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. For example, the

following results are true for Eq(9.17):

Theorem 9.4.4 (a) Assume that p = q

2

and q

2

+ q > r. Then every solution of

Eq(9.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

0,

q

2

+ q −r

q + 1

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Assume that p = q

2

and q

2

+ q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with initial

conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium y.

(b) Assume that q

2

+r ≥ p > q

2

and p +q > r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with

initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

0,

qr

p −q

2

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Assume that q

2

+r ≥ p > q

2

and p +q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with

initial conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium

y.

(c) Assume that q

2

−qr ≥ p < q

2

and p +q > r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with

initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

0,

pr

q

2

−p

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Assume that q

2

−qr ≤ p < q

2

and p +q ≤ r. Then every solution of Eq(9.17) with

initial conditions in the interval [0, K], for any K > 0, converges to the equilibrium

y.

Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.8.

2

9.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 163

Theorem 9.4.5 Assume that

p > q

2

+ r

and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed:

(i) p ≤ q + r;

(ii) q ≥ 1;

(iii) q < 1 and p ≤

3q

2

+q−qr+r

1−q

.

Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr

p−q

2

, K

1

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

Proof. The proof is a consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.5.

2

Theorem 9.4.6 Assume that q

2

> p + qr and that Condition (9.20) is not satis-

ﬁed. Then every solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr

p−q

2

, K

2

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.6.

2

9.5 Open Problems and Conjectures

Conjecture 9.5.1 Assume

α, β, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.1) has a ﬁnite limit.

Conjecture 9.5.2 Assume

α, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.2) is bounded.

Conjecture 9.5.3 Assume

β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.3) is bounded.

164 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

Conjecture 9.5.4 Assume

α, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)

and suppose that Eq(9.2) has no prime period-two solutions. Show that the positive

equilibrium of Eq(9.2) is globally asymptotically stable.

Conjecture 9.5.5 Assume that x

−1

, x

0

∈ [0, ∞) with x

−1

+ x

0

> 0 and that

β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Suppose that Eq(9.3) has no prime period-two solutions. Show that the positive equilib-

rium of Eq(9.3) is globally asymptotically stable.

Open Problem 9.5.1 Determine the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n

+ x

n−1

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior

of the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

. Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 9.5.2 Determine the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior

of the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

. Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 9.5.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R × R

through which the equation

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n−1

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior

of the solutions {x

n

}

∞

n=−1

. Extend and generalize.

9.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 165

Open Problem 9.5.4 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

, {q

n

}

∞

n=0

, and {r

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent se-

quences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

, q = lim

n→∞

q

n

, and r = lim

n→∞

r

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following three diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n

1 + y

n

+ r

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.21)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n−1

1 + y

n

+ r

n

y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.22)

y

n+1

=

p

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

r

n

+ q

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.23)

Open Problem 9.5.5 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

, {q

n

}

∞

n=0

, and {r

n

}

∞

n=0

are period-two se-

quences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive

solutions of Eqs(9.21)-(9.23). Extend and generalize.

Open Problem 9.5.6 Assume that (9.12) holds. Investigate the basin of attraction of

the two cycle

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

of Eq(9.11).

Open Problem 9.5.7 Assume that (9.20) holds. Investigate the basin of attraction of

the two cycle

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

of Eq(9.17).

Conjecture 9.5.6 Assume that (9.20) holds. Show that the period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

of Eq(9.17) is locally asymptotically stable.

166 Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

Open Problem 9.5.8 Assume that

p, q, r ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.

Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence

equations:

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.24)

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n−k

1 + y

n

+ ry

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (9.25)

y

n+1

=

py

n

+ y

n−k

r + qy

n

+ y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.26)

Chapter 10

(3, 2)-Type Equations

10.1 Introduction

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (3, 2)-type:

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.1)

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.2)

and

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.3)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these

equations are positive, the initial conditions are nonnegative, and the denominators are

always positive.

10.2 The Case C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.1) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

B

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

+ ry

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.4)

where

p =

αB

A

2

, q =

β

A

, and r =

γ

A

.

167

168 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

(Eq(10.4) was investigated in [29].)

The linearized equation of Eq(10.4) about its unique equilibrium

y =

q + r −1 +

(q + r −1)

2

+ 4p

2

is

z

n+1

−

q −p −ry

(1 + y)

2

z

n

−

r

1 + y

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptot-

ically stable when

r < 1 + q

and is an unstable (saddle point) equilibrium when

r > 1 + q.

When

r = q + 1

Eq(10.4) possesses prime period-two solutions. See Sections 2.5 and 2.7. The main

result in this section is that the solutions of Eq(10.4) exhibit the following trichotomy

character.

Theorem 10.2.1 (a) Assume that

r = q + 1. (10.5)

Then every solution of Eq(10.4) converges to a period-two solution.

(b) Assume that

r < q + 1. (10.6)

Then the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is globally asymptotically stable.

(c) Assume that

r > q + 1. (10.7)

Then Eq(10.4) possesses unbounded solutions.

The proof of part (a) of Theorem 10.2.1 was given, for a more general equation, in

Section 2.7. The proofs of parts (b) and (c) of Theorem 10.2.1 are given in Sections

10.2.1 and 10.2.2 below.

10.2. The Case C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

169

10.2.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1

Here we assume that Eq(10.6) holds and we prove that the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is

globally asymptotically stable. We know already that when Eq(10.6) holds the equilib-

rium is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that every solution of

Eq(10.4) is attracted to the equilibrium.

Observe that

y

n+1

= q +

(p −q) + ry

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and so when

p ≥ q (10.8)

we have

y

n

≥ q for n ≥ 1.

Therefore the change of variables

y

n

= q + z

n

transforms Eq(10.4) to the diﬀerence equation

z

n+1

=

(p + rq −q) + rz

n−1

(1 + q) + z

n

, n = 1, . . . (10.9)

which is of the form of the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.23) which was investigated in Section 6.5

and therefore the proof is complete when (10.8) holds.

So in the remaining part of the proof we assume that

p < q.

Now observe that the solutions of Eq(10.4) satisfy the following identity

y

n+1

−q =

r

1 + y

n

y

n−1

−

q −p

r

for n ≥ 0. (10.10)

Note that when

q =

q −p

r

that is when

p + qr −q = 0 (10.11)

the Identity (10.10) reduces to

y

n+1

−q =

r

1 + y

n

(y

n

−q) for n ≥ 0. (10.12)

Also in this case

0 < r = 1 −

p

q

< 1

170 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

and the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is equal to q.

It follows from (10.12) that

|y

n+1

−q| < r|y

n+1

−q|

and so

lim

n→∞

y

n

= q

which completes the proof when (10.11) holds.

Still to be considered are cases where

p + qr −q > 0 (10.13)

and

p + qr −q < 0. (10.14)

First assume that (10.13) holds. To complete the proof in this case it is suﬃcient to

show that eventually

y

n

≥ q (10.15)

and then use the known result for Eq(10.9). To this end, note that now

q −p

r

< q

and employ (10.10). If (10.15) is not eventually true then either

y

2n

<

q −p

r

for n ≥ 0 (10.16)

or

y

2n−1

<

q −p

r

for n ≥ 0. (10.17)

This is because when

y

N−1

>

q −p

r

for some N ≥ 0,

then it follows from (10.10) that

y

N+1+2K

> q for all K ≥ 0.

We will assume that (10.16) holds. The case where (10.17) holds is similar and will be

omitted. Then we can see from (10.10) that

y

2n+2

−q =

r

1 + y

n+1

y

2n

−

q −p

r

> r

y

2n

−

q −p

r

and so

y

2n+2

> ry

2n

+ p for n ≥ 0. (10.18)

10.2. The Case C = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

171

This is impossible when r ≥ 1, because by (10.16) the solution is bounded. On the other

hand, when r < 1, it follows from (10.16) and (10.18) that

q −p

r

> y

2n+2

> r

n+1

y

0

+ r

n

p + . . . + rp + p

and so

q −p

r

≥

p

1 −r

which contradicts (10.13) and completes the proof when (10.13) holds.

Next assume that (10.14) holds. Now we claim that every solution of Eq(10.4) lies

eventually in the interval

0,

q−p

r

**. Once we establish this result, the proof that the
**

equilibrium is a global attractor of all solutions would be a consequence of Theorem

1.4.8 and the fact that in this case the function

f(x, y) =

p + qx + ry

1 + x

is increasing in both arguments. To this end assume for the sake of contradiction that

the solution is not eventually in the interval

0,

q−p

r

**. Then one can see from (10.10) and
**

the fact that now

q <

q −p

r

,

that either

y

2n

>

q −p

r

for n ≥ 0 (10.19)

or

y

2n−1

>

q −p

r

for n ≥ 0. (10.20)

We will assume that (10.19) holds. The case where (10.20) holds is similar and will be

omitted. Then from (10.10) we see that

y

2n+2

−q =

r

1 + y

2n+1

y

2n

−

q −p

r

< r

y

2n

−

q −p

r

and so

y

2n+2

< ry

2n

+ p for n ≥ 0.

Note that in this case r < 1 and so

q −p

r

< y

2n+2

< r

n+1

y

0

+ r

n

p + . . . + rp + p

which implies that

q −p

r

≤

p

1 −r

.

This contradicts (10.14) and completes the proof of part (b) of Theorem 10.2.1.

172 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

10.2.2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10.2.1

Here we assume that (10.7) holds and show that Eq(10.4) possesses unbounded solutions.

To this end observe that

y

n+1

= q +

p + r(y

n−1

−

q

r

)

1 + y

n

for n ≥ 0

and so when (10.7) holds the interval [q, ∞) is invariant. That is when

y

−1

, y

0

∈ [q, ∞),

then

y

n

≥ q for n ≥ 0.

Now the change of variables

y

n

= q + z

n

transforms Eq(10.4) to Eq(10.9) and the conclusion of part (c) follows from Section 6.5

for appropriate initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

. More speciﬁcally the solutions of Eq(10.4)

with initial conditions such that

q ≤ y

−1

< r −1 and y

0

> r

−1

+

p + q(r −1)

r −1 −q

have the property that the subsequences of even terms converge to ∞ while the subse-

quences of odd terms converge to q.

It should be mentioned that when (10.7) holds, the equilibrium of Eq(10.4) is a

saddle point and so by the stable manifold theorem, in addition to unbounded solu-

tions, Eq(10.4) possesses bounded solutions which in fact converge to the equilibrium of

Eq(10.4).

10.3 The Case B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.2) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

A

C

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

+ ry

n−1

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.21)

where

p =

αC

A

2

, q =

β

A

, and r =

γ

A

.

10.3. The Case B = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Cx

n−1

173

This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations

about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and convergence of solutions in certain

regions of initial conditions.

The linearized equation of Eq(10.21) about its positive equilibrium

y =

q + r −1 +

(q + r −1)

2

+ 4p

2

is

z

n+1

−

q

1 + y

z

n

+

p −r + qy

(1 + y)

2

z

n

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

By applying Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable for all values

of the parameters p, q, and r.

10.3.1 Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of in-

variant intervals for Eq(10.21).

Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever,

y

N

, y

N+1

∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,

then

y

n

∈ I for n ≥ N.

Lemma 10.3.1 Eq(10.21) possesses the following invariant intervals:

(a)

¸

0,

p

1 −q

¸

when q < 1 and p ≥ r;

(b)

¸

0,

r −p

q

¸

when q < 1 and p ≥ r(1 −q).

10.3.2 Global Stability When p ≥ r

Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.21) when p ≥ r.

Observe that

y

n+1

= r +

(p −r) + qy

n

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and so when

p ≥ r

174 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

y

n

≥ r for n ≥ 1.

Therefore the change of variables

y

n

= r + z

n

transforms Eq(10.21) to the diﬀerence equation

z

n+1

=

p + qr −r + qz

n

(1 + r) + z

n−1

, n = 1, 2, . . .

which is of the form of the (2, 2)-type Eq(6.2) which was investigated in Section 6.3.

The following result is now a consequence of the above observations and the results

in Section 6.3.

Theorem 10.3.1 Assume

p ≥ r.

Then the following statements are true.

(a) Every positive solution of Eq(10.21) is bounded.

(b) The positive equilibrium of Eq(10.21) is globally asymptotically stable if one of

the following conditions holds:

(i) q < 1;

(ii)

q ≥ 1

and

either p + qr −r ≤ q or q < p + qr −r ≤ 2(q + 1).

10.3.3 Convergence of Solutions

Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.21) when p < r.

Theorem 10.3.2 (a) Assume that

q < 1 and r ≥

p

1 −q

.

Then every solution of Eq(10.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

0,

r −p

q

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

10.4. The Case A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

175

(b) Suppose that either

0 ≤ q −1 < r and p < r

or

q < 1 and p < r <

p

1 −q

.

Set

K =

pq + r

2

−pr

q + r −p −q

2

.

Then every solution of Eq(10.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

¸

r −p

q

, K

¸

converges to the equilibrium y.

Proof.

(a) In view of Lemma 10.3.1 we see that when y

−1

, y

0

∈

0,

r−p

q

, then y

n

∈

0,

r−p

q

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈

0,

r−p

q

and that in the interval

0,

r−p

q

**the function f(x, y) increases in both x and y. The result is now a consequence of
**

Theorem 1.4.8.

(b) In view of Lemma 10.3.1 we see that when y

−1

, y

0

∈

r−p

q

, K

, then y

n

∈

r−p

q

, K

for all n ≥ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈

r−p

q

, K

and that in the interval

r−p

q

, K

**the function f(x, y) increases in x and decreases in y. The result is now
**

a consequence of Theorem 1.4.5.

2

10.4 The Case A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

This is the (3, 2)-type Eq(10.3) which by the change of variables

x

n

=

γ

C

y

n

reduces to the diﬀerence equation

y

n+1

=

r + py

n

+ y

n−1

qy

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.22)

where

p =

β

γ

, q =

B

C

, and r =

αC

γ

2

.

176 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations

about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain

regions of initial conditions.

The linearized equation of Eq(10.22) about its positive equilibrium

y =

(1 + p) +

(1 + p)

2

+ 4r(1 + q)

2(1 + q)

is

z

n+1

−

(p −q)y −qr

(q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y)

z

n

+

(p −q)y + r

(q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y)

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . .

By applying Theorem 1.1.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when either

q ≤ pq + 1 + 3p (10.23)

or

q > pq + 1 + 3p and F

2r

q −pq −1 −3p

> 0

where

F(u) = (q + 1)u

2

−(p + 1)u −r.

The second condition reduces to

q > pq + 1 + 3p. (10.24)

It is interesting to note that the above condition for the local asymptotic stability of y

requires the assumption that r > 0. When r = 0, as in Section 6.9, the inequality in

(10.23) is strict and Condition (10.24) is void.

Concerning prime period-two solution, it follows from Section 2.5 that a period-two

solution exists if and only if

p < 1, q > 1 and 4r < (1 −p)(q −pq −3p −1). (10.25)

Furthermore in this case the prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

is unique and the values φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation

t

2

−(1 −p)t +

r + p(1 −p)

q −1

= 0.

10.4. The Case A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

177

10.4.1 Invariant Intervals

Here we present some results about invariant intervals for Eq(10.21). We consider the

cases where p = q, p > q, and p < q.

Lemma 10.4.1 Eq(10.21) possesses the following invariant intervals:

(a)

[a, b] when p = q and

a and b are positive numbers such that

r + (p + 1)a ≤ (q + 1)ab ≤ r + (p + 1)b. (10.26)

(b)

¸

p

q

,

qr

p −q

¸

when p > q and

p

2

−pq

q

2

< r;

¸

qr

p −q

,

p

q

¸

when p > q and

p

2

−pq

q

2

> r.

(c)

¸

1,

r

q −p

¸

when p < q < p + r;

¸

r

q −p

, 1

¸

when q > p + r.

Proof.

(a) It is easy to see that when p = q the function

f(x, y) =

r + px + y

qx + y

is decreasing in both arguments. Hence

a ≤

r + (p + 1)b

(q + 1)b

= f(b, b) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(a, a) =

r + (p + 1)a

(q + 1)a

≤ b.

(b) Clearly the function f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments when y <

qr

p−q

, and it

is increasing in x and decreasing in y for y ≥

qr

p−q

.

First assume that p > q and

p

2

−pq

q

2

< r.

178 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

Then for x, y ∈

p

q

,

qr

p−q

we obtain

p

q

= f

qr

p −q

,

qr

p −q

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

p

q

,

p

q

=

qr + p(p + 1)

p(q + 1)

≤

qr

p −q

.

The inequalities

qr + p(p + 1)

p(q + 1)

≤

qr

p −q

and

p

q

<

qr

p −q

are equivalent to the inequality

p

2

−pq

q

2

< r.

Next assume that p > q and

p

2

−pq

q

2

> r.

For x, y ∈

qr

p−q

,

p

q

, we obtain

(qr + p)(p −q) + pq

2

r

q

3

r + p(p −q)

= f

qr

p −q

,

p

q

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

p

q

,

qr

p −q

=

p

q

.

The inequalities

(qr + p)(p −q) + pq

2

r

q

3

r + p(p −q)

≥

qr

p −q

and

p

q

>

qr

p −q

follow from the inequality

p

2

−pq

q

2

> r.

(c) It is clear that the function f(x, y) is decreasing in both arguments for x <

r

q−p

,

and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for x ≥

r

q−p

.

First, assume that p < q < p + r.

Using the decreasing character of f, we obtain

1 = f

r

q −p

,

r

q −p

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(1, 1) =

r + p + 1

q + 1

≤

r

q −p

,

The inequalities

1 <

r

q −p

and

r + p + 1

q + 1

<

r

q −p

are equivalent to the inequality q < p + r.

Next assume that q > p + r.

Using the decreasing character of f in x and the increasing character of f in y, we

obtain

(p + r)(q −p) + r

q(q −p) + r

= f

1,

r

q −p

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

r

p −q

, 1

= 1.

10.4. The Case A = 0 : x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

179

The inequalities

(p + r)(q −p) + r

q(q −p) + r

≥

r

q −p

and

r

q −p

< 1

follow from the inequality q > p + r.

2

10.4.2 Convergence of Solutions

Here we obtain some convergence results for Eq(10.22).

Theorem 10.4.1 (a) Assume that p = q. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with

initial conditions in the invariant interval [a, b], where 0 < a < b satisfy (10.26)

converges to the equilibrium y.

(b) Assume that p > q and r >

p

2

−pq

q

2

. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial

conditions in the invariant interval

p

q

,

qr

p−q

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

(c) Assume that p < q < p+r. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions

in the invariant interval

1,

r

q−p

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.7.

2

Theorem 10.4.2 Assume that p > q, r <

p

2

−pq

q

2

, and that either

p ≤ 1

or

p > 1 and (q −1)[(p −1)

2

(q −1) −4q(1 −p −qr)] ≤ 0.

Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

qr

p−q

,

p

q

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.5.

2

Theorem 10.4.3 Assume that p < q, p +r < q, and that Condition (10.25) is not sat-

isﬁed. Then every solution of Eq(10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval

r

q−p

, 1

**converges to the equilibrium y.
**

Proof. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4.1 and Theorem 1.4.6.

2

180 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

10.5 Open Problems and Conjectures

Open Problem 10.5.1 We know that every solution {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(10.4) converges

to a not necessarily prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (10.27)

if and only if

r = 1 + q.

(a) Determine the set of initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

for which φ = ψ.

(b) Assume (10.27) is a prime period-two solution of Eq(10.4). Determine the set of

initial conditions y

−1

and y

0

for which {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

converges to (10.27).

Open Problem 10.5.2 Assume

r > q + 1.

(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ (0, ∞) × (0, ∞) such that the

solutions {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

of Eq(10.4) are bounded.

(b) Let (y

−1

, y

0

) ∈ B. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {y

n

}

∞

n=−1

.

Conjecture 10.5.1 Every positive solution of Eq(10.21) converges to the positive equi-

librium of the equation.

Open Problem 10.5.3 For each of the equations listed below, determine the set G of

all initial conditions (x

−1

, x

0

) ∈ R×R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all

n ≥ 0, and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the corresponding

solution:

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

1 + x

n

(10.28)

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

1 + x

n−1

(10.29)

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

+ x

n−1

x

n

+ x

n−1

. (10.30)

Extend and generalize.

10.5. Open Problems and Conjectures 181

Conjecture 10.5.2 Assume that

p, q, r ∈ (0, ∞).

Then the following statements are true for Eq(10.22)

(a) Local stability of the positive equilibrium implies global stability.

(b) When Eq(10.22) has no prime period-two solutions the equilibrium y is globally

asymptotically stable.

(c) When Eq(10.22) possesses a period-two solution, the equilibrium y is a saddle

point.

(d) The period-two solution of Eq(10.22), when it exists, is locally asymptotically sta-

ble, but not globally.

Open Problem 10.5.4 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

, {q

n

}

∞

n=0

, and {r

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent se-

quences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits,

p = lim

n→∞

p

n

, q = lim

n→∞

q

n

, and r = lim

n→∞

r

n

.

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of

each of the following three diﬀerence equations:

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n

+ r

n

y

n−1

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.31)

y

n+1

=

p

n

+ q

n

y

n

+ r

n

y

n−1

1 + y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.32)

y

n+1

=

r

n

+ p

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

q

n

y

n

+ y

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.33)

Open Problem 10.5.5 Assume that {p

n

}

∞

n=0

, {q

n

}

∞

n=0

, and {r

n

}

∞

n=0

are period-two se-

quences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive

solutions of Eqs(10.31)-(10.33). Extend and generalize.

182 Chapter 10. (3, 2)-Type Equations

Open Problem 10.5.6 Assume that

p, q, r ∈ [0, ∞) and k ∈ {2, 3, . . .}.

Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence

equations:

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

+ ry

n−k

1 + y

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.34)

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

+ ry

n−k

1 + y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . (10.35)

y

n+1

=

p + qy

n

+ ry

n−1

qy

n

+ y

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (10.36)

Chapter 11

The (3, 3)-Type Equation

x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

In this chapter we discuss the (3, 3)-type equation

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

A + Bx

n

+ Cx

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.1)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all coeﬃcients of this equation are

now assumed to be positive and the initial conditions nonnegative.

This equation has not been investigated yet. Here we make some simple observations

about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain

regions of initial conditions.

11.1 Linearized Stability Analysis

Eq(11.1) has a unique equilibrium which is the positive solution of the quadratic equation

(B + C)x

2

−(β + γ −A)x −α = 0.

That is,

x =

β + γ −A +

(A −β −γ)

2

+ 4α(B + C)

2(B + C)

.

The linearized equation about x is (see Section 2.3)

z

n+1

−

(βA −Bα) + (βC −Bγ)x

A

2

+ α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x

z

n

−

(γA −Cα) −(βC −γB)x

A

2

+ α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x

z

n−1

= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.2)

183

184 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

The equilibrium x is locally asymptotically stable if Conditions (2.13), (2.14), and (2.15)

are satisﬁed.

Eq(11.1) has a prime period-two solution

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

if, see Section 2.5, Conditions (2.31) and (2.32) are satisﬁed; that is,

γ > β+A, B > C, and α <

(γ −β −A)[B(γ −β −A) −C(γ + 3β −A)]

4C

2

. (11.3)

Furthermore, when (11.3), holds the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the

quadratic equation

t

2

+

γ −β −A

C

t +

αC + β(γ −β −A)

C(B −C)

= 0. (11.4)

The local asymptotic stability of the two cycle

. . . , φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . .

is discussed in Section 2.6.

11.2 Invariant Intervals

Here we obtain several invariant intervals for Eq(11.1). These intervals are derived by

analyzing the intervals where the function

f(x, y) =

α + βx + γy

A + Bx + Cy

is increasing or decreasing in x and y.

If we set

L = βA −αB, M = βC −γB, and N = γA −αC

then clearly

f

x

=

L + My

(A + Bx + Cy)

2

and f

y

=

N −My

(A + Bx + Cy)

2

.

Recall that an interval I is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) if whenever,

y

N

, y

N+1

∈ I for some integer N ≥ 0,

then

y

n

∈ I for n ≥ N.

Once we have an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) then we may be able to obtain a con-

vergence result for the solutions of Eq(11.1) by testing whether the hypotheses of one of

the four Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8 are satisﬁed.

11.2. Invariant Intervals 185

Lemma 11.2.1 (i) Assume that

γ

C

=

β

B

>

α

A

.

Then

α

A

,

β

B

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.

(ii) Assume that

β

B

>

γ

C

>

α

A

and

γ

C

≤

N

M

.

Then

α

A

,

γ

C

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.

(iii) Assume that

γ

C

>

β

B

>

α

A

and

β + γ

B + C

≤

αB −βA

βC −γB

.

Then

α

A

,

β+γ

B+C

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the func-
**

tion f(x, y) is increasing in both variables.

(iv) Assume that

γ

C

=

β

B

<

α

A

.

Then

β

B

,

α

A

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.

(v) Assume that

γA −αC

βC −γB

≥

α

A

>

β

B

>

γ

C

.

Then

0,

γA−αC

βC−γB

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the func-
**

tion f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.

(vi) Assume that

β

B

<

γ

C

<

α

A

<

γA −αC

βC −γB

.

Then

0,

α

A

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is decreasing in both variables.

(vii) Assume that

α

A

=

β

B

>

γ

C

.

Then

0,

α

A

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.

186 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

(viii) Assume that

β

B

>

α

A

≥

γ

C

.

Then

0,

β

B

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.

(ix) Assume that

α

A

=

β

B

<

γ

C

.

Then

0,

γ

C

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.

(x) Assume that

β

B

<

α

A

≤

γ

C

.

Then

0,

γ

C

**is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1) and in this interval the function
**

f(x, y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.

Proof.

(i) The condition

γ

C

=

β

B

>

α

A

is equivalent to M = 0 and L > 0, which in turn imply

that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in both variables for

all values of x and y and

α

A

= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(

β

B

,

β

B

) ≤

β + γ

B + C

=

β

B

.

Here we used the fact that under the condition

γ

C

=

β

B

>

α

A

the function f(u, u) is increasing and consequently

f(u, u) ≤

β + γ

B + C

=

β

B

.

(ii) The condition

β

B

>

γ

C

>

α

A

is equivalent to M > 0, L > 0, and N > 0. Thus, in

this case the function f is increasing in x, for every x. In addition, this function

is increasing in y for x <

N

M

. Thus, assuming

γ

C

≤

N

M

we obtain

α

A

= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(

N

M

,

N

M

) =

γ

C

,

for all x, y ∈

α

A

,

γ

C

.

11.2. Invariant Intervals 187

(iii) The condition

γ

C

>

β

B

>

α

A

is equivalent to M < 0 and L > 0, which in turn imply

that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in y, for every y. In

addition, this function is increasing in x for y < −

L

M

. Thus assuming

β+γ

B+C

≤ −

L

M

,

we obtain,

α

A

= f(0, 0) ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

β + γ

B + C

,

β + γ

B + C

≤

β + γ

B + C

,

for all x, y ∈

α

A

,

β+γ

B+C

.

(iv) The condition

γ

C

=

β

B

<

α

A

is equivalent to M = 0 and L < 0, which in turn imply

that N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in both variables for

all values of x and y and

β

B

≤ f

α

A

,

α

A

≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =

α

A

.

Here we used the fact that under the condition

γ

C

=

β

B

<

α

A

the function f(u, u) is decreasing and consequently

f(u, u) ≥

β + γ

B + C

=

β

B

.

(v) The condition

α

A

>

β

B

>

γ

C

is equivalent to M > 0 and L < 0, which imply that

N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in y, for every y. In addition,

this function is decreasing in x for y < −

L

M

. Thus assuming

α

A

≤ −

L

M

, we obtain

0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =

α

A

≤ −

L

M

,

for all x, y ∈

0, −

L

M

.

(vi) The condition

α

A

>

γ

C

>

β

B

is equivalent to M < 0, L < 0, and N < 0. Thus, in

this case the function f is decreasing in x, for every x. In addition, this function

is decreasing in y for x <

N

M

. Thus assuming

α

A

≤

N

M

, we obtain

0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f(0, 0) =

α

A

,

for all x, y ∈

0,

α

A

.

188 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

(vii) The condition

α

A

=

β

B

>

γ

C

is equivalent to M > 0 and L = 0, which in turn imply

that N < 0. Thus, in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in

y for all values of x and y. Using this we obtain,

0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

α

A

, 0

=

α

A

,

for all x, y ∈

0,

α

A

.

(viii) The condition

β

B

>

α

A

>

γ

C

is equivalent to M > 0, L > 0, and N < 0. Thus, in

this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x

and y. Using this we obtain,

0 ≤ f(x, y) < f

β

B

, 0

=

β

B

,

for all x, y ∈

0,

β

B

.

(ix) The condition

α

A

=

β

B

<

γ

C

is equivalent to M < 0 and L = 0, which in turn imply

that N > 0. Thus, in this case the function f is decreasing in x and increasing in

y for all values of x and y. Using this we obtain,

0 ≤ f(x, y) ≤ f

0,

γ

C

=

γ

C

,

for all x, y ∈

0,

γ

C

.

(x) The condition

β

B

<

α

A

≤

γ

C

is equivalent to M < 0, L < 0, and N ≥ 0. Thus, in

this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x

and y. Using this we obtain,

0 ≤ f(x, y) < f

0,

γ

C

≤

γ

C

,

for all x, y ∈

0,

γ

C

**. Here we use the fact that the function f(0, v) is increasing in
**

v when N > 0 and so

f(0, v) ≤

γ

C

= lim

v→∞

f(0, v),

for all v.

2

The next table summarizes more complicated invariant intervals with the signs of

the partial derivatives f

x

and f

y

.

11.3. Convergence Results 189

Case Invariant intervals Signs of derivatives

1

[0,

N

M

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

<

N

M

[

N

M

, K

1

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

>

N

M

f

x

> 0

f

y

> 0 if x <

N

M

; f

y

< 0 if x >

N

M

2

[0,

β−A+

√

(β−A)

2

+4Bα

2B

]

f

x

> 0

f

y

< 0

3

[0,

β+γ−A+

√

(β+γ−A)

2

+4α(B+C)

2(B+C)

]

f

x

> 0

f

y

> 0

4

[0, −

L

M

] if

αM−(β+γ)L

AM−(B+C)L

< −

L

M

[−

L

M

, K

2

] if

βMK+αM−γL

BMK+AM−CL

> −

L

M

f

x

> 0 if y < −

L

M

; f

x

< 0 if y > −

L

M

f

y

> 0

5 [0,

β

B

]

f

x

> 0

f

y

< 0

6 [0,

γ

C

]

f

x

< 0

f

y

> 0

7

[

αM−L(β+γ)

AM−L(B+C)

, −

L

M

] if

αM−L(β+γ)

AM−L(B+C)

< −

L

M

[−

L

M

, K

3

] if

αM−βL+γMK

AM−BL+CMK

> −

L

M

f

x

> 0 if y > −

L

M

; f

x

< 0 if y < −

L

M

f

y

< 0

8 [0,

α

A

]

f

x

< 0

f

y

< 0

9

[

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

,

N

M

] if

αM+(β+γ)N

AM+(B+C)N

<

N

M

[

N

M

, K

4

] if

αM+βK+γNM

AM+BK+CNM

>

N

M

f

x

< 0

f

y

> 0 if x >

N

M

; f

y

< 0 if x <

N

M

where

K

1

=

(β −A)M −CN +

((β −A)M −NC)

2

+ 4BM(αM + γN)

2BM

,

K

2

=

(A −γ)M −BL +

((A −γ)M −BL)

2

+ 4CM(αM −βL)

−2CM

,

K

3

=

(β −A)M + LC +

((β −A)M + LC)

2

+ 4BM(αM −γL)

2BM

,

K

4

=

(γ −A)M −BN +

((γ −A)M −BN)

2

+ 4BM(αM + βN)

2CM

.

11.3 Convergence Results

The following result is a consequence of Lemma 11.2.1 and Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8.

Theorem 11.3.1 Let {x

n

} be a solution of Eq(11.1). Then in each of the following

cases

lim

n→∞

x

n

= x.

190 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

(i)

γ

C

=

β

B

>

α

A

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

α

A

,

β

B

¸

;

(ii)

β

B

>

γ

C

>

α

A

,

γ

C

≤

γA −αC

βC −γB

, and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

α

A

,

γ

C

;

(iii)

γ

C

>

β

B

>

α

A

,

β + γ

B + C

≤

αB −βA

βC −γB

, and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

α

A

,

β + γ

B + C

¸

;

(iv)

γ

C

=

β

B

<

α

A

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

β

B

,

α

A

¸

;

(v)

γA −αC

βC −γB

≥

α

A

>

β

B

>

γ

C

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

0,

γA −αC

βC −γB

¸

;

(vi)

β

B

<

γ

C

<

α

A

<

γA −αC

βC −γB

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

0,

α

A

;

(vii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisﬁed and x

−1

, x

0

∈

0,

α

A

:

β > γ + A,

B < C,

and

(C −B)[(C −B)(β −γ −A)

2

−4B(αB + γ(β −γ −A))] > 0,

or

α

A

=

β

B

>

γ

C

;

(viii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisﬁed and x

−1

, x

0

∈

0,

β

B

:

β > γ + A,

B < C,

and

(C −B)[(C −B)(β −γ −A)

2

−4B(αB + γ(β −γ −A))] > 0,

or

β

B

>

α

A

≥

γ

C

;

11.3. Convergence Results 191

(ix) Condition (11.3) is not satisﬁed,

α

A

=

β

B

<

γ

C

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

0,

γ

C

;

(x) Condition (11.3) is not satisﬁed,

β

B

<

α

A

≤

γ

C

and x

−1

, x

0

∈

¸

0,

γ

C

.

Proof. The proofs of statements (i-iii) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (i-iii) and

Theorem 1.4.8.

The proofs of statements (iv-vi) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (iv-vi) and Theo-

rem 1.4.7.

The proofs of statements (vii) and (viii) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (vii) and

(viii) respectively, Theorem 1.4.5, and by observing that the only solution of the system

of equations

m = f(m, M), M = f(M, m);

that is,

m =

α + βm + γM

A + Bm + CM

, M =

α + βM + γm

A + BM + Cm

is m = M.

The proofs of statements (ix) and (x) follow by applying Lemma 11.2.1 (ix) and (x)

respectively, Theorem 1.4.6, and by observing that Eq(11.1) does not possess a prime

period-two solution.

2

11.3.1 Global Stability

Theorem 1.4.2 and linearized stability imply the following global stability result:

Theorem 11.3.2 Assume that

γ

C

< min

β

B

,

α

A

¸

.

Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

By applying Theorem 1.4.3 to Eq(11.1) we obtain the following global asymptotic

result.

192 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

Theorem 11.3.3 Assume that

B ≤ C, γB > βC, αB > βA, and γA > αC.

Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

The following global stability result is a consequence of linearized stability and the

Trichotomy Theorem 1.4.4.

Theorem 11.3.4 (a) Assume that

αC ≥ γA, βA ≥ αB, and 3γB ≥ βC ≥ γB.

Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

(b) Assume that

αB ≥ βA, γA ≥ αC, and 3βC ≥ γB ≥ βC.

Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

11.4 Open Problems and Conjectures

Conjecture 11.4.1 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that every positive solution of Eq(11.1) is bounded.

Conjecture 11.4.2 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)

and that Eq(11.1) has no positive prime period-two solution. Show that every positive

solution of Eq(11.1) converges to the positive equilibrium.

Conjecture 11.4.3 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞)

and that Eq(11.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. Show that the positive equi-

librium of Eq(11.1) is a saddle point and the period-two solution is locally asymptotically

stable.

11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 193

Conjecture 11.4.4 Assume

α, β, γ, A, B, C ∈ (0, ∞).

Show that Eq(11.1) cannot have a prime period-k solution for any k ≥ 3.

Open Problem 11.4.1 Assume {α

n

}

∞

n=0

, {β

n

}

∞

n=0

, {γ

n

}

∞

n=0

, {A

n

}

∞

n=0

, {B

n

}

∞

n=0

, {C

n

}

∞

n=0

are convergent sequences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits. Investigate the

asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence

equation

x

n+1

=

α

n

+ β

n

x

n

+ γ

n

x

n−1

A

n

+ B

n

x

n

+ C

n

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.5)

Open Problem 11.4.2 Assume that the parameters in Eq(11.5) are period-two se-

quences of positive real numbers. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic

nature of all positive solutions of Eq(11.5).

Open Problem 11.4.3 Assume that

a, A, a

i

, A

i

∈ [0, ∞) for i = 0, 1, . . . , k. (11.6)

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

a + a

0

x

n

+ . . . + a

k

x

n−k

A + A

0

x

n

+ . . . + A

k

x

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . . . (11.7)

has a ﬁnite limit.

Open Problem 11.4.4 Assume that (11.6) holds. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient con-

ditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11.7) converges to a period-two solution.

Open Problem 11.4.5 Assume that (11.6) holds. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient con-

ditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11.7) is periodic with period-k, k ≥ 2. In

particular, investigate the cases where 2 ≤ k ≤ 8.

194 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

Open Problem 11.4.6 Let

α, β, γ, δ ∈ [0, ∞) with γ + δ > 0.

Investigate the boundedness character, the periodic nature, and the asymptotic behavior

of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

αx

n

+ βx

n−1

x

n−2

γx

n

x

n−1

+ δx

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

(See [8] and [61].)

Conjecture 11.4.5 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer. Show that every positive solution

of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

x

n

+ . . . + x

n−k

+ x

n−k−1

x

n−k−2

x

n

x

n−1

+ x

n−2

+ . . . + x

n−k−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to 1. Extend and generalize.

(See [8], [47], and [60].)

Conjecture 11.4.6 Let

a

ij

∈ (0, ∞) for i, j ∈ {1, 2, 3}.

Show that every positive solution of the system

x

n+1

=

a

11

x

n

+

a

12

y

n

+

a

13

z

n

y

n+1

=

a

21

x

n

+

a

22

y

n

+

a

23

z

n

z

n+1

=

a

31

x

n

+

a

32

y

n

+

a

33

z

n

, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.8)

converges to a period-two solution. Extend to equations with real parameters.

(See [32] for the two dimensional case.)

Conjecture 11.4.7 Assume that

p, q ∈ [0, ∞).

11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 195

(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

px

n−1

+ x

n−2

q + x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution if and only if

p = 1 + q.

(b) Show that when

p < 1 + q

every positive solution has a ﬁnite limit.

(c) Show that when

p > 1 + q

the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.

(See [62].)

Conjecture 11.4.8 Assume that

p ∈ (0, ∞).

(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−1

x

n−1

+ px

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution if

p ≥ 1.

(b) Show that when

p < 1

the positive equilibrium x =

1

1+p

is globally asymptotically stable.

Conjecture 11.4.9 Assume that

p, q ∈ [0, ∞).

196 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−1

+ p

x

n−2

+ q

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution if and only if

q = 1.

(b) Show that when

q > 1

the positive equilibrium of the equation is globally asymptotically stable.

(c) Show that when

q < 1

the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.

(See [62].)

Conjecture 11.4.10 Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n

+ x

n−2

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-four solution.

(See [62].)

Conjecture 11.4.11 Show that the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

p + x

n−2

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

has the following trichotomy character:

(i) When p > 1 every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium.

(ii) When p = 1 every positive solution converges to a period-ﬁve solution.

(iii) When p < 1 there exist positive unbounded solutions.

(See [62].)

11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 197

Conjecture 11.4.12 Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

x

n−1

+ x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-six solution of the form

. . . , φ, ψ,

ψ

φ

,

1

φ

,

1

ψ

,

φ

ψ

, . . .

where

φ, ψ ∈ (0, ∞).

(See [62].)

Open Problem 11.4.7 Consider the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

α + βx

n

+ γx

n−1

+ δx

n−2

A + Bx

n

+ Dx

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.9)

with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that B+D > 0 and

A + Bx

n

+ Dx

n−2

> 0 for n ≥ 0.

Then one can show that Eq(11.9) has prime period-two solutions if and only if

γ = β + δ + A. (11.10)

(a) In addition to (11.10), what other conditions are needed so that every positive

solution of Eq(11.9) converges to a period-two solution?

(b) Assume

γ < β + δ + A.

What other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11.9) con-

verges to the positive equilibrium?

(c) Assume

γ > β + δ + A.

What other conditions are needed so that Eq(11.9) possesses unbounded solutions?

(See [6].)

198 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

Conjecture 11.4.13 Show that every positive solution of each of the two equations

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n−1

+ x

n−2

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

and

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n−1

+ x

n−2

x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution.

(See [6].)

Conjecture 11.4.14 Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n−1

1 + x

n

+ x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-two solution.

(See [6].)

Conjecture 11.4.15 Show that every positive solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−2

x

n−1

+ x

n−2

+ x

n−3

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-three solution.

Conjecture 11.4.16 Consider the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

p + qx

n

+ rx

n−2

x

n−1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

where

p ∈ [0, ∞) and q, r ∈ (0, ∞).

(a) Show that when

q = r

every positive solution converges to a period-four solution.

(b) Show that when

q > r

every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium.

11.4. Open Problems and Conjectures 199

(c) Show that when

q < r

the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions.

(See [62].)

Open Problem 11.4.8 Determine whether every positive solution of each of the fol-

lowing equations converges to a periodic solution of the corresponding equation:

(a)

x

n+1

=

x

n−2

+ x

n−3

x

n

, n = 0, 1, . . .

(b)

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n−3

1 + x

n

+ x

n−3

, n = 0, 1, . . .

(c)

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

+ x

n−3

x

n−2

, n = 0, 1, . . .

(d)

x

n+1

=

x

n−1

x

n

+ x

n−2

+ x

n−3

, n = 0, 1, . . . .

Open Problem 11.4.9 Assume that k is a positive integer and that

A, B

0

, B

1

, . . . B

k

∈ [0, ∞) with

k

¸

i=0

B

i

> 0.

Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on the parameters A and B

0

, B

1

, . . . B

k

so

that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−k

A + B

0

x

n

+ . . . + B

k

x

n−k

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of this equation.

(See [6].)

200 Chapter 11. The (3, 3)-Type Equation x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

Open Problem 11.4.10 Assume that k is a positive integer. Then we can easily see

that every nonnegative solution of the equation

x

n+1

=

x

n−k

1 + x

n

+ . . . + x

n−k+1

, n = 0, 1, . . . (11.11)

converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of the form

. . . , 0, 0, ..., 0

. .. .

k−terms

, φ, . . . (11.12)

with φ ≥ 0.

(a) Does Eq(11.11) possess a positive solution which converges to zero?

(b) Determine, in terms of the nonnegative initial conditions x

−k

, . . . , x

0

, the value of

φ in (11.12) which corresponds to the nonnegative solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−k

of Eq(11.11).

(c) Determine the set of all nonnegative initial conditions x

−k

, . . . , x

0

for which the

corresponding solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−k

of Eq(11.11) converges to a period-(k+1) solution

of the form (11.12) with a given φ ≥ 0 ?

(See [6].)

Conjecture 11.4.17 Let k be a positive integer. Show that every positive solution of

x

n+1

=

1 + x

n

+ x

n−k

x

n−k+1

, n = 0, 1, . . .

converges to a periodic solution of period 2k.

Appendix A

Global Attractivity for Higher

Order Equations

In this appendix we present some global attractivity results for higher order diﬀerence

equations which are analogous to Theorems 1.4.5-1.4.8. We state the results for third

order equations from which higher order extensions will become clear.

Let I be some interval of real numbers and let

f : I ×I ×I →I

be a continuously diﬀerentiable function.

Then for every set of initial conditions x

0

, x

−1

, x

−2

∈ I, the diﬀerence equation

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, x

n−2

), n = 0, 1, . . . (A.1)

has a unique solution {x

n

}

∞

n=−2

.

As we have seen in previous chapters, very often a good strategy for obtaining global

attractivity results for Eq(A.1) is to work in the regions where the function f(x, y, z) is

monotonic in its arguments. In this regard there are eight possible scenarios depending

on whether f(x, y, z) is non decreasing in all three arguments, or non increasing in two

arguments and non decreasing in the third, or non increasing in one and non decreasing

in the other two, or non decreasing in all three.

Theorem A.0.1 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments;

(b) The equation

f(x, x, x) = x,

has a unique solution in the interval [a, b].

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1)

converges to x.

201

202 Appendix

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

, M

i−1

) and m

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

, m

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0,

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

i

≤ . . . ≤ M

1

≤ M

0

,

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then

M ≥ limsup

i→∞

x

i

≥ liminf

i→∞

x

i

≥ m (A.2)

and by the continuity of f,

m = f(m, m, m) and M = f(M, M, M).

In view of (b),

m = M = x,

from which the result follows. 2

Theorem A.0.2 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x and y ∈ [a, b] for each z ∈ [a, b], and is non-

increasing in z ∈ [a, b] for each x and y ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

m = f(m, m, M) and M = f(M, M, m)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

Appendix 203

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

, m

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

a = m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b.

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

m = f(m, m, M) and M = f(M, M, m).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the result follows. 2

Theorem A.0.3 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x and z in [a, b] for each z ∈ [a, b], and is non-

increasing in y ∈ [a, b] for each x and z in [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(M, m, M) and m = f(m, M, m)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

204 Appendix

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f (M

i−1

, m

i−1

, M

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f (m

i−1

, M

i−1

, m

i−1

) .

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

a = m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b.

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

m = f (m, m, M) and M = f (M, M, m) .

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

Theorem A.0.4 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-increasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-decreasing

in y and z for each x, y ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(m, M, M) and m = f(M, m, m)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

Appendix 205

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, M

i−1

, M

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(M

i−1

, m

i−1

, m

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

M = f(m, M, M) and m = f(M, m, m).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

Theorem A.0.5 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-increasing

in y and z for each x ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(M, m, m) and m = f(m, M, M)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

206 Appendix

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(M

i−1

, m

i−1

, m

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(m

i−1

, M

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

M = f(M, m, m) and m = f(m, M, M).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

Theorem A.0.6 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in y for each x and z ∈ [a, b] and is non-increasing

in x and z for each y ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(m, M, m) and m = f(M, m, M)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

Appendix 207

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, M

i−1

, m

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(M

i−1

, m

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

M = f(m, M, m) and m = f(M, m, M).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

Theorem A.0.7 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-decreasing in z for each x and y in [a, b] and is non-increasing

in x and y for each z ∈ [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(m, m, M) and m = f(M, M, m)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

208 Appendix

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

, M

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

, m

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

M = f(m, m, M) and m = f(M, M, m).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

Theorem A.0.8 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

3

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(x, y, z) is non-increasing in all three variables x, y, z in [a, b];

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(m, m, m) and m = f(M, M, M)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges

to x.

Appendix 209

Proof. Set

m

0

= a and M

0

= b

and for each i = 1, 2, . . . set

M

i

= f(m

i−1

, m

i−1

, m

i−1

)

and

m

i

= f(M

i−1

, M

i−1

, M

i−1

).

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0

m

0

≤ m

1

≤ . . . ≤ m

i

≤ . . . M

i

≤ . . . M

1

≤ M

0

= b

and

m

i

≤ x

k

≤ M

i

for k ≥ 3i + 1.

Set

m = lim

i→∞

m

i

and M = lim

i→∞

M

i

.

Then (A.2) holds and by the continuity of f,

M = f(m, m, m) and m = f(M, M, M).

Therefore in view of (b)

m = M

from which the results follows. 2

The above theorems can be easily extended to the general diﬀerence equation of order

p

x

n+1

= f(x

n

, x

n−1

, . . . , x

n−p+1

), n = 0, 1, . . . (A.3)

where

f : I

p

→I

is a continuous function. In this case, there are 2

p

possibilities for the function f to

be non decreasing in some arguments and non increasing in the remaining arguments.

This gives 2

p

results of the type found in Theorems A.0.1-A.0.8. Let us formulate one

of these results.

Theorem A.0.9 Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that

f : [a, b]

p

→[a, b]

is a continuous function satisfying the following properties:

(a) f(u

1

, u

2

, . . . , u

p

) is non decreasing in the second and the third variables u

2

and

u

3

and is non increasing in all other variables.

210 Appendix

(b) If (m, M) ∈ [a, b] ×[a, b] is a solution of the system

M = f(m, M, M, m, . . . , m) and m = f(M, m, m, M, . . . , M)

then

m = M.

Then Eq(A.3) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a, b] and every solution of Eq(A.3) converges

to x.

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[65] Ch. G. Philos, I. K. Purnaras, and Y. G. Sﬁcas, Global attractivity in a nonlinear

diﬀerence equation, Appl. Math. Comput. 62(1994), 249-258.

[66] E. C. Pielou, An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology, John Wiley & Sons, New

York, 1965.

[67] E. C. Pielou, Population and Community Ecology, Gordon and Breach, New York,

1974.

[68] C. Robinson, Stability, Symbolic Dynamics, and Chaos, CRC Press, Boca Raton,

FL, 1995.

[69] H. Sedaghat, Existence of solutions of certain singular diﬀerence equations, J. Dif-

fer. Equations Appl. 6(5)(2000), 535-561.

[70] H. Sedaghat, Geometric stability conditions for higher order diﬀerence equations,

J. Math. Anal. Appl. 224(1998), 255-272.

216 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[71] W. S. Sizer, Some periodic solutions of the Lyness equation , Proceedings of the

Fifth International Conference on Diﬀerence Equations and Applications, January

3-7, 2000, Temuco, Chile, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 2001, (to appear).

[72] E. C. Zeeman, Geometric unfolding of a diﬀerence equation,

http://www.math.utsa.edu/ecz/gu.html

[73] Y. Zheng, Existence of nonperiodic solutions of the Lyness equation x

n+1

=

α+x

n

x

n−1

,

J. Math. Anal. Appl. 209(1997), 94-102.

[74] Y. Zheng, On periodic cycles of the Lyness equation, Diﬀerential Equations Dynam.

Systems 6(1998), 319-324.

[75] Y. Zheng, Periodic solutions with the same period of the recursion x

n+1

=

α+βx

n

+γx

n−1

A+Bx

n

+Cx

n−1

, Diﬀerential Equations Dynam. Systems 5(1997), 51-58.

Index

basin of attraction of a two cycle, 38

classiﬁcation of equation types, 3

convergence to period-two solutions, 38

Discrete Epidemic Models, 128

equilibrium point, 5, 29

existence of prime period-two solution,

35

existence of solutions, 2

ﬁxed point, 5

Flour Beetle Model, 129

forbidden set, 2, 17

full limiting sequence, 15

full limiting solution, 16

gingerbreadman map, 75

global asymptotic stability of the zero

equilibrium, 9, 31

global attractivity of the positive equi-

librium, 9–14

global attractor, 6

globally asymptotically stable, 6

invariant, 71

invariant interval, 41–42, 184–189

limiting solution, 15

linearized stability analysis, 5, 183

linearized stability theorem, 6

local asymptotic stability of a two cycle,

36

local stability of the positive equilibrium

, 32

local stability of the zero equilibrium, 30

locally asymptotically stable, 6

locally stable, 6

Lyness’ equation, 2, 70

May’s host parasitoid model, 75

negative feedback condition, 9

negative semicycle, 25

nonoscillatory, 25

open problems and conjectures, 43–46,

49–51, 64–68, 72–75, 123–130, 134–

136, 138–139, 163–166, 180–182,

192–200

oscillate about x, 25

oscillate about zero, 25

periodic solution, 7

periodic solutions with the same period,

33

Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model, 2,

66

Pielou’s equation, 57

Plant-herbivore system, 128

population model, 66, 129

positive equilibrium, 9

positive semicycle, 24

prime period p solution, 7

repeller, 6, 7

Riccati diﬀerence equation, 1, 17, 78

Riccati number, 18

saddle point, 7

semicycle analysis, 24–28

signum invariant, 38

sink, 7

217

218 INDEX

source, 6

stability of equilibrium, 5

stability trichotomy, 10

stable manifold, 8

stable manifold theorem in the plane, 7

strictly oscillatory, 25

table of invariant intervals, 42, 189

trichotomy character, 168

type of equation

(1, 1)-type, 47–48

(1, 2)-type, 53–54

(1, 3)-type, 131

(2, 1)-type, 69–70

(2, 2)-type, 77–78

(2, 3)-type, 141

(3, 1)-type, 137

(3, 2)-type, 167

(3, 3)-type, 183

unstable equilibrium, 6

unstable manifold, 8

**DYNAMICS of SECOND ORDER RATIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
**

With Open Problems and Conjectures

**DYNAMICS of SECOND ORDER RATIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
**

With Open Problems and Conjectures

M. R. S. Kulenovi´ c G. Ladas

**CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC
**

Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

and sources are indicated. G. ISBN 1-58488-275-1 1.R. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC. c p. I. without prior permission in writing from the publisher.S. II.E. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Boca Raton.W. (Mustafa R. cm.com
© 2002 by Chapman & Hall/CRC No claim to original U. microﬁlming. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-58488-275-1 Library of Congress Card Number 20010370 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper
. Reprinted material is quoted with permission.crcpress. without intent to infringe. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information. for creating new works. Speciﬁc permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. for promotion. and are used only for identiﬁcation and explanation. or by any information storage or retrieval system. 2000 N.S.S.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kulenovi´. G. QA431 . and recording. Ladas.
Visit the CRC Press Web site at www. A wide variety of references are listed. Ladas. or for resale.625—dc21
20010370
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources.S. Corporate Blvd. Difference equations—Numerical solutions. Florida 33431.) c Dynamics of second order rational difference equations : with open problems and conjectures / M. Kulenovi´ . Title. including photocopying. M. Includes bibliographical references and index.. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.K84 2001 515′. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution.R. electronic or mechanical.

. . . . . . . . . .
. .1 Introduction . . .
. . . . . .
. .
.2 The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicity. . . . .2 The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = Cxn−1 3. . . .
. . . .
2 Local Stability. . . . . . . .8 Invariant Intervals . . . .3 Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . 2. . v
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .1 Equilibrium Points . . . .4 Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . 3 (1. . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . Bxn 3. . .7 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . Semicycles. . . . . . . .
. . . . .2 Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . . ix xi 1 5 5 7 9 9 14 17 24 29 29 30 32 33 35 36 38 41 43 47 47 48 49 49
. .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . 2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .4 When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? . . . 1. .5 Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions . . . . . .7 Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C=0 . . . . . .4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . .
. . . . . . . . . .3 Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium . 2. . . . . . . . . . 2. 1.
. βxn 3. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .6 The Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Limiting Solutions .
. .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = γxn−1 . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deﬁnitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis 1. . .6 Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle . . .
. .
. and Invariant Intervals 2. . 1)-Type Equations 3. .
. . . .9 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents
Preface Acknowledgements Introduction and Classiﬁcation of Equation Types 1 Preliminary Results 1. . . . . . . .

. . . . .2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . .7. .4 Global Behavior of Solutions . . . . . . .6. 6.3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . .6. . . . . . .1 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . A+Bxn γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
Pielou’s Equation .3 Global Stability and Boundedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . α+γxn−1 6.1 Introduction . . . .
5 (2. . . . . . . . .4 Global Attractivity When q < 1 . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . A+Bxn 6. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .4 Open Problems and Conjectures . 6. Bx 5. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .2 Semicycle Analysis . . . 6. .6. . n 6. . . . . . .5 The Case α = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Case β = γ = C = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn . . . . . .
βxn A+Cxn−1 βxn Bxn +Cxn−1 γxn−1 . . . . . .5. . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . .7. . . .2 The Case p = 1 . . . . . . . . . .
57 58 59 60 61 62 62 64 69 69 70 72 72
. . . . . . . . .
. . . 54 α 4. 77 α+βx 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 82 83 84 87 89 90 90 91 92 93 96 97 100 101 102 103 105 107
. . . . . . . . 53 α 4. . . . . .2 The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn . . . 2)-Type Equations 77 6. . . . . . . The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxα+βxn n +Cxn−1 6. .1 Introduction . 6. .2 The Case γ = C = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .3 The Case q > 1 . 5. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1 . . . . . . . .7. . . .3 The Case β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn . . . 4. .1 The Case p < 1 . .1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 = α+γxn−1 . . . . . . .
6 (2. . . . . . . . . .2 The Case q < 1 . . . . . . .3 The Case p > 1 . . . . . . . . .7 The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 = 4. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . n +γx 6.Lyness’ Equation Cxn−1 n−1 5. . . . .3 The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . 2)-Type Equations 53 4. . . . . . . . 1)-Type Equations 5. . . .Riccati Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . . .6 The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 = 4. . . . . . . . . .7 The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = βxA+Bxn−1 . . . . . .7. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 6. . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = A+Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .vi
Contents
4 (1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. . . . . 6. . . . . . .2 Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Open Problems and Conjectures . . 78 n α+βxn 6. . . .1 Introduction . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4. . . . . . .8. . n−1 6. .2 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . 6. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxnn−1 n−1 . . 132 n +Cx γx 7.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 +Cx 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Invariant Intervals . . . .5 Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1 6. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Case β = γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxnα n−1 . . . . . . . . . . . 138 9 (2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures . .3 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . .1 Boundedness of Solutions . . . .8 The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 = βxn +γxn−1 . 9. . .4 Global Stability . . . . .4 Global Asymptotic Stability .
. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .3. . . .8. . . . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures .
vii 107 109 110 112 113 114 117 117 123 123
7 (1.
. . .Contents 6. . . .3 The Case β = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3)-Type Equations 9. 6. . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . .2 Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 9. . . . . . 133 +Cx 7. . . . 9. 137 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . βxn +γx 6. . . . . . . .10 Open Problems and Conjectures . . .5 Semicycle Analysis When pr = q + qr . . . . . . . . .3 The Case α = γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxβxn n−1 . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles 9. . . .1 Introduction . . . . . .
. . .7. . . . . 131 7. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . 9. . .2 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n +Cxn−1 9. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 141 141 141 142 143 144 147 149 150 154 156 157 157 158 160 162 163
. .2 The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bxn +Cxn−1 . . . . . . .
.4 The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = A+Bx+γxn−1 . . 6. . . . .
. . . .3. . . . .2 Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . α+γxn−1 9. . . . . . . . .1 Existence of a Two Cycle . . .4 Global Stability Analysis When p > q . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1)-Type Equations 137 8. . .3 Global Stability Analysis When p < q . . . . . . . . 134 8 (3. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .3. . . . . 2 9. . . . . . . . . 9. . . 3)-Type Equations 131 7. . .3. . . . A+Cxn−1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . βxn 9. . . α+βxn 9. . . . . . . . . . .

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10. . . 10. . . . . . . .3.
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .3 The Case B = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 .
.1 Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10. . . . .
. . . .2. . . . . 10.
. . . . 10. . . . . . . . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A+Bxn 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = α+βx+Cxn−1 . . . .
. . .
. . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Convergence of Solutions .2. 11. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . .1 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Open Problems and Conjectures . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 10. . . . . . . . .2 The Case C = 0 : xn+1 = α+βxn +γxn−1 . . . . . . . . .2. .2 Convergence of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3
Contents 167 167 167 169 172 172 173 173 174 175 177 179 180 183 183 184 189 191 192 201 211 217
. .
.2 Global Stability When p ≥ r . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . . . . . .viii 10 (3. . . . . .2. . Invariant Intervals . . . .2 11. . . . . . . .1 10. . . .1 10. . . .1 Invariant Intervals . . . .
. . . .3. .1 Introduction . . .
A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations Bibliography Index
. . . . . . . . . . . Convergence Results . . . n +γxn−1 10. . . . . . . A+Cxn−1 10. . . . Bxn 10.
. . .1 Global Stability .
α+βx (3. . . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 = A+Bxn +γxn−1 n +Cxn−1 Linearized Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 2)-Type Equations 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The 11. .3. .

Chapter 1 contains some basic deﬁnitions and some general results which are used throughout the book. 1. (1)
where the parameters α. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0.Preface
In this monograph. and the periodicity of solutions of all rational diﬀerence equations of the form xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . β. . we present some global attractivity results for higher order diﬀerence equations which may be useful for extensions and generalizations. A. we present the known results and derive several new ones on the boundedness. To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations. The techniques and results which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. In Chapter 2 we present some general results about periodic solutions and invariant intervals of Eq(1). . It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains. ix
. this is a self-contained monograph and the main prerequisite that the reader needs to understand the material presented here and to be able to attack the open problems and conjectures is a good foundation in analysis. B. C and the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are nonnegative real numbers. Every chapter in this monograph contains several open problems and conjectures related to the particular equation which is investigated and its generalizations. . at the end of this monograph. γ. the global stability. In an appendix. In particular we present necessary and suﬃcient conditions for Eq(1) to have period-two solutions and we also present a table of invariant intervals. We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own right and furthermore we believe that these results oﬀer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear diﬀerence equations of order greater than one. In Chapters 3 to 11 we present the known results and derive several new ones on the various types of equations which comprise Eq(1). as special cases. a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge for further investigation. In this sense.

.

I. C. El-Metwally. M. L. D. and W. Camouzis. Kosmala.
xi
. A. Clark. P. Hoag. O. Wilkinson for their enthusiastic participation and useful suggestions which helped to improve the exposition. and K. Prokup. K. C.Acknowledgements
This monograph is the outgrowth of lecture notes and seminars which were given at the University of Rhode Island during the last ﬁve years. R. M. Rodrigues. S. Martins. We are thankful to Professors R. Cunningham. C. E. Grove. S. C. C. Kent. L. W. Schultz. F. J. W. E. H. Predescu. E. S. A. Briden. N. Amleh. Teixeira. W. Sizer and to our graduate students A. Janowski. Radin. Gibbons. Merino. McGrath. Valicenti. Feuer. J. M. DeVault. Driver. T.

.

To Senada and Theodora
.

.

the global stability. See Section 1. Eq(1) includes among others the following well known classes of equations: 1. we present the known results and derive several new ones on the boundedness. C are nonnegative real numbers and the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that A + Bxn + Cxn−1 > 0 for all n ≥ 0. [42]. The Riccati diﬀerence equation when γ = C = 0. [41]. B. β. γ. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. in addition to the basic description of the solutions 1
. . 1.Introduction and Classiﬁcation of Equation Types
In this monograph. It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains as special cases. The techniques and results which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. such as [1]. . (1)
where the parameters α. .6 where. [21]. etc. a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. To this end we pose several Open Problems and Conjectures which we believe will stimulate further interest towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of Eq(1) and its functional generalizations. and the periodicity of solutions of all rational diﬀerence equations of the form xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . A. This equation is studied in many textbooks on diﬀerence equations. We believe that the results about Eq(1) are of paramount importance in their own right and furthermore we believe that these results oﬀer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear diﬀerence equations of order greater than one.

1. . This is the set F of all initial conditions x0 ∈ R through which the equation xn+1 = α + βxn A + Bxn (2)
is not well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. . x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn−1 xn+1 = −1 + xn is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.7 and 10. The problem of existence of solutions for diﬀerence equations is of paramount importance but so far has been systematically neglected. [66]. [69]. [32]. [67]. [44]. 75). [55]. and the rational equation xn+1 = α + αxn + βxn−1 . This is a fascinating equation with many interesting extensions and generalizations. and Section 1. Throughout this monograph we pose several open problems related to the existence of solutions of some simple equations with the hope that their investigation may throw some light into this very diﬃcult problem. 1. See [13].4.2.
See [24] and Sections 2. [18].2. [49]. and Section 5. For example. See [13]. . . 3. See [42]. n = 0. Hence the solution {xn } of Eq(2) exists for all n ≥ 0. . / if and only if x0 ∈ F. 1 + xn n = 0.6 for some results in this regard. An example of such a problem is the following: Open Problem Find all initial points (x−1 . [57]. See ([42]. 2. . . A characteristic feature of this equation is that it possesses an invariant which can be used to understand the character of its
. it is interesting to note the similarities of the dynamics of the population model xn+1 = α + βxn−1 e−xn . we introduce the forbidden set of the equation. We believe that the techniques which we develop in this monograph to understand the dynamics of Eq(1) will also be of paramount importance in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. and Section 4. Lyness’ equation when γ = A = B = 0.2
Introduction and Classiﬁcation
of the Riccati equation. p. Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model when α = γ = B = 0.

n = 0. For convenience we classify all the special cases of Eq(1) as follows. n = 0. 1. See [7]. 2) 9 equations of type (2. for example. . xn+1 = xn−1 where α ∈ (0. 3}. . is bounded. and to bring to their attention several Open Research Problems and Conjectures related to this equation and its functional generalization. . 3) respectively. (2. 3) 3 equations of type (3. . Some of them have been recently investigated and have led to the development of some general theory about diﬀerence equations. We will say that a special case of Eq(1) is of (k. 2) 3 equations of type (1. 1. 1). ∞). . 3) 3 equations of type (3. . For example the following equations xn . . . In this sense. 1) 9 equations of type (1. γ + xn−1 1 + xn . xn+1 = xn−1 α + βxn xn+1 = . many special cases of Eq(1) are not thoroughly understood yet and remain a great challenge for further investigation. 1) 3 equations of type (2. 1. Let k and l be positive integers from the set {1. However to this day. Eq(1) contains 49 equations as follows: 9 equations of type (1. . 2. [42]. . . Without the use of this invariant we are still unable to show. [28]. xn+1 = xn−1 βxn + γxn−1 . . n = 0. 1) 9 equations of type (2. as special cases. . . (2. 1).Introduction and Classiﬁcation
3
solutions. [15]. Our goal in this monograph is to familiarize readers with the recent techniques and results related to Eq(1) and its extensions. and (2. [43]. 3). n = 0. n = 0. [29]. 2). 1. 21 are either trivial. that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation α + xn . or linear. . It is an amazing fact that Eq(1) contains.
. Of these 49 equations. a large number of equations whose dynamics have not been thoroughly established yet. 1. l)-type if the equation is of the form of Eq(1) with k positive parameters in the numerator and l positive parameters in the denominator. [45] and [52]-[54]. xn+1 = A + Bxn + Cxn−1 are of types (1. The remaining 28 are quite interesting nonlinear diﬀerence equations. 2) 1 equation of type (3. or of the Riccati type.

.

1
Deﬁnitions of Stability and Linearized Stability Analysis
f :I ×I →I
Let I be some interval of real numbers and let
be a continuously diﬀerentiable function. xn−1 ). [4]. Then for every set of initial conditions x0 . 1.1 Let x be an equilibrium point of Eq(1. See also [1]. Deﬁnition 1. (1.1. x).1). n=−1 A point x ∈ I is called an equilibrium point of Eq(1. [34]. The reader may just glance at the results in this chapter and return for the details when they are needed in the sequel.Chapter 1 Preliminary Results
In this chapter we state some known results and prove some new ones about diﬀerence equations which will be useful in our investigation of Eq(1). [22].1)
has a unique solution {xn }∞ .1) if x = f (x. [63]. n = 0. x is a ﬁxed point of f . 5
. the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . and [68].1). xn = x for n ≥ 0 is a solution of Eq(1. or equivalently. .
1. x−1 ∈ I. . [16]. [33]. that is. [21]. [41]. .

x) and q = (x. x−1 ∈ I with |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < δ.1) about the equilibrium point x. (1. ∂f ∂f (x.1) is called a source. (v) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. (ii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is locally asymptotically stable. we have |xn − x| < ε for all n ≥ −1.1) is called a global attractor if for every x0 . x) ∂u ∂v denote the partial derivatives of f (u. we have
n→∞
lim xn = x. n = 0. Theorem 1. Preliminary Results (i) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. (vi) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.
.2) p= is called the linearized equation associated with Eq(1. v) evaluated at the equilibrium x of Eq(1.3) Let
lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1.1).1) is called locally stable if for every ε > 0. Clearly a source is an unstable equilibrium.1) is called unstable if it is not stable.6
Chapter 1. if there exists r > 0 such that for all x0 . x−1 ∈ I we have lim xn = x. there exists δ > 0 such that for all x0 . . and if there exists γ > 0 such that for all x0 .1. . n→∞ (iv) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. Then the equation yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 . or a repeller. 1.1) is called globally asymptotically stable if it is locally stable and a global attractor. . x−1 ∈ I with |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < γ.1 (Linearized Stability) (a) If both roots of the quadratic equation λ2 − pλ − q = 0 (1. x−1 ∈ I with 0 < |x0 − x| + |x−1 − x| < r.
(iii) The equilibrium x of Eq(1. there exists N ≥ 1 such that |xN − x| ≥ r.1) is called locally asymptotically stable if it is locally stable.

1.2. The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane

7

(b) If at least one of the roots of Eq(1.3) has absolute value greater than one, then the equilibrium x of Eq(1.1) is unstable. (c) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to lie in the open unit disk |λ| < 1, is |p| < 1 − q < 2. (1.4) In this case the locally asymptotically stable equilibrium x is also called a sink. (d) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for both roots of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value greater than one is |q| > 1 and |p| < |1 − q| . In this case x is a repeller. (e) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for one root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value greater than one and for the other to have absolute value less than one is p2 + 4q > 0 and |p| > |1 − q| .

In this case the unstable equilibrium x is called a saddle point. (f ) A necessary and suﬃcient condition for a root of Eq(1.3) to have absolute value equal to one is |p| = |1 − q| or q = −1 and |p| ≤ 2. In this case the equilibrium x is called a nonhyperbolic point. Deﬁnition 1.1.2 if (a) A solution {xn } of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with period p xn+p = xn for all n ≥ −1. (1.5)

(b) A solution {xn } of Eq(1.1) is said to be periodic with prime period p, or a p-cycle if it is periodic with period p and p is the least positive integer for which (1.5) holds.

1.2

The Stable Manifold Theorem in the Plane

Let T be a diﬀeomorphism in I × I, i.e., one-to-one, smooth mapping, with smooth inverse. Assume that p ∈ I × I is a saddle ﬁxed point of T, i.e., T(p) = p and the Jacobian JT (p) has one eigenvalue s with |s| < 1 and one eigenvalue u with |u| > 1.

8

Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

Let vs be an eigenvector corresponding to s and let vu be an eigenvector corresponding to u. Let S be the stable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose forward orbits (under iteration by T) p, T(p), T2 (p), . . . converge to p. Let U be the unstable manifold of p, i.e., the set of initial points whose backward orbits (under iteration by the inverse of T) p, T−1 (p), T−2 (p), . . . converge to p. Then, both S and U are one dimensional manifolds (curves) that contain p. Furthermore, the vectors vs and vu are tangent to S and U at p, respectively. The map T for Eq(1.1) is found as follows: Set un = xn−1 and vn = xn Then un+1 = xn and so T u v = v f (v, u) x x . and vn+1 = f (vn , un ) for n ≥ 0

for n ≥ 0.

Therefore the eigenvalues of the Jacobian JT

at the equilibrium point x of Eq(1.1)

are the roots of Eq(1.3). In this monograph, the way we will make use of the Stable Manifold Theorem in our investigation of the rational diﬀerence equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (1.6)

is as follows: Under certain conditions the positive equilibrium of Eq(1.6) will be a saddle point and under the same conditions Eq(1.6) will have a two cycle . . . φ, ψ, φ, ψ, . . . (1.7)

which is locally asymptotically stable. Under these conditions, the two cycle (1.7) cannot be a global attractor of all non-equilibrium solutions. See, for example, Sections 6.6 and 6.9.

1.3. Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium

9

1.3

Global Asymptotic Stability of the Zero Equilibrium

When zero is an equilibrium point of the Eq(1.6), which we are investigating in this monograph (with β > 0), then the following theorem will be employed to establish conditions for its global asymptotic stability. Amazingly the same theorem is a powerful tool for establishing the global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium of several biological models. See, for example, [31] and [48]. Theorem 1.3.1 ([31]. See also [48], and [70]) Consider the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f0 (xn , xn−1 )xn + f1 (xn , xn−1 )xn−1 , with nonnegative initial conditions and f0 , f1 ∈ C[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, 1)]. Assume that the following hypotheses hold: (i) f0 and f1 are non-increasing in each of their arguments; (ii) f0 (x, x) > 0 for all x ≥ 0; (iii) f0 (x, y) + f1 (x, y) < 1 for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(1.8) is globally asymptotically stable. n = 0, 1, . . . (1.8)

1.4

Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium

Unfortunately when it comes to establishing the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the Eq(1.6) which we are investigating in this monograph, there are not enough results in the literature to cover all various cases. We strongly believe that the investigation of the various special cases of our equation has already played and will continue to play an important role in the development of the stability theory of general diﬀerence equations of orders greater than one. The ﬁrst theorem, which has also been very useful in applications to mathematical biology, see [31] and [48], was really motivated by a problem in [35]. Theorem 1.4.1 ([31]. See also [35], [48], and ([42], p. 53). Let I ⊆ [0, ∞) be some interval and assume that f ∈ C[I × I, (0, ∞)] satisﬁes the following conditions: (i) f (x, y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments; (ii) Eq(1.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x ∈ I and the function f (x, x) satisﬁes the negative feedback condition: (x − x)(f (x, x) − x) < 0 for every x ∈ I − {x}.

Then every positive solution of Eq(1.1) with initial conditions in I converges to x.

10

Chapter 1. Preliminary Results

The following theorem was inspired by the results in [55] that deal with the global asymptotic stability of Pielou’s equation (see Section 4.4), which is a special case of the equation that we are investigating in this monograph. Theorem 1.4.2 ([42], p. 27) Assume (i) f ∈ C[(0, ∞) × (0, ∞), (0, ∞)]; (ii) f (x, y) is nonincreasing in x and decreasing in y; (iii) xf (x, x) is increasing in x; (iv) The equation xn+1 = xn f (xn , xn−1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . has a unique positive equilibrium x. Then x is globally asymptotically stable. Theorem 1.4.3 ([27]) Assume (i) f ∈ C[[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), (0, ∞)]; (ii) f (x, y) is nonincreasing in each argument; (iii) xf (x, y) is nondecreasing in x; (iv) f (x, y) < f (y, x) ⇐⇒ x > y; (v) The equation xn+1 = xn−1 f (xn−1 , xn ), n = 0, 1, . . . (1.10)

(1.9)

has a unique positive equilibrium x. Then x is a global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(1.10). The next result is known as the stability trichotomy result: Theorem 1.4.4 ([46]) Assume f ∈ C 1 [[0, ∞) × [0, ∞), [0, ∞)] is such that x ∂f ∂f +y < f (x, y) for all x, y ∈ (0, ∞). ∂x ∂y (1.11)

Then Eq(1.1) has stability trichotomy, that is exactly one of the following three cases holds for all solutions of Eq(1.1): (i) limn→∞ xn = ∞ for all (x−1 , x0 ) = (0, 0) . (ii) limn→∞ xn = 0 for all initial points and 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.1). (iii) limn→∞ xn = x ∈ (0, ∞) for all (x−1 , x0 ) = (0, 0) and x is the only positive equilibrium of Eq(1.1).

4.1) converges to x. . . b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. . Theorem 1. . b] and every solution of Eq(1. b]. y) is non-decreasing in x ∈ [a.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . . b] × [a.4. b] is a solution of the system f (m. at the end of this monograph. set Mi = f (Mi−1 .
. y) is non-decreasing in x and non-increasing in y and the second theorem deals with the case where the function f (x.4.5 ([54]) Let [a. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0.7 below are new and deal with the remaining two cases relative to the monotonic character of f (x. b] × [a. (See Section 6. . . Theorems 1. .9. The next two theorems are slight modiﬁcations of results which were obtained in [54] and were developed while we were working on a special case of the equation that we are investigating in this monograph. ≤ M1 ≤ M0 and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi
i→∞
for k ≥ 2i + 1.4 and 6. then m = M . or nonincreasing in one and nondecreasing in the other. See also the Appendix. Mi−1 ). ≤ Mi ≤ . b] for each y ∈ [a. m) = M.1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. y) is nonincreasing in y ∈ [a. mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . Proof. (b) If (m. m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .) The ﬁrst theorem deals with the case where the function f (x. M ) ∈ [a. y) is nondecreasing in both arguments. Then Eq(1.4. . y) is non-increasing in x and nondecreasing in y. b] → [a. b]. y) is monotonic in its arguments. ≤ mi ≤ . In this regard there are four possible scenarios depending on whether f (x. and f (x. 2.1) is to work in the regions where the function f (x.8 and 1. b] for each x ∈ [a. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1.8 where these theorems are utilized. or nonincreasing in both arguments. which describes the extension of these results to higher order diﬀerence equations. M ) = m and f (M. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. y). Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium
11
Very often the best strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(1. See Sections 6.

Therefore in view of (b). b] for each x ∈ [a. mi−1 ). M ) and M = f (M. In view of (b). b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. b] and every solution of Eq(1. . 2
. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. b]. b].12)
and by the continuity of f . . m). Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. ≤ mi ≤ . 2.
Then clearly (1. .1) converges to x. m=M from which the result follows. ≤ Mi ≤ .
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi
i→∞
for k ≥ 2i + 1. m=M from which the result follows.4. . b] × [a. Proof. m = f (M. m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . Preliminary Results
M ≥ lim sup xi ≥ lim inf xi ≥ m
i→∞ i→∞
(1. 2
Theorem 1. y) is nondecreasing in y ∈ [a. . . b].12 Then
Chapter 1. ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . (b) The diﬀerence equation Eq(1. Then Eq(1. b] → [a. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. . M ). m) and M = f (m.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. .1) has no solutions of prime period two in [a.12) holds and by the continuity of f . y) is non-increasing in x ∈ [a. . and f (x. set Mi = f (mi−1 . b] for each y ∈ [a.6 ([54]) Let [a. m = f (m.

4. m = f (M.4. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. . Mi−1 ). b] × [a. . y) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments.
. b] and every solution of Eq(1. M ) and M = f (m. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1.1) converges to x. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a.1) converges to x.4. Global Attractivity of the Positive Equilibrium Theorem 1. Then Eq(1.8 Let [a. y) is non-increasing in each of its arguments. set Mi = f (mi−1 . Proof. b] × [a.7 Let [a. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. . m) = M and f (M. . . Then Eq(1. x) = x. b] and every solution of Eq(1. b] → [a. . (b) The equation f (x. m).1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. ≤ Mi ≤ . . m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .12) holds and by the continuity of f . m=M =x from which the result follows. b] × [a. In view of (b). . (b) If (m. M ) = m. and Set mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi m = lim mi
i→∞
for k ≥ 2i + 1. 2. ≤ mi ≤ . . ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. b] is a solution of the system f (m. b] → [a.1.
Then clearly (1.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.
13
then m = M . mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 .
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . has a unique positive solution. M ) ∈ [a. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. 2
Theorem 1.

Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. (1. Assume that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a solution of Eq(1. Let J be some interval of real numbers. . mi−1 ). Now with the above hypotheses.
Then clearly the inequality (1. . m = f (m. n ≥ −k + 1.5
Limiting Solutions
The concept of limiting solutions was introduced by Karakostas [37] (see also [40]) and is a useful tool in establishing that under certain conditions a solution of a diﬀerence equation which is bounded from above and from below has a limit. set Mi = f (Mi−1 . . In view of (b). xn−1 ). ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . . Preliminary Results
m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. f ∈ C[J × J.13)
. from which the result follows. .14 Proof. . ≤ mi ≤ . .12) is satisﬁed and by the continuity of f . B ∈ J. 2. and let k ≥ 1 be a positive integer. Set
Chapter 1. and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
for k ≥ 2i + 1. In this section we ﬁrst give a self-contained version of limiting solutions the way we will use them in this monograph. . m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . J].
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . m = M = x. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . ∞ we will show that there exists a solution {Ln }n=−k of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . M ). 2
1. Let L be a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 (For example L is the limit superior S or the limit inferior I of the solution). . m) and M = f (M. ≤ Mi ≤ . .
where A. . .1) such that A ≤ xn ≤ B for all n ≥ −1.

2 below. is stated in the way we will use it in this monograph:
.
−k
Let { n }∞ n=−k be the solution of Eq(1. . (1.
j→∞
lim xnj −k = L−k . L−3 . . .
−k+2 j→∞
= L−k and
−k+1
= L−k+1 . .1). which is a consequence of the above discussion.. B] and so it has a ∞ further subsequence {xnij }j=1 which converges to some limit which we call L−1 . Limiting Solutions such that L0 = L
15
and for every N ≥ −k.13) with Then clearly.14) associated with the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(1.1). It follows by induction that the sequence L−k .
∞ Next the subsequence {xni −1 }i=1 of {xn }∞ n=−1 also lies in interval [A. Karakostas takes k = ∞ and calls the solution {Ln }∞ n=−∞ a full limiting sequence of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . L0 = L =
0 . xn−1 ).1. n=−1 is called a limiting solution of Eq(1.5. n=−1 The following result. −k )
= f (L−k+1 .13) and every term of this sequence is a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ . . . . . .5. L1
=
1. L−k+1 .13) associated with the The solution {Ln }∞ n=−k solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(1. .. i→∞ i→∞
Continuing in this way and by considering further and further subsequences we obtain ∞ numbers L−2 . lim xnij = L and lim xnij −1 = L−1 . Therefore. the term LN is a limit point of the solution {xn }∞ . (See Theorem 1.
= f(
−k+1 . Clearly there exists a subsequence {xni }∞ of {xn }∞ i=1 n=−1 such that
i→∞
lim xni = L.
satisﬁes Eq(1. . xnj −k ) = lim xnj −k+2 = L−k+2 .) ∞ We now proceed to show the existence of a limiting solution {Ln }n=−k . L−k )
j→∞
= lim f (xnj −k+1 . L−k and a subsequence {xnj }n=−1 such that
j→∞
lim xnj = L
j→∞
lim xnj −1 = L−1 . L−1 .

J]. yn+1 = k i=0 Ai yn−i
.
∞ The solutions {In }∞ n=−∞ and {Sn }n=−∞ of the diﬀerence equation (1.16) associated with the solution {xn }∞ n=−k of Eq(1. See [23] and [25] for an application of Theorem 1. and In . and let k ≥ 1 be a positive integer.2 to diﬀerence equations of the form
xn+1 =
Ai . . xn−1 . Theorem 1. with I = lim inf xn .16)
lim xrn +N = IN
and
n→∞
lim xln +N = SN
for every N ≥ m. .
which by the change of variables xn = y1 reduce to rational diﬀerence equations of the n form 1 . . .
Let Z denote the set of all integers {. f ∈ C[J ν+1 .1) with limit inferior I and limit superior S. S0 = S. . . Suppose that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a bounded solution of Eq(1.2 ([37]) Let J be some interval of real numbers.
(1. 1. as developed by Karakostas. . . S ∈ J. f ∈ C[J × J. . . S0 = S
We now state the complete version of full limiting sequences. xn−ν ) which satisfy the equation for all n ∈ Z. Then Eq(1.16) are called full limiting solutions of Eq(1. . . Sn ∈ [I.15)
and with I. In . IN and SN are limit points of {xn }∞ .5.1 Let J be some interval of real numbers. . S] for n ≥ −k. 1. . 1. . S ∈ J. with I0 = I. . Sn ∈ [I. .16
Chapter 1. −1. S] for all n ∈ Z and such that for every N ∈ Z. n→∞ S = lim sup xn
n→∞
n = 0. i=0 xn−i
k
n = 0. . . 1.5. with I. n=−ν Furthermore for every m ≤ −ν. and let {xn }∞ n=−ν be a bounded solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . Then there exist two solutions ∞ {In }∞ n=−∞ and {Sn }n=−∞ of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . . 0. there exist two subsequences {xrn } and {xln } of the solution {xn }∞ n=−ν such that the following are true:
n→∞
(1. J]. Preliminary Results
Theorem 1.}.5.13) has two solutions {In }∞ n=−k with the following properties: and {Sn }∞ n=−k I0 = I. . . n = 0. . . xn−1 . xn−ν ).15).

in addition to (1. . It should be mentioned here that there is practically nothing known about the forbidden set of Eq(1) (when the parameters α. One of our goals in this section is to determine the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17). Eq(1. The ﬁrst result in this section addresses a very special case of Eq(1.6
The Riccati Equation
α + βxn . The Riccati Equation
17
1.and short-term behavior of / solutions of Eq(1.6. B.17) with x0 = is periodic with period two. Furthermore when (1. Then (1. we will assume that B = 0 and αB − βA = 0.6.17) will become zero for some value of n ≥ 0 is called the forbidden set F of Eq(1.17) regarding period-two solutions. A + Bxn
A diﬀerence equation of the form xn+1 = n = 0. 1. (1. B and the initial condition x0 are real numbers is called a Riccati diﬀerence equation. The proof is straightforward and will be omitted. A. In the sequel. .1. (See also [13] and [69]. A + Bxn B The set of initial conditions x0 ∈ R through which the denominator A+Bxn in Eq(1. β.17). C and the initial conditions x−1 . To avoid degenerate cases. β.17) when x0 ∈ F. (1.19) holds every solution of Eq(1.17) reduces to βA + βxn β xn+1 = B = for all n ≥ 0.17) possesses a prime periodtwo solution. γ. we will assume that β + A = 0. which is extracted from [32]. .17) is a linear equation and when αB − βA = 0. (1. A.1 Assume that (1.20)
.19) β + A = 0. x0 are all real numbers) other than the material presented here.18).17)
where the parameters α.21) β B (1.18)
Indeed when B = 0.18) holds and that Eq(1.) The other goal we have is to describe in detail the long. Eq(1. Theorem 1.

23) and present its forbidden set F and the character of its solutions. 1. Preliminary Results
for n ≥ 0
(1. If we set y = g(w) = 1 − then we note that the two asymptotes x=− of the function A B and y = β B R w
α + βx A + Bx have now been reduced to the two asymptotes y = f (x) = w = 0 and y = 1
R .18 Now observe that the change of variable xn = β+A A wn − B B
Chapter 1. (1. It is interesting to note that the four parameters of Eq(1. .22)
transforms Eq(1. . From Eq(1. wn n = 0. called the Riccati number of Eq(1.17) through the change of variables (1.17) have been reduced to the single parameter R of Eq(1.22).17).17) into the diﬀerence equation wn+1 = 1 − where R= R .23) it follows that when R< 1 4
.23)
βA − αB (β + A)2
is a nonzero real number. . w Also note that the signum of R is equal to the signum of the derivative y =1− f (x) = βA − αB .23). Similar results can be obtained for Eq(1. (A + Bx)2
of the function
For the remainder of this section we focus on Eq(1.

. 1. 4 1− √ √ 1 − 4R 1 + 1 − 4R < = w+ 2 2
19
When
Eq(1. n = 0. Note that in these two cases the characteristic roots of Eq(1. 1 The next two theorems deal with the cases R < 1 and R = 4 . 4 1 R= . . Now observe that the change of variables wn = with y0 = 1 and y1 = w0 reduces Eq(1.24) yn+1 yn for n = 0.24) are real numbers.23) has the two equilibrium points w− and w+ with w− = and |w− | < w+ .23) to the second order linear diﬀerence equation yn+2 − yn+1 + Ryn = 0.6.23) is clearly the set of points where the sequence {yn }∞ n=0 vanishes.24) are the equilibrium points of Eq(1.23). .23) has exactly one equilibrium point namely. . ). .23) has no equilibrium points.
which can be solved explicitly. 1 w= . . Also w− < 0 if R < 0 and 1 w− > 0 if R ∈ (0.1. when 1 R> . respectively. (1. 1. The Riccati Equation Eq(1. 2 Finally. 4 Eq(1. where 4 the characteristic roots of Eq(1. The forbidden set of Eq(1.
.

6. . if R > 0
and fn < w− while (fn − w− )(fn+1 − w− ) < 0 if R < 0.25)
When w0 ∈ F.23) is the sequence of points fn =
n−1 n−1 w+ − w− w+ w− n n w+ − w−
for n = 1. .26)
It is now clear from Theorem 1. .27)
.6. 2. 4 1 2
is the only equilibrium point of Eq(1.2 that
n→∞
lim fn = w− .
(1. . 2. .20 Theorem 1. Theorem 1. . Preliminary Results
√ √ 1 − 4R 1 + 1 − 4R w− = and w+ = 2 2 are the only equilibrium points of Eq(1. wn = n n (w0 − w− )w+ − (w+ − w0 )w−
n = 1.23) is the sequence of points fn = n−1 2n for n = 1. 4 1−
Chapter 1. (1.3 Assume Then w= 1 R= .6. . .23) is given by /
n+1 n+1 (w0 − w− )w+ − (w+ − w0 )w− .
(1.23). The forbidden set F of Eq(1. the solution of Eq(1. . 2. The equilibrium w+ is a global attractor as long as w0 ∈ F ∪ {w− } / and the equilibrium w− is a repeller.2 Assume Then 1 R< . . The forbidden set F of Eq(1. . .23).

28)
From Theorem 1. 1. .
yn = R 2 (C1 cos(nφ) + C2 sin(nφ)).23) is a global 2 / attractor for all solutions with w0 ∈ F but is locally unstable.23) is given by / wn = 1 + (2w0 − 1)(n + 1) 2 + 2(2w0 − 1)n for n = 0.6. . . 1 R> .1. . (1. 2w0 − 1 C1 = 1 and C2 = √ . the solution of Eq(1. 1. 2 R n = 0.
Hence wn = √
√ 4R − 1 cos(n + 1)φ + (2w0 − 1) sin(n + 1)φ √ . . . . .3 it follows that the equilibrium w = 1 of Eq(1. (1. 4 The characteristic roots of Eq(1. more precisely. 4R − 1 n = 0.24) in this case are √ 4R − 1 1 λ± = ± i 2 2 with |λ± | = Let be such that 1 cos φ = √ 2 R Then with C1 = y0 = 1 and It follows that √ R(C1 cos φ + C2 sin φ) = y1 = w0 .29)
n
Finally consider the case
√
R. The Riccati Equation
21
which converges to the equilibrium from the left. it is a sink from the right and a source from the left.6. . 1. ) 2 and √ 4R − 1 √ sin φ = . .
π φ ∈ (0. R 4R − 1 cos(nφ) + (2w0 − 1) sin(nφ)
. When w0 ∈ F.

. the solution of Eq(1. assume φ is a rational multiple of π. 2 Let θ ∈ (− π .23) is the sequence of points √ 1 4R − 1 fn = − cot(nφ) for n = 1. . . 2 R
Then the forbidden set F of Eq(1. π ) be such that 2 1 cos φ = √ 2 R and 1 4 √ 4R − 1 √ sin φ = .29). (1. can now be easily 4 revealed.22
Chapter 1.
and so
√ cos(nφ + φ − θ) √ cos(nφ − θ) cos φ − sin(nφ − θ) sin φ R = R cos(nφ − θ) cos(nφ − θ) √ = R (cos φ − sin φ tan(nφ − θ)) 1 wn = − 2 √ 4R − 1 tan(nφ − θ).30)
1 Clearly when R > 4 the character of the solution {wn } and the forbidden set F depends on whether or not the number φ ∈ (0. that is. . π ) be such that 2 2 √ 4R − 1 2x0 − 1 and sin θ = cos θ = r r
where r= Then we obtain. when R > 1 . π ) is a rational multiple of π. . ) N 2 (1. Preliminary Results
as long as the denominator is diﬀerent from zero. . . . 2.4 Assume that R> and let φ ∈ (0. For example.32)
. that is. 2. w0 = − 2 2 The following theorem summarizes the above discussion. /
(1.23) is given by (1. .31)
from which the character of the solutions of Eq(1. 2 2 When w0 ∈ F. . 1. 2 n = 0. Theorem 1. φ= π k π ∈ (0. wn = (4R − 1)2 + (2x0 − 1)2 . . √ 4R − 1 1 cot(nφ) for n = 1.23).6.

. 2.} with 2k < N.5 is not a rational multiple of π.6. then the following result is true: Theorem 1.6. The following theorem summarizes the above discussion.6 Assume that the number φ in Theorem 1. Theorem 1. . Equivalently assume that A= where k.6.6. ) p 2 1 4 cos2 φ with φ = k π N Then
where k and p are positive comprimes and suppose that √ 4R − 1 1 √ cos φ = √ and sin φ = . .23) is periodic. . . . N ∈ {1.} and 2k < N.23) is periodic with period N .6.5 Assume that φ= k π π ∈ (0. 2. .23) with √ sin(n k π) − 4R − 1 cos(n k π) p p w0 = k 2 sin(n p π) is periodic with period p.23) is periodic with period N . p Then every solution of Eq(1. 2. then every solution of Eq(1. . 2 R 2 R or equivalently k 4R cos2 ( π) = 1. (ii) The set of limit points of a solution of Eq(1. . /
for n = 1.23) with w0 ∈ F is dense in R. The Riccati Equation
23
for some k. N ∈ {1. Then the following statements are true: (i) No solution of Eq(1. When the number φ in Theorem 1.5 is not a rational multiple of π.1. √ √ 1 1 4R − 1 4R − 1 wN = − tan(kπ − θ) = − tan(−θ) = w0 2 2 2 2 and so every solution of Eq(1. p − 1
. .

23) and the fact that when φ is not a rational multiple of π. xl+1 . φ is a rational multiple of π. . First we give the deﬁnitions for the positive and negative semicycle of a solution of Eq(1.1) consists of a “string” of terms {xl . we present some results about the semicycle character of solutions of some general diﬀerence equations of the form xn+1 = f (xn . or m < ∞ and xm+1 < x.33) relative to an equilibrium point x. π ). . then the values (nφ − θ)(mod π) for n = 0.24 Proof. In this section. (1. . or l > −1 and xl−1 < x and either m = ∞. are dense in the interval (− π . . . . 2 2 2
1. 1. . xn−1 ). . . Preliminary Results
tan(kφ − θ) = tan(lφ − θ) if and only if for some integer N kφ − θ − (lφ − θ) = N π if and only if (k − l)φ = N π that is. The proof of statement (ii) is a consequence of the form of the solution of Eq(1. A positive semicycle of a solution {xn } of Eq(1. n = 0. 1. Statement (i) is true because.
. all greater than or equal to the equilibrium x. wk = wl if and only if
Chapter 1. with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such that either l = −1.7
Semicycle Analysis
We strongly believe that a semicycle analysis of the solutions of a scalar diﬀerence equation is a powerful tool for a detailed understanding of the entire character of solutions and often leads to straightforward proofs of their long term behavior. .33)
under appropriate hypotheses on the function f . xm }.

(See Section 6. y) is increasing in y for each ﬁxed x. x) = x and xN +2 = f (xN +1 .1 ([28]) Assume that f ∈ C[(0. y) is decreasing in x for each ﬁxed y. Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that either xN −1 < x ≤ xN or xN −1 ≥ x > xN .
. We will assume that xN −1 < x ≤ xN . Then by using the monotonic character of f (x. x) = x. (0. Then except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle. Otherwise the sequence is called nonoscillatory. and f (x. all less than the equilibrium x. Thus xN +1 < x < xN +2 or m < ∞ and xm+1 ≥ x.33) has semicycles of length one. . xN −1 ) < f (x. y) we have xN +1 = f (xN . ∞). n2 ≥ n0 such that xn1 xn2 < 0. xl+1 . ∞) × (0. .7. xN ) > f (x. ∞)] is such that: f (x. with l ≥ −1 and m ≤ ∞ and such that either l = −1. The ﬁrst result was established in [28] while we were working on a special case of the equation we are investigating in this monograph.7. xm }. Semicycle Analysis
25
A negative semicycle of a solution {xn } of Eq(1.1. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. .33) consists of a “string” of terms {xl . Deﬁnition 1. All other cases are similar and will be omitted. Proof.) Theorem 1. The sequence {xn } is called strictly oscillatory about x if the sequence xn − x is strictly oscillatory. or l > −1 and xl−1 ≥ x and either m = ∞. there exist n1 .33) with at least two semicycles.33). every solution of Eq(1.5. Let {xn } be a solution of Eq(1. A sequence {xn } is called strictly oscillatory if for every n0 ≥ 0.7.1 (Oscillation) (a) A sequence {xn } is said to oscillate about zero or simply to oscillate if the terms xn are neither eventually all positive nor eventually all negative. (b) A sequence {xn } is said to oscillate about x if the sequence xn − x oscillates. .

33) has semicycles of length one. Then except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle. ∞)] and that f (x. y) is increasing in both arguments. with at least one of the inequalities being strict. ∞). Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN in a positive semicycle xN −1 ≥ x and xN ≥ x. xN −1 ) < f (x. Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN in a positive semicycle xN −1 ≥ x and xN ≥ x with at least one of the inequalities being strict. The next result applies when the function f is increasing in both arguments. xN −1 ) > f (x. Then by using the decreasing character of f we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN . Proof. 2
. It follows by induction that all future terms of this solution belong to this positive semicycle. x) = x which shows that the next term xN +1 also belongs to the positive semicycle.33). Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN . y) is decreasing in both arguments.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. Theorem 1. Proof. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. ∞) × (0. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y.33). The proof in the case of negative semicycle is similar and is omitted. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1.26 and the proof follows by induction. Theorem 1. 2 The next result applies when the function f (x.7.7. The proof in the case of negative semicycle is similar and is omitted.33) has semicycles of length at most two.3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. ∞)] and that f (x. which is a contradiction. (0. every oscillatory solution of Eq(1.
Chapter 1. x) = x which completes the proof. Preliminary Results 2
The next result applies when the function f is decreasing in both arguments. (0. ∞) × (0. Then every oscillatory solution of Eq(1. ∞).

y) is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed x. ∞). xN −1 ) > f (xN . Proof.4 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle which may have length one. Assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN such that xN −1 < x ≤ xN . xN −1 ) < f (xN .34) we obtain xN +1 = f (xN .34) we obtain: xN +1 = f (xN . xN −1 ) > f (x. u) = x for every u and f (x. ∞)] is such that: f (x. y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y. (0. The proof in the case xN −1 ≥ x > xN . If xN > xN −1 > x then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1.33). x) = x which shows that the next term xN +1 also belongs to the positive semicycle. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. y) < x for every x > y > x (1. ∞) × (0. Now also assume that {xn } is an oscillatory solution with two consecutive terms xN −1 and xN such that xN −1 > xN ≥ x and xN −2 < x.7. Then by using the increasing character of f and Condition (1. Furthermore.35) then {xn } oscillates about the equilibrium x with semicycles of length two or three. Then. is similar and is omitted. xN ) = x which shows that the positive semicycle has length two. The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the ﬁrst term if the semicycle has two terms. and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms. if we assume that f (u. every oscillatory solution of Eq(1. Semicycle Analysis
27
Theorem 1.33) has semicycles of length at least two.1.34)
. except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle.7. xN ) = x (1. Then by using the increasing character of f we obtain xN +1 = f (xN . and f (x.

xN −1 ) < xN and the proof is complete. Theorem 1. 2 (1.28 and by using Condition (1.34) and (1.34). Assume that f satisﬁes Conditions (1. ∞)] is such that: f (x.35) we ﬁnd
Chapter 1.7. ∞).36) we get x1 = f (x0 . the corresponding solution is decreasing. instead of Condition (1. y) < x for every x < y < x then if x0 < x−1 < x. In view of Condition (1. the corresponding solution is increasing. First. then Eq(1. Let x be a positive equilibrium of Eq(1. f satisﬁes Condition (1. x−1 ) > x0 . on the other hand. y) > x for every x > y > x.36) is satisﬁed and that x0 > x−1 > x.34) is not enough to guarantee the above result. y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y.33). 2 Condition (1. we assume (1.5 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. (0. y) is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed x.36). and f (x.33) has monotonic solutions. assume that Condition (1. we obtain x1 = f (x0 .36) f (x. x−1 ) = x. Then by the monotonic character of f and (1. If. and the proof follows by induction. If.37)
.34). x−1 ) > f (x−1 . ∞) × (0.35). Then if x0 > x−1 > x. Preliminary Results
xN +1 = f (xN . and f (x. The proof of the remaining case is similar and will be omitted. Proof.

A. In view of the above restriction on the initial conditions of Eq(2.1) has a positive equilibrium if and only if β + γ > A.1) if and only if α = 0 and A > 0. and Invariant Intervals
2.2) and where the initial conditions x−1 and x0 are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers such that the right hand side of Eq(2. (2.1) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation x= or equivalently (B + C)x2 − (β + γ − A)x − α = 0. C ∈ [0.Chapter 2 Local Stability. A + Bxn + Cxn−1
Here we investigate the equilibrium points of the general equation xn+1 = where α. Eq(2.3) n = 0.4) α + (β + γ)x A + (B + C)x (2.5) holds. ∞) (2.1)
When (2.1) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. (2. Semicycles.5) (2.1 Equilibrium Points
α + βxn + γxn−1 . B + C ∈ (0. in addition to the zero equilibrium . ∞) with α + β + γ. 29
. . Zero is an equilibrium point of Eq(2.1). β. Periodicity. B. 1. γ. . the equilibrium points of Eq(2. .

If we had allowed negative initial conditions then the negative solution of Eq(2.1) is unique and is given by x= When α = 0 and A = 0 the only equilibrium point of Eq(2. 1. . and [69] for some results in this regard. B+C (2. .8)
of the quadratic equation (2. Periodicity. when α = 0.3) and (2.1) has a positive equilibrium x. [32].1) is the positive solution x= β+γ−A+ (β + γ − A)2 + 4α(B + C) 2(B + C) (2. This observation simpliﬁes the investigation of the local stability of the positive equilibrium of Eq(2. v) = (A + Bu + Cv)2
(2. . . n = 0.9)
.8). then x is unique.1) is positive and is given by x= β+γ .6)
Note that in view of Condition (2.1). the quantity β + γ is positive. it satisﬁes Eqs(2. Finally when α>0 the only equilibrium point of Eq(2.4). A + Bxn there is very little known.2). except for our presentation in Section 1. and it is given by (2.4). (See [13]. v) = A + Bu + Cv and observe that (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)v fu (u.30
Chapter 2.
2. and Invariant Intervals
In fact in this case the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.) In summary. Semicycles. Local Stability. [18].1). B+C (2.1) when the initial conditions and the coeﬃcients of the equation are real numbers is of great mathematical importance and.2
Stability of the Zero Equilibrium
Here we investigate the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.4) would also be an equilibrium worth investigating. Set α + βu + γv f (u.6 about the Riccati equation α + βxn xn+1 = . The problem of investigating Eq(2. it is interesting to observe that when Eq(2.7) β+γ−A .

n = 0. For the zero equilibrium of Eq(2. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0.10)
If x denotes an equilibrium point of Eq(2. . Then the zero equilibrium point of the equation xn+1 = βxn + γxn−1 . . in addition to the local stability Theorem 1. Furthermore the zero equilibrium point is
a sink when a saddle point when a repeller when
A>β+γ A < β + γ < A + 2β β + γ > A + 2β. v) = (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)u . .1) about the zero equilibrium point is β γ zn+1 − zn − zn−1 = 0.1. Stability of the Zero Equilibrium and fv (u. A A For the stability of the zero equilibrium of Eq(2.1. .
is globally asymptotically stable when β+γ ≤A and is unstable when β + γ > A.1 Assume that A > 0.1. x). then the linearized equation associated with Eq(2. . x) and q = fv (x.
.1) about the equilibrium point x is zn+1 − pzn − qzn−1 = 0 where p = fu (x. The local stability character of x is now described by the linearized stability Theorem 1. 1.2.1. .2.1). As a consequence of these two theorems we obtain the following global result: Theorem 2.2.1) we have p= β A and q = γ A
and so the linearized equation associated with Eq(2. (A + Bu + Cv)2
31
(2.1). . 1.1. we have the luxury of the global stability Theorem 1.3.

1. it satisﬁes Eqs(2. Eq(2. Local Stability.32
Chapter 2. 2 (A + (B + C)x) A + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)x (βA − αB) + (βC − γB)x = 2 2 (A + (B + C)x) A + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x
Hence the conditions for the local asymptotic stability of x are (see Theorem 1.4).11) and q > −1.11) and (2.15). By using the identity (B + C)x2 = (β + γ − A)x + α. and it is given by (2. Inequalities (2.8).1) has a positive equilibrium when either
or α > 0.3
Local Stability of the Positive Equilibrium
α = 0 and β + γ > A
As we mentioned in Section 2.3) and (2.1. we see that p = fu (x.14) (2.12) are equivalent to the following three inequalities: A+β+γ+2 βC − γB A2 + (βA − αB) − (γA − αC) x > −α − B+C B+C A2 − (βA − αB) − (γA − αC) B+C (2. and Invariant Intervals
2.12)
(A + β + γ)x > −α −
(2. Semicycles. A+β+γ− B+C B+C
Out of these inequalities we will obtain explicit stability conditions by using the following procedure: First we observe that Inequalities (2. are equivalent to some inequalities of the form x>ρ
.1) the following: |p| < 1 − q (2.13) (2. In these cases the positive equilibrium x is unique.15)
A2 + (γA − αC) βC − γB x > −α − .13)-(2. x) = and q = fv (x. x) = (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)x (γA − αC) − (βC − γB)x = 2 . Periodicity.

. . Now if we set F (u) = (B + C)u2 − (β + γ − A)u − α. .
33
2. Then the following statements are true: (i) Assume C > 0.17) (2. it is clear that F (x) = 0 and that x > ρ if and only if F (ρ) < 0 while x<σ if and only if F (σ) > 0. . . and [74]. .4
When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period?
1 . .
. 4. (ii) Assume C = 0. . When is Every Solution Periodic with the Same Period? and/or x<σ for some ρ. 1. 1.4. = xn−1
are remarkable in the sense that all positive solutions of each of these four nontrivial equations are periodic with periods 2. The following result characterizes all possible special cases of equations of the form of Eq(2. 1.19)
1 + xn .
The following four special examples of Eq(2. .1) xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 n = 0.18) (2. Then γ(α + β) = 0. n = 0. . n = 0. . n = 0. xn 1 xn−1 .1) with the property that every solution of the equation is periodic with the same period. and 6 respectively. Then A = B = γ = 0. 1.) Theorem 2. (2. 5. ∞). [73].2. xn−1 xn . (See also [75]. σ ∈ [0.1) is periodic with period p.1 Let p ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that every positive solution of Eq(2.4.16) (2. .

Periodicity. 3. for the sake of contradiction. Then clearly x0 = xp and so from Eq(2. we see that (2.1) xp = Hence (A + B)x0 + (Cx0 − γ)xp−2 = α + β. (i) Assume that C > 0.1 Let p ∈ {2. A+B C (2. A+B C
we see that (2. 2
Corollary 2. Otherwise A + B > 0 and by choosing x0 > max α+β γ . The proof is complete. and Invariant Intervals
Proof.
.21) holds. (ii) Assume C = 0 and.19) . Semicycles.20) α + β + γxp−2 = x0 .22) Otherwise γ > 0 and by choosing x0 < min α+β γ . (2.1) is periodic with period p.22) holds . Thus (2. 5.21) we now claim that also γ = 0. assume that γ(α + β) > 0. ∞). 6}. Then up to a change of variables of the form xn = λyn Eq(2.1) reduces to one of the equations (2.4. Assume that every positive solution of Eq(2. In addition to (2. Consider the solution with x−1 = 1 and x0 ∈ (0.21) (2.20) is impossible.34
Chapter 2. Then we claim that A = B = 0. Hence (2.20) is impossible. 4.16)-(2. A + B + Cxp−2 and xp−1 = x−1 = 1
we see that (2. Local Stability.20) is impossible. Then by choosing x0 suﬃciently small.

23) α + βψ + γφ A + Bψ + Cφ α + βφ + γψ A + Bφ + Cψ
.1) to have a prime period-two solution and we exhibit all prime period-two solutions of the equation. . Assume that . . φ.24) (2. φ. Furthermore when (2. ψ. not necessarily prime.1) converges to a period-two solution in a nontrivial way according to the following convention. ψ ∈ [0. ψ.5. Convention Throughout this book when we say that “every solution of a certain diﬀerence equation converges to a periodic solution with period p” we mean that every solution converges to a. . ∞) and φ = ψ (2. .27) hold . ψ. φ. .5
Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions
In this section we give necessary and suﬃcient conditions for Eq(2.26) and (2. φ.2.) Furthermore we are interested in conditions under which every solution of Eq(2.1) has a prime period-two solution if and only if γ = β + A.26) αC + β(γ − β − A) . . (See [50].1). is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2. . C (2. . Then φ= and ψ= from which we ﬁnd that C(φ + ψ) = γ − β − A and when C>0 we also ﬁnd that (B − C)φψ = One can show that when C = 0 and B > 0 Eq(2. .25) (2. is a prime period-two solution of Eq(2. Existence of Prime Period-Two Solutions
35
2. .27) (2. solution with period p and furthermore the set of solutions of the equation with prime period p is nonempty. ψ.1) if and only if α + β(φ + ψ) = Bφψ with φ. . .

.25) that one of the following three conditions must be satisﬁed: B = C.31) holds. When (2. . Local Stability. α = β = 0. and φψ = 0.1).24) holds and that Eq(2. B φ= β+ √ β 2 + αB . . Semicycles. . − φ.
be a two cycle of the diﬀerence equation (2.28)
Next assume that (2.. ψ. 0. . C C
Finally when (2. B and ψ = α + βφ .30) holds. . . C γ−A γ−A . −β + Bφ (2. . φ. . and φψ > 0. . . α = β = 0.36
Chapter 2.. B = C. ψ. .30) (2. . . φ. . 0. (2. .
. B > C.6
Let
Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle
. Set un = xn−1 and vn = xn
for n = 0. α + β > 0. . φ. . Then it follows from (2. . .32) 4C 2
2. . . φ.31)
γ > β + A and
When (2. ψ. . γ−A γ−A − φ. . That is. . ψ. C C with 0 ≤ φ < γ−A . the two cycle is . the two cycle is .. (2.29) holds.23) and (2. and Invariant Intervals
or equivalently β φ> . . . 1. the values φ and ψ of the two cycle are given by the two roots of the quadratic equation t2 − γ−β−A αC + β(γ − β − A) t+ =0 C C(B − C)
and we should also require that the discriminant of this quadratic equation be positive. φ. Periodicity.29) (2. (γ − β − A)[B(γ − β − A) − C(γ + 3β − A)] α< .1) possesses a prime period-two solution . and φψ ≥ 0. φ.

By computing the partial derivatives of g and h and by using the fact that φ= α + βψ + γφ A + Bψ + Cφ and ψ = α + βφ + γψ A + Bφ + Cψ
The two cycle is locally asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix φ lie inside the unit disk.6. Local Asymptotic Stability of a Two Cycle and write Eq(2. ∞) deﬁned by: T Then u v = v
βv+γu+α Bv+Cu+A
37
. v) = α + βv + γu A + Bv + Cu and h(u. ψ) ∂v (φ. ψ) ∂u φ = JT 2 . ∂u (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 (A + Bψ + Cφ)2
. v)
α+βv+γu α + β A+Bv+Cu + γv α+βv+γu A + B A+Bv+Cu + Cv
. 1. . v) h(u. n +Cun Let T be the function on [0. . the second iterate of T . Furthermore T2 where g(u. ψ ∂h ∂h (φ. ψ) ∂v (φ. ∂u (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 ∂g (βA − αB) − (γB − βC)φ (φ. ∂v (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 [(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)ψ][(γA − αC) + (γB − βC)ψ] ∂h (φ. ψ) = . JT 2 . ψ) = . ∞) × [0.
φ ψ
is a ﬁxed point of T 2 .2.1) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn α+βv vn+1 = A+Bvn +γun . ψ) ∂u
we ﬁnd the following identities: (γA − αC) + (γB − βC)ψ ∂g (φ. v) = u v = g(u. . n = 0. evaluated at ψ By deﬁnition ∂g ∂g (φ. . ψ) = .

See Sections 6. β. and 7.
2. ψ) = ∂v (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 (A + Bψ + Cφ)2 (γA − αC) + (γB − βC)φ .6.1 (Basin of Attraction of a Two Cycle) Let . every solution converges to a (not necessarily prime) period-two solution and n = 0. .33)
. . Semicycles. γ. and Invariant Intervals
[(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)ψ][(βA − αB) − (γB − βC)φ] ∂h (φ. 6. ψ. .1.1).1) converges to the two cycle. ψ.7
Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When C=0
α + βxn + γxn−1 . . Local Stability.7. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the
Then it follows from Theorem 1. 1.33) converges to a period-two solution. ∞) with α + β + γ. ψ) − (φ. ψ) + (φ.7. φ. φ. .9.38
Chapter 2. β. .1 (c) that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1. ψ) (φ. Periodicity. if and only if |S| < 1 + D and D < 1. and 10. That is. 6.6. x0 ) through which the solution of Eq(2. 6. ψ). Deﬁnition 2. + (A + Bφ + Cψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ. A.2) to obtain conditions on α. ∞) and nonnegative initial conditions and obtain a signum invariant for its solutions which will be used in the sequel (See Sections 4. . A + Bxn
In this section we consider the equation xn+1 = where α. (2. .4 for some applications. . B ∈ [0. The basin of attraction of this two cycle is the set B of all initial conditions (x−1 .5. ψ) (φ. ψ) ∂u ∂v
∂h ∂g ∂h ∂g (φ. γ. A + B ∈ (0. A and B so that every solution of Eq(2. be a two cycle of Eq(2.

Then the following statements are true: (a) β+A Jn for n ≥ 0.27) holds.34) Jn = α + β(xn−1 + xn ) − Bxn−1 xn for n ≥ 0. In this case the subsequences {x2n }∞ and {x2n−1 }∞ of the solution {xn }∞ are both decreasing to ﬁnite limits and n=0 n=0 n=0 so in this case the solution converges to a period-two solution. the proof of which follows by straightforward computations. one and only one of the following three statements is true for each solution of Eq(2. Now observe that xn+1 − xn−1 = β+A (xn − xn−2 ) for n ≥ 1 A + Bxn
. In this case. we need the following result.
∞ Lemma 2. and let {xn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(2. (See also Section 10.33).33): (i) xn+1 − xn−1 = 0 for all n ≥ 0.) Now before we see that when B > 0 every solution of Eq(2. the solution {xn } is periodic with period-two.27) holds.33) converges to a periodtwo solution if and only if (2. Clearly (i) holds. if and only if. Statement (ii) holds if and only if J0 < 0 and β +A > 0. A + Bxn In particular. Convergence to Period-Two Solutions When
C=0
39
there exist prime period-two solutions. if and only if J0 > 0 and β + A > 0.7. (iii) xn+1 − xn−1 > 0 for all n ≥ 0. Jn+1 = (b) xn+1 − xn−1 = Jn A + Bxn for n ≥ 0. Finally (iii) holds. the solution would converge to a period-two solution.2 where we present the complete character of solutions of Eq(2. the sign of the quantity Jn is constant along each solution. Set (2. (β + A)J0 = 0.1 Assume that (2. (ii) xn+1 − xn−1 < 0 for all n ≥ 0. In this case the subsequences ∞ {x2n }∞ and {x2n−1 }∞ of the solution {xn }n=0 are both increasing and so if we can n=0 n=0 show that they are bounded.33).
In particular.2.7.

The proof for the subsequence of odd terms is similar and will be omitted. φ. + |x2N +2 − x2N | + x2N
m
for m = 1.33) has a prime period-two solution if and only if (2. A + Bxk k=1
(2. .27) holds all prime period-two solutions . .27) holds. for the sake of contradiction. ψ.35)
We will now employ (2. . Then there exists N ≥ 0 such that ρ= Clearly for all n > N . . and Invariant Intervals
n
xn+1 − xn−1 = (x1 − x−1 )
β+A .28). . Theorem 2. φ.27) holds every solution of Eq(2. . that the subsequence of even terms increases to ∞.1 Assume B > 0.35) to show that the subsequences of even and odd terms of the solution are bounded. . (b) When (2.
≤K
ρi + x2N <
i=1
which contradicts the hypothesis that the subsequence of even terms is unbounded. .40 and so
Chapter 2. Periodicity.33) are given by (2. Then the following statements hold: (a) Eq(2. A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N
A+β A+β |x2N − x2N −2 | < Kρ A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N A+β A+β |x2N +2 − x2N | < Kρ2 |x2N +4 − x2N +2 | = A + Bx2N +3 A + Bx2N +2 and by induction |x2N +2m − x2N +2(m−1) | < Kρm But then x2N +2m ≤ |x2N +2m − x2N +2m−2 | + . . We will give the details for the subsequence of even terms. To this end assume.
Kρ + x2N 1−ρ
. A+β A+β A+β A+β < = ρ. In summary we have established the following result. Semicycles. ψ. (c) When (2. A + Bx2n+1 A + Bx2n A + Bx2N +1 A + Bx2N Set Then K = |x2N − x2N −2 |. . . Local Stability.7. |x2N +2 − x2N | = A+β A+β < 1. . 2. of Eq(2.33) converges to a period-two solution.

fx < 0 if y > − M fy > 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 L L fx > 0 if y > − M . Invariant intervals for Eq(2. (A + Bx + Cy)2
− + − − − −
− −
Using this table. (2.9) and (2.2. Invariant Intervals
41
2. Case L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 + + + + + + 0 0 0 0 M + + + 0 0 − + + − − 0 0 − − N + 0 − + 0 + 0 − + 0 − 0 − + 0 − M = βC − γB. fy < 0 if x < M L + My (A + Bx + Cy)2 and fy (x. fx < 0 if y < − M fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy = 0 fx < 0 and fy < 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 and fy > 0 fx < 0 N N fy > 0 if x > M .8. we obtain the following table of invariant intervals for Eq(2.1). y) = N − Mx . y) is monotonic in its arguments. For Eq(2. n = 0. fy < 0 if x > M fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy < 0 fx > 0 and fy > 0 fx > 0 and fy = 0 L L fx > 0 if y < − M .36)
if xN −1 .36) are determined from the intervals where the function f (x. . and N = γA − αC.10) and are fx (x. . . In other words I is an invariant interval for the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn .8
Invariant Intervals
An invariant interval for Eq(2. 1. then xn ∈ I for every n > N .
.1) is an interval I with the property that if two consecutive terms of the solution fall in I then all the subsequent terms of the solution also belong to I. xN ∈ I for some N ≥ 0. Signs of derivatives fx and fy fx > 0 N N fy > 0 if x < M . xn−1 ). The following table gives the signs of fx and fy in all possible nondegenerate cases.1) the partial derivatives are given by (2. y) = where L = βA − αB.

B ] if B = 0 2 γ [ C . K] if A = 0 where k and K satisfy α+(β+γ)k ≤ kK ≤ α+(β+γ)K B+C B+C γ [0. Periodicity. M ] if AM +(B+C)N < M √ 2 N (γ−A)M −BN + ((γ−A)M −BN ) +4BM (αM +βN ) [M . ] if 2CM
αM +βK+γN M AM +BK+CN M
>
N M
. ] if B > 0 2B α [0. C ] if C > 0 β αB+β 2 [ B . A ] if A > 0 A2 +Bα β β [ B . A−β ] if B = 0. (A−β)M +CN ] if B = 0 and (A − β)M + CN > 0 √ β−A+ (β−A)2 +4Bα [0. L [− M . ] if B + C > 0 √ 2(B+C) 2 +4αB α β−A+ (β−A) [A. C ] if C > 0 [k. and Invariant Intervals
Case 1
2 3 4 5
Invariant intervals αM +(β+γ)N N N [0. ] if B > 0 2B α [0. αC+γ ] if B = 0 and γ > βC γ−βC γ [0. A−β ] if B = 0 and A > β
L [0. α > 0 and A > β √ β+γ−A+ (β+γ−A)2 +4α(B+C) [0. − M ] if L [− M . K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α + βk + (γ − A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α + βK − Ak γ [0. ] if AM +(B+C)N > 2BM αM +γN N [ M . A ] if A > 0 [k. ] if AM −BL+CMK > − M 2BM K α [ α(A+β) . − M ] if AM −L(B+C) < − M √ 2 αM −βL+γM L (β−A)M +LC+ ((β−A)M +LC) +4BM (αM −γL) L [− M . C ] if C > 0 [k. C ] if C > 0 β β2 [ B . M ] if AM +(B+C)N < M √ 2 αM +(β+γ)N N (β−A)M −CN + ((β−A)M −N C) +4BM (αM +γN ) [M . ] if B > 0 2B α α [ A . Local Stability. B + α ] if A = 0 and β > 0 β α [0.42
Chapter 2. B(β−γ) ] if A = 0 and β > γ αM +(β+γ)N N αM +(β+γ)N N [ AM +(B+C)N . A−β ] if B = 0. B ] if B > 0 γ γ2 [ C . αM −(β+γ)L L AM −(B+C)L < − M √ (A−γ)M −BL+ ((A−γ)M −BL)2 +4CM (αM −βL) ] −2CM βL−αM (γ−A)M +BL ] if C = 0. (γ − A)M + BL > 0
N M
and B > 0
6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
γ β [ C . C(γ−β) ] if B = 0 and β < γ
βM K+αM L if C = 0 and BM K+AM −γL > − M −CL and −(βM + BL)K ≥ αM + AL
β [0. B(β−γ) ] if C = 0 and β > γ αM −L(β+γ) αM −L(β+γ) L L [ AM −L(B+C) . K] if C = 0 where k and K satisfy α + βk + (γ − A)K ≤ BkK ≤ α + βK − Ak β γ [ B . Semicycles. α > 0 and A > β √ β−A+ (β−A)2 +4Bα [0.

9. (2. 6.3 Let p ≥ 2 be an integer and assume that every positive solution of Eq(2. . In particular address the case p = 2. 1.9.4 It is known (see Sections 2.38) (2. . xn n = 0. ∞) × (0.2 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0. (0.2. ∞) converges to a solution with period p . every solution is periodic with period p ≥ 2. 4. n = 0. ∞)] is such that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = f (xn .37) has the property that every one of its solutions is also periodic with the same period p? What is it that makes every positive solution of a diﬀerence equation converge to a periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 ? Open Problem 2. and 6. Find necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every nonnegative solution of the diﬀerence equation (2.40)
1 + xn−1 . n = 0.1 Assume that f ∈ C 1 [(0. Open Problems and Conjectures
43
2. . .37)
is periodic with period p ≥ 2.1) with α. .9.9
Open Problems and Conjectures
What is it that makes all solutions of a nonlinear diﬀerence equation periodic with the same period? For a linear equation. . 4. β.37) converges to a periodic solution with period p. [0. Is it true that the linearized equation about a positive equilibrium point of Eq(2. .5.7.7. .
Open Problem 2. n = 0.7) that every positive solution of each of the following three equations xn+1 = 1 + xn+1 = xn+1 xn−1 . γ. . 1 + xn xn + 2xn−1 .9. ∞). Is it true that p ∈ {2. B. xn−1 ). = 1 + xn
. (2. if and only if every root of the characteristic equation is a pth root of unity.9. Open Problem 2. ∞) × [0. 1. 1.39) (2. 5. . ∞). 6}? Open Problem 2. . A. ∞)] and let p ≥ 2 be an integer. 1. C ∈ [0. .

Local Stability.41). ∞) and that Eq(2. 6. (2.41) is a period-two solution of Eq(2.40). β.
Conjecture 2.39) or Eq(2. ∞) for which the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 converges to the period-two solution (2.5 Assume α. φ.7.38) or Eq(2.1) has no period-two solution. 6. B. A.) Conjecture 2.2.9. . B. C ∈ (0. .1 Assume α.9.44
Chapter 2.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. Show that every positive solution of Eq(2. and 10. . ∞) and that Eq(2.1) is bounded. φ. C ∈ (0.
. . A.3 Assume α. γ.7. C ∈ (0.
Open Problem 2. β.7. B.
Conjecture 2. Determine the set of initial conditions x−1 and x0 for which the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(2.9. ψ. Periodicity. 4. ∞) and γ > β + A. . Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(2.2 Assume α. B ∈ (0. A. Semicycles.41)
In each case. (See Sections 2. γ. ∞) × (0. ∞). Show that the positive equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. . determine all initial conditions (x−1 . γ. A. x0 ) ∈ (0. ψ. Conversely. γ. β.33) is bounded. and Invariant Intervals
converges to a solution with (not necessarily prime) period-two: . β. if (2. determine φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x−1 and x0 .9.5.1) is a saddle point. .

xn−1 n = 0.1) cannot have a positive prime two cycle which attracts all positive non-equilibrium solutions. ∞)]. C ∈ [0. . 1. A + Bxn−1 + Dxn−2 n = 0. B.7 Assume f ∈ C[(0. ∞). f (xn−1 ) . Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f for every solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = to be bounded. 1. ∞).1) is bounded. xn n = 0. Open Problem 2. (See Section 4.7). Show that Eq(2.9.8 Assume f ∈ C[(0.9. A.7.9.2. 1. (0. Open Problems and Conjectures Open Problem 2.
45
Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions in terms of the coeﬃcients so that every positive solution of Eq(2.2). A.9 Extend Theorem 2. . Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + to converge to a period-two solution. f (xn ) .9. C ∈ [0. β.6 Assume α. ∞).
with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that γ = β + δ + A. γ. ∞)].
Conjecture 2. (0. γ.9. . . . What additional conditions should the parameters satisfy?
. (See Section 5. β. . . ∞).9. .4 Assume that α. B.1 to third order diﬀerence equations xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 + δxn−2 .
Open Problem 2. . Open Problem 2.

.1 to third order difference equations xn+1 = f (xn . n = 0. n = 0. Semicycles. . xn−1 . (2. or a saddle point.1. .
But how about necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the equilibrium of Eq(2. . 1. and Invariant Intervals
Open Problem 2. xn−1 . xn−3 ). 1. xn−2 ). or nonhyperbolic? Extend these results to fourth order diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn .42) For the equation λ3 + aλ2 + bλ + c = 0 one can see that all roots lie inside the unit disk |λ| < 1 if and only if |a + c| < 1 + b |a − 3c| < 3 − b b + c2 < 1 + ac
.42) to be a repeller. . xn−2 . Local Stability. . .9. .10 Extend the linearized stability Theorem 1.46
Chapter 2. Periodicity. .

4)
xn+1 =
β . Bxn
n = 0. A
n = 0. 1)-Type Equations
3. . . . . . 1. . 1. Cxn−1 47
n = 0. .1)
xn+1 =
α .
(3.3)
xn+1 =
βxn . Cxn−1
n = 0.6)
. 1. 1. .
(3. . 1)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. . B
n = 0. . 1.Chapter 3 (1. .
(3. . . .1 Introduction
α . . . 1.
(3.2)
xn+1 =
α . . A
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1.5)
xn+1 =
βxn . (3.
(3.

every other solution of Eq(3. 1. (1.9)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive.8)
xn+1 =
γ .2) is periodic with period two and every solution of Eq(3. .
. . . Every solution of Eq(3. 1. Eqs(3. y0 1 1 y−1 . Indeed the solution with initial conditions y−1 and y0 is the six-cycle: y−1 . 1)-type Eq(3.5). y0 .6) and (3. .4) and (3. yn−1 n = 0. (3. are treated in the next two sections. Eqs (3.
3. .9) are trivial.48
Chapter 3. 1)-Type Equations
xn+1 =
γxn−1 .2
The Case α = γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 =
β yn C
βxn Cxn−1
This is the (1.
(3. Of these nine equations. . . . the initial conditions are nonnegative. . namely. . .10)
It is easy to see that every positive solution of Eq(3.4) is periodic with period four.7) are linear diﬀerence equation. 1. .
(3. . The remaining two equations. .1). .10) has prime period six. y−1 y−1 y0 y0
It is interesting to note that except for the equilibrium solution y = 1. C
n = 0. .8).10) is periodic with period six.7)
xn+1 = and
γxn−1 .
(3. . . 1.. and (3. and the denominators are always positive. Eqs(3.. (3.. Bxn
n = 0.6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = yn . A
n = 0.

xn−1 ). which possess the property that every positive nontrivial solution of each of these two equations is periodic with the same prime period.3. (3.11) is yn = C1 −1 + 2 √ 5
n
n = 0.6) is of the form xn+1 = f (xn . 1. . where f ∈ C[(0. ∞)].2) and (3. 1. Also every solution of Eq(3. ∞). (0. ∞).11)
+ C2
−1 − 2
√
5
n
.
from which the behavior of solutions is easily derived.4
Open Problems and Conjectures
Of the nine equations in this chapter we would like to single out the two nonlinear equations. .2). 1)-type Eq(3. . namely two and six. (0. . Eq(3. (3. ∞)]. . .
(3. .12)
. 1. . where f ∈ C[(0. . respectively.3) also has the property that every nontrivial positive solution is periodic with prime period four but this equation is really a variant of Eq(3.7) is periodic with period two but this is a linear equation. The general solution of Eq(3. n = 0.
n = 0. Eq(3.6). ∞) × (0.15) What is it that makes every solution of a nonlinear diﬀerence equation periodic with the same period? We believe this is a question of paramount importance and so we pose the following open problems. 1.3. . (3.2) is of the form xn+1 = f (xn ). while Eq(3.3
The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn e B
This is the (1.
3. .14) (3. (3. .8) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the linear equation yn+1 + yn − yn−1 = 0. .13) n = 0. The Case α = β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 =
γxn−1 Bxn
49 γxn−1 Bxn
3.

4. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3.
Conjecture 3. (3. 7. . k = 5. In particular address the cases:
(See [10].2 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0.
. 9. xn−1 n = 0. Show that f (x) = 1 + x. n = 0.15) holds. . 6.1 Let f ∈ C 1 [[0.4.50
Chapter 3. 1)-Type Equations
Open Problem 3. and [59].4.1 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3.
Open Problem 3. . [17]. 8. ∞).14) is periodic with period k. 1.4. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on α.2 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer and assume that (3. γ so that every solution of the equation xn+1 = α |xn | + βxn−1 + γ. γ ∈ (−∞. [0. β.) Conjecture 3.12) is periodic with period k. 1.
with real initial conditions is periodic with period k. 6.16) is periodic with prime period ﬁve. Show that f (x) = x. .3 Let k be a positive integer and assume that α.13) holds. In particular address the cases k = 4. [0. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that every positive solution of Eq(3. . (1. ∞).
Open Problem 3.16)
is periodic with prime period six. ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial solution of the diﬀerence equation (3.4. ∞)] be such that every positive nontrivial solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn ) . ∞). β. 5. .

(ii) {pn }∞ converges to ±∞.4. n=0
.17)
Open Problem 3. . Open Problems and Conjectures
51
Open Problem 3. (3. n = 0.4.3.18) xn−1
∞ (i) {pn }n=0 converges to a ﬁnite limit. . . . ∞). In each of n=0 the following cases investigate the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation pn x n xn+1 = . . . (3. 1. ∞)] such that every positive nontrivial solution of the equation xn+1 = is periodic with prime period three. n=0 (iii) {pn }∞ is periodic with prime period k ≥ 2.5 Let {pn }∞ be a sequence of nonzero real numbers.4. 1. f (xn ) . xn−1 n = 0. .4 Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f ∈ C[[0. [0.

.

3)
xn+1 =
βxn . . A + Bxn
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (1.
(4. . Bxn + Cxn−1
n = 0.5)
xn+1 =
βxn .
(4.
(4.6)
. 1.4)
xn+1 =
βxn . . . A + Cxn−1
n = 0. 1. . 1.
(4. 1. 1. . . . . . 1. . 2)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. .2)
xn+1 =
α . A + Cxn−1
n = 0. .
(4. . . 2)-Type Equations
4. A + Bxn
n = 0.1 Introduction
α .1)
xn+1 =
α . . (4. Bxn + Cxn−1 53
n = 0.Chapter 4 (1. . .

. . 1. Indeed if {xn } is a solution of Eq(4.2).6 in the Preliminary Results). . namely Eqs(4. .1). A + Cxn−1
n = 0.1) and (4.2
The Case β = γ = C = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn B
α A+Bxn
This is the (1. .1) which by the change of variables xn =
.
4. . if {xn } is a solution of Eq(4.4) are Riccati-type diﬀerence equations. (See Section 1. (4.8). .7)
xn+1 = and xn+1 =
γxn−1 . Also Eqs(4. . 2)-Type Equations
xn+1 =
γxn−1 .9)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. 1. yn+1 = A + Cyn It is also interesting to note that the change of variables xn = 1 yn
reduces the Riccati equation (4.8) are essentially Riccati equations. . .4) to the linear equation yn+1 = A B yn + . . A + Bxn
n = 0.
(4. 1. 2)-type Eq(4.8)
γxn−1 . 1. . Bxn + Cxn−1
n = 0.2). (1. then the subsequences {x2n−1 } and {x2n } satisfy the Riccati equation of the form of Eq(4.8) will not be discussed any further in this chapter. . and (4.
from which the global behavior of solutions is easily derived. In view of the above. β β n = 0. Two of these equations. . . .2) and (4. 1.
(4. then the subsequences {x2n−1 } and {x2n } satisfy the Riccati equation γyn n = 0. Similarly. and the denominators are always positive.
(4.4).54
Chapter 4. the initial conditions are nonnegative. Eqs(4. .

.3.1 The positive equilibrium y= −1 + √ 2 1 + 4p
of Eq(4. That is. 2)-type Eq(4.6) is R = −p < 0 and so the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.3
The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (1. Theorem 4. .12) was investigated in [65]. 1.12) is bounded from above then it is also bounded from below and vice-versa.12) is bounded and then we will use the method of “limiting solutions” to show that every solution of Eq(4. A2 The Riccati number associated with this equation (see Section 1. So if the theorem is false there should exist a ∞ solution {yn }n=−1 which is neither bounded from above nor from below. .1 Every solution of Eq(4. n→∞
.12) is bounded and persists. (See also [12]. 1 + yn p=
n = 0.) We will ﬁrst show that every solution of Eq(4. It is easy to see that if a solution of Eq(4.12) converges to √ its equilibrium B + C. . 1.
(4.10)
αB .6.
(4.10) is globally asymptotically stable. lim sup yn = ∞ and
n→∞
lim inf yn = 0. Theorem 4.3.4.2. . The Case β = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 = reduces to the Riccati equation yn+1 = where
α Bxn +Cxn−1
55
p .2.
4.12)
Eq(4. yn yn−1 n = 0.11)
(4. . Proof.3) which by the change of variables √ α xn = yn is transformed to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = C B + . .

.12) about the equilibrium y = zn+1 = − B C zn − zn−1 . . j − 1}.3. Theorem 4. .12). let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. .2 The equilibrium y = stable. 1. yi−1 yi−2 yj
Proof.1. B C B+C + > yj−1 yj−2 yi C B+C B + ≤ . 2)-Type Equations
Then clearly we can ﬁnd indices i and j with 1 ≤ i < j such that yi > yn > yj Hence yj = and yi = That is . and S = lim sup yn . . . B+C B+C n = 0. {yn }n=−1 is bounded and persists.
.12).12) is globally asymptotically √ B + C is (4. . −2. S0 = S B C + . It remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(4.
and by Theorem 1.5) there exist two solutions {In }∞ n=−3 and {Sn }∞ n=−3 of the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = with the following properties: I0 = I. 2 √ B + C of Eq(4. .1 . .3. Therefore there exist positive numbers m and M such that m ≤ yn ≤ M Let I = lim inf yn n→∞ We will show that I = S. (1.
n→∞
for n ≥ −1. yn yn−1 n = −3. . Then by Theorem 4. To ∞ this end.1. By the theory of limiting solutions (see Section 1.13) for all n ∈ {−1. B + C < yi yj ≤ B + C which is impossible. The linearized equation of Eq(4. y is locally asymptotically stable for all positive values of B and C. .56
Chapter 4.

.4. 1.Pielou’s Equation
57
In . (4.4.Pielou’s
This is the (1. A n = 0. 2)-type Eq(4.5) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to Pielou’s diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= pyn . 1 + yn−1 β . The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = and Then
βxn A+Cxn−1
. Therefore B C B C + = I = S−1 = + S S S−2 S−3 S = S−2 . From (4. . Sn ∈ [I.14) and (4. .16)
.
and I= Hence Thus
B C B+C B C + =S= = + S−1 S−2 I I I from which it follows that S−1 = S−2 = I. S= B C B+C + ≤ S−1 S−2 I C B+C B + ≥ .15) we conclude that S=I and the proof is complete. C
βxn A+Cxn−1
. S] for n ≥ −3. I−1 I−2 S B + C = SI.4
The Case α = γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = Equation
A yn .14)
from which it follows that
(4.15)
2
4.
(4.

1.22) and ([67]. it follows that when (4. B + Cyn
βxn Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (1. Then the positive equilibrium y = p − 1 of Eq(4. p.16) possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p − 1.17)
In this case the zero equilibrium of Eq(4. t≥0 dt P which is a prototype of modelling the dynamics of single-species. . (4.17) holds.
4. p + yn−1 n = 0. 2)-type Eq(4. So the interesting case for Eq(4.2. . (4. 0 is locally asymptotically stable when p ≤ 1 and unstable when p > 1.) When p ≤ 1. We summarize the above discussion in the following theorem. (b) Assume y0 ∈ (0.75). p. .16) is globally asymptotically stable.4.79) as a discrete analogue of the delay logistic equation dN N (t − τ ) = rN (t) 1 − .6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = p + yn . Furthermore. p. Eq(4. it follows from Eq(4. In fact by employing Theorem 1. ∞) and p > 1.18)
.5
The Case α = γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =
β . x is globally asymptotically stable. Theorem 4. (See also ([42].1 (a) Assume p ≤ 1.16) is unstable and Eq(4. which is locally asymptotically stable.58
Chapter 4.16) is globally asymptotically stable.16) was investigated in [55].4.16) that every positive solution converges to 0. (1. 2)-Type Equations
This equation was proposed by Pielou in her books ([66]. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(4.16) is when p > 1.

73) where it was shown that its equilibrium one is globally asymptotically stable .6
The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn .19) and it is locally asymptotically stable.19) was investigated in [28]. That is. It follows directly from Eq(4. In fact.7.4.1 (a) Assume p > 1.1. (b) Assume p < 1. every solution of Eq(4. B
γxn−1 A+Bxn
This is the (1. except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle. The oscillatory character of the solutions of Eq(4.1 (e).18) was investigated in ([42] Corollary 3. Lemma 4. ∞). p + yn n = 0.19) and they are both unstable.5) that 1 yn+1 < yn−1 p and so when p>1 for n ≥ 0
. p=
4. (4.19) (see also Section 2.1. γ
Eq(4. The following local result is a straightforward application of the linearized stability Theorem 1.6. Then 0 is the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.7) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= yn−1 .19) is a consequence of Theorem 1.19)
A ∈ (0. . . p. 0 is a repeller and y = 1 − p is a saddle point equilibrium. Then 0 and y = 1 − p are the only equilibrium points of Eq(4.1. . C Eq(4.19) has semicycles of length one. 2)-type Eq(4.4. The Case α = β = C = 0 : xn+1 = where
γxn−1 A+Bxn
59
B .6. 1.

. . φ. ψ. (1. 2)-Type Equations
the zero equilibrium of Eq(4. . . ψ.20)
C ∈ (0. 2)-type Eq(4. yn+1 < yn−1 for n ≥ 0 and so every positive solution of Eq(4. B This equation was investigated in [7] where it was shown that the following statements are true: p=
. . . . Finally when p<1 by invoking the stable manifold theory one can see that there exist nonoscillatory solutions which converge monotonically to the positive equilibrium 1 − p. 1. (4. ∞). .7
The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
γ Byn
γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (1.60
Chapter 4. .19) converges to a period-two solution . .9) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = p + where yn−1 .
4. It follows from the identity (1 − p) − yn yn−1 . n = 0. . . yn n = 0. φ. Furthermore we can see that φψ = 0 but whether there exists solutions with φ=ψ=0 remains an open question.19) is globally asymptotically stable. On the other hand when p = 1. yn+1 − yn−1 = p + yn that every oscillatory solution is such that the subsequences of even and odd terms converge monotonically one to ∞ and the other to 0. . 1.

Theorem 4.1.4.20) which consists of a single semicycle.20) which consists of at least two semicycles.7. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 is oscillatory. . In fact the following result is true. lim y2n = ∞. Then the following statements are true: 1. (ii) When p = 1.20) converges to a period-two solution.20) is locally asymptotically stable when p > 1 and is an unstable saddle point when p < 1.7.1. every solution of Eq(4.20) about the equilibrium point y = p + 1 is zn+1 + 1 1 zn − zn−1 = 0. .7. (iii) When p > 1.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 4. every semicycle has length one. 1] and y2 ≥ p + y0
and use induction to complete the proof.20) is globally asymptotically stable. Proof. (4. and so y0 > p + 1.
4.20) to be bounded.20) such that 0 < 1 y−1 ≤ 1 and y0 ≥ 1−p . p+1 p+1 n = 0. 1. The linearized equation of Eq(4. We now proceed to establish the above results.
∞ (b) Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4.7. n→∞ y2n+1 = p. The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
61
(i) p ≥ 1 is a necessary and suﬃcient condition for every solution of Eq(4. . and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. Clearly the only equilibrium point of Eq(4.20) which are unbounded. The next result about semicycles is an immediate consequence of some straightforward arguments and Theorem 1.7. Theorem 4.1 The equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4.
.3 Let p < 1. . the equilibrium y = p + 1 of Eq(4.7. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 converges monotonically to y = p + 1.20) is y = p + 1.21)
As a simple consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1.2 (a) Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. Note that
1 1−p
> p + 1. It suﬃces to show that y1 ∈ (p.1
The Case p < 1
Here we show that there exist solutions of Eq(4. n→∞ lim 2. with the possible exception of the ﬁrst semicycle. Moreover.

. y1 = p + y−1 1 ≤p+ ≤ 1.7. 2)-Type Equations > p. The following result will be useful. Then {yn }n=−1 converges to a prime period-two solution of Eq(4.
4.1 and some straightforward arguments. .
∞ (a) Suppose {yn }n=−1 consists of a single semicycle. 1].7.7.
4. n→∞ p p−1 n→∞
Proof.
(c) Every solution of Eq(4.20) converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 converges monotonically to y = 2. It follows from Theorem 4.3
The Case p > 1
Here we show that the equilibrium point y = p + 1 of Eq(4. . (1. p2 We shall ﬁrst show that lim supn→∞ yn ≤ p−1 .2
The Case p = 1
The following result follows from Lemma 2.20). p m = 0. y0 y0 2
and so y1 ∈ (p.7.4 Let p = 1. and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. Lemma 4.2 that we may assume that every semicycle of {yn }∞ n=−1 has length one. Then the following statements are true. p
. Hence y2 = p +
y0 y1
≥ p + y0 . Then p+ p2 p−1 ≤ lim inf yn ≤ lim sup yn ≤ . Theorem 4.7.1 Let p > 1.62 Indeed y1 = p +
y1 y0
Chapter 4.20). Also.5.7. and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4. ∞ (b) Suppose {yn }∞ n=−1 consists of at least two semicycles. Note that for n ≥ 0. See also Section 2.20). and that p < y0 < p + 1 < y−1 .20) is globally asymptotically stable. y2n−1 . that p < yn for all n ≥ −1. y2n+1 < p + So as every solution of the diﬀerence equation 1 ym+1 = p + ym . 1.

7. y ∈ p. ∞) for each x ∈ (0. We know by Theorem 4. (0. set
p−1 p2 + >p .20) with prime period two. p−1 For x.
. The Case α = β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
2
γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
2
63
p p converges to p−1 . n→∞ y f (x.5 Let p > 1. Let > 0. and f is increasing in y ∈ (0. ∞). p2 + y2n−1 < . Hence
p < f (x. we have p−1 p3 + p(p − 1) =p+ . Then
> 0. p2 − p p−1 p2 + . f is decreasing in x ∈ (0. it follows that lim supn→∞ yn ≤ p−1 . ∞) for each y ∈ (0. ∞). y) = p + .7.7. There clearly exists
y2n = p + So as
p−1 p3 + p + p(p − 1) y2n−2 >p+p 2 = .4. Theorem 4. ∞) × (0. p−1 Let n ≥ N . Let p N ≥ 0 such that for all n ≥ N . ∞). y2n−1 p + p2 +
is arbitrary. ∞).4.1 that y = p + 1 is a locally asymptotically stable equilibrium point of Eq(4. Then the equilibrium y = p + 1 is globally asymptotically stable. lim inf yn ≥ 2 n→∞ p p 2
We are now ready for the following result.7. Proof. Recall that by Theorem 4.p = p + p 2 p−1 p + p2 + p−1 p2 + p−1 = p2 + p3 + p = . ∞)] . It suﬃces to show that lim yn = p + 1. We shall next show that p + p−1 ≤ lim inf n→∞ yn . So let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(4.20). and set a = p and b = Note that f and p2 + . there exist no solutions of Eq(4. y) <
for all x. y ∈ (0.20). p−1
f p. x Then f ∈ C[(0.

Investigate the global behavior of the solution {yn }.22) converges.23) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. (a) Find all initial conditions y−1 . (4.1 Consider the diﬀerence equation
where and where the initial conditions x−l .) Open Problem 4. and [61]. be a given prime period p solution of Eq(4. ∞) and k. . B ∈ (0. φ1 . either to the equilibrium or to a periodic solution with period p ≥ 2 and that what happens and the exact value of p are uniquely determined from the characteristic roots of the linearized equation λl+1 + (See [19]. . . φp .64 Finally note that by Lemma 4.
is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. . y0 with y−1 y0 < 0 for which the equation yn+1 = B A . Is it bounded? Does limn→∞ yn exist? When does {yn } converge to a two cycle?
. . 2
4.22)
Conjecture 4. n=−l Open Problem 4.
p−1 p2 + p2 ≤ lim inf yn ≤ lim sup yn ≤ < n→∞ p p−1 p−1 n→∞
n→∞
lim yn = p + 1. . .8. l ∈ {0. .1 Let . 2)-Type Equations
and so by Theorem 1. φ2 . y0 are such that y−1 y0 < 0 and such that Eq(4.6. 1. B ∈ (0. [60].4. x0 are arbitrary positive real numbers. x0 such that {xn }∞ converges to this periodic solution. .8
Open Problems and Conjectures
xn+1 = A xn−k + B . .8. + yn yn−1 (4. xn−l n = 0. Show that every solution of Eq(4.2 (see [18]) Assume that A. (1. ∞). . .22). . . Determine the set of all positive initial conditions x−l . .8. 1. [23].1. . . . p<p+
Chapter 4. .7. (b) Assume that the initial conditions y−1 . . [25].} with k < l. . . . A+B A+B A.23) A B λl−k + = 0. .

(c) Discuss (a) and (b) when p < 0.4 Assume that (x−1 . y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation yn−1 yn+1 = 1 + yn is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0 and.24) xn is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.3 Assume that p < 1.2 Assume that p = 1.4 Determine the set G of all initial conditions (y−1 . For such an initial point. y0 ∈ R such that the equation (4. Determine all initial conditions y−1 .8.8. Open Problems and Conjectures
65
Conjecture 4.
Open Problem 4. for these initial points.20) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. investigate the global character ∞ of {yn }n=−1 . x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn−1 xn+1 = −1 + (4. Show that Eq(4.8. the asymptotic behavior.8. (b) Let y−1 .8. x0 ) ∈ R × R is such that the equation (4.19) has a solution which converges to zero.19) is bounded. Open Problem 4. ∞)
∞ for which the solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4.20) possesses a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 which remains above the equilibrium for all n ≥ −1.20).6 (See [13]) Find the set G of all initial points (x−1 . y0 ∈ (0.24) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0 and bounded. y0 ∈ R be such that Eq(4.8. investigate the boundedness. Show that {xn }∞ n=−1 is a three cycle.3 Show that Eq(4.8.5 (a) Assume p ∈ (0.20) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.4. ∞).
Open Problem 4.
.8. Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 . and the periodic ∞ nature of the solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4.
Conjecture 4. Conjecture 4.
Open Problem 4.

∞). . (1. < 2 cos α 2k + 1
Open Problem 4. f (xn ) .7 Let f ∈ C[(0.8. 1. . . . .5 (See [27]) Assume r ∈ (0. .
with positive initial conditions. .
Conjecture 4. x0 ∈ (0. .66
Chapter 4. n = 0. ∞)].8 Let a.8. . 1.
Conjecture 4. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f for every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = to be bounded. ∞) for i = 0. .8. .8. Show that the positive equilibrium of Pielou’s discrete logistic model xn+1 = αxn .) Assume α ∈ (1. Investigate the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = xn . . converges to a period-two solution. 1.}. ∞). .9 (See [5]) For which initial values x−1 . and [67]. see [55]. Show that every positive solution of the population model Jn+1 = Jn−1 er−(Jn +Jn−1 ) .
with positive initial conditions is globally asymptotically stable if and only if kπ α−1 . . . . . a + a0 xn + . 1. ai ∈ (0. xn + xn−1 n = 0. [66]. . . ∞) and k ∈ {0. 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 4. . ∞) does the sequence deﬁned by xn−1 . .6 (Pielou’s Discrete Logistic Model. 1. 1 + xn−k n = 0. k. (0. xn+1 = 1 + xn converges to two?
. . + ak xn−k n = 0.
Open Problem 4. . .8. n = 0. 1.

67
(4. each of the subsequences {y2n }∞ and {y2n+1 }n=−1 is decreasing and n=0
lim [n→∞ y2n ][n→∞ y2n+1 ] = 0. . y0 ∈ (0. .8. 0. n = 0. . . Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 .8. yn yn−1 pn yn .25)
with nonnegative initial conditions. ﬁnd the basin of attraction of the equilibrium of Eq(4. (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions y−1 . ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(4. y0 ∈ [0. 1). . .
∞ More precisely.20) are bounded. .8.25). . . y0 ∈ B. 1. . Open Problems and Conjectures (See also Section 4.7) Open Problem 4. . 1.27)
.4. lim p = n→∞ pn . 1 + yn−1 n = 0. In other words. ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(4. . lim (a) Find all initial points y−1 .25). 0. ∞ One can easily see that every solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(4. .
∞ (b) Let y−1 . (b) Determine the limits of the subsequences of even and odd terms of every solution of Eq(4.
Open Problem 4.11 Assume p ∈ (0. . (4.26) (4.25) converge to zero. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 pn + . in terms of the initial conditions y−1 and y0 of the solution. .25) converges to a period-two solution .10 (See [31]) Consider the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = yn−1 e−yn . 1. . . . n = 0.12 Let {pn }∞ be a convergent sequence of nonnegative real numn=0 bers with a ﬁnite limit.8.
Open Problem 4.

n = 0. 2)-Type Equations
yn+1 =
n = 0. 1 − yn (4. n = 0. 1.31)
yn+1 =
(4. .26) .14 For each of the following diﬀerence equations determine the “good” set G ⊂ R × R of all initial conditions (y−1 .
.29) (4. . .32) (4. 1. pn + yn yn−1 . y0 ) ∈ G. .68 pn + yn . (1. . extend your result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation.28) (4.8. investigate the long term behavior of the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 : yn+1 = yn .8.30)
yn+1 =
yn+1 = pn +
Open Problem 4. 1.13 Let {pn }∞ be a periodic sequence of nonnegative real numbers n=0 with period k ≥ 2.
Open Problem 4. .33) (4.34)
yn+1 =
yn+1 = −1 +
yn−1 . y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. . Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of each of Eqs(4.30). Then for every (y−1 .
(4.(4. . yn
For those equations from the above list for which you were successful. 1 − yn−1 yn−1 . . pn + yn−1 yn−1 . . yn
Chapter 4. 1 − yn−1 1 + yn .

. 1. Bxn
n = 0.
(5.6)
.
(5. Cxn−1
n = 0. 1. 1)-type: xn+1 = n = 0. . .3)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 . . 1. . . (5. . . .2)
xn+1 =
α + βxn .
(5. .Chapter 5 (2. 1)-Type Equations
5. . . . A
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2.5)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 . . Cxn−1 69
n = 0.1)
xn+1 =
α + βxn . . . Bxn
n = 0. 1. A
n = 0.4)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 .1 Introduction
α + βxn . 1. .
(5. . 1.
(5.

8) to Eq(4.20) with p = β .
(5. .2) is a Riccati equation and Eq(5. Eqs(5. A
n = 0. (5.Lyness’
This is the (2. and the denominators are always positive. yn−1
α+βxn Cxn−1
. the initial conditions are nonnegative. . . B reduces Eq(5. γ Finally the change of variables xn = γ β + yn . (5.9)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. .8)
βxn + γxn−1 . C C
γ reduces Eq(5.3) which by the change of variables reduces to the equation yn+1 = n = 0. 1.7. which was investigated in Section 4.
(5. .3) and (5. . .7)
xn+1 = and xn+1 =
βxn + γxn−1 .
(5.18) with p = β .2
The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = Equation
p + yn . Therefore there remain Eqs(5.2). 1)-type Eq(5.
5. which will be investigated in the next two sections. Of these nine equations.5). .4) and (5. . . Bxn
n = 0. 1.9) to Eq(4.10)
. . 1)-Type Equations
xn+1 =
βxn + γxn−1 . The change of variables γ xn = yn . (2. .1).6) is essentially like Eq(5.5. .70
Chapter 5. which was investigated in Section 4. 1. Cxn−1
n = 0. 1. Eq(5.7) are linear.

after the ﬁrst one. It was also shown in [44] by using KAM theory that the positive equilibrium y of Eq(5. 1. This result was also established in [49] by using a Lyapunov function. . [43].10) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants. y0 .10) possesses the invariant In = (p + yn−1 + yn ) 1 + 1 yn−1 1+ 1 yn = constant (5. . n = 0. . It was shown in [30] that no nontrivial solution of Eq(5.10) the following result was established in [43]: Theorem 5. p.) In this special case. Indeed the solution of Eq(5. (See ([42].. the equation becomes 1 + yn yn+1 = .11) yn−1 every solution of which is periodic with period ﬁve.11) with initial conditions y−1 and y0 is the ﬁve-cycle: y−1 . Then the following statements about the positive solutions of Eq(5..10) where
αC . .1 Assume that p > 0. (5.10) are true: (a) The absolute extreme in a semicycle occurs in the ﬁrst or in the second term.10) has a limit.. Concerning the semicycles of solutions of Eq(5. 131) for the history of the problem. There is substantial literature on Lyness’ Equation. contains at least two and at most three terms.2. See [11]. (b) Every nontrivial semicycle.10) is stable but not asymptotically stable. y−1 y−1 y0 y0
Eq(5. [42].Lyness’ Equation
71
p= The special case of Eq(5. The Case γ = A = B = 0 : xn+1 = where
α+βxn Cxn−1
. 1 + y0 1 + y−1 + y0 1 + y−1 .12)
from which it follows that every solution of Eq(5.2. β2
p=1 was discovered by Lyness in 1942 while he was working on a problem in Number Theory.5. .
. and [72] and the references cited therein. [57]-[59]. [71]. .

.13) one can easily see that every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(5.1 one can see that the unique equilibrium point √ 1 + 1 + 4p y= 2 of Eq(5.
. (2. yn
(5.4
Open Problems and Conjectures
By using the invariant (5.
5.13) either approaches the positive equilibrium y monotonically or it oscillates about y with semicycles of length one in such a way that {y2n } and {y2n+1 } converge monotonically one to zero and other to ∞.12).72
Chapter 5.10) without using essentially the invariant.7.1 one can see that except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle.10) is bounded without using the invariant (5.12). The global character of solutions of Eq(5. 1)-Type Equations
5. Open Problem 5.13) is a saddle point. γ2
Eq(5.13) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y. 1.10) is bounded from above and from below by positive numbers.13)
αB . every oscillatory solution of Eq(5.5) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where p=
p + yn−1 .13) was investigated in [28].1 Show that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5. By Theorem 1.
α+γxn−1 Bxn
This is the (2.3
The Case β = A = C = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn B n = 0. . Concerning the nonoscillatory solutions of Eq(5. To this day we have not found a proof for the boundedness of solutions of Eq(5. one can easily see that every solution of Lyness’ Eq(5. 1)-type Eq(5. By the linearized stability Theorem 1.
From this it follows that a solution of Eq(5.4. .13) is a consequence of the identity yn+1 − yn−1 = yn−1 − yn−2 yn for n ≥ 1.1.13) has semicycles of length one.

f (xn ) .
Conjecture 5. .3 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. .) Assume p ∈ (−∞.15)
may not even be well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. ∞)]. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions in terms of f so that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = is bounded.
.14) possesses a (nontrivial) invariant. 1. xn−1 n = 0.4. What is it that makes Lyness’ equation possess an invariant? What type of diﬀerence equations possess an invariant? Along these lines.14) possesses a unique positive equilibrium point x and a nontrivial invariant. Show that the linearized equation of Eq(5. we oﬀer the following open problems and conjectures.1 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. To illustrate.4 (See [26]. ∞).4. (0.2 Let G be the set of initial conditions deﬁned in the Open problem 5.15) is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.15) are unbounded is a set of measure zero. y0 ∈ (−∞. we oﬀer the following open problems and conjectures.4. ∞)].14) about x does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| < 1 and does not have both eigenvalues in |λ| > 1.4. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions in terms of f so that the diﬀerence equation (5.14)
Open Problem 5.
Conjecture 5. (0. (5. ∞)] and that the diﬀerence equation (5.5. ∞) through which Eq(5.2 Assume that f ∈ C[(0. Show that the subset of G through which the solutions of Eq(5. When we allow the initial conditions to be real numbers the equation yn+1 = p + yn yn−1 (5.4. . Open Problem 5.4. Determine the set G of all initial conditions y−1 . (0. Open Problems and Conjectures
73
Open Problem 5.4. ∞).4. ∞). ∞).

converges to a period-three solution. . y0 ) ∈ G.
. 1. .4 Show that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = converges to a period-six solution. .
Conjecture 5. 1.4. . Determine the periodic character and the asymptotic behavior of all solutions with (y−1 . is a set of points without interior.4. .
Conjecture 5. ∞) × (−∞. .3 Assume p ∈ (−∞.4. yn n = 0. . yn−k−1 n = 0.
Open Problem 5. ∞). + yn yn−1 yn−3 yn−4 n = 0. yn−1 yn−3 n = 0.6 Find the set G of all initial points (y−1 . 1)-Type Equations
Conjecture 5. .15) is not well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. + yn−k .
Open Problem 5.4. . (2.4. y0 ) ∈ (−∞. .5 (See [20]) Show that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = 1 1 . Show that the set of points (y−1 . 1.6 Show that the equation yn+1 = 1 + yn−1 . 1 + .
Conjecture 5. 1.5 Determine all positive integers k with the property that every positive solution of the equation yn+1 = is periodic. . .4.74
Chapter 5.
has a nontrivial positive solution which decreases monotonically to the equilibrium of the equation. . yn yn−4 + . ∞) through which Eq(5. . y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + yn−1 yn+1 = yn is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.

.8 (The Gingerbreadman Map. ∞). . Eq(5. Open Problems and Conjectures
75
Conjecture 5. . . . 1. (1 + xn )xn−1
n = 0.7 (May’s Host Parasitoid Model.5.4. Show that every positive solution of May’s Host Parasitoid Model xn+1 = is bounded. .16)
A A
1+yn 2
reduces Eq(5. .
(5. A} n . Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = is bounded. .4.16) to where
xn =
−1+yn 2
if A > 1 if A = 1 if A < 1 n = 0. . (5.4.17)
yn+1 = |yn | − yn−1 + δ.
Conjecture 5.
2 αxn . Note that the change of variables
n e y2
max{x2 . see [59]) Assume α > 1. 1. see [59]) Let A ∈ (0. xn xn−1
n = 0. .
When δ = 1.17) is called the Gingerbreadman Map and was investigated by Devaney [17].
1 if A < 1 if A = 1 δ= 0 −1 if A > 1. 1.

.

. 1. A + Bxn
n = 0. .Chapter 6 (2. 1.
(6. . Bxn + Cxn−1
n = 0.1)
xn+1 =
α + βxn . 2)-type: xn+1 = n = 0.
(6.2)
xn+1 =
α + βxn .6)
. 1. . . 1. Bxn + Cxn−1 77
n = 0. (6. . . . . 1.3)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 . . . . 2)-Type Equations
6. A + Cxn−1
n = 0.
(6.1 Introduction
α + βxn . . A + Bxn
Eq(1) contains the following nine equations of the (2. .4)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 . .5)
xn+1 =
α + γxn−1 . . .
(6. 1. A + Cxn−1
n = 0. .
(6.

2)-type Eq(6. .1) which is in fact a Riccati equation.Riccati
This is the (2.6. for n ≥ −1.
(6.
(6. . See Section 1.5). . 1. . A + Cxn−1
n = 0.78
Chapter 6.9)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. .1). the initial conditions are nonnegative.
6. Eq(6. 1. .
(6. A + Czn n = 0. . α + γzn . . .2
The Case γ = C = 0 : Equation
xn+1 =
α+βxn A+Bxn
. and the denominators are always positive. .7)
xn+1 =
βxn + γxn−1 . 1.5) is essentially similar to Eq(6.5) then {x2n }n=0 and {x2n−1 }n=0 are both solutions of the Riccati equations zn+1 = with zn = x2n and zn+1 = with zn = x2n+1 respectively. 2)-Type Equations
xn+1 =
βxn + γxn−1 . Bxn + Cxn−1
n = 0. 1. To avoid a degenerate situation we will assume that αB − βA = 0. . Therefore we will omit any further discussion of Eq(6. In fact if {xn }∞ n=−1 is a positive solution of ∞ ∞ Eq(6. . . .8)
xn+1 =
βxn + γxn−1 . . 0. A + Bxn
n = 0. α + γzn . .
. A + Czn for n ≥ 0 n = −1. (2.

6.3.2: Theorem 6. Eq(6.10) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q.) Eq(6.6.
.10) are the following: Theorem 6. The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn A+Cxn−1
79
The Riccati number associated with this equation is R= and clearly βA − αB (β + A)2
1 R< . 2)-type Eq(6.10) is a very simple looking equation for which it has long been conjectured that its equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. 1 + yn−1
n = 0. 1.
(6.10) was investigated in [42] and [43].1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6. 2 A A (Eq(6. 4 Now the following result is a consequence of Theorem 1.
6.3. To this day.2. See also [36].1 we obtain the following result.1.1) is globally asymptotically stable.10)
αC β and q = .1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.10) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants. the conjecture has not been proven or refuted. .3
The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn C
α+βxn A+Cxn−1
This is the (2. Lemma 6. . The main results known about Eq(6.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where
p + qyn .1 Every solution of Eq(6.3. .10) has the unique positive equilibrium y given by p= y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2 .

0 ≤ y1+nk − ynk = p + [(q − 1) − ynk −1 ]ynk <0 1 + ynk −1 2
which is a contradiction and the proof is complete. the remaining terms in a positive semicycle are strictly decreasing and in a negative semicycle are strictly increasing.10).10) is described by the following result:
∞ Theorem 6. (ii) The extreme in each semicycle occurs at either the ﬁrst term or the second. Furthermore after the ﬁrst. has at least two terms.
k→∞
Hence. Clearly. (2. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not bounded from above. Then. (iii) In any two consecutive semicycles. for suﬃciently large k. We present the proofs for positive semicycles only. 2)-Type Equations
Proof.
k→∞
lim y1+nk = ∞.10). The proofs for negative semicycles are similar and will be omitted.80
Chapter 6. Furthermore.3. their extrema cannot be consecutive terms. every semicycle contains two or three terms. there is at most one term which follows the extreme. Then there exists a subsequence {y1+nk }∞ such k=0 that
k→∞
lim nk = ∞.
The oscillatory character of solutions for Eq(6. Proof.2 Let {yn }n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.
. in every semicycle. (iv) Assume q ≤ p. if the solution is bounded from above by a constant M .
and y1+nk = max{yn : n ≤ nk } for k ≥ 0.
From (6. Then the following statements are true:
(i) Every semicycle. then p yn+1 ≥ 1+M and so it is also bounded from below. except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle.10) we see that yn+1 < qyn + p for n ≥ 0 and so
k→∞
lim ynk = lim ynk −1 = ∞. except perhaps for the ﬁrst one. Let {yn } be a solution of Eq(6.

3.
p + qyN p + qy = y. yN +1 > y and
p p +q +q yN +2 1 p + qyN +1 yN +1 = = < y = 1. Then yN +3 = p + qyN +2 p + qyN +1 p + qy = y. the terms yN .3. The Case γ = B = 0 : xn+1 = (i) Assume that for some N ≥ 0. < < 1 + yN +1 1 + yN +1 1+y 2 Theorem 6. 1 + yN −1 1 + yN
(iv) Assume that for some N ≥ 0. Then yN ≥ y.
α+βxn A+Cxn−1
81
yN −1 < y Then yN +1 =
and yN ≥ y.
.10) is globally asymptotically stable if one of the following two conditions holds: (i) q < 1. The opposite case is similar and will be omitted. yN +1 . So assume that for some N ≥ 0 the last two terms in a negative semicycle are yN −1 and yN with yN −1 ≥ yN . Then yN +1 = p + qyN p + qyN +1 < = yN +2 . and yN +2 are all in a positive semicycle. yN +1 yN +1 1 + yN 1 + yN 1+y
(iii) We consider the case where a negative semicycle is followed by a positive one. (ii) q≥1 and either p ≤ q or q < p ≤ 2(q + 1). the ﬁrst two terms in a positive semicycle are yN and yN +1 .3 The positive equilibrium of Eq(6. > 1 + yN −1 1+y
(ii) Assume that for some N ≥ 0.6.

3.2.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= yn + p . This result was ﬁrst established in [43]. (ii) The proof when
p<q follows by applying Theorem 1. 1 ≤ q ≤ p ≤ 2(q + 1) 2
6. 1. . Then Eq(6.10) yields i≥ Hence and so because q < 1.1 exist and are positive numbers.82 Proof.
Chapter 6.4. To this end. Theorem 3. For the proof when see ([42]. yn + qyn−1 αB β2 n = 0. 1+i
from which the result follows. 2)-Type Equations
(i) In view of Lemma 6.11)
and q =
Eq(6. . let i = lim inf yn
n→∞
and s = lim sup yn
n→∞
which by Theorem 6.4
The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =
β yn B
α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (2. 71). (2.11) was investigated in [15]. p + (q − 1)i ≤ is ≤ p + (q − 1)s i≥s p + qi 1+s and s ≤ p + qs .10) n=−1 tends to y as n → ∞.1. . 2)-type Eq(6.4. B (6.1.1.3.
.3 (f). it remains to show that every solution {yn }∞ of Eq(6. The following result is a consequence of the linearized stability Theorem 1. C . p.

6.4. q
for all n > k. yk−1 .1 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. v) = u + qv is increasing in u and decreasing in v.
6. yk ∈ Then yn ∈ p .1 The unique positive equilibrium point y= 1+ 1 + 4p(q + 1) 2(q + 1)
of Eq(6. ∞). (a) The basic ingredient behind the proof is the fact that when u. p q p . v ∈ [ p . Then the following statements are true: (a) Assume p < q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0.
(b) Assume p > q and suppose that for some k ≥ 0. Lemma 6.
Proof.11).1
Invariant Intervals
The following result establishes that the interval I with end points 1 and p is an invariq ant interval for Eq(6.4. (b) The proof is similar and will be omitted.1 . Indeed.11) in the sense that if. for some k ≥ 0. then ym ∈ I for all m > k. q
for all n > k.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1
83
Theorem 6. two consecutive values yk−1 and yk of a solution lie in I. yk ∈ 1.
.11) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p and q.1 q p .4. Then yn ∈ 1. the q function u+p f (u. yk + qyk−1 yk + q p q yk+1 yk + p = ≥ yk + qyk−1
p q p q
+p +q
>
p q 2
and the proof follows by induction. yk + p yk + p yk+1 = ≤ = 1. yk−1 .

84

Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

6.4.2

Semicycle Analysis

∞ Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then observe that the following identities are true: p − yn−1 (6.12) yn+1 − 1 = q q for n ≥ 0, yn + qyn−1

yn+1 − and yn − yn+4 =

p (q − p) + pq(1 − yn−1 ) = q q(yn + qyn−1 )

for n ≥ 0,

(6.13)

(yn − 1)[qyn yn+3 + yn+1 yn+3 ] + qyn+1 (yn − p ) q q(p + yn+1 ) + yn+3 (yn+1 + qyn )

for n ≥ 0.

(6.14)

First we will analyze the semicycles of the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 under the assumption that p > q. (6.15) The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.15):

∞ Lemma 6.4.2 Assume that (6.15) holds and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < p , then yN +1 > 1; q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = p , then yN +1 = 1; q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > p , then yN +1 < 1; q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≥ 1, then yN +1 < p ; q (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ 1, then yN +1 > 1; (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≥ p , then yN +4 < yN ; q (vii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≤ 1, then yN +4 > yN ; (viii) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ yN −1 ≤ p , then 1 ≤ yN +1 ≤ p ; q q (ix) If for some N ≥ 0, 1 ≤ yN −1 , yN ≤ p , then yn ∈ [1, p ] for n ≥ N . That is [1, p ] is q q q an invariant interval for Eq(6.11); (x) p 1<y< . q

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1

85

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.2, states that when (6.15) holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11), which lies in the interval [1, p ], oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one or two. q Theorem 6.4.2 Assume that Eq(6.11) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [1, p ], oscillates about y with semicycles q of length one or two.

∞ Next we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {yn }n=−1 under the assumption that q = p. (6.16)

In this case, Eq(6.11) reduces to yn+1 = with the unique equilibrium point y = 1. Also identities (6.12)-(6.14) reduce to yn+1 − 1 = p and yn − yn+4 = (yn − 1) pyn+1 + pyn yn+3 + yn+1 yn+3 p(p + yn+1 ) + yn+3 (yn+1 + pyn ) for n ≥ 0. (6.19) 1 − yn−1 yn + pyn−1 for n ≥ 0 (6.18) yn + p , yn + pyn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (6.17)

**and so the following results follow immediately:
**

∞ Lemma 6.4.3 Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.17). Then the following statements are true:

(i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < 1, then yN +1 > 1; (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = 1, then yN +1 = 1; (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > 1, then yN +1 < 1; (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN < 1, then yN < yN +4 < 1; (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN > 1, then yN > yN +4 > 1.

∞ Corollary 6.4.1 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.17). Then {yn }n=−1 oscillates about the equilibrium 1 and, except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle, the following are true:

86

Chapter 6. (2, 2)-Type Equations

(i) If y−1 = 1 or y0 = 1, then the positive semicycle has length three and the negative semicycle has length one. (ii) If (1 − y−1 )(1 − y0 ) = 0, then every semicycle has length two. Finally we will analyze the semicycles of the solutions {yn }∞ under the assumption n=−1 that p < q. (6.20) The following result is a direct consequence of (6.12)-(6.14) and (6.20). Lemma 6.4.4 Assume that (6.20) holds and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.11). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 < p , then yN +1 > 1; q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 = p , then yN +1 = 1; q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 > p , then yN +1 < 1; q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ 1, then yN +1 > p ; q (v) If for some N ≥ 0, yN −1 ≤ p , then yN +1 > p ; q q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≥ 1, then yN +4 < yN ; (vii) If for some N ≥ 0, yN ≤ p , then yN +4 > yN ; q (viii) If for some N ≥ 0,

p q p q

≤ yN −1 ≤ 1, then

≤ yN +1 ≤ 1;

(ix) If for some N ≥ 0, p ≤ yN −1 , yN ≤ 1, then yn ∈ [ p , 1] for n ≥ N . That is, [ p , 1] is q q q an invariant interval for Eq(6.11); (x) p < y < 1. q

The next result, which is a consequence of Theorem 1.7.4, states that when (6.20) holds, every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [ p , 1], after the ﬁrst semicycle, oscillates with semicycles of length at least two. q Theorem 6.4.3 Assume that (6.20) holds. Then every nontrivial and oscillatory solution of Eq(6.11) which lies in the interval [ p , 1], after the ﬁrst semicycle, oscillates with q semicycles of length at least two.

6.4. The Case γ = A = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn Bxn +Cxn−1

87

How do solutions which do not eventually lie in the invariant interval behave? First assume that p>q

∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution which does not eventually lie in the interval I = [1, p ]. q Then one can see that the solution oscillates relative to the interval [1, p ], essentially in q one of the following two ways: (i) Two consecutive terms in ( p , ∞) are followed by two consecutive terms in (0, 1), q are followed by two consecutive terms in ( p , ∞), and so on. The solution never visits q the interval (1, p ). q (ii) There exists exactly one term in ( p , ∞), which is followed by exactly one term in q (1, p ), which is followed by exactly one term in (0, 1), which is followed by exactly one q term in (1, p ), which is followed by exactly one term in ( p , ∞), and so on. The solution q q visits consecutively the intervals

...,

p p p p , ∞ , 1, ,∞ ,... , (0, 1), 1, , q q q q

in this order with one term per interval. The situation is essentially the same relative to the interval [ p , 1] when q p < q.

6.4.3

Global Stability and Boundedness

Our goal in this section is to establish the following result: Theorem 6.4.4 when (b) Assume that q > 1 + 4p. Then every solution of Eq(6.11) lies eventually in the interval Proof. (a) We have already shown that the equilibrium y is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that y is a global attractor of every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.11). Case 1 Assume p = q. It follows from (6.19) that each of the four subsequences {y4n+i }∞ n=0 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4

p ,1 q

(a) The equilibrium y of Eq(6.11) is globally asymptotically stable q ≤ 1 + 4p. (6.21)

.

Set Li = n→∞ y4n+i lim Thus clearly .22) is a periodic solution of Eq(6. Recall from Lemma 6.7 that every solution of Eq(6. 3.11) converges to y.14) to this period four solution we obtain a contradiction and so every solution of Eq(6. (2.4. v) = u+p u + qv
is increasing in u and decreasing in v. it converges to a periodic solution with period-four which q is not the equilibrium. p ] converges to y. p ].
Case 2 Assume p = q. we assume that p > q. 1]. (b) The proof follows from the discussion in part (a). L3 . As in Case 2 we can see that every solution of Eq(6. (6.11) with two consecutive values in [1. q Hence for every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. .11) must lie eventually in [1. 2
. . .11) must eventually lie in the interval [ p . In this interval the q function u+p f (u. 2. L1 . 2.11) with period four. 2)-Type Equations is either identically equal to one or else it is strictly monotonically convergent.5 applies and so every solution of Eq(6.4.88
Chapter 6. p ].22) we see that Li = 1 for i = 1. Now. p ] is an invariant interval. Theorem 1. . L2 .
lim yn = 1. By q using an argument similar to that in the case p = q. v) = u + qv is decreasing in both variables and so it follows by applying Theorem 1. In this interval the function q f (u. 4. assume that p < q. By applying (6.19) to the solution (6. Under the assumption that q ≤ 1 + 4p.11)
n→∞
lim yn = y
and the proof is complete. 3.2 that [1. By applying (6.4. . . First. 4 and so
n→∞
for i = 1. we can see that if a solution is not eventually in [1. L4 .

.7.23) is locally asymptotically stable when q < 1.5. . (6. . φ.5. . ψ.1. γ .23) was investigated in [28].25) holds.23) converges to a period two solution. The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn
89 α+γxn−1 A+Bxn
6.24)
.6. (6.23)
and q =
(Eq(6. . Then every solution of Eq(6. . (c) Assume that (6.4) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn−1 . 2)-type Eq(6. .5
The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn B
This is the (2. Then the values φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions (6. ∞) : φψ = p}. 1 + yn αB A2 n = 0. ψ ∈ (0.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 6. the following result is a consequence of the results in Section 2. . 1.5. A (6.) The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.24) are given by {φ. Theorem 6.23) has a prime period-two solution . φ.25) (b) Assume (6.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6.
Concerning prime period-two solutions.2 (a) Eq(6. and is an unstable saddle point when q > 1. ψ. if and only if q = 1.25) holds.23) is y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2
and by applying the linearized stability Theorem 1. .

5. yn0 ) < f (y. (b) Assume p ≥ q. p + qyn0 −1 = f (yn0 . an oscillatory solution {yn } of Eq(6. 1−q
n ≥ 0. the condition p ≥ q implies that the function f (x) = is decreasing. We will assume that there exists a positive integer K such that yn−1 ≥ y for every n ≥ K. Proof. (2. yn0 > yn0 −1 . 1 + yn0 2 p + qx 1+x
6.23) is globally asymptotically stable.23) converges monotonically to the equilibrium y.23) are as follows: Theorem 6.2
The Case q < 1
The main result in this section is the following: Theorem 6.1 (b) Let {yn } be a nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6.1
Semicycle Analysis
Our results on the semicycles of solutions for Eq(6.90
Chapter 6.5.23). y) = y. It is suﬃcient to show that {yn } is a decreasing sequence for n ≥ K. 2)-Type Equations
6. Then yn0 +1 = which is impossible.
(6.7. 1 + yn p + . Proof. Then the following statements are true: (a) After the ﬁrst semicycle. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.5.23). yn0 −1 ) < f (yn0 . Then every nonoscillatory solution of Eq(6. The case where yn−1 < y for n ≥ K is similar and will be omitted.26)
. (a) This follows immediately from Theorem 1.23) oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.3 Let {yn } be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.5.4 Assume that q < 1. So assume for the sake of contradiction that for some n0 ≥ K.23) and let y denote the unique positive equilibrium of Eq(6. Clearly yn+1 = Set M= p + qyn−1 < p + qyn−1 . Clearly.

5. b] × [a.23). The Case β = C = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn
91
where is some positive number.26) and Eq(6. b]. it now follows that every solution of Eq(6. M ].
. and b = + . y) = . The proof is complete.1. one of which is monotonically approaching 0 and the other is monotonically approaching ∞.3
The Case q > 1
In this case we will show that there exist solutions that have two subsequences.5.4.6. In fact this is true for every solution {yn }∞ n=−1 whose initial conditions are such that the following inequalities are true: y−1 < q − 1 and y0 > q − 1 + To this end observe that y1 = and y2 = and by induction. 2
6.23). By applying Theorem 1. y2n−1 < q − 1 and y2n > y0 + n Hence
n→∞
p . Set p + qy p f (x. The local stability of y was established in Theorem 6. a = 0. From Eq(6. 1+x 1−q Then clearly. y) ≤ b.6 it follows that y is a global attractor of all solutions of Eq(6. for all (x.5. q−1
p + q(q − 1) p + qy−1 < <q−1 1 + y0 1 + y0 p + qy0 p + qy0 p > = y0 + 1 + y1 q q p q
for n ≥ 1.23) lies eventually in the interval [0. y) ∈ [a.
lim y2n = ∞ p + qy2n−1 =0 1 + y2n
and lim y2n+1 = lim n→∞ n→∞ and the proof is complete. a ≤ f (x.

B .6) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + yn−1 .29) is satisﬁed if and only if either q≤1 or q > 1 and F 2p q−1 > 0.27) was investigated in [45]. . (6. C (6. . . Clearly the equilibrium y is the positive solution of the quadratic equation (1 + q)y 2 − y − p = 0.6
The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn C
α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (2. .) Eq(6.30) (6.27) about y is zn+1 + q qy − p zn − zn−1 = 0.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when (q − 1)y < 2p and unstable (a saddle point) when (q − 1)y > 2p. qyn + yn−1 αC γ2 n = 0. If we now set it is easy to see that (6. . F (u) = (1 + q)u2 − u − p. 1. . (2. 1+q (y + p)(1 + q) n = 0. 1. (6. 2)-Type Equations
6.28)
By employing Theorem 1.27) has the unique positive equilibrium y= 1+ 1 + 4p(1 + q) 2(1 + q) . .27)
and q =
(Eq(6. 2)-type Eq(6.92
Chapter 6.29)
.
The linearized equation associated with Eq(6.1.

ψ. ψ.6. q−1
. φ. ψ. if and only if q > 1 + 4p.31)
6.2 Eq(6. . . . Furthermore when (6. .32) (6.27). . φ. . .
The following result is now a consequence of the above discussion and some simple calculations: Theorem 6.6.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(6. (6. . . when q > 1 + 4p.27) has a prime period-two solution .32) holds. . φ.27) is locally asymptotically stable when q < 1 + 4p and unstable. ψ. . qφ + ψ
It now follows after some calculations that the following result is true: Theorem 6. .
be a period-two cycle of Eq(6.1
Let
Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles
. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
93
Similarly (6. Then φ= p+φ qψ + φ and ψ = p+ψ . φ.6. the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − t + p = 0. and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium.6.6.30) is satisﬁed if and only if q > 1 and F 2p q−1 < 0.

the second iterate of T . . . 1. .
∂g qψ − p (φ. ψ) ∂u ∂v where. ∞) × (0. v) p+v . . . ψ) = − . .
Let T be the function on (0. φ. . (2. . ψ) ∂h (φ. qg(u.
and write Eq(6. . ∞) deﬁned by: T Then u v = v
p+u qv+u
. ∂v (qψ + φ)2
.
Chapter 6. 2)-Type Equations
for n = 0. ψ. v) = p+u qv + u u v = g(u. ψ) ∂u φ JT 2 = ψ ∂h (φ. Jacobian matrix JT 2 . 1. v) + v
and h(u. v) h(u.94 To investigate the local stability of the two cycle . ψ) ∂v (φ. v) =
Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the φ lie inside the unit disk. n = 0. ψ.
φ ψ
is a ﬁxed point of T 2 . φ. . . evaluated at ψ We have ∂g ∂g (φ. . By a simple calculation we ﬁnd that T2 where g(u. ψ) = .27) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn vn+1 =
p+un qvn +un
. . we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn . ∂u (qψ + φ)2 ∂g (p + φ)q (φ.

ψ) (φ.33) is equivalent to the following three inequalities: S <1+D −1 − D < S D < 1.34) (6.6.34) is equivalent to
(6. p )[q − (1 + 4p)] < 0 p+1
. To this end observe that (6. + 2 (qψ + φ)2 ∂v (qφ + ψ) (qφ + ψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ.33)
(6. ψ) ∂u ∂v
∂g ∂h ∂h ∂g (φ.36)
(qψ − p)(qφ + ψ)2 + (qφ − p)(qψ + φ)2 + q 2 (p + ψ)(p + φ) − (qψ − p)(qφ − p) < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if p (q 3 + 2q 2 − 4qp + 2q 2 p + 2p − 3q) + q − p + q 2 p2 + qp − p2 < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 q−1 which is true if and only if −q 3 p + 7q 2 p − 8qp2 + 4q 2 p2 + 4p2 − 7qp + 2q 2 − q + p − q 3 < 0 which is true if and only if −(p + 1)(q − 1)(q − which is true because q > 1 + 4p. ψ) = . ∂u (qφ + ψ)2 (qψ + φ)2 ∂h q 2 (p + φ)(p + ψ) qφ − p (φ.35) (6. ψ) = − . ψ) + (φ. Inequality (6. First we will establish Inequality (6. ψ) − (φ.1. ψ) (φ. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
95
q(p + ψ)(qψ − p) ∂h (φ. if and only if |S| < 1 + D < 2. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the
Then it follows from Theorem 1.34).1 that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1.6. ψ).

6. More precisely we show that the values of any solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. (2.36) is true if and only if (qψ − p)(qφ − p) < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if p [q 2 − (q − 1)(q − p)] < (pq − p + q)2 q−1 which is true if and only if q(pq − p + q)(pq − 2p + q − 1) > 0 which is true because q > 1 + 4p. q Then p ≤ yn ≤ 1 for all n ≥ N. (a) Assume that p ≤ q and that for some N ≥ 0.35) is equivalent to −(qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2
which is true if and only if
< (qψ − p)(qφ + ψ)2 + (qφ − p)2 (qψ + φ)2 + q 2 (p + ψ)(p + φ) + (qψ − p)(qφ − p) −(qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 < p (q 3 + 4q 2 − 4qp + 2q 2 p + 2p − 3q) − p + q 2 p2 q−1
which is true if and only if
q 2 + 2pq + 2p2 q 2 − p2 + qp2 − q 3 − 3q 3 p − 2q 3 p2 − p < 0 which is true if and only if p2 (−2q 3 + 2q 2 + q − 1) + p(−3q 3 + 2q − 1) − q 3 + q 2 < 0 which is true because q > 1. 2)-Type Equations Next we will establish Inequality (6.2
Invariant Intervals
Here we show that the interval I with end points one and p is an invariant interval for q Eq(6. q
.35).27). Then the following statements are true.96
Chapter 6.
6.36). p ≤ yN ≤ 1. Observe that (6. Finally. Observe that (6.3 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.27).27) either remain forever outside the interval I or the solution is eventually trapped into I.6. we establish Inequality (6. Theorem 6.

27) relative to the equilibrium y and relative to the end points of the invariant interval of Eq(6. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
97
(b) Assume that p ≥ q and that for some N ≥ 0. (6.27).6.27).37) yn+1 − 1 = q q qyn + yn−1 qyn−1 (1 − p ) + pq(1 − yn ) p q yn+1 − = q q(qyn + yn−1 ) yn − yn+2 = q(p + yn−1 ) + yn (qyn + yn−1 ) for n ≥ 0.38) (6. yN +1 = and yN +1 = p + yN −1 p + yN −1 =1 ≥ qyN + yN −1 p + yN −1 p q p + yN −1 ≤ pyN + p yN −1 q p q p p + yN −1 = p + yN −1 q 2
p + yN −1 = qyN + yN −1
and the proof follows by induction. Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. (6.
p + yN −1 p + yN −1 ≥ = q qyN + yN −1 (pyN + p yN −1 ) p q
and the proof follows by induction.3
Semicycle Analysis
Here we present a thorough semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6. (a) Indeed we have yN +1 = and yN +1 = p + yN −1 p + yN −1 ≤ =1 qyN + yN −1 p + yN −1 p q p + yN −1 p = p + yN −1 q p q for all n ≥ N. (b) Clearly. for n ≥ 0. p 1 ≤ yN ≤ . q Then 1 ≤ yn ≤ Proof. Then observe that the following identities are true: p − yn for n ≥ 0.39)
2 qyn−1 (yn − p ) + (yn − 1)(yn−1 yn + qyn ) q
.6.6.
6.

Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0. . then yN +2 > yN . q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. yN < 1. then yN +1 < 1. q (v) If for some N ≥ 0.2 Assume that p=q
∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0. q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. yN ≥ p .40)
the above identities reduce to the following: yn+1 − 1 = p and yn − yn+2 = (yn − 1) 1 − yn pyn + yn−1 for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.27). Lemma 6. . yN = p . q
Lemma 6. 2)-Type Equations
n = 0. p ] for n ≥ N . 1. then yN +1 = 1.
(6. then yN +1 > 1. In particular [1. . yN > p . then yn ∈ [1.6.42)
The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of (6. then yN +2 < yN . p ] is an q q q invariant interval for Eq(6.
. yN ≤ p .1 Assume that p>q and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.42). yN ≤ 1. (2. then yN +1 < p .27). yN ≥ 1. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. (vii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN < p .27).37)-(6.98 When p=q that is for the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = p + yn−1 .6.41)
2 pyn−1 + yn−1 yn + pyn p(p + yn−1 ) + yn (pyn + yn−1 )
(6. (viii) p 1<y< . pyn + yn−1
Chapter 6. then yN +1 > 1. (6.

7.3:
.6. yN ≥ 1. yN ≤ p . then yN +2 < yN . then yn ∈ [ p . then yN +1 > p . yN = p . 1] for n ≥ N . q q The following result is now a consequence of Theorems 1.3 Assume that p<q
∞ and let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6.6. then yN > yN +2 > 1. yN > p . Then the following statements are true:
(i) If for some N ≥ 0. In particular [ p . yN ≤ p .6.1 and 1.6. yN < p . yN ≤ 1. q (viii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN < 1.1-6. (v) If for some N ≥ 0. yN > 1. yN ≤ 1. The Case β = A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
99
(ii) If for some N ≥ 0.7. yN = 1. then yN +1 < 1. then yN +1 = 1.27). 1] is an q q invariant interval for Eq(6. then yN +1 > 1. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. q (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. q (v) If for some N ≥ 0.6. q (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. v) =
p+v qu + v
is always decreasing in u but in v it is decreasing when u < p and increasing when u > p . then yN +2 > yN . q
Note that the function f (u. Lemma 6. then yN +1 < 1. (iv) If for some N ≥ 0. (ix) p < y < 1. then yN +1 = 1.2 and Lemmas 6. (vii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN > 1. then yN < yN +2 < 1. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0.27). then yN +1 ≥ 1. (iii) If for some N ≥ 0.

or vice-versa.31) holds. while if p>q the length is at most two.
. When (6. . φ.
(6. Let I be the closed interval p with end points 1 and q and let J and K be the intervals which are disjoint from I and such that I ∪ J ∪ K = (0.45). if
Theorem 6. with φ + ψ = 1 and φψ = p .27).6. when (6. 1] must converge to the two cycle (6.43)
6. φ. .27) either eventually enters the interval I with end points 1 and p and remains there. every solution of Eq(6. or for some N ≥ 0.6 and 1. ψ.46)
Also recall that a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.5 (a) Assume q ≤ 1 + 4p. .27) has a unique equilibrium y which is locally stable when (6.4.43) holds. The character of these solutions remains an open question.100
Chapter 6.4 Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(6. and only then. Eq(6. .27) is global attractor. q−1 (6.6.7. . But this two cycle lies q inside the interval I.4. p<q the length is one.6. ψ. The above observations are summarized in the following theorem: Theorem 6. must converge to y.32) holds. q Now when q ≤ 1 + 4p
Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6.27) has a “unique” prime period-two solution . except for the length of the ﬁrst semicycle of the solution. Hence.32) holds. (6. any solution which remains forever outside the interval I = [ p . 2)-Type Equations
Then either all the even terms of the solution lie in J and all odd terms lie in K. .27) eventually enters and remains in the interval I.4
Global Behavior of Solutions
Recall that Eq(6.32) holds. in view of Theorems 1. (2.45)
there are no period-two solutions and so the solutions must eventually enter and remain in I and. or stays forever outside I.44)-(6.44) (6. On the other hand when (6. When (6. yn ∈ I for n ≥ N. ∞).

7
The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn B
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
This is the (2.7) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where pyn + qyn−1 .27) eventually enters and remains in the interval [ p . . The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = (b) Assume
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
101
q > 1 + 4p. A A (Eq(6.47) is unstable.1 (a) Assume p + q ≤ 1. 1+y
So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point.
.7. . q
6. (6. 1. 1 + yn n = 0. Then every solution of Eq(6.6.47) are the solutions of the equation p= y= py + qy . and when p + q > 1.3.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6.1.47).47)
β γ and q = .47) was investigated in [52].) The equilibrium points of Eq(6. . (b) Assume p + q > 1.47) is globally asymptotically stable. y = p + q − 1 is the only positive equilibrium point of Eq(6. The following result follows from Theorem 1.1: Theorem 6.7. 1]. 2)-type equation Eq(6.1 and the linearized stability Theorem 1. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6. More precisely it is a saddle point when 1−p<q <1+p and a repeller when q > 1 + p.

. Concerning prime period-two solutions it follows from Sections 2.47).47) with q = 1. ∞) is an invariant interval for Eq(6. ∞).47) is an unstable saddle point. if and only if q = 1 + p. the values of φ and ψ of all prime period-two solutions are given by: pφ {φ. (6.3. remains in this interval. . Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6. p ]. Furthermore. φ−p
6. (d) Assume q > 1 + p. That is. p ] is an invariant interval for Eq(6. ψ ∈ (p. p ]. ∞) : ψ = = 2p}.47) q with initial conditions in (0. . . 2)-Type Equations
1 − p < q < 1 + p. [ p .3 (a) Assume that q < 1.5 that the following result is true: Theorem 6. q (b) Assume that q > 1. q (0.47) has a prime period-two solution .7.7.7. ψ.102 (c) Assume
Chapter 6.50)
Then every solution of Eq(6. (2. Furtherq more. Theorem 6.48) holds.48) Furthermore when (6. φ.7. .47) eventually enters the interval [ p .2 Eq(6. every solution of Eq(6. ψ. Then the positive equilibrium y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6. φ. The case
is treated in Section 6.47).47) is locally asymptotically stable. (6.47) eventually enters the interval (0. . q
.49)
The main result here is the following theorem about Eq(6.1
Invariant Intervals
q=1 (6. (6.51) Then every solution of Eq(6.

50) holds. ∞) → [0. Then the following statements are true for every n ≥ 0: p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1. 1+x
Observe that g(y) = y and that g increases on [0. whose proof is straightforward and will be omitted. ∞) × [0. Let f : [0.2
Here we discuss the behavior of the semicycles of solutions of Eq(6. y refers to the positive equilibrium p + q − 1 of Eq(6. m ∈ N. The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
103
The proof of the above theorem is an elementary consequence of the following lemma.
. x) − x) < 0 for x ∈ (0.7.7.47) when p + q > 1 and q ≤ 1. y) = px + qy . 1+x
Semicycle Analysis of Solutions When q ≤ 1
Then f satisﬁes the negative feedback condition. ∞) → [0.1 (a) Assume that (6. ∞) − {x}.
Consider the function g : [0.7. Then for any k. qm q
6. Theorem 6.4 Suppose Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. Lemma 6.6. ∞) denote the function f (x. ∞) deﬁned by g(x) = (p + q)x . ∞). m q q
(b) Assume that (6.47).7. Hereafter.47). that is.51) holds. m ∈ N. yk ≥ and yk+2 ≤
p p =⇒ yk+2 ≥ p > q q
p p =⇒ yk > m+1 > p. yk ≤ and yk+2 ≥ p p =⇒ yk+2 ≤ p < q q
p p =⇒ yk > m+1 > p. Then for any k. (x − x)(f (x.

yn . yn } ≤ yn+1 < y. yn } pyn + qyn−1 ≥ = min{yn−1 . Then yn+1 =
y . yn−1 < yn+1 < yn . yn } pyn + qyn−1 ≤ = max{yn−1 . min{yn−1 .
for every k ≥ −1. 1 + yn 1 + yn−1
yn+1 =
The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property. 1 + yn 1+y
px + qx . 1+x is increasing for y < p . 1 + yn 1 + yn 1 + yn
Since q ≤ 1 and yn−1 < y. (e) If y < yk < Proof. 1 + yn 1 + yn
Since the function
Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that yn−1 > y or yn > y. yn }.104 (a) If y ≤ yn−1 . we obtain q yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 pyn + qy ≥ ≥ g(y) = y. Then yn+1 = pyn + qyn−1 (p + q)yn (1 + y)yn < = < yn .
(p + q) max{yn−1 .
. (b) If yn−1 . Then in view of the previous case yn+1 = and pyn + qy pyn + qyn−1 ≤ < g(y) = y 1 + yn 1 + yn
(p + q) min{yn−1 . which is equivalent to q ≤ 1. then {yn } decreases to the equilibrium y. increases in x and so pyn + qyn−1 pyn−1 + qyn−1 > = g(yn−1 ) > yn−1 . yn ≤ y. (d) If yn < y ≤ yn−1 . yn < yn+1 < yn−1 . yn+1 =
(c) Suppose yn−1 < y ≤ yn . (c) If yn−1 < y ≤ yn . 1 + yn 1+y Observe that all inequalities are strict if we assume that yn−1 < y or yn < y. (b) Suppose yn−1 . yn ≤ y. yn }. 2)-Type Equations then then then then y ≤ yn+1 ≤ max{yn−1 . Thus
px+qyn−1 1+x
p − qyn−1 > p − qy = (1 − q)(p + q) ≥ 0. (a) Suppose y ≤ yn−1 . yn . 2−q
Chapter 6. yn }. (2.

6.3
Semicycle Analysis and Global Attractivity When q = 1
q = 1. Then px+qyn−1 increases in x and so 1+x yn+1 = pyn−1 + qyn−1 pyn + qyn−1 ≤ < yn−1 .7. we must consider two cases: Case 1. 1 + yn 1 + yn pyn + qyn−1 >y =p+q−1 1 + yn
6. yn−1 ≥ qyn−1 > y + (q − 1)yn > yn 2
pyn + qyn−1 qyn−1 (yn + 1) < ≤ yn−1 .47) is globally asymptotically stable. Then {yn }∞ n=−1 oscillates about the equilibrium p with semicycles of length one and (6. Then the equilibrium y of Eq(6. (a) Assume y−1 ≥ p and y0 ≥ p. More precisely the following statements are true.52) holds.5 Suppose that q = 1 and let y−1 + y0 > 0. Suppose p − qyn−1 < 0. Then yn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
105
pyn + qyn pyn + qyn−1 > = g(yn ) > yn 1 + yn 1 + yn
by the negative feedback property. The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 = (d) Suppose yn < y ≤ yn−1 .
. 1 + yn 1 + yn−1
The last inequality follows from the negative feedback property. Case 2.
(6. Then yn+1 = (e) Observe that yn+1 = and so from which the result follows. (c) Assume either y−1 < p < y0 or y−1 > p > y0 . Theorem 6.52) holds.47) is y = p. Then yn ≥ p for all n > 0 and
n→∞
lim yn = p.
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6. Then yn ≤ p for all n > 0 and (6.7.52)
(b) Assume y−1 ≤ p and y0 ≤ p.47) when
Here the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.7. Suppose p − qyn−1 ≥ 0. To see that yn+1 < yn−1 .

The proof when y0 < p < y−1 is similar and will be omitted. 1 + y1 1 + y1 It follows by induction that yn ≥ p for all n > 0. 1 + y0 1 + y0 and py1 + p py1 + y0 > = p. it follows that m = M = p and the proof of part (a) is complete. we can show that y2 < y0 and by induction y1 = y−1 ≥ y1 ≥ y3 ≥ . . . (a) The case where y−1 = y0 = p is trivial. Furthermore. there exist m ≥ p and M ≥ p such that
k→∞
lim y2k+1 = m and
k→∞
lim y2k = M. ≥ p and y0 > y2 > y4 > . 1 + y0 1 + y0 Similarly.47) has no period-two solutions when q = 1. (2. We will assume that y−1 ≥ p and y0 > p. (c) Assume y−1 < p < y0 . and so convergent. . Then y1 = and py0 + p py0 + y−1 ≥ = p. > p. y−1 ≥ p implies that y2 = py0 + y−1 ≤ y−1 y0 + y−1
and so
y−1 y0 + y−1 py0 + y−1 ≤ = y−1 . 1 + y0 1 + y0
py1 + y0 py1 + p > = p. we claim that the subsequence {y2k+1 }∞ k=−1 is increasing. Next. since y−1 + py0 > y−1 + y−1 y0 then y1 = py0 + y−1 > y−1 1 + y0
. (b) The proof of (b) is similar to the proof of (a) and will be omitted. The case y−1 > p and y0 ≥ p is similar and will be omitted. .106
Chapter 6.
As Eq(6. In fact. It is interesting to note that y−1 = p ⇒ y2k+1 = p for k ≥ 0 and y0 = p ⇒ y2k = p for k ≥ 0. py0 + y−1 py0 + p y1 = < = p. 2)-Type Equations
Proof. Thus. y2 = 1 + y1 1 + y1 It follows by induction that the solution oscillates about p with semicycles of length one.

q
In this case.6.7. In a similar way we can show that the subsequence {y2k }∞ is decreasing.4
Global Attractivity When q < 1
1 − p < q < 1. and so convergent. there exist m ≤ p and M ≥ p such k=0 that lim y2k+1 = m and lim y2k = M
k→∞ k→∞
and as in (a). that y−1 .4.3 (a) we may assume that the initial conditions y−1 and y0 lie in the interval I = (0.7. ∞). Theorem 6. By Theorem 6.6 Assume 1 − p < q < 1. Concerning the long-term behavior of solutions of Eq(6.
. Observe that the consistency condition y ≤ p is equivalent to the condition q q ≤ 1. Proof.47) lies eventually in the interval [p.47) when
which is equivalent to
p y> . The Case α = C = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
107
and the claim follows by induction.47). m = M .47) we may assume. Then every positive solution of Eq(6.5 in the interval I from which the result follows.7. without loss of generality. p ]. y) = px + qy 1+x
satisﬁes the hypotheses of Theorem 1. ∞).5
Long-term Behavior of Solutions When q > 1
q>1
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(6.
Here we consider the case where
and we show that the equilibrium point y = p + q − 1 of Eq(6. Now clearly the function q f (x.47) is global attractor of all positive solutions of Eq(6.47) converges to the positive equilibrium y.7. Thus.7. y0 ∈ [p. 2
6.
2
6. every positive solution of Eq(6.

47) to the equation un+1 =
Chapter 6. Then every positive solution of Eq(6.53) was investigated in Section 6.
.7.47) converges to a period-two solution. transforms Eq(6. The character of solutions of Eq(6. Then every solution of Eq(6.7.5 to Eq(6. we obtain the following theorems about the solutions of Eq(6.5.47) converges to the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.47) oscillates about the positive equilibrium y with semicycles of length one. Theorem 6.7 After the ﬁrst semicycle.108 Then the change of variable yn = un + p.53)
where un ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.53). Then Eq(6. By applying the results of Section 6.47). 2)-Type Equations
p(q − 1) + qun−1 1 + p + un
(6.47) when q > 1: Theorem 6. (b) Assume 1 < q < 1 + p.8 (a) Assume q = 1 + p.47) has unbounded solutions. (2. an oscillatory solution of Eq(6. (c) Assume q > 1 + p.

The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1
109 βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1
6.54)
and q =
(Eq(6. q + yn−1 β γ n = 0.55) holds and y−1 + y0 > 0.3.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6. 2)-type Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable. A . γ (6.1. The following result follows from Theorems 1. . Theorem 6.6. . .54) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q.8.54) is unstable and the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6. (6.8
The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 =
xn = γ yn C
This is the (2.54) is locally asymptotically stable.8) which by the change of variables
reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= pyn + yn−1 . 1.8.54) and so we will assume without further mention that (6. q+y
So y = 0 is always an equilibrium point of Eq(6.54) are the solutions of the equation y= py + y .54) was investigated in [53].54) and when p + 1 > q.54) is globally asymptotically stable. Eq(6. the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.55) Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(6. In the remainder of this section we will investigate the character of the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.) The equilibrium points of Eq(6.55) holds. Our goal is to show that when (6. Furthermore the zero equilibrium is a saddle point when 1−p<q <1+p and a repeller when q < 1 − p.1 and 1.1. (b) Assume p + 1 > q.
.1 (a) Assume p + 1 ≤ q.

1
Invariant Intervals and Semicycle Analysis
Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6.59)
the identities (6. 2)-Type Equations
6.54).8. (6.61)
The following three lemmas are now direct consequences of the above identities.58) reduce to the following: yn+1 − 1 = (yn − 1) and yn+1 − yn = (1 − yn ) p p + yn−1 yn−1 p + yn−1 for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0. .57)
and yn+1 − yn =
(p − q)yn + (1 − yn )yn−1 q + yn−1
(6. . p + yn−1 n = 0. (6.110
Chapter 6.1 Assume that p<q (6.60)
(6. for n ≥ 0.
(6. Then the following identities are easily established: q yn − p yn+1 − 1 = p for n ≥ 0. When p=q that is for the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = pyn + yn−1 . Lemma 6.54). (2.62) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6.54) is such that: < 1 if p < q < p + 1 y is = 1 if p = q > 1 if p > q.56)-(6. 1. (6. .56) q + yn−1
q p2 [yn − p ] + (p − q)yn−1 q yn+1 − = p p(q + yn−1 ) 2
for n ≥ 0.58)
Note that the positive equilibrium y =p+1−q of Eq(6. Then the following statements are true:
.8.

then yN +1 = 1. yn > 1 and the solution is strictly decreasing. yN ≤ 1. yN ≥ 1.
. then for n ≥ 0. then yN +1 < yN .2 Assume that p=q (6. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. yN >
q 2 . yN ≥ 1.
(v) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 = 1. Lemma 6. p
q then yN +1 > p .63) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6.3 Assume that p>q (6. then yN +1 > 1. yN = p . yN = p . yN < p .8.
(v) If for some N ≥ 0.54). (iii) If y0 > 1. Then the following statements are true: (i) If y0 < 1. (ii) If y0 = 1.8. then yN +1 < 1. then yN +1 >
q p
and yN +2 > 1. yN ≤ 1. then for n ≥ 0.
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0. p
q then yN +1 < p . then yN +1 < 1. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0. q (iii) If for some N ≥ 0. then yN +1 > 1. yn < 1 and the solution is strictly increasing. yN > p . then yN +1 > yN . yN > p . (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. (vi) If for some N ≥ 0. Then the following statements are true:
q (i) If for some N ≥ 0.8. yN >
q 2 .64) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(6. q (ii) If for some N ≥ 0.
(iv) If for some N ≥ 0. The Case α = B = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1
111
q (i) If for some N ≥ 0.6. then yN +1 < 1. Lemma 6. yN < p . then yn = 1 for n ≥ 0.54).

This (2.3 that every solution of Eq(6. Here it is clear from Lemma 6. v) = pu + v q+v
is increasing in both arguments and by Theorem 1. Set yn = 1 + (q + 1)un for n ≥ −1.8.
n = 0. assume that (6. Then the positive equilibrium y = p + 1 − q of Eq(6.54) is globally asymptotically stable. When (6.63) holds. 2)-Type Equations
6.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (0.8. Hence. Then we can see that {un }∞ n=−1 satisﬁes the diﬀerence equation un+1 =
p−q (q+1)2
+
p u q+1 n
1 + un−1
. q+1
From the above observations and in view of Theorem 6.8.1.62) holds. Now in the interval (0. (2. .2 Assume that p + 1 > q and that y−1 + y0 > 0. 1).3 where we established in Theorem 6.3 that every solution converges to its positive equilibrium u= p−q .
. 2)-type equation was investigated in Section 6.1 we have the following result: Theorem 6. Without loss of generality we will assume that yn > 1 for n ≥ −1.54) eventually enters and remains in the interval (1.65)
with positive parameters and positive initial conditions.54) converges to the equilibrium y = 1.8. .112
Chapter 6. ∞). 1.1 that if a solution {yn }∞ n=−1 is such that yn ≥ 1 for all n ≥ 0 then the solution decreases and its limit lies in the interval [1.3.2 that every solution of Eq(6. y is a global attractor. it follows from Lemma 6. it follows from Lemma 6.8. . This is impossible because y < 1.4.8. every positive solution of Eq(6. ∞). Next. 1) the function f (u.8.
(6.8. by Lemma 6.2
Global Stability of the Positive Equilibrium
When (6.64) holds.

.6. (6.66) is y= p+1 q+1
and the linearized equation of Eq(6. . 2)-type Eq(6.66)
B β and q = . . The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
113 βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
6.1 (a) Assume that p > q.9) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where pyn + yn−1 . Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6. (b) Assume that p < q. .66) about y is zn+1 − p−q p−q zn + zn−1 = 0. .) The only equilibrium point of Eq(6.68) (6.1. 1. (p + 1)(q + 1) (p + 1)(q + 1) n = 0.9.67)
.9.66) is locally asymptotically stable.
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1. qyn + yn−1 n = 0. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(6.1 we obtain the following result: Theorem 6. (Eq(6. γ C To avoid a degenerate situation we will also assume that p= p = q.66) was investigated in [54]. (6. . 1.9
The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn C
This is the (2.66) is locally asymptotically stable when q < pq + 1 + 3p and is unstable (and more precisely a saddle point equilibrium) when q > pq + 1 + 3p. .

. On the other hand when p<q and q > pq + 1 + 3p.66) possesses a unique prime period-two solution: . . v) = qv + u and h(u.70) t2 − (1 − p)t + = 0.
is a ﬁxed point of T 2 . .66) has no prime period-two solutions. φ. ψ. v) p pv+u + v qv+u q pv+u + v qv+u v
pv+u qv+u
.114
Chapter 6. 2)-Type Equations
6. . evaluated at lie inside the unit disk. .69) is asymptotically stable if the eigenvalues of the φ Jacobian matrix JT 2 . (2.9. the second iterate of T . ψ.1
Existence of a Two Cycle
It follows from Section 2. . . . 1. ∞) × (0. qv Let T be the function on (0. we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn for n = 0.5 that when p > q. Eq(6.
and write Eq(6.66) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn n +un vn+1 = pvn +un . . v) = =
.69)
where the values of φ and ψ are the (positive and distinct) solutions of the quadratic equation p(1 − p) (6. φ. . . .
The prime period-two solution (6. n = 0. One can see that T2 where pv + u g(u. One can see that ψ JT 2 φ ψ =
(p−q)ψ − (qψ+φ)2 (p−q) ψ − (qψ+φ)2 (qφ+ψ)2
2 2
(p−q)φ (qψ+φ)2 (p−q)φ (qφ+ψ)2 (p−q)ψ (qψ+φ)2
−1
. 1. . v) h(u. (6.
. ∞) deﬁned by: T Then u v = φ ψ u v g(u. Eq(6. q−1 In order to investigate the stability nature of this prime period-two solution.

ψ > 0. By applying Theorem 1.1.72) φ ψ
and ψ =
Inequality (6.71). it follows that both eigenvalues of JT 2 lie inside the unit disk if and only if |P ψ + Qφ − P Qφψ| < 1 + P Qφψ < 2 or equivalently if and only if the following three inequalities hold: P ψ + Qφ + 1 > 0 P ψ + Qφ < 1 + 2P Qφψ and P Qφψ < 1.73) (6.72) is always true.9. φ= pψ + φ qψ + φ φψ = p(1 − p) q−1 pφ + ψ . The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = Set P = Then JT 2
βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
115 p−q . P < 0 and Q < 0 and so Inequality (6. Observe that φ > 0. (qφ + ψ)2
p−q (qψ + φ)2 φ ψ =
and Q =
and its characteristic equation is
Pφ −P ψ −P Qψ 2 P Qφψ − Qφ
λ2 + (P ψ + Qφ − P Qφψ)λ + P Qφψ = 0.71) (6. We will use the fact that φ + ψ = 1 − p.71) is equivalent to (p − q)φ (p − q)ψ + +1>0 (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if (q − p)[(qφ + ψ)2 ψ + (qψ + φ)2 φ] < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2
.6.1 (c). qφ + ψ (6. Next we will establish Inequality (6.

73) is equivalent to (p − q)2 φψ < (qψ + φ)2 (qφ + ψ)2 which is true if and only if (q − p) φψ < (qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ) if and only if if and only if if and only if if and only if (q − p) φψ < (q 2 + 1)φψ + q(φ2 + ψ 2 ) (q − p) φψ < (q 2 + 1)φψ + q[(φ + ψ)2 − 2φψ] (q − p) φψ < (q − 1)2 φψ + q(φ + ψ)2 (q − p) φψ < (q − 1)2 if and only if p(1 − p) + q(1 − p)2 q−1 = (1 − p)2 (q − p)2 .74)
= (q − p)(1 − p)2 (qp + 1 + 2p).71) is true if and only if (6. Now observe that the lefthand side of (6. (2. Inequality (6. 2)-Type Equations
(q − p)[(qφ + ψ)(pφ + ψ) + (qψ + φ)(pψ + φ)] < [(qφ + ψ)(qψ + φ)]2 .68) holds. Inequality (6.74) is I = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(φ2 + ψ 2 ) + 2(p + q)φψ] = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(φ + ψ)2 − 2φψ(qp + 1 − p − q)] = (q − p)[(qp + 1)(1 − p)2 − 2 The righthand side of (6.74) is p(1 − p) (p − 1)(q − 1)] q−1
(6. II = [(qψ + φ)(qφ + ψ)]2 = [(q 2 + 1)ψφ + q(φ2 + ψ 2 )]2
= [q(1 − p)2 + (q − 1)p(1 − p)]2 Hence.116 if and only if
Chapter 6.
= [q(φ + ψ)2 + (q − 1)2 φψ]2
(q − p) φψ < (1 − p)(q − p)
. Finally.

The extreme in each semicycle occurs in the ﬁrst term if the semicycle has two terms and in the second term if the semicycle has three terms.9.3
Global Stability Analysis When p < q
The main result in this section is the following Theorem 6.66).7.66) posseses the prime period-two solution . . Theorem 6.1 by observing that when p < q. .69) of Eq(6. Furthermore this prime period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable. (a) The proof follows from Theorem 1. where φ and ψ are the two positive and distinct roots of the quadratic Eq(6. after the ﬁrst semicycle. .7. Then Eq(6.66): Theorem 6. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 = if and only if
βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
117
p(1 − p) < (1 − p)2 q−1 if and only if q > pq + 1 which is clearly true. . y) = qx + y is increasing in x and decreasing in y. y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(6. φ.
6.
. (b) Assume p < q.67) holds. φ. the function 2 f (x. Then either {yn } oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one.68) holds.66).9. ψ. Then {yn } oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length two or three. In summary.
6.35). .9. This function also satisﬁes Condition (1.9.9. the following result is true about the local stability of the prime periodtwo solution (6. (b) The proof follows from Theorem 1. .6.2
Semicycle Analysis
In this section. Proof. Then the following statements are true: (a) Assume p > q.2 Assume that Condition (6. except possibly for the ﬁrst semicycle which may have length one. ψ.70). Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6. or {yn } converges monotonically to y.4 by observing that the condition p > q implies that the function px + y f (x.4 Assume that p<q and (6.3 Let {yn } be a nontrivial solution of Eq(6.66) is globally asymptotically stable.9.

yN ) ≥ f (φ. . qx + y
from which we conclude that limk→∞ yN +2k = ψ and limk→∞ yN +2k+1 = φ. Set f (x. Proof. .4. y) ≤ 1 for all x. qx + y
Chapter 6. We consider ﬁrst the case where eventually consecutive terms yi . ψ) = ψ. Also clearly. Theorem 6.. yN +2 = f (yN +1 . 1. .6 can also be used to establish that certain solutions of Eq(6.66) and for some index N ≥ −1. 2)-Type Equations
and note that f (x.4.6 and the fact that y is locally asymptotically stable. (6. y) = Then clearly.9.4. Now the conclusion of Theorem 6. . Set f (x. ψ. 2 The method employed in the proof of Theorem 1. y) is decreasing in x for each ﬁxed y. φ.66) converge to the two cycle (6. with φ < ψ. p ≤ f (x. (6.69) when instead of (6. and lim inf yn = φ n→∞ Now as in the proof of Theorem 1.
. yN +1 ) ≤ f (ψ. ψ. and increasing in y for each ﬁxed x. yN +3 = f (yN +2 .67). .. yi+1 lie between m and M .66).4 follows as a consequence of Theorem 1. y > 0. .68) holds. φ) = φ and in general yN +2k ≥ ψ and yN +2k+1 ≤ φ for k = 0. Eq(6. φ. . Assume that for some solution {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6.67).68) holds. . y) = px + y . Then this solution converges to the two cycle φ. denote the two cycle of Eq(6.75) holds. .5 Assume that (6. Assume that (6.6 lim sup yn = ψ
n→∞
px + y . ψ.118 Proof. Let φ.66) has no prime period-two solution. q Finally in view of (6. ψ.9. (2. .75) yN ≥ ψ and yN +1 ≤ φ. 2 Next we want to ﬁnd more cases where the conclusion of the last theorem holds.

yi+1 ≤ M.9. φ. (B) y2n+1 > M and M ≥ y2n > m for every n. Using the monotonic character of the function f we have m = f (M.
. . .6. Proof. M ] and if we never get two successive terms outside of the interval [m.5. . φ. and so M ≥ lim supn→∞ y2n ≥ lim inf n→∞ y2n ≥ M.2 In all cases (A)-(D) the corresponding solution {yn } converges to the two cycle . M ) = M. either yi > M and yi+1 < m or yi < m and yi+1 > M ). 2 If we never get two successive terms in the interval [m. ψ.9. M ] is answered by Theorem 6. qM − p = m and the proof is complete. Since the proofs are similar for all cases we will give the details in case (A). ψ. Then yk ∈ [m. . Proof. then we have one of the following four cases: (A) y2n > M and M ≥ y2n+1 > m for every n. Lemma 6. M ) = pm + M qm + M
for m we ﬁnd
Thus.1 Suppose that for some i ≥ 0. m ≤ yi . M ] for every k > i. (D) y2n+1 < m and m ≤ y2n < M for every n. m=
2
Since the case in which the solution lies outside of the interval [m. From Eq(6. M ] (that is.9. n→∞ qM − p On the other hand by solving the equation M = f (m. yi ) = yi+2 ≤ f (m. limn→∞ y2n+1
M − M2 . . we are left with the case in which the solution lies eventually in [m. By our earlier observation we have that M ≥ lim supi→∞ yi . and the result follows by induction. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
119
Lemma 6.9.66) we have y2n+1 = and so y2n − y2n y2n+2 . qy2n+2 − p
M − M2 lim y2n+1 = . Hence limn→∞ y2n = M . M ]. for every i. (C) y2n < m and m ≤ y2n+1 < M for every n. m) ≤ f (yi+1 . .

yi+3 ) ≤ f (yi+2 . . Thus f (y . so we are led to the general equation f (x. yi+1 ) = yi+3 . Thus. (3) For y < y < M. both subsequences converge and their limits form a two cycle. y) = y.
(2) x > y if and only if x < y .
. . 2)-Type Equations
Lemma 6.3 Suppose M ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ m and not both yi+2 and yi+3 are equal to y. yi ) = yi+2 and yi+5 = f (yi+4 .9. y) > y if and only if x < y . the proof is complete. yi ) ≤ yi . 1).76) has a q unique positive solution for x.76) It makes sense to consider this equation only for y ∈ ( p . but this situation cannot occur. φ. Here we have yi+4 = f (yi+3 . The correspondence between y and y has the following properties: Lemma 6.The case M ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ y ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ m is handled in a similar way. yi+2 ) ≥ f (yi+1 . in which case Eq(6. yi+1 is diﬀerent from y. .4 (1) f (x. and for m < y < y. y) = y. Induction on i then establishes the monotonicity of the two sequences. . ψ. f (y.120
Chapter 6. 2 Using a similar technique one can prove that if M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ y ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ m or M ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ y ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ m we would get convergence to y . y ) > y and y > y. and the sequence {yi+2k+1 } is a non increasing sequence and bounded below by m. In view of the uniqueness of the two cycle and the fact that at least one of yi . In this case we need to know more about the condition yi+2 = f (yi+1 . Let us consider the ﬁrst case. Then {yn } converges to the two cycle . as the following results show. f (y. y ) < y and y > y . Therefore. We denote this value by y . (6. The second case can be handled in a similar way. which of course depends on y. . (2.9. . ψ. φ.
Proof. the sequence {yi+2k } is non decreasing and bounded above by M . Proof.

y ) < 1. Thus for y < m. (2) Solving f (y . M < y <⇒ f (y. y ) > y . y < y < M ⇒ f (y. The Case α = A = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
121
(1) Since f is decreasing in the ﬁrst variable and f (y .
Simplifying this equation we get a fourth degree polynomial equation with roots 0. y) = y for y gives y = g(y) = Computing the derivative of g we get g (y) = − p − 2y + qy 2 . However q p < f (y. so y is decreasing function q of y.9. For y ∈ ( p . y) > f (y . 1). y ) > y . f (y. x < y if and only if f (x. M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ m.9. Thus each of these roots is simple and so f (y. y>y . y) = y. y ) we get px + x − x2 = qx − p qx +
x−x2 qx−p x−x2 qx−p
. By (1) then.5 Assume that for some i. (3) Eliminating y from the equations y = f (y .
. Hence q m < y < y ⇒ f (y. y ) < y . g (y) < 0. Then yi+3 ≤ yi+1 with equality only in the case of a two cycle. Clearly as y approaches p y approaches ∞. M . y < y . y ) − y changes sign as y passes each of these values. qy − p
The discriminant of the numerator is 4p2 − 4pq = 4p(p − q) < 0. 2 Now we will use this result to prove the following: Lemma 6. y ) < y . y) and y = f (y. (p − qy)2 y − y2 . y. so the roots of the numerator are not real.6. m. y) = y. for m < y < y. and for y < y < M.

we must show yi+2 ≥ yi+1 .66) are generated by initial values {y−1 . it follows by Theorem 6. we have yi+1 ≥ yi .122
Chapter 6.66) possesses the two-cycle solution (6. If c = m. .9. . so either c = y or c = m. Thus yi+2 ≥ yi+1 . The case m ≤ yi ≤ yi+2 ≤ y ≤ yi+1 ≤ M is similar. ≥ yi+2 ≥ yi ≥ y ≥ . The above sequence of lemmas leads to the following result: Theorem 6. solving for limn→∞ yi+2n gives limn→∞ yi+2n = M . ≥ y ≥ yi+1 ≥ yi+3 ≥ . yi+1 ). . Thus equality occurs only in the case of a two cycle. The value c will be one value in a two cycle. yi ) ≤ yi .9. and by (3) yi ≥ yi .6 Unless {yn } is a period-two solution. ≥ m. If c = y. Then every oscillatory solution of Eq(6. But then yi = yi+1 = y. This can only happen if yi+2n = M 2 for all n. . the second case is similar. y0 } that are on opposite sides of the equilibrium y. . which also gives a two cycle. . ≥ yi+3 ≥ yi+1 ≥ . there is no i such that either M ≥ yi ≥ yi+2 ≥ . in which case yi+2n+1 = m for all n. and solving for yi+2n we see yi+2n = y also. yi+1 ) ≤ yi+1 . as required. and our solution is a two cycle. We will consider the ﬁrst case. Since some of the oscillatory solutions of Eq(6. We also obtain the following lemma: Lemma 6. (2. To show yi+3 = f (yi+2 . . ≥ m. To get equality we must have yi+1 = yi or equivalently yi+2 = yi .6 Assume that p < q. 2)-Type Equations
Proof. By (3) of the previous lemma. . yi+1 ) ≥ yi+1 . Thus by (2) of the previous lemma yi ≥ yi+1 .6 that all such pairs belong to the stable manifold of the two cycle. . Remark. as well as 2 yi+3 = yi+1 . yi ) ≥ f (yi+1 . or M ≥ . . Thus yi ≥ yi+1 .. f (yi+1 .66) converges to this two cycle. since m ≤ yi+1 ≤ y. Since yi+2 = f (yi+1 . then yi+2n+1 = y for all n. and that Eq(6.
Proof. Since {yi+2k+1 } is a bounded monotonic sequence it has a limit c.
. Since f is increasing in the second argument and yi ≥ yi+1 we get yi+2 = f (yi+1 .69).9.

cxn + dxn−1 n = 0.10
Open Problems and Conjectures
a. qM + m m= pm + M .
/ (b) For every point (x−1 .10. qx + y (6. Also 1 ≤ f (x. y > 0. Now the result is a consequence of Theorem 1.
.9.77) holds.1 (See [64]) Assume that
(a) Investigate the forbidden set F of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = axn + bxn−1 xn . b. c. Proof. . the only solution of the system M= is m = M.4. We will employ Theorem 1. y) = px + y . .5. set f (x. Open Problems and Conjectures
123
6. 2 pM + m .66) is globally asymptotically stable. x0 ) ∈ F.77)
and observe that when p > q. and is decreasing in y for each ﬁxed x. Then the positive equilibrium y of Eq(6. the function f (x.4. y) ≤ p q for all x. To this end.5.9. d ∈ R. y) is increasing in x for each ﬁxed y.
Open Problem 6.6. investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic ∞ nature of the solution {xn }n=−1 .4
Global Stability Analysis When p > q
Here we have the following result: Theorem 6. 1.10. .
Finally observe that when (6. qm + M
6. .7 Assume that p>q and p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q.

10.3 Assume p ∈ (0.5.)
Chapter 6. . every positive solution converges to a. . not necessarily prime.11) has a ﬁnite limit. Bn ∈ R for n = 0.2 Assume that αn .124 (See Section 1.10) has a ﬁnite limit. . Investigate the forbidden set and the asymptotic character of solutions of the nonautonomous Riccati equation xn+1 = αn + βn xn . (Note that by Theorem 6. .)
. . .) Conjecture 6. Show that the equation yn+1 = p + yn−1 .10. . .
has a positive and monotonically decreasing solution. 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.6. Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.4. 1.3. ∞). q ∈ (0. (Note that by Theorem 6.4.3.)
Conjecture 6.
(See Section 1. this conjecture has been conﬁrmed for q ≤ 1 + 4p. . .2. q ∈ (0. (Note that by Theorem 6.1 Assume p.
are convergent sequences of real numbers with ﬁnite limits. βn .6 for the autonomous case. 1 + yn n = 0.10. (2.2 Assume that p. 1. period-two solution. Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.10. An + Bn xn n = 0. ∞). See also [36]. 1. An .) Conjecture 6. ∞). we need only to conﬁrm this conjecture for p > 2(q +1) and q ≥ 1.

this conjecture has been conﬁrmed for p ≤ pq + 1 + 3q.10. Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6. ∞) and q > 1 + 4p.5 Assume p > q. q ∈ (0.10.
Conjecture 6. q ∈ (0.4 Assume that p. Show that every positive solution of Eq(6.6.27) either converges to a ﬁnite limit or to a two cycle.) Open Problem 6.3 Assume that p.
125
Show that every positive solution of Eq(6. (See Section 6.5 Find the set of all initial conditions (y−1 .10. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 6.10.6.
.7. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the solution of the equation yn+1 = yn + yn−1 1 + yn
is well deﬁned and converges to 1.66).10.4 Assume that p. q ∈ (0.) Open Problem 6.
Open Problem 6. ∞).66) has a ﬁnite limit.27).10. ∞) and q > pq + 1 + 3p. Find the basin of attraction of the period-two solution of Eq(6. (Note that by Theorem 6. as n → ∞.9.

8 Assume α.126
Chapter 6. ∞).10. A. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.83)
yn − yn−1 yn − 1 yn − yn−1 1 − yn−1
1 − yn−1 yn − yn−1
yn + yn−1 .79) (6. Open Problem 6.
Open Problem 6.80) (6. .6 Find the set of all initial conditions (y−1 . extend your result by introducing arbitrary real parameters in the equation. 1.Then for every (y−1 . .84) yn − yn−1 For those equations from the above list for which you were successful. investigate the long-term behavior of the solution {yn }∞ : n=−1 yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 − yn 1 − yn−1 yn − 1 yn − yn−1 1 − yn−1 1 − yn (6. xn+1 = Axn + Bxn−1 + Cxn−2 Extend and generalize. C ∈ (0. γ.
. . as n → ∞. n = 0. y0 ) ∈ R × R through which the solution of the equation yn+1 = yn + yn−1 1 + yn−1
is well deﬁned and converges to 1.82) (6. . y0 ) ∈ G. β. B. 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.7 For each of the following diﬀerence equations determine the “good” set G ⊂ R × R of initial conditions (y−1 . (6.10. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of solutions of the diﬀerence equation αxn + βxn−1 + γxn−2 .81) (6.78) (6. (2.10.

.11 Assume q ∈ (1. .89) (6. . 1.92). yn + qn yn−1 pn + qn yn−1 . 1. . 1 + yn−1
yn + pn . .85) (6. 1.85)-(6.10. 1. .10 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are period-two sequences n=0 n=0 of nonnegative real numbers. n = 0. 1 + yn pn + yn−1 .10. n = 0. (b) Let (y−1 . . . . . qn + yn−1 pn yn + yn−1 . . 1. . .10. ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. Open Problems and Conjectures
127
∞ Open Problem 6. (6. . qn + yn n = 0. ∞). (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . qn yn + yn−1
yn+1 = yn+1 =
Open Problem 6. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }∞ .91) (6.87) (6. .90) (6. . n=−1
. . y0 ) ∈ (0.86) (6. y0 ) ∈ B. . . . .88) (6. n = 0. 1. 1. 1 + yn pn yn + yn−1 .10. . n = 0.
Open Problem 6. qn yn + yn−1
pn yn + qn yn−1 . Extend and generalize. n = 0.6.92)
pn + qn yn .23) are bounded.9 Assume that {pn }n=0 and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits. .
p = n→∞ pn lim
lim and q = n→∞ qn . ∞) × (0. n = 0. . n = 0. 1. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(6. .
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following eight diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + yn .

1. n = 0. (6.) Let A ∈ (0. (c) Extend and generalize. n = 0. ∞) through which the solutions {xn }∞ n=−1 of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = (1 − xn − xn−1 )(1 − e−Axn ). 3). See [9]. y0 ) ∈ (0.94)
.
Open Problem 6. ∞). ∞). ∞) × (0. (2. . .128 Open Problem 6. ∞) such that the solutions {yn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. 1) with α + β > 1 + β . .10. ∞) and that α ∈ (2. 2
Show that the positive equilibrium of System (6.
Open Problem 6. y0 ) ∈ (0. See [14].94). y0 ∈ (0. .
∞ (b) Let (y−1 . . 2)-Type Equations
(a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . (b) Let (x−1 . are nonnegative. Investigate the boundedness character. ∞). ∞) × (0.93) is globally asymptotically stable. γ
Obtain conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium of the system xn+1 =
αxn βxn +eyn
yn+1 = γ(xn + 1)yn
. (a) Determine the set G of initial conditions (y−1 .6 Assume x0 .12 Assume q ∈ (1. x0 ) ∈ G.14 (Discrete Epidemic Models. Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 . and the asymptotic behavior of the solution {xn }∞ n=−1 of Eq(6. ∞).13 (A Plant-Herbivore System. [3].10.47) are bounded. 1 β = 1 and γ = . β ∈ (0.93)
Conjecture 6. and γ ∈ (0.10. .10. and [2]) Assume α ∈ (1. . the periodic nature.
Chapter 6. 1.
(6. y0 ) ∈ B.

n = 0. 1. 1. . . .10.99) (6. . . . . 1. . ∞). . b ∈ (0.97) (6.16 (A Population Model) Assume α ∈ (0. qyn + yn−k yn + pyn−k .
Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of the system .95) 1 + yn−k yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = yn + p . . ∞) with c1 + c2 > 0.17 Assume that p. . 1. . .}. 1. n = 0.10. . 1. . c2 ∈ [0. with positive initial conditions. 1) and xn+1 = αxn e−yn + β yn+1 = αxn (1 − e
−yn
β ∈ (1. . 1 + yn p + yn−k . .10. . . . See [48]).
)
which may be viewed as a population model.10. 1.
Open Problem 6. 1. Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence equations: p + qyn yn+1 = . . and c1 . . n = 0. n = 0. q + yn−k pyn + yn−k . . Assume a ∈ (0.6.
129
Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the Flour Beetle Model: xn+1 = axn + bxn−2 e−c1 xn −c2 xn−2 . 1. ∞). . 1). .
Open Problem 6. qyn + yn−k n = 0. n = 0. yn + qyn−k p + qyn−k .96) (6.100) (6. . . n = 0.98) (6. . ∞) and k ∈ {2. . n = 0. . 3. (6. . q ∈ [0. n = 0.15 (The Flour Beetle Model. yn + q pyn + yn−k . Open Problems and Conjectures Open Problem 6.101)
. . (6.

n = 0. 1.130
Chapter 6. .19 Assume that every positive solution of an equation of the form xn+1 = f (xn . 1. .102) has a two cycle which is locally asymptotically stable. . xn−1 ). n = 0.103).11) and (6.
.18 Obtain a general result for an equation of the form yn+1 = f (yn .10. .103)
Open Problem 6. yn−1 ). (6.20 Assume that Eq(6. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = f (xn−2 .10.102)
converges to a period-two solution. . 1. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on f so that the same two cycle is a locally asymptotically stable solution of Eq(6. . Extend and generalize. 2)-Type Equations
Open Problem 6.10. (6. (2. n = 0. . .
which extends and uniﬁes the global asymptotic stability results for Eqs(6. .27). xn−1 ). also converges to a period-two solution.
Open Problem 6.

3)-type equations are positive and that the initial conditions are nonnegative. . 3)-Type Equations
7. (7. . 1. .3) α .1) (7. 1 + pyn + qyn−1 αB A2 and q = 131 n = 0. .2
The Case β = γ = 0 : xn+1 =
α yn A
α A+Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (1.(7. 3)-type Eq. .4)
αC . 3)-type:
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all the parameters in the above (1.
7. (7. . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0.1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= 1 . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 βxn . . . . . A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0.2)
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1. 1. A2
. n = 0.1 Introduction
xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = γxn−1 . . 1. 1. .Chapter 7 (1. (7. .

4) has no prime period two solutions.3.4. p ]. 1 + pyn + qyn−1 p= n = 0. q Theorem 7.4.2 Assume that y−1 .2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where yn . ∞) and p > 1. . 1.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters and that Eq(7. (7.3.3.2.5) always has zero as an equilibrium point and when p>1 it also has the unique positive equilibrium point y= p−1 .5 in the interval [0.1 The positive equilibrium of Eq(7.5) is globally asymptotically stable.
.5)
β B and q = .
7.7 in the interval [0. A C Eq(7. The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1. 3)-type Eq(7.1 Assume p ≤ 1. Theorem 7.3
The Case α = γ = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn C
βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (1. or Theorem 1.132
Chapter 7. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(7.4. The following result is now a straightforward consequence of either the stability trichotomy Theorem 1. . (1.1. 3)-Type Equations
One can easily see that the positive equilibrium of Eq(7. q+1
The following result is a straightforward consequence of Theorem 1. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7. y0 ∈ (0. 1].4.5) is globally asymptotically stable. .4) is globally asymptotically stable.2.4. It also follows by applying Theorem 1. Theorem 7.

. φ. 1+q
The subsequent result is a straightforward application of Theorems 1. C (7. (b) Assume that p < 1.1. .4.1. 1.
. .
Concerning prime period-two solutions one can see that Eq(7.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the equation yn+1 = where p= yn−1 .6) is locally asymptotically stable when q<1 and is unstable (a saddle point) when q > 1. ψ.6) has a prime periodtwo solution .3. Theorem 7. . Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(7.1 (a) The zero equilibrium of Eq(7. p + qyn + yn−1 A γ n = 0. .4
The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn C
This is the (1. .6) always has the zero equilibrium and when p<1 it also has the unique positive equilibrium y= 1−p . ψ.4. if and only if p < 1.7. . 3)-type Eq(7.6) is globally asymptotically stable when p≥1 and is unstable (a repeller) when p < 1. φ.1 and 1. The Case α = β = 0 : xn+1 =
γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
133 γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
7. .6)
and q =
Eq(7. . B .

On the other hand. . 1 − p − φ. 3)-Type Equations
p < 1 and q = 1 the only prime period-two solution is . It follows from Section 2. φ.5
Open Problems and Conjectures
p. . 1 − p. φ. 0.
.8)
0 p
0 lie in the disk |λ| < 1. 1 − p.4. . . . 2
and q > 1. q ∈ (0. 1 − p. .5.8) is locally asymptotically stable. . (1. 0.6 that here JT 2 0 1−p =
1 p+q(1−p) q(1−p) − p+q(1−p)
1−p .1 Assume Show that every positive solution of Eq(7. .
(7. .6) is locally asymptotically stable. 1 − p. Proof.7) both eigenvalues of JT 2
7. when p < 1 and q = 1 all prime period-two solutions of Eq(7.134 Furthermore when
Chapter 7. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 1 − p and φ = Theorem 7. . . Therefore 1−p the prime period-two solution (7.7)
(7. 1). . of Eq(7. . 1 − p − φ.6) are given by . . 0. .
Conjecture 7. . 0.6) has a ﬁnite limit. . .2 Assume that p<1 Then the period-two solution . . 2 and in view of (7.

135
Show that every positive solution of Eq(7. 0. xn−2 .9)-(7. 1 − p.5.7. x0 ) ∈ G be an initial point through which the corresponding equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.
Open Problem 7. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0: xn+1 = xn+1 = xn+1 = 1 1 + xn + xn−1 xn 1 + xn + xn−1 xn−1 .11)
Now for each of the equations (7.5.
.5. ∞).3 For each of the equations given below.
Open Problem 7. .2 Assume p < 1 and q ≥ 1. . 1 + xn + xn−1 (7. and investigate ∞ the long term-behavior of the solution {xn }n=−1 . . q ∈ [0.5.
Open Problem 7.6) converges to a. periodtwo solution. Extend and generalize. .11).10) (7. of Eq(7. let (x−1 .2 Investigate the asymptotic character and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = where p. . Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 7. 1 − p. . . Find the basin of attraction of the two cycle . 1) and q ∈ (1. ∞). . 1 + pxn + qxn−1 + xn−2 n = 0.1 Assume p ∈ (0. ﬁnd the set G of all points (x−1 .6). 1. .9) (7. not necessarily prime.5. 0.

. . 1. .12)-(7. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(7. . .4 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits. n = 0. .136
Chapter 7. 1 + pn yn + qn yn−1 yn−1 . (1. n = 0.13) (7. pn + qn yn + yn−1 n = 0. (7. 3)-Type Equations
Open Problem 7. lim
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = 1 .5 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are period-two sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers. p = lim pn n→∞ and q = n→∞ qn . . . .5. Extend and generalize.
.14)
Open Problem 7.5. 1.12) (7. 1.14). 1 + pn yn + qn yn−1 yn . .

5). 1. 1.3) by the change of the variables xn = yn + 137 γ . .
Eq(8. Eq(8. 1.1) (8. Eq(8. (8. . 1)-Type Equations
8.2)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. . (8. . β + Byn n = 0. . n = 0. . 3)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . . B
is reduced to a (2. . 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6. yn+1 = (α + βγ ) + γyn−1 B .1) is a linear diﬀerence equation and can be solved explicitly.2) by the change of the variables xn = yn + β . and the denominators are always positive. . . .Chapter 8 (3. A α + βxn + γxn−1 . . namely. . 1. .3) n = 0.1 Introduction
α + βxn + γxn−1 . Cxn−1 n = 0. Bxn
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (1. C
.4) (see Section 6. the initial conditions are nonnegative.

. ∞) × (0. (3. 1)-Type Equations
is reduced to a (2. . ψ. Conjecture 8. (8.2. . ψ.2) are bounded.2) which converges to (8. yn+1 (α + βγ ) + βyn C . .3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . n=−1
.2) (see Section 6.3) converges to the positive equilibrium of the equation.2). Determine the set of initial conditions (x−1 .2. .2. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = xn is well deﬁned for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ .138
Chapter 8.
8.2 (a) Assume γ = β and let .4).4 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 .1 Show that every positive solution of Eq(8.2
Open Problems and Conjectures
Open Problem 8. x0 ) ∈ (0.2. 2)-type equation of the form of Eq(6. n=−1 Open Problem 8. .4). φ.4)
be a period-two solution of Eq(8. Determine the values of φ and ψ in terms of the initial conditions x−1 and x0 .3) namely. φ. . x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = xn−1 is well deﬁned for all n and for these initial points determine the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ .
Open Problem 8. ∞) through which the solutions of Eq(8.1 Assume γ > β. . (b) Let {xn }∞ n=−1 be a positive solution of Eq(8. . 1. = γ + Cyn−1 n = 0. . Determine the basin of attraction of (8.2.
Hence there is nothing else remaining to do about these equations other than to pose some Open Problems and Conjectures. Open Problem 8.

8.2. Open Problems and Conjectures

139

Open Problem 8.2.5 Assume that {pn }∞ and {qn }∞ are convergent sequences of n=0 n=0 nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits, lim p = n→∞ pn and q = n→∞ qn . lim

Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following two diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + xn + xn−1 , q n xn pn + xn + xn−1 , qn xn−1 n = 0, 1, . . . (8.5)

n = 0, 1, . . . .

(8.6)

∞ ∞ Open Problem 8.2.6 Assume that {pn }n=0 and {qn }n=0 are period-two sequences of nonnegative real numbers. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(8.5) and (8.6). Extend and generalize.

**Chapter 9 (2, 3)-Type Equations
**

9.1 Introduction

α + βxn , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 α + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1 βxn + γxn−1 , A + Bxn + Cxn−1

Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (2, 3)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and xn+1 = n = 0, 1, . . . . (9.3) n = 0, 1, . . . n = 0, 1, . . . (9.1) (9.2)

Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all the parameters in the above (2, 3)-type equations are positive and the initial conditions are nonnegative.

9.2

The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

This is the (2, 3)-type Eq(9.1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn , 1 + yn + ryn−1 q= β , A n = 0, 1, . . . C . B (9.4) A yn B

αB , A2

and r =

141

142

Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

(Eq(9.4) was investigated in [51].) Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability, invariant intervals, and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. Eq(9.4) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p(r + 1) 2(r + 1) .

By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1.1.1, we obtain the following result: Theorem 9.2.1 The equilibrium y of Eq(9.4) is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p, q and r.

9.2.1

Boundedness of Solutions

We will prove that all solutions of Eq(9.4) are bounded. Theorem 9.2.2 Every solution of Eq(9.4) is bounded from above and from below by positive constants. Proof. Let {yn } be a solution of Eq(9.4). Clearly, if the solution is bounded from above by a constant M , then p yn+1 ≥ 1 + (1 + r)M and so it is also bounded from below. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not bounded from above. Then there exists a subsequence {y1+nk }∞ such k=0 that

k→∞

lim nk = ∞,

k→∞

lim y1+nk = ∞,

and y1+nk = max{yn : n ≤ nk } for k ≥ 0.

**From (9.4) we see that yn+1 < qyn + p for n ≥ 0 and so
**

k→∞

**lim ynk = lim ynk −1 = ∞.
**

k→∞

Hence for suﬃciently large k, 0 < y1+nk − ynk = p + [(q − 1) − ynk − rynk −1 ]ynk <0 1 + ynk + rynk −1 2

which is a contradiction and the proof is complete.

The above proof has an advantage that extends to several equations of the form of Eq(9.1) with nonnegative parameters. The boundedness of solutions of the special

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 =

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

143

equation (9.4) with positive parameters immediately follows from the observation that if M = max{1, p, q} then yn+1 ≤ M + M yn =M 1 + yn f or n ≥ 0.

9.2.2

Invariant Intervals

The following result, which can be established by direct calculation, gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9.4). Recall that I is an invariant interval, if whenever, yN , yN +1 ∈ I then yn ∈ I (a) for n ≥ N. Lemma 9.2.1 Eq(9.4) possesses the following invariant intervals:

for some integer N ≥ 0,

0,

q−1+

(q − 1)2 + 4p 2

,

when p ≤ q;

(b) p−q ,q , qr (c) q, p−q , qr when p > q(rq + 1). when q < p < q(rq + 1);

Proof. (a) Set q − 1 + (q − 1)2 + 4p p + qx and b = 1+x 2 and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b. Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ [0, b], then g(x) = yk+1 = p + qyk p + qyk ≤ = g(yk ) ≤ g(b) ≤ b. 1 + yk + ryk−1 1 + yk

The proof follows by induction.

144 (b) It is clear that the function f (x, y) =

Chapter 9. (2, 3)-Type Equations

p + qx 1 + x + ry

p−q ,q qr

is increasing in x for y > p−q . Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ qr then p + qyk p−q = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≤ f q, = q. yk+1 = 1 + yk + ryk−1 qr Also by using the condition p < q(rq + 1) we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + ryk−1

,

p−q q(pr + p − q) p−q > ,q = . 2 + rq + p − q qr (rq) qr

The proof follows by the induction. (c) It is clear that the function f (x, y) = p + qx 1 + x + ry

is decreasing in x for y < p−q . Using Eq(9.4) we see that when yk−1 , yk ∈ q, p−q , qr qr then p + qyk p−q p−q yk+1 = = q. , = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + ryk−1 qr qr Also by using the condition p > q(rq + 1) we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk p−q p + q2 < . = f (yk , yk−1 ) ≤ f (q, q) = 1 + yk + ryk−1 1 + (r + 1)q qr

The proof follows by induction. 2

9.2.3

Semicycle Analysis

qr( p−q − yn−1 ) qr 1 + yn + ryn−1

**Let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following identitites are true for n ≥ 0: yn+1 − q = qr q − p−q yn+1 − = qr
**

p−q qr

, + pr(q − yn−1 )

(9.5)

qr(1 + yn + ryn−1 ) yn − yn+4 =

yn + qr yn−1 −

p−q qr

,

(9.6)

9.2. The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 = qr yn −

p−q qr

α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1

145

2 yn+1 + (yn − q)(yn+1 yn+3 + yn+3 + yn+1 + ryn yn+3 ) + yn + ryn − p

(1 + yn+3 )(1 + yn+1 + ryn ) + r(p + qyn+1 )

,

(9.7) yn+1 − y = (y − q)(y − yn ) + yr(y − yn−1 ) . 1 + yn + ryn−1 (9.8)

The proofs of the following two lemmas are straightforward consequences of the Identities (9.5)- (9.8) and will be omitted. Lemma 9.2.2 Assume p > q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, (v) If for some N ≥ 0, (vi) If for some N ≥ 0, (vii) q < y <

p−q . qr

yN > yN = yN <

p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q , qr

**then then then
**

p−q , qr

yN +2 < q; yN +2 = q; yN +2 > q; q < yN +2 <

p−q ; qr

q < yN <

then

y ≥ yN −1 and y ≥ yN , then y < yN −1 and y < yN , then

yN +1 ≥ y; yN +1 < y;

Lemma 9.2.3 Assume q < p < q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.4). Then the following statements are true: (i) If for some N ≥ 0, (ii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iii) If for some N ≥ 0, (iv) If for some N ≥ 0, (v)

p−q qr

yN < yN = yN > yN >

p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q , qr p−q qr

then then then

yN +2 > q; yN +2 = q; yN +2 < q; then q > yN +2 >

p−q ; qr

and yN < q

< y < q.

2
. ∞) and Eq(9. y4k ≤ 1. (iv) y−1 < q and y0 ≤ q =⇒ y4k−1 < q.9)
(9. y4k+1 < q.10)
Proof. and y4k+2 ≤ q. In this case Eq(9. The limit (9. y4k ≥ 1. (2. and y4k+2 ≤ q. Then this solution is oscillatory and the sum of the lengths of two consecutive semicycles. y4k+1 > q.4). 1 + yn + ryn−1 lim yn = y. y4k ≥ 1.146 Lemma 9. 2 Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.4) has no period-two solution. More precisely. 1 + yn + ryn−1 n = 0.10) is a consequence of the fact that in this case qr ∈ (0. 3)-Type Equations
qr (q − yn−1 ).5). and y4k+2 ≥ q. 1. .4) becomes yn+1 = q + rq 2 + qyn . the following statements are true for all k ≥ 0: (i) y−1 > q and y0 ≤ q =⇒ y4k−1 > q. y4k+1 < q. excluding the ﬁrst.4 Assume p = q(qr + 1) and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9.2.
and the only equilibrium point is y = q.4). Identity (9. Theorem 9. then
n→∞
Chapter 9. The proof follows from identity (9.9) follows by straightforward computation. (ii) y−1 < q and y0 ≥ q =⇒ y4k−1 < q.3 Suppose that p = q + rq 2 and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(9. . y4k ≤ 1. Proof. and y4k+2 ≥ q.4) when p = q(1 + rq). . (iii) y−1 > q and y0 ≥ q =⇒ y4k−1 > q. is equal to four.2.
(9. Then yn+1 − q = Furthermore when qr < 1. y4k+1 > q.

The Case γ = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn A+Bxn +Cxn−1
147
9. p−q ] qr
if if
q < p < q(qr + 1).2.4). yN +1 > q.2. First assume that
p ≤ q. if for some N .3. Now assume for the sake of contradiction that yn > b for n > 0.5 Let I denote the interval which is deﬁned as follows: √ 2 [0.2. qr
and yN +2 <
.
∞ Proof. for the sake of contradiction. More precisely.2. the following is true: Lemma 9. qr
n→∞
lim yn = y ∈ I
and yN +2 <
p−q . p > q(qr + 1). q] qr [q.1. q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p 2
Hence. then yN +1 < b. y ∈ I. there exists N > 0 such that one of the following three cases holds: (i) yN > q.
Then every solution of Eq(9. Then by Lemma 9.4) is eventually trapped into one of the three invariant intervals of Eq(9. yN +1 <
p−q . 2 I=
[ p−q . also assume that the solution {yn }∞ n=−1 is not eventually in the interval I. Set b= and observe that yn+1 − b = (q − p)(yn − b) − r(p + qb)yn−1 .4
Global Asymptotic Stability
The following lemma establishes that when p = q(qr + 1).2. q−1+ (q−1) +4p ] if p ≤ q. qr p−q . yN ≤ b. every solution of Eq(9. Then yn > y for n ≥ 0 and so which is a contradiction.4) lies eventually in I.4) described in Lemma 9. Let {yn }n=−1 be a solution of Eq(9. Next assume that q < p < q(qr + 1) and.9. (1 + yn + ryn−1 )(1 + b) n ≥ 0. (ii) yN > q. Then clearly.

2.
p−q qr
Chapter 9.4 (a) Assume that either p ≥ q + q 2 r. then yN + ryN − p > 0 and 2 if yN ≤ p−q .4) is globally asymptotically stable.2. and yN +2 <
p−q . then yN + ryN − p < 0. and (q − 1)2 (r − 1) ≤ 4p. 1+r Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9.5. each subsequence {yn+4k+j }∞ with all its terms outside k=0 the interval I converges monotonically and enters in the interval I.
Then the equilibrium y of Eq(9. qr
Also observe that 2 if yN ≥ q.7 and 1. y) = p + qx 1 + x + ry 2
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9. For example.4. 3}. or q .4): Theorem 9.4) is globally asymptotically stable. (2. By using the monotonic character of the function f (x.4. Proof. qr The desired contradiction is now obtained by using the Identity (9. together with the appropriate convergence Theorems 1.1. the following results are true for Eq(9.
. p< p≤q or q < p < q + q2r and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed: (i) q ≤ 1. 1. The proof when p > q(qr + 1) is similar and will be omitted. we can obtain some global asymptotic stability results for the solutions of Eq(9. 3)-Type Equations ≤ yN +1 ≤ q. 2.4).7) from which it follows that for j ∈ {0.148 (iii) yN > q.
(b) Assume that either
(iii) r > 1
(ii) r ≤ 1.

A2
and r =
. 0.4.2. . For instance. B (9.4. M ) and M = f (M. . this is the case if Condition (i) is satisﬁed.2.11) A yn B
αB .5. . The proof when q < p < q + q 2 r holds follows from Lemma 9.2.4 and Theorems 1. y0 ∈ 0.9.2.1 and Theorem 1. m = M from which the result follows.1 we see that when y−1 . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
149
(a) The proof follows from Lemmas 9. 1 + yn + ryn−1 q= γ . It is easy to check that y ∈ 0. This system has the form m= p + qm 1 + m + rM and M = p + qM . the function f increases in x and and that in the interval 0. C .1 and 9. 1. √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p (b) In view of Lemma 9. We will employ Theorem 1. If m + M = q − 1 then m and M satisfy the equation (r − 1)m2 + (r − 1)(1 − q)m + p = 0.3. m) then M = m. 2 2 √ 2 +4p q−1+ (q−1) . A n = 0.4.5 and so it remains to be shown that if m = f (m.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn−1 . 2 decreases in y. 3)-type Eq(9. Clearly now if Condition (ii) or (iii) is satisﬁed. then yn ∈ 2 √ √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p q−1+ (q−1)2 +4p for all n ≥ 0. 2
9. then M = m. . 1 + M + rm
Hence (M − m)(1 − q + M + m) = 0.3
The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (2. Now if m + M = q − 1.7 and 1.4.2.

Lemma 9. t+ r 1−r
. (2.1 (a) The equilibrium y of Eq(9.1 Eq(9.11) is locally asymptotically stable when either q≤1 or q > 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 > 0. invariant intervals. Eq(9.
be a period-two cycle of Eq(9. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. .12) holds.12)
9.1 we obtain the following result. . 3)-Type Equations
This equation has not been investigated yet.11) has a unique equilibrium y which is positive and is given by y= q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4p(r + 1) 2(r + 1) .3. Theorem 9. 1 + φ + rψ
It now follows after some calculation that the following result is true. ψ. φ.
By employing the linearized stability Theorem 1. Then φ= p + qφ 1 + ψ + rφ and ψ = p + qψ . the period-two solution is “unique” and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − p q−1 = 0. ψ.150
Chapter 9. . φ.11) has a prime period-two solution . . . (b) The equilibrium y of Eq(9. (9. φ. Furthermore when (9.12) holds. . ψ. .11). φ.11) is unstable. ψ.3. if and only if (9. . . .3. .1. when q > 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 < 0. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions.1
Let
Existence and Local Stability of Period-Two Cycles
. and more precisely a saddle point. .

. we set un = yn−1 and vn = yn . . . ψ) ∂u φ = JT 2 .3. . ψ ∂h ∂h (φ. evaluated at ψ We have ∂g ∂g (φ. . ψ. .11) in the equivalent form: un+1 = vn vn+1 =
p+qun 1+vn +run
. n = 0. ψ) = . φ. .
φ ψ
is a ﬁxed point of T 2 . By a simple calculation we ﬁnd that T2 where g(u. (φ. . φ. ψ) = ∂u (1 + ψ + rφ)2 ∂g −p − qφ (φ. 1. and write Eq(9. for n = 0. ∞) × (0. . v) h(u. Jacobian matrix JT 2 .9. v) =
Clearly the two cycle is locally asymptotically stable when the eigenvalues of the φ . 1 + g(u. v) + rv
and h(u.
Let T be the function on (0. ∞) deﬁned by: T Then u v = v
p+qu 1+v+ru
. ψ) ∂v (φ. . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
151
To investigate the local stability of the two cycle . . ψ) ∂u where
∂g q − pr + qψ . ψ. ∂v (1 + ψ + rφ)2
. 1. v) = p + qu 1 + v + ru u v = g(u. . v) p + qv . the second iterate of T . lie inside the unit disk. ψ) ∂v (φ. .

if and only if |S| < 1 + D < 2. ψ). Observe that. ψ) = + .14). ψ) = . Inequality (9.1 that both eigenvalues of JT 2 unit disk |λ| < 1.1. (2. 3)-Type Equations
∂h (p + qψ)(pr − q − qψ) (φ. 2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 ∂v (1 + ψ + rφ) (1 + φ + rψ)2 Set S= and D= ∂h ∂g (φ. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u φ ψ lie inside the
Then it follows from Theorem 1.
(9.
Thus
. (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) = (q − pr)2 + q(q − pr)(φ + ψ) + q 2 φψ =
=
−2q 2 r + q 2 r2 + 3qpr2 − 2qpr3 − p2 r3 + p2 r4 − q 3 + rq 3 + q 2 − pr2 q 2 − qpr r (−1 + r) (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 = 1 + φ + rψ + ψ + ψφ + rψ 2 + rφ + φ2 r + r2 φψ = −pr2 + qr + pr − q + q 2 r
2 2
and that
. ψ) − (φ.16)
First we will establish Inequality (9. ψ) + (φ. ψ) (φ.13)
(9. ψ) (φ.15) (9.152
Chapter 9.14) (9. This inequality is equivalent to (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 < 0. ∂u (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 ∂h (p + qψ)(p + qφ) q − pr + qφ (φ.13) is equivalent to the following three inequalities: D<1 S <1+D −1 − D < S. ψ) ∂u ∂v
∂h ∂g ∂h ∂g (φ.

9.12). After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is a consequence of Condition (9.12) we see that (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 = q 2 r − 2qr + r − q 2 + 2q − 1 + 4r2 p < 0 and so 2r2 p − rp + q − q 2 − qr + q 2 r < 2r2 p − rp + q − qr + 2qr − r − 2q + 1 − 4r2 p = −2r2 p − rp − q + qr − r + 1 = −2r2 p − rp + (r − 1) (q − 1) < 0 from which the result follows.16) is equivalent to (q − pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)2 + (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q − pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)2 + (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) + (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 > 0.15). we have established the following result:
. In summary. Finally Inequality (9.3.
Also by using Condition (9. r2 (1 − r) −r2 p + rp − q + q 2 + qr = rp(1 − r) + q(q − 1) + qr > 0. Next we turn to Inequality (9. This inequality is equivalent to (q − pr + qψ)(1 + φ + rψ)2 + (p + qψ)(p + qφ) + (q − pr + qφ)(1 + ψ + rφ)2 − (q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 < 0. The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
153
(q − pr + qφ) (q − pr + qψ) − (1 + ψ + rφ)2 (1 + φ + rψ)2 = −pr3 q 2 + 2q 2 r − q 2 r2 − q 2 + 3p2 r3 − 2p2 r4 − 3rq 3 + 3qpr3 − 5qpr2 r2 (1 − r) + 2qpr + 4pr2 q 2 + 2q 3 + q 4 r − p2 r2 − 2prq 2 − q 4 + r2 q 3 r2 (1 − r)
Note that
(2r2 p − rp + q − q 2 − qr + q 2 r) (−r2 p + rp − q + q 2 + qr) = .12). After some lengthy calculation one can see that this inequality is also a consequence of Condition (9.

12) holds. if and only if (9. r r
Proof. this period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable. Furthermore when (9. (2.2
Invariant Intervals
The following result. 3)-Type Equations
Theorem 9. .154
Chapter 9. then yk+1 = p + qyk−1 p + qyk−1 ≤ = g(yk−1 ) ≤ g(b) ≤ b. φ. (a) Set g(x) = p + qx 1 + rx and b = q−1+ (q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r
and observe that g is an increasing function and g(b) ≤ b.12) holds.2 Eq(9.11). . Lemma 9. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9. . 1 + yk + qyk−1 1 + ryk−1
The proof follows by induction. yk ∈ [0. Using Eq(9. r q when pr ≥ q + q2 . q r (c) q pr − q .
q−1+
(q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r
when pr ≤ q. which can be established by direct calculation. .3.3. .3. ψ.11) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a)
0.
. φ.
9. .11) we see that when yk−1 . ψ. r when 1 < q < pr < q + q2 q − .
(b) pr − q q .11) has a unique prime period-two solution .2 Eq(9. b].

yk−1 ) ≥ f 1 + yk + qyk−1
pr − q pr − q . y) = is decreasing in y for x <
q pr−q . yk−1 ) ≥ f . yk−1 ) ≤ f . 1 + yk + qyk−1 r r = pr + q 2 pr − q . then yk+1 =
Using Eq(9. q r pr−q . y) and the condition 2 q < pr < q + qr we obtain yk+1 = p + qyk−1 = f (yk . y) = p + qy 1 + x + ry
pr−q q . q
p + qy 1 + x + ry
. r
By using the fact that f (x. q q
q = . y) is decreasing in both arguments and the condition pr > q + rq2 we obtain yk+1 = q q p + qyk−1 = f (yk . yk ∈
p + qyk−1 = f (yk . 2
. Using Eq(9.11) we see that when yk−1 . q r q = . < r + (r + 1)q q
The proof follows by induction.9. . yk ∈ q then q pr − q p + qyk−1 pr − q = f (yk . yk−1 ) ≤ f 1 + yk + ryk−1 pr − q q .3.r q
is increasing in y for x > pr−q . (c) It is clear that the function f (x. r
The proof follows by induction. ≥ yk+1 = 1 + yk + ryk−1 r q q
.
Now by using the monotonic character of the function f (x. The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
155
(b) It is clear that the function f (x.11) we see that when yk−1 .

2 Theorem 9.3 Assume that pr ≤ q and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed: (i) q ≤ 1. 2r 2r √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr and that in the interval 0. In view of Lemma 9. then Proof.5-1.
.2 we see that when y−1 .3
Convergence of Solutions
p + qy 1 + x + ry
By using the monotonic character of the function f (x.3. y) =
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9. for all n ≥ 0.
2
q−1+
√
(q−1)2 +4pr
(ii) r < 1
and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 ≥ 0. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1. .11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval
0.4. For example. 2r √ √ q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr q−1+ (q−1)2 +4pr yn ∈ 0. the function f decreases in x and increases 2r in y.
q−1+
(q − 1)2 + 4pr 2r
converges to the equilibrium y.3.3.4. (iii) r < 1 and (r − 1)(q − 1)2 + 4pr2 ≥ 0.4 (a) Assume that 1 < q < pr < q+ qr − q and that one of the following r conditions is also satisﬁed: (i) r ≥ 1.6.3. (2.2. It is easy to check that y ∈ 0.
Then every solution of Eq(9.156
Chapter 9. 3)-Type Equations
9.8) we can obtain some convergence results for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals. together with the appropriate convergence theorem (from among Theorems 1.3. (ii) r ≥ 1.4. y0 ∈ 0.11): Theorem 9. the following results are true for Eq(9.

11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval q pr − q . r
. y) decreases in x and increases in y. 2
q pr−q .11) becomes yn+1 = qr + q 2 + qr2 yn−1 .4
Global Stability
By applying Theorem 1. Then every solution of Eq(9.4. r2 + r2 yn + r3 yn−1 n = 0. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval pr − q q . Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9. we obtain the following global asymptotic stability result. Theorem 9.9. (b) Assume that pr > q + qr .
q2 r
q2 . Proof. It is easy to
9.3. q r converges to the equilibrium y.r q
2
check that y ∈ and that the function f (x.7.11). .2 we conclude that yn ∈
pr−q q .
In
and the only positive equilibrium is y = q . The Case β = 0 : xn+1 =
α+γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
157
Then every solution of Eq(9.4. It is easy to
(b) In view of Lemma 9.r q pr−q q . .3.3 to Eq(9.3.3. (a) In view of Lemma 9. 1.11) when pr = q + this case Eq(9.11) is globally asymptotically stable. r q converges to the equilibrium y. .5
Semicycle Analysis When pr = q +
Here we present a semicycle analysis of the solutions of Eq(9.3. r
9.5 Assume r ≥ 1 and pr ≤ q. the function f decreases check that y ∈ q . pr−q and that in the r q in both x and in y.4.3.2 we conclude that yn ∈
for all n ≥ 0. The result now follows by employing Theorem 1. q r interval q . pr−q r q
for all n ≥ 0.6.

3)-Type Equations
Theorem 9. C
and r =
A . 1. 3)-type Eq(9.17) are the nonnegative solutions of the equation y= (p + 1)y .17) γ yn . Eq(9.17) also possesses the unique positive equilibrium y= p+1−r .158
2
Chapter 9. The equilibrium points of Eq(9. . r + qyn + yn−1 β . C n = 0.1. Proof. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. Then after the ﬁrst semicycle.11). .1. r + (1 + q)y
Hence zero is always an equilibrium point and when p + 1 > r.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= pyn + yn−1 .6 Suppose that pr = q + qr and let {yn }∞ n=−1 be a nontrivial solution of Eq(9.
.18)
The following theorem is a consequence of Theorem 1. (9.3. the solution oscillates about the equilibrium y with semicycles of length one. q+1 (9.4
The Case α = 0 : xn+1 =
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (2. invariant intervals. γ
This equation has not been investigated yet. The proof follows from the relation yn+1 − q q qr2 = ( − yn ) 3 .3. γ q= B . . (2. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. r r r (1 + yn + ryn−1 ) 2
9.1 and Theorem 1.

18) holds. . (p + 1)(q + 1) (p + 1)(q + 1) n = 0. The linearized equation associated with Eq(9. (b) Assume that p + 1 > r.
Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9. 1.17) has a prime period-two solution . and unstable (a saddle point) when q + r > 3p + 1 + qr + pq. Furthermore the zero equilibrium is a saddle point when 1−p<r <1+p and a repeller when r < 1 − p. The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = Theorem 9.20) (9.4. Then the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is locally asymptotically stable when q + r < 3p + 1 + qr + pq. Theorem 9. Furthermore when (9.1.4. φ. . ψ.1
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
159
(a) Assume that p + 1 ≤ r. (9.9. . . .1.4.19)
Concerning prime period-two solutions for Eq(9.17).2 Assume that (9. . Theorem 9. ψ.5 that the following result is true. it follows from Section 2.3 Eq(9.4.20) holds.20) holds there is a unique period-two solution and the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − (1 − p − r)t + p(1 − p − r) = 0.17) about its positive equilibrium y is zn+1 − p − q + qr q−p+r zn − zn−1 = 0. q−1
. if and only if (9. .
The following result is a consequence of Theorem 1. . φ.17) is globally asymptotically stable. Then the zero equilibrium of Eq(9.17) is unstable. .

q2 where K2 =
when q 2 > p + qr. K] when p = q 2 where K > 0 is an arbitrary number.
when q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2
and p + q > r.160
Chapter 9. ((q − r)(q 2 − p))2 + 4p3 qr2 2pqr
(q − r)(q 2 − p) +
. K] when q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2
and p + q ≤ r. 3)-Type Equations
9. and [0.
when p > q 2 + r
where
((r − q)(p − q 2 ) + qr)2 + 4q 3 r(p − q 2 ) 2q(p − q 2 )
. K2 −p
[0. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(9.
.
where K > 0 is an arbitrary number and pr . q2 pr −p (q − r)(p − q 2 ) − qr +
[0. and q 2 + q ≤ r. qr p − q2 when q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r and p + q > r. (b) 0. (2. K] when q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r
and p + q ≤ r.1 Eq(9.1
Invariant Intervals
The following result.4. Lemma 9.17).17) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) 0. p+q−r q+1 when p = q 2 and q 2 + q > r
where K > 0 is an arbitrary number and qr .4. which can be established by direct calculation. K1 p − q2 K1 = (c) 0.

r + (q + 1)K qr where we set K = p−q2 .
1 ≤ K. yk−1 ) ≤ f (K. The Case α = 0 : xn+1 = Proof. Now observe that the inequality f (K. y) ≤ f (K. yk ∈ 0. y) is increasing in both arguments for x < qr and it is increasing in x and decreasing in y for x ≥ p−q2 . K) = (p + q)K Second assume that p > q 2 + r. yk+1 = f (yk . yk ∈ f
qr . Therefore for any K > 0. 2
pr pr . q+1 (b) It is clear that the function f (x. p−q 2
0 ≤ f (x. r + (q + 1)K
pr . y) = r + qx + y is increasing in both arguments. while when q 2 + q > r the inequality is true when p+q−r K≥ . K) = (p + q)K with K =
pr .
1 ≤ K. ) ≤ K1 . K2 ≤ yk+1 = f (yk .9. yk−1 ) ≤ f (K1 . K1 ≤ yk+1 = f (yk . yk−1 ) ≤ f (K. yk−1 ) ≤ f K2 . When q 2 + q ≤ r. q 2 −p
(c) It is clear that the function f (x. it is satisﬁed under the condition r + q 2 > p.
First assume that q 2 < p ≤ q 2 + r . Then for yk−1 . K) ≤ K is equivalent to q 2 +q−r ≤ (q+1)K. q2pr we obtain −p yk+1 = f (yk .
βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
161
(a) It is easy to see that when p = q 2 the function px + qy f (x. yk ∈ f
one can see that ≤ K2 . yk ∈ 0. −p Then one can see that for yk−1 . 2 p−q p − q2
pr . p−q2 we obtain qr . this inequality is satisﬁed for any K > 0. q 2 −p
First assume that q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 . The last inequality is always satisﬁed when p + q ≤ r and when p + q > r. K2 q 2 −p
Second assume that p < q 2 − qr. y) is increasing in both arguments for y < and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for y ≥ q2pr .4. 2 q2 − p q −p
. K). K1 p−q 2
we can see that
qr qr . Then for yk−1 .
qr Hence for yk−1 .

(2.8.4. converges to the equilibrium y. Then every solution of Eq(9. converges to the equilibrium y.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0. K].4. converges to the equilibrium y.4. (b) Assume that q 2 + r ≥ p > q 2 and p + q > r. for any K > 0.1.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0.4. for any K > 0.1 and Theorem 1. For example. Then every solution of Eq(9. (c) Assume that q 2 − qr ≥ p < q 2 and p + q > r. Then every solution of Eq(9. 2 q2 pr −p qr p − q2 q2 + q − r q+1
. K]. 3)-Type Equations
9. converges to the equilibrium y. together with the appropriate convergence theorem (from among Theorems 1. Then every solution of Eq(9. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9. we can obtain some convergence results for the solutions with initial conditions in the invariant intervals.8).17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0.2
Convergence of Solutions
px + qy r + qx + y
By using the monotonic character of the function f (x. converges to the equilibrium y. K].4 (a) Assume that p = q 2 and q 2 + q > r. Assume that q 2 − qr ≤ p < q 2 and p + q ≤ r. Assume that p = q 2 and q 2 + q ≤ r.17): Theorem 9.4. y) =
in each of the intervals in Lemma 9. Assume that q 2 + r ≥ p > q 2 and p + q ≤ r.4. Then every solution of Eq(9. the following results are true for Eq(9. Then every solution of Eq(9. Proof.17) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0. for any K > 0.4.162
Chapter 9.17) with initial conditions in the interval [0. converges to the equilibrium y.5-1.

(ii) q ≥ 1.3) is bounded. ∞).
Conjecture 9. C ∈ (0.6 Assume that q 2 > p + qr and that Condition (9. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 9.4. B. B.
Conjecture 9. 2
9. γ.4. β.1 and Theorem 1.
.5
Open Problems and Conjectures
α.2 Assume α.5. Proof. Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.20) is not satisﬁed. B.
Conjecture 9.4.4. γ.5 Assume that p > q2 + r and that one of the following conditions is also satisﬁed: (i) p ≤ q + r. (iii) q < 1
qr . p−q 2 Proof.5. ∞). C ∈ (0. C ∈ (0.2) is bounded.5.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval qr . Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.11) with initial conditions in the invariant interval converges to the equilibrium y.4. 2
Theorem 9.5. A. A. Then every solution of Eq(9. 1−q
163
and p ≤
Then every solution of Eq(9. Open Problems and Conjectures Theorem 9.1 and Theorem 1.6. ∞). The proof is a consequence of Lemma 9.5. A.4.9.3 Assume β. K1 p−q 2 3q 2 +q−qr+r .1) has a ﬁnite limit. K2 converges to the equilibrium y.1 Assume Show that every positive solution of Eq(9.

2) has no prime period-two solutions.1 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . n=−1
. ∞) and suppose that Eq(9. C ∈ (0.5.5.5 Assume that x−1 .3) has no prime period-two solutions.
Conjecture 9. Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(9. x0 ∈ [0. ∞). and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(9.4 Assume
Chapter 9. Suppose that Eq(9. A. n=−1
Open Problem 9. γ. and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.164 Conjecture 9.5. γ. B. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation xn + xn−1 xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation 1 + xn−1 xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−1 is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0. ∞) with x−1 + x0 > 0 and that β. Extend and generalize.3) is globally asymptotically stable. Extend and generalize. Extend and generalize.2 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the solutions {xn }∞ . n=−1
Open Problem 9. 3)-Type Equations
α.5. B.2) is globally asymptotically stable.5.
Open Problem 9. A.3 Determine the set G of all initial points (x−1 . C ∈ (0. (2.

22) (9.
Open Problem 9.23). φ.5.6 Assume that (9. . . .12) holds. .
Conjecture 9.
Open Problem 9. . φ.5. lim
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = pn + qn yn . of Eq(9. ψ.17) is locally asymptotically stable. .11).5.17). Show that the period-two solution . .5. . ψ. Extend and generalize.5. 1. lim and r = n→∞ rn . Investigate the basin of attraction of the two cycle .
. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(9. 1.21) (9.5. .4 Assume that {pn }∞ . . . 1 + yn + rn yn−1 n = 0.5 Assume that {pn }∞ . ψ.20) holds. . . . {qn }n=0 . 1. n = 0. . .23)
pn yn + yn−1 . of Eq(9. (9. Open Problems and Conjectures
165
Open Problem 9. . . .9. . φ.7 Assume that (9. . . φ. rn + qn yn + yn−1
∞ Open Problem 9. Investigate the basin of attraction of the two cycle . ψ. of Eq(9. φ. ψ. {qn }∞ . . ψ. . p = lim pn . . n = 0. and {rn }∞ are period-two sen=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers.6 Assume that (9. . . φ. 1 + yn + rn yn−1 pn + qn yn−1 .20) holds. . n→∞ q = n→∞ qn .21)-(9. and {rn }∞ are convergent sen=0 n=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits.

3.26)
.166 Open Problem 9. 3)-Type Equations
k ∈ {2. q.5. 1 + yn + ryn−k yn+1 = yn+1 = p + qyn−k .25) (9. n = 0. ∞) and
Chapter 9. . . . 1 + yn + ryn−k pyn + yn−k .24) yn+1 = . . 1. (2. r ∈ [0. . 1. .}. . .
Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence equations: p + qyn (9. (9. . . n = 0. 1. r + qyn + yn−k n = 0. . . .8 Assume that p.

A n = 0. 2)-Type Equations
10. 2)-type: xn+1 = xn+1 = and α + βxn + γxn−1 . n = 0. xn+1 = n = 0. A + Cxn−1
Eq(1) contains the following three equations of the (3. γ . . . 1 + yn αB .1) (10. and the denominators are always positive. . (10.2)
10. n = 0.1) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn + ryn−1 .4)
and r =
167
. 2)-type Eq(10. A2 q= β .1 Introduction
α + βxn + γxn−1 .Chapter 10 (3. . . 1. 1.3) Bxn + Cxn−1 Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all parameters that appear in these equations are positive. .2
The Case C = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn B
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
This is the (3. . A (10. . . (10. 1. . . 1. . A + Bxn α + βxn + γxn−1 . the initial conditions are nonnegative. .

(3.) The linearized equation of Eq(10.1 was given.7.5 and 2.7) (10. (10. See Sections 2.1 are given in Sections 10.2. 2)-Type Equations
(Eq(10. 1. 2 (1 + y) 1+y
n = 0.168
Chapter 10.4) is globally asymptotically stable. Then Eq(10.7.4) about its unique equilibrium y= is zn+1 − q+r−1+ (q + r − 1)2 + 4p 2
q − p − ry r zn − zn−1 = 0. Then every solution of Eq(10.4) possesses unbounded solutions. Then the equilibrium of Eq(10. for a more general equation.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when r <1+q and is an unstable (saddle point) equilibrium when r > 1 + q.1 (a) Assume that r = q + 1.5)
. The proofs of parts (b) and (c) of Theorem 10.
By applying the linearized stability Theorem 1.2 below.4) exhibit the following trichotomy character. (c) Assume that r > q + 1.4) converges to a period-two solution. in Section 2. .4) possesses prime period-two solutions. . The main result in this section is that the solutions of Eq(10. (b) Assume that r < q + 1.2. .6) (10. When r =q+1 Eq(10.2.1 and 10. .1. Theorem 10. The proof of part (a) of Theorem 10.2.2.4) was investigated in [29].

4) to the diﬀerence equation zn+1 = (p + rq − q) + rzn−1 .8)
which is of the form of the (2. n = 0. 1. Observe that (p − q) + ryn−1 yn+1 = q + .4) is attracted to the equilibrium. We know already that when Eq(10.2.8) holds. . . The Case C = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
169
10. .10) reduces to yn+1 − q = Also in this case 0<r =1− r (yn − q) for n ≥ 0. . 1 + yn and so when p≥q we have yn ≥ q Therefore the change of variables yn = q + zn transforms Eq(10. 2)-type Eq(6.10.10)
. Now observe that the solutions of Eq(10. .2. (1 + q) + zn n = 1. .11) q−p r yn−1 − 1 + yn r q−p r for n ≥ 0. So in the remaining part of the proof we assume that p < q.4) satisfy the following identity yn+1 − q = Note that when q= that is when p + qr − q = 0 the Identity (10.6) holds and we prove that the equilibrium of Eq(10.23) which was investigated in Section 6. (10.12) (10. (10.2.4) is globally asymptotically stable.5 and therefore the proof is complete when (10.1
Here we assume that Eq(10.9) for n ≥ 1.1
Proof of Part (b) of Theorem 10. (10.6) holds the equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable so it remains to be shown that every solution of Eq(10. 1 + yn p <1 q (10.

The case where (10. (3. note that now q−p <q r and employ (10. (10.10) that y2n+2 − q = and so y2n+2 > ry2n + p for n ≥ 0.16) (10. If (10.170 and the equilibrium of Eq(10.
We will assume that (10.16) holds.18) q−p q−p r y2n − > r y2n − 1 + yn+1 r r
.12) that
Chapter 10. q−p r q−p r for n ≥ 0 for n ≥ 0.13) holds. It follows from (10.10) that yN +1+2K > q for all K ≥ 0.4) is equal to q. (10.9).15) is not eventually true then either y2n < or y2n−1 < This is because when yN −1 > then it follows from (10.11) holds.14) First assume that (10. 2)-Type Equations
|yn+1 − q| < r|yn+1 − q| and so
n→∞
lim yn = q
which completes the proof when (10. (10. To complete the proof in this case it is suﬃcient to show that eventually (10. Then we can see from (10.17) holds is similar and will be omitted.17)
q−p r
for some N ≥ 0.13)
(10. To this end. Still to be considered are cases where p + qr − q > 0 and p + qr − q < 0.10).15) yn ≥ q and then use the known result for Eq(10.

r that either q−p y2n > for n ≥ 0 (10. q−p r q−p < r y2n − y2n − 1 + y2n+1 r r
.16) and (10. q−p .14) and completes the proof of part (b) of Theorem 10.4. The case where (10.13) holds.10) and r the fact that now q−p q< .2. because by (10.10) we see that y2n+2 − q = and so y2n+2 < ry2n + p for n ≥ 0.14) holds.4) lies eventually in the interval 0. when r < 1. the proof that the r equilibrium is a global attractor of all solutions would be a consequence of Theorem 1.10. it follows from (10. + rp + p r and so p q−p ≥ r 1−r which contradicts (10. Then one can see from (10. The Case C = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn
171
This is impossible when r ≥ 1. r 1−r This contradicts (10.20) r We will assume that (10. Next assume that (10.8 and the fact that in this case the function f (x. Then from (10. . q−p .13) and completes the proof when (10. y) = p + qx + ry 1+x
is increasing in both arguments.19) r or q−p for n ≥ 0. . On the other hand. .16) the solution is bounded.18) that q−p > y2n+2 > rn+1 y0 + rn p + .1. Now we claim that every solution of Eq(10. y2n−1 > (10. + rp + p r which implies that p q−p ≤ . .20) holds is similar and will be omitted. To this end assume for the sake of contradiction that the solution is not eventually in the interval 0. Note that in this case r < 1 and so q−p < y2n+2 < rn+1 y0 + rn p + .2. Once we establish this result.19) holds.

2
Proof of Part (c) of Theorem 10.7) holds and show that Eq(10.5 for appropriate initial conditions y−1 and y0 . A2
and r =
.1
Here we assume that (10.21)
αC . . More speciﬁcally the solutions of Eq(10. A (10. To this end observe that yn+1 = q +
q p + r(yn−1 − r ) 1 + yn
for n ≥ 0
and so when (10.2.4) to Eq(10. 1.4) possesses unbounded solutions. ∞) is invariant.3
The Case B = 0 : xn+1 =
A yn C
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1
This is the (3. the equilibrium of Eq(10.
10.4) is a saddle point and so by the stable manifold theorem.7) holds. . A n = 0.
have the property that the subsequences of even terms converge to ∞ while the subsequences of odd terms converge to q. ∞).9) and the conclusion of part (c) follows from Section 6.4) with initial conditions such that q ≤ y−1 < r − 1 and y0 > r−1 + p + q(r − 1) r−1−q for n ≥ 0. y0 ∈ [q. Eq(10. γ . It should be mentioned that when (10. 2)-Type Equations
10.7) holds the interval [q. in addition to unbounded solutions.2) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= p + qyn + ryn−1 .4).4) possesses bounded solutions which in fact converge to the equilibrium of Eq(10. (3.172
Chapter 10. 2)-type Eq(10. then yn ≥ q Now the change of variables yn = q + zn transforms Eq(10. 1 + yn−1 q= β .2. That is when y−1 . .

yN .21) about its positive equilibrium y= is zn+1 − q+r−1+ (q + r − 1)2 + 4p 2
q p − r + qy zn = 0.2
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.
10. yN +1 ∈ I then yn ∈ I for n ≥ N. n = 0. and r. for some integer N ≥ 0.
By applying Theorem 1. . . if whenever.3.3.
Lemma 10. Observe that (p − r) + qyn . The linearized equation of Eq(10.3.21). invariant intervals.21) when p ≥ r. .21) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) 0. r−p q when q < 1 and p ≥ r(1 − q). Recall that I is an invariant interval. p 1−q when q < 1 and p ≥ r.3. The Case B = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Cxn−1
173
This equation has not been investigated yet.1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable for all values of the parameters p. (b) 0. which can be established by direct calculation.1
Invariant Intervals
The following result. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability.1. 1. . .
10. and convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions.10. . q.1 Eq(10. zn + 1+y (1 + y)2
n = 0. yn+1 = r + 1 + yn−1 and so when p≥r
Global Stability When p ≥ r
. 1. gives a list of invariant intervals for Eq(10. .

21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval 0. Theorem 10.21) to the diﬀerence equation zn+1 = p + qr − r + qzn . (a) Every positive solution of Eq(10.
which is of the form of the (2.21) is globally asymptotically stable if one of the following conditions holds: (i) q < 1.1 Assume p ≥ r.2 (a) Assume that q < 1 and r ≥ p . . Theorem 10.21) is bounded. . (b) The positive equilibrium of Eq(10. (ii) q≥1 and either p + qr − r ≤ q or q < p + qr − r ≤ 2(q + 1).3. converges to the equilibrium y. 2)-type Eq(6. 2)-Type Equations for n ≥ 1.2) which was investigated in Section 6.3. .174 yn ≥ r Therefore the change of variables yn = r + zn transforms Eq(10. (1 + r) + zn−1
Chapter 10.
n = 1. Then the following statements are true.3. 1−q
Then every solution of Eq(10.3
Convergence of Solutions
Here we discuss the behavior of the solutions of Eq(10.3.
10.21) when p < r. (3. 2.3. The following result is now a consequence of the above observations and the results in Section 6. r−p q
.

(a) In view of Lemma 10.21) with initial conditions in the invariant interval r−p .1 we see that when y−1 .3.
r−p . 2)-type Eq(10. Proof.4.1 we see that when y−1 .4
The Case A = 0 : xn+1 =
γ yn C
α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
This is the (3.K q converges to the equilibrium y.4.8. . K= q + r − p − q2
(b) In view of Lemma 10.4. y0 ∈ 0. It is easy to check that y ∈
r−p . 1. y) increases in x and decreases in y.K q
pq + r2 − pr . . It is easy to check that y ∈ 0.22)
β . r−p and that in the interval 0. The result is now a consequence of Theorem 1.K q
and that in the interval
. then yn ∈
r−p .3. y) increases in both x and y.5.10. y0 ∈ for all n ≥ 0. γ2 (10. The result is now a consequence of Theorem 1. then yn ∈ 0. C n = 0.K q r−p . qyn + yn−1 q= B . αC . The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = (b) Suppose that either or Set
α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
175
0≤q−1<r q<1
and p < r p . .K q
the function f (x.3) which by the change of variables xn = reduces to the diﬀerence equation yn+1 = where p= r + pyn + yn−1 . r−p . 1−q
and p < r <
Then every solution of Eq(10. r−p q q the function f (x. 2
10. γ
and r =
. r−p q q for all n ≥ 0.

25)
Furthermore in this case the prime period-two solution .24) is void. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. When r = 0.176
Chapter 10. . q−1
. is unique and the values φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 − (1 − p)t + r + p(1 − p) = 0. q > 1 and 4r < (1 − p)(q − pq − 3p − 1).1 we see that y is locally asymptotically stable when either q ≤ pq + 1 + 3p or q > pq + 1 + 3p and F where F (u) = (q + 1)u2 − (p + 1)u − r.9.1. . φ. (10.23)
It is interesting to note that the above condition for the local asymptotic stability of y requires the assumption that r > 0. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. . (10. . the inequality in (10. The second condition reduces to q > pq + 1 + 3p. (3. .22) about its positive equilibrium y= is zn+1 − (p − q)y − qr (p − q)y + r zn + zn−1 = 0.5 that a period-two solution exists if and only if p < 1. Concerning prime period-two solution. 1. φ. as in Section 6. . (1 + p) + (1 + p)2 + 4r(1 + q) 2(1 + q)
By applying Theorem 1. . (q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y) (q + 1)(r + (p + 1)y) n = 0. it follows from Section 2. . . ψ. invariant intervals. The linearized equation of Eq(10. 2)-Type Equations
This equation has not been investigated yet. .24) 2r q − pq − 1 − 3p >0 (10. ψ.23) is strict and Condition (10.

and p < q.1
Invariant Intervals
Here we present some results about invariant intervals for Eq(10. p > q. q2 p2 − pq > r.21).
.26)
when p > q
and
p2 − pq < r. Hence a≤ r + (p + 1)b r + (p + 1)a = f (b.21) possesses the following invariant intervals: (a) [a. The Case A = 0 : xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
177
10.10. y) = is decreasing in both arguments. (q + 1)b (q + 1)a
qr . a) = ≤ b. Lemma 10.4.
r + px + y qx + y
(b) Clearly the function f (x. q2
when p > q
and
when p < q < p + r. y) ≤ f (a.
when q > p + r.1 q−p Proof. p−q
and
(10. b] when p = q a and b are positive numbers such that r + (p + 1)a ≤ (q + 1)ab ≤ r + (p + 1)b. (a) It is easy to see that when p = q the function f (x. b) ≤ f (x. We consider the cases where p = q.1 Eq(10. r q−p r . (b) p qr . y) is decreasing in both arguments when y < qr is increasing in x and decreasing in y for y ≥ p−q .4.4. p−q q (c) 1. First assume that p > q and
p2 −pq q2
and it
< r. q p−q qr p .

q+1 q−p
r+p+1 r r < and q−p q+1 q−p are equivalent to the inequality q < p + r. (3. y) ≤ f p qr . y) is decreasing in both arguments for x < r and it is increasing in y and decreasing in x for x ≥ q−p .
. p−q q p2 −pq q2
and
p qr < q p−q
< r. Next assume that q > p + r. q−p
(c) It is clear that the function f (x. q q = qr qr + p(p + 1) ≤ . q p−q
Chapter 10. y) ≤ f p p . assume that p < q < p + r. 2)-Type Equations we obtain ≤ f (x. p−q q ≤ f (x. we obtain r (p + r)(q − p) + r = f 1. q
(qr + p)(p − q) + pq 2 r =f q 3 r + p(p − q) The inequalities
(qr + p)(p − q) + pq 2 r qr ≥ 3 r + p(p − q) q p−q follow from the inequality
p2 −pq q2
and
qr p > q p−q
> r. p(q + 1) p−q
qr qr . 1) = r+p+1 r ≤ . y ∈
qr p .
r . q(q − p) + r q−p ≤ f (x.178 Then for x. q p−q p = . p−q p−q
The inequalities qr + p(p + 1) qr ≤ p(q + 1) p−q are equivalent to the inequality Next assume that p > q and For x. we obtain qr p . y ∈ p =f q
p qr . First. p−q
. y) ≤ f r . q−p q−p 1< ≤ f (x. we obtain 1=f The inequalities r r .
p2 −pq q2
> r. Using the decreasing character of f in x and the increasing character of f in y. Using the decreasing character of f . y) ≤ f (1. 1 = 1.

2
. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval r . The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10.4. Theorem 10.4.4. q p−q
conditions in the invariant interval
converges to the equilibrium y.1 and Theorem 1. q2
and that either
p≤1 or p > 1 and (q − 1)[(p − 1)2 (q − 1) − 4q(1 − p − qr)] ≤ 0. Proof.
(c) Assume that p < q < p+r.22) with initial
p qr . r <
p2 −pq .5. The Case A = 0 : xn+1 = The inequalities
α+βxn +γxn−1 Bxn +Cxn−1
179
(p + r)(q − p) + r r ≥ q(q − p) + r q−p follow from the inequality q > p + r.1 (a) Assume that p = q.3 Assume that p < q.1 and Theorem 1. Then every solution of Eq(10. p + r < q.2 Assume that p > q.
and
r <1 q−p 2
10. 2 Theorem 10. p−q q
Proof. Then every solution of Eq(10. 1 converges to the equilibrium y.7.1 and Theorem 1. and that Condition (10.4.10. The proof is an immediate consequence of Lemma 10. (b) Assume that p > q and r >
p2 −pq .4. where 0 < a < b satisfy (10.4.22) with initial conditions r in the invariant interval 1. Then every solution of Eq(10.2
Convergence of Solutions
Here we obtain some convergence results for Eq(10.4.4. q−p Proof.26) converges to the equilibrium y. 2 Theorem 10.
qr p . b]. q−p converges to the equilibrium y.4.22).4.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval converges to the equilibrium y.6.22) with initial conditions in the invariant interval [a. Then every solution of Eq(10. q2
Then every solution of Eq(10.4.25) is not satisﬁed.

27) is a prime period-two solution of Eq(10. φ. ∞) × (0.27)
(b) Assume (10. Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 and y0 for which {yn }∞ n=−1 converges to (10.
∞ (b) Let (y−1 .28) 1 + xn 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = (10.1 We know that every solution {yn }n=−1 of Eq(10.30) xn+1 = xn + xn−1 Extend and generalize. ψ. ∞) such that the ∞ solutions {yn }n=−1 of Eq(10.27). . 2)-Type Equations
10. . (a) Determine the set of initial conditions y−1 and y0 for which φ = ψ. if and only if r = 1 + q.180
Chapter 10.4) are bounded.
Open Problem 10. . Investigate the asymptotic behavior of {yn }n=−1 . and for these initial points investigate the long-term behavior of the corresponding solution: 1 + xn + xn−1 xn+1 = (10.3 For each of the equations listed below.
(10.29) 1 + xn−1 1 + xn + xn−1 .4). x0 ) ∈ R × R through which the equation is well deﬁned for all n ≥ 0.5.
Conjecture 10. φ.
Open Problem 10. (10.5.5. ψ.4) converges to a not necessarily prime period-two solution
.5
Open Problems and Conjectures
∞ Open Problem 10. y0 ) ∈ B. (3. y0 ) ∈ (0. (a) Find the set B of all initial conditions (y−1 . .1 Every positive solution of Eq(10. determine the set G of all initial conditions (x−1 .
. . .21) converges to the positive equilibrium of the equation.2 Assume r > q + 1.5.

{qn }∞ .31)-(10.5. n→∞
q = n→∞ qn .31)
yn+1 = yn+1 =
n = 0. and {rn }n=0 are convergent sen=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits. 1.22) possesses a period-two solution.22) (a) Local stability of the positive equilibrium implies global stability.22) has no prime period-two solutions the equilibrium y is globally asymptotically stable. (10.5. .
181
(b) When Eq(10. when it exists.
∞ Open Problem 10. q.5 Assume that {pn }∞ . (d) The period-two solution of Eq(10. 1 + yn pn + qn yn + rn yn−1 . qn yn + yn−1 n = 0.5. .
p = lim pn . n = 0. ∞).
(10.33). . and {rn }∞ are period-two sen=0 n=0 n=0 quences of nonnegative real numbers.
Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of each of the following three diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = pn + qn yn + rn yn−1 . . . 1. . Then the following statements are true for Eq(10.4 Assume that {pn }∞ . Extend and generalize.
.32) (10. 1 + yn−1 rn + pn yn + yn−1 . . 1. the equilibrium y is a saddle point.10. r ∈ (0.22). (c) When Eq(10. lim
lim and r = n→∞ rn .33)
Open Problem 10.2 Assume that p. Investigate the global character of all positive solutions of Eqs(10. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 10. but not globally. {qn }∞ . .5. is locally asymptotically stable. . .

. . 1 + yn p + qyn + ryn−k .34) (10. . 2)-Type Equations
p. r ∈ [0.35) (10. . qyn + yn−k n = 0. .6 Assume that
Chapter 10. (10. .}. Investigate the global behavior of all positive solutions of each of the following diﬀerence equations: yn+1 = yn+1 = yn+1 = p + qyn + ryn−k . . ∞) and k ∈ {2.182 Open Problem 10.36)
. 1 + yn−k p + qyn + ryn−1 . . . (3. q. . 3. n = 0. 1. n = 0. .5. 1. . 1. .

(11. . . This equation has not been investigated yet. . x= β+γ−A+ (A − β − γ)2 + 4α(B + C) 2(B + C) .2)
.
Eq(11. . invariant intervals.Chapter 11 The (3. − z 2 + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x n−1 A A2 183
n = 0.3) zn+1 − (βA − Bα) + (βC − Bγ)x zn + α(B + C) + (B + C)(A + β + γ)x (γA − Cα) − (βC − γB)x = 0.1
Linearized Stability Analysis
(B + C)x2 − (β + γ − A)x − α = 0. .
The linearized equation about x is (see Section 2. 3)-Type Equation α+βx xn+1 = A+Bxn+γxn−1 n+Cx
n−1
In this chapter we discuss the (3.1)
Please recall our classiﬁcation convention in which all coeﬃcients of this equation are now assumed to be positive and the initial conditions nonnegative. .
11. and the convergence of solutions in certain regions of initial conditions. A + Bxn + Cxn−1 n = 0. (11.1) has a unique equilibrium which is the positive solution of the quadratic equation
That is. . 1. Here we make some simple observations about linearized stability. 3)-type equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 . . 1.

γ > β+A. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
The equilibrium x is locally asymptotically stable if Conditions (2. .1) has a prime period-two solution .
yn ∈ I
. 2 (A + Bx + Cy) (A + Bx + Cy)2 Recall that an interval I is an invariant interval for Eq(11.31) and (2. yN . ψ.13).4.4.32) are satisﬁed. . . y) = is increasing or decreasing in x and y. φ. B > C.3).15) are satisﬁed.2
Invariant Intervals
Here we obtain several invariant intervals for Eq(11. The (3. holds the values of φ and ψ are the positive roots of the quadratic equation t2 + γ−β−A αC + β(γ − β − A) t+ = 0. and α < (γ − β − A)[B(γ − β − A) − C(γ + 3β − A)] .1) by testing whether the hypotheses of one of the four Theorems 1. for n ≥ N. C C(B − C) . φ.14).3) 4C 2
Furthermore. ψ. ψ. . . These intervals are derived by analyzing the intervals where the function f (x. If we set L = βA − αB. φ.1) if whenever.4)
The local asymptotic stability of the two cycle
11. yN +1 ∈ I then for some integer N ≥ 0. is discussed in Section 2. and N = γA − αC α + βx + γy A + Bx + Cy
L + My N − My and fy = .5. . and (2. when (11. φ. . . see Section 2. .5-1. . (11. Eq(11.1). that is.6. then clearly fx = M = βC − γB. . (2.8 are satisﬁed. if. .184
Chapter 11.
Once we have an invariant interval for Eq(11. (11. ψ.1) then we may be able to obtain a convergence result for the solutions of Eq(11. Conditions (2.

(vi) Assume that β γ α γA − αC . B is an invariant interval for Eq(11. C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. y) is decreasing in both variables.
(vii) Assume that α β γ = > . Invariant Intervals Lemma 11. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y. B+C is an invariant interval for Eq(11.1 (i) Assume that β α γ = > . y) is increasing in both variables.
(v) Assume that α β γ γA − αC > . C B A
185
α β Then A . y) is increasing in both variables.2.1) and in this interval the function f (x. C M
α γ Then A . A B C
α Then 0.
(iii) Assume that β α γ > > C B A and β+γ αB − βA ≤ .1) and in this interval the function f (x.
(ii) Assume that β γ α > > B C A and γ N ≤ . βC−γB is an invariant interval for Eq(11.11.
.1) and in this interval the function f (x. < < < B C A βC − γB
α Then 0. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11.2.1) and in this interval the function f (x. C B A
β α Then B .1) and in this interval the function f (x. y) is decreasing in both variables. A is an invariant interval for Eq(11. B+C βC − γB
α β+γ Then A . ≥ > βC − γB A B C
γA−αC Then 0. y) is increasing in both variables.1) and in this interval the function f (x. y) is decreasing in both variables.1) and in this interval the function f (x.
(iv) Assume that β α γ = < .

γ β α (i) The condition C = B > A is equivalent to M = 0 and L > 0. A C
.
. A M M C for all x.1) and in this interval the function f (x. y) is increasing in x and decreasing in y. and N > 0. Thus. B is an invariant interval for Eq(11. in this case the function f is increasing in both variables for all values of x and y and
α β+γ β β β = . In addition. L > 0. Thus. ) ≤ A B B B+C B Here we used the fact that under the condition γ β α = > C B A the function f (u. u) ≤ β β+γ = . = f (0. y ∈
α γ . B A C
γ Then 0. 0) ≤ f (x. y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x.
(x) Assume that β α γ < ≤ . y) is increasing in y and decreasing in x. C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. ) = . A B C
γ Then 0.186 (viii) Assume that
Chapter 11. u) is increasing and consequently f (u. in this case the function f is increasing in x. y) ≤ f ( .1) and in this interval the function f (x. B+C B
γ β α (ii) The condition B > C > A is equivalent to M > 0. C is an invariant interval for Eq(11. for every x. The (3. this function γ N N is increasing in y for x < M . B A C
β Then 0.1) and in this interval the function f (x. which in turn imply that N > 0. y) ≤ f ( . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
β α γ > ≥ .
Proof. assuming C ≤ M we obtain
N N γ α = f (0. 0) ≤ f (x. Thus.
(ix) Assume that α β γ = < .

for every x. A
. In addition. we obtain
0 ≤ f (x. Thus. u) is decreasing and consequently f (u. in this case the function f is decreasing in x.2. we obtain. Thus assuming B+C ≤ − M . y ∈
α β+γ .
α . 0) = . ≤ f (x. Thus. y) ≤ f (0. Invariant Intervals
187
γ β α (iii) The condition C > B > A is equivalent to M < 0 and L > 0.
α = f (0. B+C B
β γ α (v) The condition A > B > C is equivalent to M > 0 and L < 0. for every y. y) ≤ f A for all x. B+C
. 0) ≤ f (x. A M
γ β α (vi) The condition A > C > B is equivalent to M < 0. we obtain
0 ≤ f (x. this function is increasing in x for y < − M . in this case the function f is decreasing in y. 0) =
L for all x. which in turn imply that N > 0. Thus. − M . Thus assuming A ≤ M . In β+γ L L addition. A B+C
β+γ β+γ . In addition. y) ≤ f (0. y ∈ 0. this function α N N is decreasing in y for x < M . which imply that N < 0. which in turn imply that N < 0. B A A A Here we used the fact that under the condition β α γ = < C B A the function f (u. Thus. for every y. L < 0. u) ≥ β+γ β = .
α L ≤− . 0) =
α for all x. y) ≤ f (0. Thus assuming A ≤ − M . and N < 0.11. A .
γ β α (iv) The condition C = B < A is equivalent to M = 0 and L < 0. B+C B+C
≤
β+γ . y ∈ 0. in this case the function f is increasing in y. α L L this function is decreasing in x for y < − M . in this case the function f is decreasing in both variables for all values of x and y and
α α β α ≤f .

β β . v). and N ≥ 0. v) is increasing in v when N > 0 and so γ f (0. in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y.
γ C
=
γ . y) < f
β for all x. y ∈ 0.
2 The next table summarizes more complicated invariant intervals with the signs of the partial derivatives fx and fy . Using this we obtain. C
γ β α (x) The condition B < A ≤ C is equivalent to M < 0. y ∈ 0. A A
β γ α (viii) The condition B > A > C is equivalent to M > 0. Thus.
0 ≤ f (x. Using this we obtain. Thus. Using this we obtain. Using this we obtain. in this case the function f is decreasing in x and increasing in y for all values of x and y. and N < 0. y ∈ 0. B .0 = . C
γ for all x. B B
β γ α (ix) The condition A = B < C is equivalent to M < 0 and L = 0. C .
0 ≤ f (x. C v→∞ for all v.
γ C
≤
γ . y) ≤ f 0.
0 ≤ f (x.0 = .
γ for all x. Here we use the fact that the function f (0. A .
α α . which in turn imply that N > 0. Thus. v) ≤ = lim f (0. in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y. y ∈ 0. y) < f 0. y) ≤ f
α for all x. Thus. L > 0.188
Chapter 11.
. The (3. which in turn imply that N < 0. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
β γ α (vii) The condition A = B > C is equivalent to M > 0 and L = 0. in this case the function f is increasing in x and decreasing in y for all values of x and y. C . L < 0.
0 ≤ f (x.

1 Let {xn } be a solution of Eq(11. fy < 0 if x < M
αM +(β+γ)N αM +(β+γ)N N [ AM +(B+C)N .11. − M ] if AM −L(B+C) < − M αM −βL+γM L L [− M .4. . K1 ] β−A+
Signs of derivatives
N M
[0.5-1. fx < 0 if y > − M fy > 0 fx > 0 fy < 0 fx < 0 fy > 0 L L fx > 0 if y > − M . − M ] if AM −(B+C)L < − M βM K+αM L L [− M .
if √
αM +(β+γ)N AM +(B+C)N
>
N M
fx > 0 fy > 0 if x < fx > 0 fy < 0 fx > 0 fy > 0
N M . B ] γ [0. fy
< 0 if x >
N M
(β−A)2 +4Bα ] 2B
(β+γ−A)2 +4α(B+C) ] 2(B+C) αM −(β+γ)L L L [0. Then in each of the following cases lim xn = x. Convergence Results
189
Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Invariant intervals αM +(β+γ)N N [0. fx < 0 if y < − M fy < 0 fx < 0 fy < 0 fx < 0 N N fy > 0 if x > M . A ]
√
L L fx > 0 if y < − M .3
Convergence Results
The following result is a consequence of Lemma 11.3.3.
((γ − A)M − BN )2 + 4BM (αM + βN )
11. K4 ] if AM +BK+CNM > M M
N M
where K1 = K2 = K3 = K4 = (β − A)M − CN + (A − γ)M − BL + (β − A)M + LC + (γ − A)M − BN + ((β − A)M − N C)2 + 4BM (αM + γN ) 2BM ((A − γ)M − BL)2 + 4CM (αM − βL) ((β − A)M + LC)2 + 4BM (αM − γL) 2BM 2CM −2CM .1).8.2. . C ] αM −L(β+γ) αM −L(β+γ) L L [ AM −L(B+C) . M ] if AM +(B+C)N < αM +βK+γN N N [ M . K3 ] if AM −BL+CMK > − M K α [0.4. Theorem 11. n→∞
. [0. M ] if AM +(B+C)N <
N [ M .1 and Theorems 1. K2 ] if BM K+AM −γL > − M −CL β+γ−A+ β [0.
.

x0 ∈ β α . A B+C
γ γA − αC ≤ .
α (vii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisﬁed and x−1 . x0 ∈
αB − βA β+γ ≤ . β γ α = > . C βC − γB
and x−1 . x0 ∈ 0. B :
β > γ + A. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
γ β α = > C B A (ii) β γ α > > .190 (i)
Chapter 11.
γA − αC . β α γ > ≥ . . B+C βC − γB
and x−1 . . C B A (iv) γ β α = < C B A (v)
and x−1 . and or (C − B)[(C − B)(β − γ − A)2 − 4B(αB + γ(β − γ − A))] > 0. and or (C − B)[(C − B)(β − γ − A)2 − 4B(αB + γ(β − γ − A))] > 0. βC − γB α . B A
and x−1 . B C A (iii) γ β α > > . B A C
. . . x0 ∈ 0. A B C
β (viii) At least one of the following three conditions is not satisﬁed and x−1 . x0 ∈ 0. The (3. x0 ∈
α β γ γA − αC ≥ > > βC − γB A B C (vi)
and x−1 . A :
β > γ + A. A B α γ . x0 ∈
α β . x0 ∈ 0. A
β γ α γA − αC < < < B C A βC − γB
and x−1 . A C α β+γ . B < C. B < C.

x0 ∈ 0.2 Assume that γ β α < min .2. C
191
Proof.4.5.3. The proofs of statements (iv-vi) follow by applying Lemma 11. and by observing that the only solution of the system of equations m = f (m. α γ β < ≤ B A C and x−1 . M ).8. γ . Convergence Results (ix) Condition (11. and by observing that Eq(11.3) is not satisﬁed. γ .1 (i-iii) and Theorem 1. that is.1 (ix) and (x) respectively.3.3 to Eq(11. Theorem 1. m).2.2. The proofs of statements (ix) and (x) follow by applying Lemma 11. The proofs of statements (vii) and (viii) follow by applying Lemma 11. m= α + βm + γM .4.1 (vii) and (viii) respectively.4. 2
11. C and x−1 .1) does not possess a prime period-two solution. C B A Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.2 and linearized stability imply the following global stability result: Theorem 11. A + Bm + CM M= α + βM + γm A + BM + Cm
is m = M .3) is not satisﬁed.1
Global Stability
Theorem 1.1) is globally asymptotically stable.11. x0 ∈ 0. By applying Theorem 1. .2.6. M = f (M. The proofs of statements (i-iii) follow by applying Lemma 11.1 (iv-vi) and Theorem 1. Theorem 1.7.4.3.4.1) we obtain the following global asymptotic result.4.
. β γ α = < A B C (x) Condition (11.

The following global stability result is a consequence of linearized stability and the Trichotomy Theorem 1. B. Theorem 11. γB > βC.3 Assume α. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
Theorem 11.1 Assume
Show that every positive solution of Eq(11. βA ≥ αB.1) is globally asymptotically stable. ∞) and that Eq(11.
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. C ∈ (0. The (3. Show that every positive solution of Eq(11.1) is bounded. γ. ∞).
Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11.4. (b) Assume that αB ≥ βA.4. A. C ∈ (0.1) has a positive prime period-two solution. B.
Conjecture 11.3 Assume that B ≤ C.1) converges to the positive equilibrium. B.4. γ. Then the equilibrium x of Eq(11. A.2 Assume α.3. αB > βA.
Conjecture 11.192
Chapter 11.1) is globally asymptotically stable.4. β. C ∈ (0. and γA > αC. ∞) and that Eq(11. A. γA ≥ αC. and 3βC ≥ γB ≥ βC.1) is a saddle point and the period-two solution is locally asymptotically stable. β.4.4
Open Problems and Conjectures
α. γ. β.4 (a) Assume that αC ≥ γA. Show that the positive equilibrium of Eq(11.
. and 3γB ≥ βC ≥ γB.1) is globally asymptotically stable.3.
Conjecture 11.1) has no positive prime period-two solution.
11.

4. + Ak xn−k (11.4 Assume α. . Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11. Show that Eq(11. Ai ∈ [0. .11.5 Assume that (11. . n = 0. investigate the cases where 2 ≤ k ≤ 8. . .4. ∞). . A. {Cn }∞ n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 are convergent sequences of nonnegative real numbers with ﬁnite limits.1 Assume {αn }n=0 . (11. . γ. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 11. {γn }∞ .1) cannot have a prime period-k solution for any k ≥ 3.5) are period-two sequences of positive real numbers.4. xn+1 = (11. C ∈ (0.7)
Open Problem 11.6)
Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = has a ﬁnite limit. . In particular. ai .4. .3 Assume that a. .4 Assume that (11.
193
∞ ∞ Open Problem 11. {βn }∞ . B. n = 0. {Bn }∞ .7) converges to a period-two solution. k. . ∞) for i = 0.2 Assume that the parameters in Eq(11.4. a + a0 xn + .5) An + Bn xn + Cn xn−1
Open Problem 11. . 1. .6) holds. A + A0 xn + .4. .4.6) holds. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation αn + βn xn + γn xn−1 .5). k ≥ 2.
Open Problem 11. 1. Investigate the asymptotic behavior and the periodic nature of all positive solutions of Eq(11.7) is periodic with period-k.
. 1. .
Open Problem 11. . β. Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions so that every positive solution of Eq(11. A. {An }n=0 . + ak xn−k .

j ∈ {1. ∞) with γ + δ > 0. n = 0. + xn−k + xn−k−1 xn−k−2 . Show that every positive solution of the system xn+1 = yn+1 = zn+1 =
a11 xn a21 xn a31 xn
+ + +
a12 yn a22 yn a32 yn
+ + +
a13 zn a23 zn a33 zn
. β. .4. . 1. .
(11. and the asymptotic behavior of all positive solutions of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = (See [8] and [61].)
Conjecture 11. xn xn−1 + xn−2 + .194
Chapter 11.6 Let aij ∈ (0. . . The (3. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
Open Problem 11. . . 1. q ∈ [0. 2. Show that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = xn + . n = 0. . Extend to equations with real parameters. the periodic nature. (See [32] for the two dimensional case. Investigate the boundedness character.6 Let α. [47]. 1. γxn xn−1 + δxn−2
Conjecture 11. ∞) for i. 3}.8)
converges to a period-two solution.
. . (See [8]. Extend and generalize. . . and [60]. . δ ∈ [0.7 Assume that p.5 Let k ≥ 2 be a positive integer. . ∞). n = 0.4.4. . + xn−k−2
converges to 1.)
Conjecture 11.4. γ.) αxn + βxn−1 xn−2 .

Conjecture 11. .
converges to a period-two solution if p ≥ 1.
195
converges to a period-two solution if and only if p = 1 + q. (a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−1 . ∞).)
Conjecture 11.11. q + xn−2 n = 0. q ∈ [0. .9 Assume that p.4. Open Problems and Conjectures (a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = pxn−1 + xn−2 . 1. (b) Show that when p<1+q every positive solution has a ﬁnite limit. (b) Show that when p<1 the positive equilibrium x =
1 1+p
is globally asymptotically stable. .8 Assume that p ∈ (0. .
. . . xn−1 + pxn−2 n = 0.4.4. (c) Show that when p>1+q the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. ∞). (See [62]. 1.

11 Show that the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = p + xn−2 . (See [62]. .
converges to a period-four solution. 1. . xn n = 0.196
Chapter 11.
converges to a period-two solution if and only if q = 1. .4. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
(a) Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−1 + p . . (iii) When p < 1 there exist positive unbounded solutions. (See [62].) Conjecture 11.
has the following trichotomy character: (i) When p > 1 every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium. (ii) When p = 1 every positive solution converges to a period-ﬁve solution.4.10 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn + xn−2 .)
.) Conjecture 11. (See [62]. (b) Show that when q>1 the positive equilibrium of the equation is globally asymptotically stable. xn−1 n = 0. . The (3. xn−2 + q n = 0. (c) Show that when q<1 the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. 1. . . 1. . .

.4. . .9)
with nonnegative parameters and nonnegative initial conditions such that B + D > 0 and A + Bxn + Dxn−2 > 0 for n ≥ 0. . (See [62].10). n = 0.9) possesses unbounded solutions? (See [6]. 1. ..4.9) converges to a period-two solution? (b) Assume γ < β + δ + A. ψ ∈ (0. . φ. .
197
converges to a period-six solution of the form . ..) ψ 1 1 φ .12 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + xn . . φ φ ψ ψ
Open Problem 11. What other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11.10)
(a) In addition to (11. what other conditions are needed so that every positive solution of Eq(11. where φ.. Open Problems and Conjectures Conjecture 11.7 Consider the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = α + βxn + γxn−1 + δxn−2 . A + Bxn + Dxn−2 (11. 1. . (11.
Then one can show that Eq(11. What other conditions are needed so that Eq(11. ψ.4.)
. ∞). .9) has prime period-two solutions if and only if γ = β + δ + A.9) converges to the positive equilibrium? (c) Assume γ > β + δ + A. xn−1 + xn−2 n = 0. .11.

n = 0. 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
Conjecture 11.) Conjecture 11. .15 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−2 . (b) Show that when q>r every positive solution converges to the positive equilibrium. . 1 + xn + xn−2 n = 0. 1. (a) Show that when q=r every positive solution converges to a period-four solution. . xn 1 + xn−1 + xn−2 . r ∈ (0.
converges to a period-two solution. . 1.) Conjecture 11. .13 Show that every positive solution of each of the two equations xn+1 = and xn+1 = 1 + xn−1 + xn−2 .4.4. . 1. p + qxn + rxn−2 . . . ∞). xn−2 n = 0. xn−1 n = 0.4. 1. xn−1 + xn−2 + xn−3 n = 0.
converges to a period-three solution. . . . (See [6]. . ∞) and q. .14 Show that every positive solution of the equation xn+1 = 1 + xn−1 . (See [6]. . 1. .198
Chapter 11. The (3.4.
Conjecture 11.16 Consider the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = where p ∈ [0.
converges to a period-two solution.
.

.11.
converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of this equation. . xn−2 n = 0. B1 . Bk so that every positive solution of the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = xn−k . . + Bk xn−k n = 0. 1 + xn + xn−3 n = 0. xn−2 + xn−3 . . .)
199
Open Problem 11. Open Problems and Conjectures (c) Show that when q<r the equation possesses positive unbounded solutions. xn + xn−2 + xn−3
n = 0. .4. . 1. 1. . . xn n = 0. . . 1. . . B1 . . . . . (See [62]. 1 + xn−3 . ∞)
with
i=0
Bi > 0. A + B0 xn + . 1. 1. Bk ∈ [0. (See [6].)
. .
Obtain necessary and suﬃcient conditions on the parameters A and B0 .
xn−1 . . . B0 . .9 Assume that k is a positive integer and that
k
A.4. .8 Determine whether every positive solution of each of the following equations converges to a periodic solution of the corresponding equation: (a) xn+1 = (b) xn+1 = (c) xn+1 = (d) xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−3 . . .
Open Problem 11.4.

10 Assume that k is a positive integer. (11. (c) Determine the set of all nonnegative initial conditions x−k .200
Chapter 11.11) possess a positive solution which converges to zero? (b) Determine. 0. . . . 0. 1.
. . .4.12) which corresponds to the nonnegative solution {xn }∞ n=−k of Eq(11.
converges to a periodic solution of period 2k. . . The (3. .12) with a given φ ≥ 0 ? (See [6]. 1 + xn + . . Show that every positive solution of xn+1 = 1 + xn + xn−k . in terms of the nonnegative initial conditions x−k . Then we can easily see that every nonnegative solution of the equation xn+1 = xn−k .11) converges to a period-(k+1) solution of the form (11. + xn−k+1 n = 0. .. the value of φ in (11. . .12)
with φ ≥ 0. . 0. . x0 for which the ∞ corresponding solution {xn }n=−k of Eq(11. . xn−k+1 n = 0. .4. φ. ..11)
converges to a period-(k + 1) solution of the form . .) Conjecture 11.
k−terms
(11. . x0 . 3)-Type Equation xn+1 =
α+βxn +γxn−1 A+Bxn +Cxn−1
Open Problem 11.17 Let k be a positive integer.11). . (a) Does Eq(11. 1.. . . .

1) is to work in the regions where the function f (x. x−2 ∈ I.1 Let [a. has a unique solution in the interval [a. In this regard there are eight possible scenarios depending on whether f (x. 1.4.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. 201
. xn−1 . z) is non decreasing in all three arguments. x−1 . x. b]. or non increasing in two arguments and non decreasing in the third. or non decreasing in all three. n = 0. or non increasing in one and non decreasing in the other two. y. very often a good strategy for obtaining global attractivity results for Eq(A.4.0. xn−2 ). Then for every set of initial conditions x0 . . the diﬀerence equation xn+1 = f (xn . (b) The equation f (x. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. .Appendix A Global Attractivity for Higher Order Equations
In this appendix we present some global attractivity results for higher order diﬀerence equations which are analogous to Theorems 1.1) converges to x. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. x) = x. (A. .5-1. Then Eq(A. y. As we have seen in previous chapters. b] and every solution of Eq(A.
Theorem A. z) is non-decreasing in each of its arguments. Let I be some interval of real numbers and let f :I ×I ×I →I be a continuously diﬀerentiable function. b]3 → [a.1)
∞ has a unique solution {xn }n=−2 . z) is monotonic in its arguments.8. y. We state the results for third order equations from which higher order extensions will become clear.

m = f (m. b] for each x and y ∈ [a. In view of (b). and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
Appendix
for k ≥ 3i + 1. Then Eq(A. (A. mi−1 ).
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . 2
Theorem A. b]3 → [a. b] and every solution of Eq(A. b] × [a. . b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. M. M. m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. . y. M ). M ) ∈ [a. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0. . . . b] for each z ∈ [a.2 Let [a. ≤ Mi ≤ . m) and M = f (M. . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for i = 1. b]. 2.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. . Mi−1 .1) converges to x.202 Proof. . m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . b].0. . mi−1 .
. m. ≤ M1 ≤ M0 . m = M = x. (b) If (m. and is nonincreasing in z ∈ [a. b] is a solution of the system m = f (m. set Mi = f (Mi−1 .2)
Then M ≥ lim sup xi ≥ lim inf xi ≥ m
i→∞ i→∞
and by the continuity of f . m) then m = M. M ) and M = f (M. z) is non-decreasing in x and y ∈ [a. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . from which the result follows. ≤ mi ≤ .

M. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. m = f (m. b] for each z ∈ [a. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the result follows. 2. set Mi = f (Mi−1 . . 2
Theorem A.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . b]3 → [a. . M ) and m = f (m. . m. y. m). . . z) is non-decreasing in x and z in [a. M ) and M = f (M. b]. b] × [a.
. M ) ∈ [a.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.1) converges to x. and is nonincreasing in y ∈ [a. m) then m = M. Then Eq(A. and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
203
for k ≥ 3i + 1. mi−1 . .0. Mi−1 ). b] and every solution of Eq(A. b]. b] for each x and z in [a. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x.2) holds and by the continuity of f . Mi ≤ .Appendix Proof. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 a = m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . M. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. b] is a solution of the system M = f (M.3 Let [a. (b) If (m. . M1 ≤ M0 = b. ≤ mi ≤ . . Mi−1 . mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . . m.
Then (A.

b]3 → [a. (b) If (m. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. m. Mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 . 2. m. . . and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
Appendix
for k ≥ 3i + 1. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 a = m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .2) holds and by the continuity of f . .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. 2 and M = f (M.1) converges to x. Then Eq(A. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. M. m) . M. M ) Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . M ) and m = f (M. mi−1 . b] × [a.0. Mi−1 . m) then m = M. y. b]. z) is non-increasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a.4 Let [a. . set Mi = f (Mi−1 .
Then (A. ≤ mi ≤ . M ) ∈ [a. Mi ≤ . m = f (m. . M1 ≤ M0 = b. b] and every solution of Eq(A. y ∈ [a. . b] and is non-decreasing in y and z for each x. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. mi−1 ) . . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1.
. .
Theorem A. .204 Proof.

. mi−1 . M. z) is non-decreasing in x for each y and z ∈ [a. 2. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a.Appendix Proof.2) holds and by the continuity of f .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. 2
Theorem A. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
205
for k ≥ 3i + 1. . . b]. M = f (m. ≤ mi ≤ . Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. m).0. b] and every solution of Eq(A. M ) and m = f (M. m) and m = f (m. mi−1 ). set Mi = f (mi−1 . b]3 → [a. m. m. M ) ∈ [a. (b) If (m. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . Then Eq(A. . b] and is non-increasing in y and z for each x ∈ [a. b] is a solution of the system M = f (M.5 Let [a. . Mi−1 . . . .1) converges to x. y.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . Mi ≤ . Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . . M ) then m = M. b] × [a.
Then (A. M.

2. M.2) holds and by the continuity of f . m. y. Mi−1 . b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. . .0. m) and m = f (m. 2
Theorem A. .
. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. mi−1 . Then Eq(A. M ) ∈ [a. M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
Appendix
for k ≥ 3i + 1. set Mi = f (Mi−1 .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a.1) converges to x. z) is non-decreasing in y for each x and z ∈ [a. . M = f (M. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. . .206 Proof. m. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . mi−1 ) and mi = f (mi−1 .
Then (A. M ). . .
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . ≤ mi ≤ . b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. . b] and every solution of Eq(A. Mi ≤ . (b) If (m. b]. b]3 → [a. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. b] and is non-increasing in x and z for each y ∈ [a. b] × [a. M ) then m = M. Mi−1 ). M.6 Let [a. m) and m = f (M.

. . m) and m = f (M.0. b] × [a. m. b] and is non-increasing in x and y for each z ∈ [a. . set Mi = f (mi−1 . b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. z) is non-decreasing in z for each x and y in [a.
Then (A. (b) If (m. M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
207
for k ≥ 3i + 1.Appendix Proof. . M = f (m. Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. M ) ∈ [a. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . Mi ≤ .7 Let [a.
. Mi−1 . M ) and m = f (M. Mi−1 ). . . b]. mi−1 . 2. m) then m = M.1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. M. Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . m.1) converges to x. . b] and every solution of Eq(A. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. ≤ mi ≤ . M ). M. 2
Theorem A.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi .2) holds and by the continuity of f . . b]3 → [a. . b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. Then Eq(A. y.

Mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. M ) ∈ [a. 2
Theorem A. (b) If (m.8 Let [a.2) holds and by the continuity of f . . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ .
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. . y. b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (x. Then Eq(A.208 Proof. M. m). M ) then m = M. . z) is non-increasing in all three variables x. b]3 → [a. b]. . M ) and m = f (M. m) and m = f (M. mi−1 ). mi−1 . M = f (m. b] and every solution of Eq(A.1) converges to x. ≤ mi ≤ . Mi ≤ . .1) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. M1 ≤ M0 = b and mi ≤ xk ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
Appendix
for k ≥ 3i + 1. .0. Mi−1 . m. M. b] is a solution of the system M = f (m.
Then (A. y. . z in [a. b] × [a. m.
. . 2. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a. set Mi = f (mi−1 . .

. b]p → [a. m) and m = f (M. M = f (m. mi−1 . Let us formulate one of these results. M.2) holds and by the continuity of f . f : Ip → I n = 0.1-A. In this case.
Then (A. . . u2 . . . Set m0 = a and M0 = b and for each i = 1. m. . ≤ mi ≤ . M ). 1.8. Mi−1 . (A.3) 2
The above theorems can be easily extended to the general diﬀerence equation of order
. . where is a continuous function. there are 2p possibilities for the function f to be non decreasing in some arguments and non increasing in the remaining arguments. Therefore in view of (b) m=M from which the results follows. . This gives 2p results of the type found in Theorems A.
i→∞
and M = lim Mi . . up ) is non decreasing in the second and the third variables u2 and u3 and is non increasing in all other variables. set Mi = f (mi−1 . xn−1 . . Now observe that for each i ≥ 0 m0 ≤ m1 ≤ . . Mi ≤ . . b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: (a) f (u1 .0. . mi−1 ) and mi = f (Mi−1 . .Appendix Proof. . Theorem A. p xn+1 = f (xn . . .9 Let [a. 2. b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a.0. M1 ≤ M0 = b and m i ≤ x k ≤ Mi Set m = lim mi
i→∞
209
for k ≥ 3i + 1. . Mi−1 ). xn−p+1 ). .0. .

m. .3) has a unique equilibrium x ∈ [a. M. .210 (b) If (m. M ) ∈ [a. m. . . b] and every solution of Eq(A. . M. m. . . b] is a solution of the system M = f (m. m) and m = f (M. .
Appendix
Then Eq(A. M ) then m = M. b] × [a.
.3) converges to x. M.

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75 global asymptotic stability of the zero equilibrium. 25 open problems and conjectures. 3 convergence to period-two solutions. 78 Riccati number. 129 positive equilibrium. 9. 38 Discrete Epidemic Models. 17. 66. 138–139. 7 repeller. 6 invariant. 43–46. 29 existence of prime period-two solution. 70 May’s host parasitoid model. 192–200 oscillate about x. 33 Pielou’s discrete delay logistic model. 17 full limiting sequence. 9 positive semicycle. 6 globally asymptotically stable. 6 Lyness’ equation. 163–166. 71 invariant interval. 41–42. 7 periodic solutions with the same period. 1.Index
basin of attraction of a two cycle. 32 local stability of the zero equilibrium. 24 prime period p solution. 16 gingerbreadman map. 128 population model. 49–51. 7
. 64–68. 180–182. 6. 7 semicycle analysis. 30 217 locally asymptotically stable. 129 forbidden set. 24–28 signum invariant. 15 full limiting solution. 184–189 limiting solution. 9 negative semicycle. 66 Pielou’s equation. 6 locally stable. 2 ﬁxed point. 183 linearized stability theorem. 18 saddle point. 57 Plant-herbivore system. 36 local stability of the positive equilibrium . 2. 9–14 global attractor. 7 Riccati diﬀerence equation. 15 linearized stability analysis. 5 Flour Beetle Model. 134– 136. 5. 72–75. 2. 75 negative feedback condition. 2. 31 global attractivity of the positive equilibrium. 25 nonoscillatory. 25 oscillate about zero. 25 periodic solution. 38 sink. 38 classiﬁcation of equation types. 128 equilibrium point. 35 existence of solutions. 123–130. 6 local asymptotic stability of a two cycle. 5.

42. 131 (2. 141 (3. 2)-type. 3)-type. 69–70 (2. 137 (3. 1)-type. 6 unstable manifold. 189 trichotomy character. 7 strictly oscillatory. 5 stability trichotomy. 2)-type. 77–78 (2. 1)-type. 3)-type.218 source. 10 stable manifold. 167 (3. 168 type of equation (1. 25 table of invariant intervals. 2)-type. 53–54 (1. 8 stable manifold theorem in the plane. 183 unstable equilibrium. 3)-type. 8
INDEX
. 1)-type. 47–48 (1. 6 stability of equilibrium.