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On 18th April 1942 the American Navy bombed Tokyo, Kobe, Osaka, Yokosuka and

Nagoya
in the so-called Doolittle Raid. None of the sixteen U.S. planes were shot down.

All told Doolittle's planes damaged several important Jap facilities, including
the
Nagoya Aircraft Factory, an oil-tank farm, the Mitsubishi Company, the Japan Steel

Company's Factory Number 1, and started fires that destroyed 90 other buildings.
Despite efforts to strike only military and industrial targets, some U.S. bombs
got
astray and, together with the debris from Jap anti-aircraft fire, damaged several
schools and a Japanese army hospital. The Japanese claimed 50 civilians were
killed
and 252 wounded.

All the raiders never made it back to their carriers. 1 of the participating
planes
in the raid, plane #8 had engines that were improperly adjusted and used fuel too
quickly & was forced to fly to Soviet territory and safely landed at a Russian air
field 40 miles from Vladivostok. Because the Soviets were not yet at war with
Japan
the crew was interned for almost 13 months before escaping back to Allied
territory
in Persia and returning to the U.S.in May 1943.
Of the other planes, four crash landed in China or along the coast, 11 others were

able to fly deeper into China, where their crews bailed out. 2 of the raiders
died
in the crash landings, and one after bailing out. Eight raiders were injured
while
bailing out or crash landing.

News of the Doolittle Raid were published in U.S. newspapers. The attack on Japan

gave citizens of the United States a giant boost in morale, following 5 months of
nothing but news of Allied setbacks in the Pacific. Details of how the raid was
launched were kept secret for more than a year, before being released. When
Presi-
dent Roosevelt was asked by the press where Doolittle's attack was launched from,
he joked that it took off from the secret American base at "Shangri La", a
mythical
Asian city in the novel Lost Horizon by James Hilton.

3 surviving crewmen of Plane #6, Lieutenant Dean Hallmark, Lieutenant Robert
Meder,
& Lieutenant Chase Nielson, were captured by the Japanese while hiding in a
Chinese
house. Also captured were the entire crew of Plane #16, who had bailed out of
their
B-25 south of Poyang.

They were Lieutenant William Farrow, Lieutenant Bob Hite, Lieutenant George Barr,
Corporal Jacob DeShaze and Sergeant Harold Spatz.

The Japanese retaliated for the Doolittle Raid by launching an offensive against
Chekiang Province, where most of Doolittle's men had bailed out or crash landed.
53 Japanese infantry battalions spent 3 months rampaging through some 20,000 sq.
miles of territory, destroying entire villages, killing some 250,000 civilians,
plowing up every airfield in the Chinese province and razing the city of Chuchow
( where the raiders were expected to have landed ) to the ground.

Anyone suspected of having met or helped the Doolittle flyers was arrested and
afterwards tortured to death.

In Oct 1942 3 of the 8 Doolittle raiders captured by the Japanese were executed
near Kiangwan Prison in Shanghai. Lieutenant Dean Hallmark (pilot of Plane #6),
Lieutenant William Farrow (pilot of Plane #16) and Sergeant Harold Spatz (Flight
Engineer and gunner of Plane #16) were forced to kneel, tied to small crosses and
shot to death.

In 1943 Lieutenant Robert Meder (co-pilot of Plane #6) died of malnutrition and
mistreatment at a Japanese military prison camp in Nanking.

In Aug 1945 a team from the OSS (Office of Strategic Services - the forerunner of
the modern day Central Intelligence Agency or CIA) parachuted into Peking & arra-
nged for the newly surrendered Japanese to release the last four Doolittle raiders

still held by Japan. Corporal Jacob D. DeShaze, Lieutenant Robert L. Hite, and
Lieutenant Chase J. Nielsen were flown to the Chinese Nationalist capitol of Chu-
nking. One Lieutenant George Barr was too sick to make the trip, but did recover
to return home. All four of the airmen suffered for 40 months in Japanese prisons,
tortured, beaten, almost starved to death and often kept in solitary confinement.

Treatment typical of how the Japanese dealt with Allied prisoners of war.

In Apr 1946, 4 Japanese officers were tried by the International Military Tribunal

for the Far East for war crimes connected with the trial, mistreatment, torture &
execution of members of the Doolittle Raid.

They were Capt Sotojiro Tatsuta, warden of the prison where 3 of the raiders were
executed, and three members of the Japanese military court that ordered the exec-
utions: Lieutenant General Shigeru Sawada, Lieutenant Yusei Wako and Capt Ryukei
Okada. All four were convicted & given sentences ranging from five to nine years
in prison.