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UNITED NATIONS

HUMANITARIAN UPDATE vol. 35
4 September – 10 September 2008

Office of the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator in Kenya

HIGHLIGHTS
• A crisis situation is emerging in the Mandera districts due to consecutive failed rains;
forecasts suggest that the situation may continue to deteriorate after the short rains.
• The Kenyan Red Cross reported that there are 13,164 IDPs in 10 main IDP camps; the
KRCS, WFP and an interagency assessment noted that there were at least 99,198 IDPs in
160 transit sites; the Government reported that 234,098 IDPs had returned to pre-
displacement areas by 28 August.
• UNICEF highlighted that over 95,000 children under the age of five and pregnant and
breastfeeding women are malnourished. Of that number, 10,000 are severely
malnourished.
• A diarrhoea outbreak in Bungoma East, Bungoma West and Mount Elgon districts kills
six while at least 171 seek treatment according to the Kenya Red Cross.
The information contained in this report has been compiled by OCHA from information received from the
field, from national and international humanitarian partners and from other official sources. It does not
represent a position from the United Nations. This report is posted on: http://ochaonline.un.org/kenya
I. General Overview
Six months after the contested General Election in Kenya led to widespread post election violence
(PEV) and the eventual formation of a Grand Coalition Government, a Gallup Poll was conducted
to obtain popular opinions on past grievances, satisfaction with the current leadership and the way
forward. Conducted between 19 June and 9 July across all provinces in Kenya, the Poll included a
sample of 2,200 people. The results suggest that there is widespread speculation that the General
Election was not conducted honestly: 70% of those polled questioned the veracity of the results.
Measured against historical figures, confidence in the democratic system has declined from 63% in
2006 to only 22% in 2008 while confidence in the judicial system declined form 55% in 2007 to only
36% in 2008. Meanwhile, the conduct of the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) has been
under intense scrutiny by the Commissions of Inquiry into the Post-Election Violence (CIPEV) and
the Poll reported that 68% of those questioned held the ECK directly responsible for the PEV.

The most pressing issues for the
Government to address moving forward.
Gallup Poll, 8 September
The CIPEV is currently compiling its report after hearing public testimony and there have been
widespread calls for the final report to be made public so as to ensure that those behind the
violence are held accountable. The heated debate and close divisions in society over whether
perpetrators of PEV should be given amnesty was reconfirmed during the Poll: 48% said that those
who have been arrested should be prosecuted and sentenced if found guilty; 23% said they should
be prosecuted but given amnesty if found guilty and 28% said they should be released without a
trial. However, there were positive signs that reconciliation could transcend the amnesty debate as
an overwhelming majority (82%) agreed that they could coexist peacefully in their city or
community with all Kenyans, regardless of their ethnicity or tribal affiliation.
As Kenyan households feel the pressure of increased inflation with rising commodity prices, the
issues of economic security and development were highlighted in the Poll as key areas for the
Government to address and only 7% of those polled felt that the return of IDPs was the most
pressing issue. Meanwhile, in an effort to bolster public confidence in the economy, Kenya’s
Central Bank announced that inflation was expected to fall below 20% by January 2009. Inflation
rates in August were at 27.6%, up form 18.2% in January.
II. Humanitarian Situation
Crisis Situation in Mandera West District
The situation in the Mandera districts is
worsening and humanitarian partners, including
Action Against Hunger, Save the Children UK,
Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Suisse and Islamic
Relief, report that a crisis situation is emerging.
Water resources have been depleted after
consecutive failed rains in 2007 and 2008 and the
Kenya Meteorological Department forecasts that
the forthcoming short rains will be only near
normal to below normal throughout most of the
northeast, including Mandera. Meanwhile, many
wells and water pans have dried up and some
communities have relied on trucked water for the
past two months. Furthermore, an influx of
pastoralists from neighbouring countries is
increasing the pressure on scarce resources.
Approximately 80% of the population in the
region are pastoralists whose coping
mechanisms have been eroded due to the
successive failed rains. Deteriorated quantity
October – November -December 2008 Rainfall Forecast
and quality of pasture areas has forced early Source: Kenya Meteorological Department
migrations and herds to trek long
distances, which has negatively
impacted body conditions and milk
production. Livestock diseases are also
ravaging weakened herds, including
peste des petits ruminants (PPR), which
has killed some three million small
ruminants since 2006.

With a deteriorating livelihoods and food
security situation in the region,
malnutrition is also increasing: global
acute malnutrition rates have increased
Action Against Hunger, March 2008
in all divisions since 2007 (as of March
2008) and are almost twice the

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emergency level in some areas. Food prices have also increased between 60-120% in some
areas while reduced access to water has led to poor hygiene and sanitation, which is increasing
the spread of diseases.
The deteriorating situation is also exacerbating resource-based conflicts and UN Department of
Safety and Security reported that flashpoints are arising, particularly related to boreholes.
Tensions are also high in the region related to the movement of militia over the border with
Somalia.
To address the critical situation in Mandera, urgent interventions are required, including increased
funds for water trucking to the district; increased funding for ready-made supplementary feeding
inputs (wet feeding); and increased funding for the general food distribution to cover all those in
need.
Food Security
Noting that approximately 1.34 million are
affected by food insecurity in Kenya, UNICEF
highlighted that over 95,000 children under the
age of five and pregnant and breastfeeding
women are malnourished. Of that number,
10,000 are severely malnourished.
According to the LRA, substantial areas of the
northern, eastern pastoral and coastal clusters
were highly food insecure (see areas highlighted
in orange in the map). The Kenya Food
Security Update highlighted that insufficient and
erratic rainfall during the long rains has had a
particularly negative impact on pastoralists’
livelihoods due to declined water availability and Kenya Food Security Update, (FEWSNET, USAID, WFP,
Ministry of Agriculture and ALRMP) August 2008.
Declining Livestock Prices in the agro-pastoral
areas of Baringo district deteriorated pasture and livestock
conditions. This has resulted in accelerated
early migrations; loss in livestock body
conditions, linked in part to increased and
extensive trekking distances; increased
susceptibility to livestock diseases
(including PPR); and heightened conflict
due to competition for scarce resources,
resulting in loss of life and the rendering of
pasture areas and markets inaccessible.
Furthermore, the Update highlighted that
the terms of trade for livestock have
reduced, coupled with an increase in cereal
and food prices (70-120% higher than the
five-year average). Underscoring the urgency of the situation of the highly food insecure, UNICEF
noted that in the drought-affected areas of northern and eastern Kenya, negative coping
mechanisms are emerging, which could affect individuals’ long-term development, such as school
drop-outs.
According to the Update, the northern and eastern pastoral clusters, and significant areas of the
agro-pastoral and marginal agricultural clusters had moderate deterioration in food security (see
areas in yellow in the map above); approximately 500,000 persons are affected by moderate food
insecurity in these areas. Many of the conditions affecting the pastoral cluster areas have also
impacted food security in this group, while there was also an estimated 80% to near total crop
failure in some agricultural areas. Furthermore, purchasing power was reduced due to a 60%
increase in the price of food and non-food commodities since January. Due to the precarious food

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security situation in these areas, the Update noted that if the short rains fail, agricultural
households in this group will face an increasing livelihoods crisis.

The Update highlighted that PEV-affected areas and parts of Mount Elgon district remain in the
emergency phase. Many IDPs continue to rely on food assistance and the capacity of some
communities who had provided assistance to IDPs is declining. Many IDPs and returnees
therefore remain at an emergency phase because they have lost much of their capital and assets
with which to re-build their livelihoods. They require urgent livelihoods support in addition to
continued food assistance.
It is estimated that 2.3 million MTs will be harvested between August and January 2009, which is
10% lower than the short-term average. The Update noted that the there is a 297,000 MT deficit in
the strategic grain reserve to cover food needs during this period. The Government plans to import
approximately 80,000 MTs of maize from South Africa by October, but will regulate imports so as
to ensure that they have a
minimal impact on national
grain producer incomes.
However, it is unlikely that
producer prices will be
affected as the FEWSNET
Report on Market Prices
highlighted that wholesale
prices for white maize had
increased by nearly a third
in some markets between
April and June. Maize
prices are expected to stay
above the historical
average, which will
continue to impact
household food insecurity
for those that depend on
markets.
WFP reported that a rapid food security assessment is being planned in the PEV- affected areas in
September and October to review beneficiary needs after the September harvest. (The full Update and
Report on Market Prices can be found at www.fews.net)

Diarrhoeal Outbreak in Western Kenya Health
KRCS reported a
suspected diarrhoeal
outbreak in Bungoma
East, Bungoma West and
Mount Elgon districts on 9
September (see map
below): KRCS confirmed
that at least six people
died due to the outbreak
and at least 171 have
been treated. The district
Medical Health Officers
have collected water
samples to determine the
cause of the outbreak and
KRCS is providing medical
support in conjunction with
Government health

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officers. MSF reported that so far 25 samples have tested negative for cholera but ten have tested
positive for E. coli bacteria. KRCS also distributed an assortment of medical supplies to Kimilili
District Hospital and other health centres in Kimalewa and Kapkateny districts. Suspected sources
of the outbreak include contaminated well and river water, which communities use before it is
treated.
Mount Elgon
The Government refuted recent reports that it is withdrawing security forces from the Mount Elgon
region. It was clarified that the Government plans to maintain a permanent security presence in
the region and a military camp at Bene Ndega is currently under construction. However, it was
reconfirmed that troop numbers have been reduced following the completion of the initial operation
to rout the Sabaot Land Defence Force (SLDF) Militia. It was also noted that a total of 30 police
and administration stations have been established to further support security in the region.
The International Rescue Committee (IRC) highlighted sentiments aired in several community
demonstrations, which have supported the Government’s maintenance of a security presence in
the region. In particular, IRC has noted the importance of ensuring protection, particularly against
sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in the region.
The UN Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) reported that residents have requested the
Government to exhume approximately 46 bodies of relatives who were allegedly killed by the
SLDF so they can be given proper burials.

Security
UNDSS reported that threats were made by youth in Garissa district, demanding employment from
humanitarian agencies in the district. Provincial and district authorities are following up with local
police to address the issue while movement without security escorts in the region is unadvisable.
Population Movements and Displacement Trends
The KRCS reported that there were 25,296 IDPs in 48 IDP camps as of 1 September and 13,164
IDPs in the 10 main camps as of 5 September. The KRCS, WFP and an interagency assessment
concluded that there were at least 99,198 IDPs in 160 transit sites. The Ministry of State for
Special Programmes (MoSSP) reported that as of 28 August, 234,098 IDPs had returned to pre-
displacement areas. The majority of returns have taken place from Molo district (43,277 persons)
followed by Kipkelion (23,992 persons) and Trans Nzoia West districts (21,472 persons).

Total IDPs in Camps in Kenya Total IDP Camps in Kenya
350

350,000
300
296
300,000 301,643
250 247
250,000 235
234,725
200
200,000 202,470
157,958 Total 150
157 Total
150,000
123
100,000 100 102
84,752
71,845
50,000 48
24,076 25,269
50 50
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Source: KRCS 27 August

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South Rift Valley
IDP Camps IDP Camp Population District Number of Population in
27 15,610 Transit Sites Transit Sites
Molo 42 51,756
Source, Kenya Red Cross, 27 August
Narok 1 3,642
Kipkelion 1 500
Naivasha District Total 64 40,471
Between 6-8 September, conflict over land
between agriculturalists and pastoralists resulted in Source, Inter-agency assessment 10-11 June for Molo
and Narok South districts; KRC/WFP Distribution Plans,
the displacement of 200 individuals from Maela to 23 August for Kipkelion district (including transit sites
Kongoni police station, Naivasha district and only from the distribution list)
Peacenet reported that some lives were lost during
the clashes. The situation of the new IDPs at Kongoni police station is being monitored by World
Vision, KRCS, UNHCR and OCHA.
Molo district
A joint UNHCR, WFP and OCHA team visited Kehingo, Njoro division, Molo district on 12 August
to monitor the returns situation. It was reported by community members that returnees were not
returning to their farms but were living with community members and working on their farms during
the day; full return to their pre-displacement homes has been reportedly constrained due to
insecurity. Mistrust and suspicion were also reportedly widespread in the division. Peace
committees had been initiated in the communities, but after reaching a stalemate they were
discontinued and support to reinitiate the committees and mediate disputes is being sought.
North Rift Valley
IDP IDP Camp Population
Camps
District Number of Population in
6 7,709
Transit Transit Sites
Source, Kenya Red Cross, 27 August Sites
Uasin Gishu 48 26,152
The Government has made statements Trans Nzoia 8 17,283
West
reconfirming that it has sufficient funds to provide Lugari 13 4,031
each family Ksh10,000 (USD 166) in start up Kisumu 2 253
funds, as well as shelter support and has Nyamira 1 194
accelerated the returns process in the North Rift. Masaba 1 204
However, there have been widespread reports in Bungoma 3 319
local media that some IDPs are refusing to leave East
Bungoma 1 24
IDP camps because they are not being paid the South
start up funds, or they feel the funds are Koibatek 1 254
insufficient to restart their livelihoods. Nandi North 11 3,845
Nandi South 7 6,168
TOTAL 96 58,727
There are also outstanding concerns that some
areas of return may not be suitable for returns, KRC/WFP Distribution Plans, 23 August (including
which could lead to an increased number of IDPs transit sites and transit farms on the distribution list)
relocating to transit sites when they leave IDP
camps. There are also significant populations of squatters that may not have homes or land to
return to when IDP camps are closed.

Two major camps in the North Rift have already been closed, including the Endebess IDP camp,
Kwanza district (with at least 600 IDPs) and Noigam IDP Camp, Trans Nzoia district (with 315
IDPs). During the returns process 23 households from Endebess IDP camp and 20 households at
Noigam IDP camp claimed that they were not paid the start-up funds by the Government; however,
they had to leave the IDP camps and UNHCR and OCHA are following up with the authorities to

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resolve the issue. Eight families are being accommodated by the Catholic Church while families in
Endebess are camping near the DC’s office.
Approximately 3,787 people remain in the Eldoret ASK Showground IDP Camp, Uasin Gishu
district; 278 people remain in the Burnt Forest IDP Camp, Uasin Gishu district; and 1,320 people
remain in the Kapsabet IDP Camp, Nandi North district.
Nairobi Province
The Dagoretti Waithaka IDP camp in Nairobi district was closed during the reporting period and
at least 209 households were provided Government start-up funds during the returns process. The
Provincial Administration announced plans to close the remaining camps in Nairobi in the near
future; however, many of those remaining in the camps do not have homes to return to. There is a
large population of landlords whose properties were taken over during the PEV and there are also
squatters who do not have homes or land to return to.
Western Province
The Kakamega Central DC’s Office distributed the start-up funds of KSh 10,000 (USD 166) to 168
households at the Kakamega Police Station IDP Camp on 4 September. The DC’s Office
informed IDPs that they were required to leave the following day, though an extension was allowed
for vulnerable IDPs. There were some disturbances in the camp when IDPs misperceived the
presence of police, who had been called to deal with some disruptive community members inside
the camp.
III. Humanitarian Response
Food Assistance
Emergency Humanitarian Response
Plan Funding as of 3 September September food distribution plans are being finalized for PEV-
Original Requirements: 41,938,954 affected areas. WFP and FAO will conduct a rapid food security
Revised Requirements: 191,929,303 assessment after the September harvest to reassess
Funding: 108,587,825/ 56.58%
beneficiary needs. In the North Rift and KRCS is finalizing the
distribution of 2011MT of food commodities provided by WFP to
Unmet Requirements: 83,341,478 134,706 beneficiaries. Delays were caused by drained stocks
of vegetable oil in Eldoret, Uasin Gishu district, which have now
been replenished.
WFP has dispatched 306MT of cereals to finalize the August distribution cycle in the South Rift for
the remaining 26,910 beneficiaries. Planning for September distribution is underway with ongoing
verification of beneficiaries as they move following the receipt of Government start-up payments. In
agreement with the District Public Health Officer, 15.3MT of corn-soya bend (CSB) not clearly
marked with manufacturing dates are scheduled to be tested.
Protection
The Protection Cluster is underscoring the need for voluntary return, particularly with regard to the
closure of the Endebess IDP Camp, Kwanza district and Noigam IDP Camp, Trans Nzoia district.
The Cluster has raised concerns that IDPs are being made to leave the camps despite their
request for additional time to make arrangements for return or relocation.
The International Rescue Committee is advocating for the protection of human rights of the
population in Mt. Elgon. KRCS clarified that the ICRC is providing support to people displaced as
a result of the conflict in the region; however, returnees from Trans Nzoia and other areas are in
need of assistance.
Four cases of GBV in Molo were reported at the SGBV Working Group meeting. Among IDPs
there is a general lack of awareness about GBV, and survivors may not be able to access
treatment because they are unable to pay fees. In addition, IDPs lack knowledge about their rights
and the availability of protection. The majority of IDPs expressed concern over insecurity in the
areas of return and alleged that reporting systems are corrupt. UNHCR conducted GBV

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sensitization exercises at Karirikania, Sawmill, and Molo IDP camps on 2 and 3 September. The
SGBV Working Groups in both Molo and Nakuru districts are developing joint sensitization and
orientation sessions on responding to SGBV for IDPs, humanitarian workers and Government
officials.

Who Place and date Activity/ Report
UNHCR Kakamega 2&4 Sept Facilitated workshops on the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
to four provincial officials and 34 district administrators from Western
Province.
Kenya Youth Nairobi 5 Sept Provided training students on rape management. They are seeking
Agaist GBV additional funding to expand their trainings to college students in Nairobi.
KRCS KRCS tracing team has reunited 35 of 55 unaccompanied minors through
its media campaign.
NCCK Molo Implemented a mentor programme to reach 210 unaccompanied minors.
NCCK intends to recruit more mentors
SCUK & Hope for Molo Counselling parents on the risks associated with leaving their children
Women unattended. SCUK have recommended to the Department of Children
considering the prosecution of some parents for negligence, particularly in
cases where babies and toddlers are left in the care of young children.

Shelter and Non Food Items
The Government shelter project was launched in Molo district on 10 September 2008, officiated by
the Minister for Special Programmes (MoSSP). The Government plans to establish 40,000 houses
for those affected by the PEV, with partners, before March 2009 and is seeking additional funding
to support this effort. The IOM shelter units will consists of a two-room unit with mud walls, a
wooden door and iron sheet roofed. Peace and reconciliation messages were highlighted during
the launch; however, during some returnees suggested that they were not yet willing to reconcile.
The UNDP UNV in partnership with Nakuru Christian Professionals pledged to provide 50 beds to
be distributed to vulnerable households in Ndeffo area of Molo district.
The DRC shelter programme funded by UNHCR was launched in Karirikania, Molo District on 8
September. The launch was attended by the Molo District Commissioner, UNOCHA, UNHCR,
DRC, UNDP UNV, area chiefs and councillors, returnees and the local community. The transitional
shelter kit contains the materials to build a two room house, roofed with iron sheets, and tarpaulin
walls with no doors. The returnees expressed concerns that tarpaulin walls were not cold proof and
did not provide sufficient security and requested support to build mud walls. DRC and UNHCR
agreed to try to source for additional resources to assist beneficiaries to upgrade the shelter kit.
The Permanent Secretary for Internal Security led a Government delegation to launch the
disbursement of KSh10,000 start-up capital and Ksh25,000 for shelter materials in Karirikania
Farm, Molo District. Prior to the launch IDPs at Muchorwe Farm held a demonstration over the
delayed payments and the PS assured demonstrators that the Government will facilitate payment.

Inter-agency assessments continued for five transit sites in Uasin Gishu to verify numbers of IDPs
not previously living in camps and in need of shelter materials and NFIs. Due to the ongoing
government distribution of KSh10,000 two of the sites could not be accessed. The assessment
identified approximately 500 households who had been living in communities, who were in need of
shelter and NFIs. The distribution of NFIs in Uasin Gishu has been postponed pending the
consignment of tarpaulins procured in Uganda with CERF funding.

Who Place Activity/ Report
UNHCR Muhoroni Town, Distributed 14 tents to vulnerable families identified by the Divisional Officer, area
Nyando Division, Chief and IDP representative. UNHCR will conduct a monitoring exercise in one
Nyanza 3 Sept month to verify use of the tents.
GOAL Lelu, Nyaskia, Distributed UNHCR Family Kits to 182 families. Kit contents are mosquito nets,
Nyaribari in soap, kitchen set, jerry can, tarpaulins, and blankets.
Nakuru 5 Sept

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Education
Contracts for volunteer teachers that were contracted by UNICEF in the camp schools expired on
31 July 2008; the education cluster will advocate with the Ministry of Education (MoE) for further
support to volunteer teachers, as UNICEF’s support was temporary.
The Cluster is working with the MoE to address challenges that could be faced by 288 primary
school candidates from Eldoret Showground Primary School if the Eldoret ASK Showground IDP
camp is closed before children take their exams: 91 of these children are from child-headed
households and require additional support such as NFIs; 20 of the candidates are separated from
their families. The Ministry of Education, confirmed that exam centres will be at the Wareng High
School, St. Elizabeth Secondary School, and Arnessens, Langas and Race Course Primary
Schools in the event of camp closure. The Education Sub-Committee also requested stakeholders
to identify a boarding facility for the 91 candidates who have been separated from their families.
According to Officers from the Ministry of Education, the Government’s position on all IDP students
and candidates is that all parents should take full responsibility for ensuring that their children
reach the exams centres.
40 Form 4 candidates have been unable to pay Kshs.1000 for their practical exams at Wareng
High School, Usain Gishu district. Discussion are going on with the MoE to find a solution.
An assessment carried out by an education officer to collect data on IDP children hosted in schools
in Nyando district revealed that the district has over 4,200 IDP children in primary school and 120
in secondary schools. The assessment also provided information on the number of teachers at
each school: there were 15 primary teachers who had left since the beginning of the PEV and five
have since been posted to schools in the district; and nine secondary school teachers left and 10
have been posted in the district. However, according to the District Education Officer (DEO), the
teachers posted to the district were not necessarily posted to the same schools from where the
other teachers left. Some teachers were posted to schools of their choice, hence most of the
schools are still understaffed, especially those that received IDP children.
As of February 2008, the teacher shortage included 343 primary school teachers and 227
secondary school teachers; due to recent recruitments, the current shortage is 182 primary school
teachers and 66 secondary school teachers. However, teachers to teach certain subjects are still
lacking and the DEO has asked the MOE to allow schools to recruit teachers of their choice. The
DEO’s office lacks manpower to carry out inspection and collect updated data for IDP children
hosted in the schools in the district after four of their staff left due to PEV. The most affected
schools were supported by different stakeholders as follows:

Who Place and date Activity/ Report
Action Aid Kisumu o Established 4 toilets at St. Anne Primary school.
International o Training of primary and secondary teachers on psychosocial support.
Amani Kisumu o Trained 20 secondary teachers, 20 primary teachers and 10 MOE
Counselling Cntr staff on psychosocial support
World Vision Kisumu o Training on psychosocial support skills.
MOE Kisumu o Contributed Ksh. 500,000 to Koru girls secondary for the
rehabilitation of a dormitory that was burnt down during the PEV and
put up 10 additional toilets.
UNICEF Kangemi, Joseph o Education supplies provided comprised of books (491), Education kit
Kangethe, Bondeni, (14), T. Guide (256), school bags (358), desks (265), blackboards,
Kariobangi north and 13 tripod stands.
schools in Nairobi o 105 toilets for pupils and 13 for teachers were also provided.
district. o 9 teachers were trained on psychosocial in the four schools.
o Feeding programmes were established at Kangemi, Kariobangi North
and Joseph Kangethe schools.

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For more information, please contact:
Jeanine Cooper, Head of Office, OCHA-Kenya, +254 (20)7625155, jeanine.cooper@undp.org.
Rania Dagash, Desk Officer, Africa I Section, OCHA-New York, +1 917 367 3668, dagash@un.org.
Stephanie Bunker, Spokesperson and Public Information Officer, OCHA-New York,
+1 917 367 5126, +1 917 892 1679 (mobile), bunker@un.org.
Elisabeth Byrs, Public Information Officer, OCHA-Geneva, +41 22 917 2653, byrs@un.org.

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