Multi Site Multi Homing

March, 2004

Corporate Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA http://www.cisco.com Tel: 408 526-4000 800 553-NETS (6387) Fax: 408 526-4100

THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS. THE SOFTWARE LICENSE AND LIMITED WARRANTY FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PRODUCT ARE SET FORTH IN THE INFORMATION PACKET THAT SHIPPED WITH THE PRODUCT AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN BY THIS REFERENCE. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE OR LIMITED WARRANTY, CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY. The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCB’s public domain version of the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1981, Regents of the University of California. NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER WARRANTY HEREIN, ALL DOCUMENT FILES AND SOFTWARE OF THESE SUPPLIERS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH ALL FAULTS. CISCO AND THE ABOVE-NAMED SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE. IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS MANUAL, EVEN IF CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
CCIP, CCSP, the Cisco Arrow logo, the Cisco Powered Network mark, Cisco Unity, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, and StackWise are trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, and iQuick Study are service marks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Aironet, ASIST, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCNA, CCNP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, the Cisco IOS logo, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Empowering the Internet Generation, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, GigaStack, Internet Quotient, IOS, IP/TV, iQ Expertise, the iQ logo, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, LightStream, MGX, MICA, the Networkers logo, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX, Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, RateMUX, Registrar, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet, StrataView Plus, Stratm, SwitchProbe, TeleRouter, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, TransPath, and VCO are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Web site are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0304R)

Multi Site Multi Homing Copyright © 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS
Multi Site Multi Homing Overview
1 3 1

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles High Availability 3 Scalability 5 Intelligent Network Services 5 HSRP 5 Routing Protocol Technologies 6 Edge Routing - BGP 6 Design Caveats 8 Work Arounds 9

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Recommendations 9 Border Router Layer 10 Internet Data Center Core Switching Layer 10 Firewall Layer 11 Data Center Core Switching Layer 11 Implementation Details 12 Multi-Site Multi-Homing Topology 12 Internet Cloud Router Configurations 12 Internet Edge Configurations 13 Edge Switching Layer Configurations 15 Core Switching Layer Configurations 20 BGP Attribute Tuning 23 Security Considerations
INDEX

24

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

iii

Contents

Multi Site Multi Homing

iv

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing
In almost all Enterprise infrastructures today Internet connectivity is universal, although the topology designs may be unique. This document introduces a reference topology for Internet edge network deployments. This covers the basis of design principles as well as an introduction of common deployment barriers related to Internet edge topologies.

Overview
This document identifies and clarifies multi-site Internet edge designs. Multi-site Internet edge design refers to the instance of having more than one data center connected to the Internet backbone. This can either imply that each respective data center is multi-homed or has a single connection each. This architecture includes the core design principles associated with all network infrastructure designs while paying special attention to the unique requirements relevant to Internet edge multi-site topologies. Like any infrastructure design, these aformentioned designs must be highly scalable while maintaining the key aspects of security and redundancy. The key security functions include:
• • • • • •

Element security Identity services IP anti-spoofing Demilitarized zones (DMZ) Basic filtering and application definition Intrusion detection Multiple data centers that act as Internet gateways for internal users. Distributed data centers that provide Internet/intranet server farm resiliency.

The key redundancy functions associated with multi-site topologies are:
• •

This document also discusses multi-homing. Multi-homing provides ISP resiliency by connecting each data center to two or more ISPs depending on the bandwidth requirements, the server farm architecture, or other internet services. These Internet connections can be a transit point for traffic both inbound to the architecture and outbound to the Internet backbone for both the Internet/intranet server farms as depicted in Figure 1. This document also describes and documents some common deployment problems when introducing distributed data centers into any network topology. Deploying distributed data centers introduces additional complexities to network administrators who want to fully utilize both internet gateway locations. These challenges include:

Application distribution

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

1

Multi Site Multi Homing Overview

• •

DNS propagation Replication timeouts

These design issues are covered in the Data Center Networking: Distributed Data Center SRND located at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns110/ns53/ns224/ns304/networking_solutions_design_guidances _list.html.
Figure 1 Data Center Topology

Internet PSTN Remote Office Internet Gateway SP1 SP2 VPN Internet Edge

Partners WAN

DMZ
Or Or Extranet Data Center

Private WAN

Internet Server Farm

Corporate Infrastructure

Campus Core
87352

Intranet Data Center

Multi Site Multi Homing

2

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles
As mentioned above, Internet edge solutions touch many different types of enterprise networks and therefore may potentially have many different topologies. They can range from any remote office connection to a major ISP peering point. Therefore, using the common design principles associated with all network architectures allows you to carry these recommendations into almost all Internet edge topologies; ranging from a single-site ISP connection to a multi-site multi-homing environment.

High Availability
With topologies that connect to a single ISP, which is an enterprise connected to a single ISP, the differences in redundancy reside at the ISP peering point. If you have a single ISP connection at the edge of your network topology, the need for redundancy is a null issue because you have only a single exit point. If the primary edge router fails, the Internet connection itself is down. Therefore, defining redundancy at the edge of the network has no beneficial affect unless the provider supplies two terrestrial circuits as depicted below. Multi-homing implementations offer redundancy in these instances, as well as in the instances where there are multiple data centers for a single enterprise. You can leverage each respective data center for redundancy and scalability, if you partition applications across multiple data centers for high availability and scalability. For more information on distributed data center topologies, refer to the Data Center Networking: Distributed Data Center SRND located at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns110/ns53/ns224/ns304/networking_solutions_design_guidances _list.html.

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

3

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles

Figure 2

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design

Internet SP 1 SP 3 SP 2

Corporate WAN

West Coast Remote offices

East Coast Remote offices

West Coast Data Center

East Coast Data Center

Multi-site internet edge topologies are also composed of multiple layers. There must be no single point of failure within the network architecture. Therefore, complete Internet edge device redundancy in this architecture is a necessity. The infrastructure devices, such as routers and switches, coupled with specific Layer 2 and Layer 3 technologies, help achieve this device redundancy. To meet this redundancy requirement, Internet edge topologies use some of the key functions of the IOS software. The Layer 3 features, used for high availability, offer redundant default gateways for networked hosts and provide a predictable traffic flow in both normal operating conditions and under the adverse conditions surrounding a network link or device failure. These Layer 3 features include:
• • •

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) Multigroup Hot Standby Router Protocol (MHSRP) Routing protocol metric tuning (EIGRP and OSPF)

These Layer 3 functions also apply to redundancy by offering multiple default gateways in the network topologies. HSRP and Multigroup HSRP offer Layer 3 gateway redundancy, whereas the dynamic routing protocols offer a look into network availability from a higher level.

Multi Site Multi Homing

4

Version 1.0

87353

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles

For instance, you could deploy HSRP between the edge routers to propagate a single default gateway instance to the internal networks. In this case, if the primary router fails, the HSRP address is still active on the secondary router instance, therefore the defined static route is still valid.

Scalability
The network architecture must be scalable to accommodate increasing user support, as well as unforeseen bursts in network traffic. While feature availability and the processing power of network devices are important design considerations; physical capacity attributes, like port density, can limit architecture scalability. The termination of circuits can become a burden on device scalability within the border layer of this topology. This burden is the same for the firewall device provisioning layer and the Layer 3 switching layer. Port density scalability is also important at the Layer 3 switching layer because it provides additional connections for host devices, in this case, servers.

Intelligent Network Services
In all network topologies, the intelligent network services present in the IOS software, such as QoS functions and high availability technologies like HSRP, are used to ensure network availability. Below, HSRP is documented and detailed for typical deployment scenarios.

HSRP
HSRP enables a set of routers to work together, giving the appearance of a single virtual router or default gateway to the hosts on a LAN. HSRP is particularly useful in environments where critical applications are running and fault-tolerant networks have been designed. By sharing an IP address and a MAC address, two or more routers acting as a single virtual router are able to seamlessly assume the routing responsibility in a defined event or an unexpected failure. This enables hosts on a LAN to continue to forward IP packets to a consistent IP and MAC address enabling a transparent changeover of routing devices. HSRP allows you to configure hot standby groups to share responsibility for an IP address. You can give each router a priority, which enables you to weight the prioritization of routers for active router selection. One of the routers in each group is elected to be the active forwarder and one is elected as the stand-by router. This is done according to the router's configured priorities. The router with the highest priority wins and, in the event of a tie in priority, the greater value of their configured IP addresses breaks the tie. Other routers in this group monitor the active and stand-by routers' status to enable further fault tolerance. All HSRP routers participating in a standby group watch for hello packets from the active and the standby routers. They learn the hello and dead timers, as wells as the shared standby IP address from the active router in the group, if these parameters are not explicitly configured on each individual router. Although this is a dynamic process, Cisco recommends that you define the HSRP dead timers in the topology. If the active router becomes unavailable due to scheduled maintenance, power failure, or other reasons; the stand-by assumes this functionality transparently within a few seconds. Failover occurs when three successive hello packets are missed and the dead timer is reached. The standby router promptly takes over the virtual addresses, identity, and responsibility. When the secondary interface assumes mastership, the new master sends a gratuitous ARP, which updates the L2 switch's content addressable memory (CAM). This then becomes the primary route for the devices accessing this gateway. These HSRP timers can be configured on a per instance of HSRP.

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

5

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles

Routing Protocol Technologies
Before introducing and examining the basic ways in which autonomous systems can be connected to ISPs, some basic terminology and concepts of routing must be established. There are three basic routing approaches: Static Default Dynamic Static routing refers to routes to destinations manually listed in the router. Network reachability, in this case, is not dependent on the existence and state of the network itself. Whether a destination is up or down, the static routes remain in the routing table, and traffic is still sent toward that destination. Default routing refers to a “last resort” outlet. Traffic to destinations that are unknown to the router are sent to the default outlet. Default routes are also manually listed in the router. Default routing is the easiest form of routing for a domain connected to a single exit point. Dynamic routing refers to the router learning routes via an internal or external routing protocol. Network reachability is dependent on the existence and state of the network. If a destination is down, the route disappears from the routing table and traffic is sent toward that destination. These three routing approaches are possibilities for all the configurations considered in forthcoming sections, but usually there is an optimal approach. Thus, in illustrating different autonomous systems, this document considers whether static, dynamic, default, or some combination of these routing approaches is optimal. This document also considers whether interior or exterior routing protocols are appropriate. Interior gateway protocols (IGPs) can be used for the purpose of advertising the customer's networks. An IGP can be used between the enterprise and provider for the enterprise to advertise its routes. This has all the benefits of dynamic routing because network information and changes are dynamically sent to the provider. Also, the IGP's distribute the network routes upstream to the BGP function.

Edge Routing - BGP
Border gateway protocols (BGPs) perform interdomain routing in TCP/IP networks. BGP is an exterior gateway protocol (EGP), which means that it performs routing between multiple autonomous systems or domains and exchanges routing and reachability information with other BGP systems. BGP devices exchange routing information upon initial data exchange and during incremental updates. When a router first connects to the network, BGP routers exchange their entire BGP routing tables and, when the routing table changes, those same routers send only the changed portion of their routing tables. BGP routers do not send regularly scheduled routing updates and BGP routing updates advertise only the optimal path to a network. BGP uses a single routing metric to determine the best path to a given network. This metric consists of an arbitrary unit number that specifies the degree of preference of a particular link. The BGP metric typically is assigned to each link by the network administrator. The value assigned to a link can be based on any number of criteria, including the number of autonomous systems through which the path passes, stability, speed, delay, or cost. BGP performs three types of routing: interautonomous system routing, intra-autonomous system routing, and pass-through autonomous system routing.

Interautonomous system routing occurs between two or more BGP routers in different autonomous systems. Peer routers in these systems use BGP to maintain a consistent view of the internetwork topology. BGP neighbors communicating between autonomous systems must reside on the same

Multi Site Multi Homing

6

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Principles

physical network. The Internet serves as an example of an entity that uses this type of routing because it is comprised of autonomous systems or administrative domains. Many of these domains represent the various institutions, corporations, and entities that make up the Internet. BGP is frequently used to provide path determination to provide optimal routing within the Internet.

Intra-autonomous system routing occurs between two or more BGP routers located within the same autonomous system. Peer routers within the same autonomous system use BGP to maintain a consistent view of the system topology. BGP is also used to determine which router serves as the connection point for specific external autonomous systems. Once again, the Internet provides an example of interautonomous system routing. An organization, such as a university, could make use of BGP to provide optimal routing within its own administrative domain or autonomous system. The BGP protocol can provide both inter- and intra-autonomous system routing services. Pass-through autonomous system routing occurs between two or more BGP peer routers that exchange traffic across an autonomous system that does not run BGP. In a pass-through autonomous system environment, the BGP traffic did not originate within the autonomous system in question and is not destined for a node in the autonomous system. BGP must interact with whatever intra-autonomous system routing protocol is being used to successfully transport BGP traffic through that autonomous system.

BGP Attributes
BGP attributes support the control of both inbound and outbound network routes. These attributes can be adjusted to control the decision making process of BGP itself. The BGP attributes are a set of parameters that describe the characteristics of a prefix (route). The BGP decision process uses these attributes to select its best routes. Specific attributes associated with larger topologies like this one are addressed later in this document. More specifically, the MED attribute and the use of route reflectors are addressed. Figure 3 displays a multi site multi homed topology.

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

7

Multi Site Multi Homing Design Caveats

Figure 3

Multi Site Internet Edge Topology

Internet SP 1 SP 3 SP 2

Corporate WAN

West Coast Remote offices

East Coast Remote offices

West Coast Data Center

East Coast Data Center

Design Caveats
In certain multi-site deployments, device placement becomes a caveat to the overall design. In a specific instance, the placement of the firewall and how it is introduced into the architecture from a routing standpoint are of major concern. There are two main caveats to be concerned with when designing your network:
• •

Inability to terminate IGP on firewall device Lack of upstream route health or interface uptime

In a design where the PIX firewall is placed at the edge of the network between the Internet border routers and the internet data center core switches, the PIX can become a black hole route to the end-users that are geographically adjacent to that data center. In detail, when deploying a PIX firewall, the most common deployment is to have the device configured with static routes upstream to the internet border routers and with a static route downstream to the internal Layer 3 switching platform. Since static

Multi Site Multi Homing

8

Version 1.0

87353

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Recommendations

routing is the configuration of choice, you can assume that the firewall cannot participate in the IGP routing protocol. If the external routes from the internet border routers disappear from the routing table, the internal routing process has no idea that this is no longer a valid route to the Internet. Since the PIX is not participating in an IGP routing protocol, the firewall has no intelligence of the routing updates that take place above the firewall layer. Therefore, the device still accepts packets destined for the Internet. This is usually the case because the Layer 3 switching layer below the PIX device propagates or redistributes a static route of 0.0.0.0 into the IGP downstream.

Work Arounds
The aformentioned problem is common when deploying distributed data centers and has the following three work arounds:

The first work around is using the BGP routing protocol to inform the Layer 3 switching platform of the route change by tunneling the I-BGP traffic through the firewall to the peer on the inside interface or the Layer 3 switching platform that houses the IGP routing process. This design is documented in “High Availability via BGP Tunneling.” With a future release of HSRP, the you could use HSRP tracking to track the HSRP interface of the Internet border routers. This assumes that the border routers also implement a tracking instance of the upstream ISP interfaces. This has not been tested or documented. Finally, you could use the Firewall Service Module (FWSM) in the edge Layer 3 switching platform. This deployment allows you to process OPSF routes internal to the IGP by having the firewall device participate in the OSPF process. This deployment that has been tested and is documented in this document.

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Recommendations
As mentioned above; multi-site Internet edge topologies are different than single site topologies in various ways. Also, the scale of these topologies may be different. But these topologies are increasingly important to enterprise business functions. Hence, the scalability of these topologies can not be overlooked. It is also imperative to this type of architecture to have complete redundancy. The details of the functional layers of the Internet edge topologies and how they interact with one another are detailed below. When deploying a distributed data center environment, you must adhere to certain characteristics. For example, these topologies still use a similar ISP multi-homing relationship, but the attributes are slightly different. Also, since this architecture is distributed, it becomes a network that has multiple Internet gateways in different data centers. This network is usually partitioned in such a way that locally adjacent users traverse their respective local data centers. This type of design recommendation assumes that you have configured the internal IGP to route locally adjacent end-users through their respective data centers while still offering redundancy to the other data center in the event of failure. This distributed data center design topology deployed of a not-so stubby area networks. This allows you to define multiple Internet data center topologies without changing the integrity of the core infrastructure. Each of the geographically dispersed area's and autonomous systems are represented below in Figure 4.

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

9

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Recommendations

Figure 4

Internet Edge AS/ Area Topology

East Coast BGP ISP AS1 Internet ISP Cloud ISP AS 1/2 BGP ISP AS2

West Coast

BGP AS 100 OSPF NSSA 251 OSPF NSSA 252

OSPF Area 0

Corporate LAN Connectivity
87354

Border Router Layer
Border routers, typically deployed in pairs, are the edge-facing devices of the network. The number of border routers deployed is a decision of provisioning, based on memory requirements, and physical circuit termination. The border router layer is where you provision ISP termination and initial security parameters. The border router layer serves as the gateway of the network and uses an externally facing Layer 3 routing protocol, like BGP, integrated with an internally facing OSPF to intelligently route traffic throughout the external and internal networks, respectively. This layer starts the OSPF process internally into the network. The Internet edge in an enterprise environment may provide Internet connectivity to an ISP through the use of multi-homed internet border routers. This layer also injects the gateway of last resort route into the IGP through specific BGP parameters defined below.

Internet Data Center Core Switching Layer
The Layer 3 switching layer is the layer in the multi-site internet edge topology that serves as the gateway to the core of the network. This is also a functional layer of the internet server farm design. This layer may act as either a core layer or an aggregation layer in some design topologies. Yet, the primary function, from the internet edge design topology standpoint, is to advertise the IGP routing protocol internally to the infrastructure. OSPF processes for each data center interfaces with Area 0 at this layer, as shown in Figure 4.

Multi Site Multi Homing

10

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Multi-Site Multi-Homing Design Recommendations

Firewall Layer
The firewall layer is a security layer that allows stateful packet inspection into the network infrastructure and to the services and applications offered in the server farms and database layers. In this topology, the firewall layer is represented by the FWSM in the Catalyst 6500 series switching platform. This layer also acts as the network address translation (NAT) device in most design topologies. NAT, at the Internet edge, is common based on the ever depleting Ipv4 address pool associated with ISP's. This allows many ISP's to give a limited address range, which, in turn, requires NAT pools at the egress point of the topology.

Data Center Core Switching Layer
The data center core layer in this topology is the transport layer between data centers. This assumes that the layers are represented in the same Area 0 in the OPSF routing process. This layer is also the termination point for both the geographically adjacent WAN routers or the geographically adjacent LAN's in the architecture. This layer allows you to control the administrative distances or actual costs associated with the gigabit links to the upstream edge Layer 3 switches. Figure 5 displays how the network topology is partitioned into two different geographic areas.
Figure 5 Physical Layer Topology

Networks 1.x.x.x,...5.x.x.x .1 East Coast internet edge .1 East Coast edge .2 .1 East Coast core .254 Network 172.16.253.x .100 Network 172.16.251.x

Internet ISP Cloud ISP AS 1/2

Networks 6.x.x.x,...12.x.x.x .1 .254 West Coast internet edge .1 West Coast edge .2 .1 West Coast core

Network 172.16.11.x

Network 172.16.10.x Network FWSM Outside 172.16.254.x FWSM Intside .100 Network 172.16.252.x

.1

Network 172.16.250.x

.100

Corporate LAN Connectivity

87355

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

11

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

Implementation Details
Below are the implementation details associated with defining and configuring the multi-site Internet edge topology. Also, there are specific configurations associated with each layer that allow for the route control and failover of the topology stated above.

Multi-Site Multi-Homing Topology
In this section, the router configurations were taken from the each of the East Coast routers as depicted in the Figure 5. These configurations were defined solely for this testbed and are not representative of the normal ISP recommended configurations.

Internet Cloud Router Configurations
The Internet cloud routers were configured with loopback interfaces for testing purposes. These interfaces allow ping traffic to traverse the internal network outbound to the internet backbone. Below, each configuration was defined with each of the respective network segments. This also made it easier to determine the routes locally adjacent to each of the internet gateway routers.

Internet Cloud Router ISP AS1
hostname InternetCloud1 interface Loopback0 ip address 2.0.0.1 ip address 3.0.0.1 ip address 4.0.0.1 ip address 5.0.0.1 ip address 1.0.0.1

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0

secondary secondary secondary secondary

When looking into the BGP process below, you can see that only specific subnets were defined for redistribution. Since this solution is not performance focused, the decision was made to only propagate those routes. This allows for BGP redistribution to the lower layers to ensure that the internal OSPF redistribution is working correctly.
router bgp 1 network 1.0.0.0 network 2.0.0.0 network 3.0.0.0 network 4.0.0.0 network 5.0.0.0 network 20.10.5.0 network 172.16.11.0 redistribute connected neighbor 20.10.5.254 remote-as 2 neighbor 172.16.11.254 remote-as 100

Internet Cloud Router ISP AS2
The configuration of the second Internet cloud router is the same as the first except that different IP addresses were used.
hostname InternetCloud2

interface Loopback0

Multi Site Multi Homing

12

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

ip ip ip ip ip ip no !

address 7.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary address 8.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary address 9.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary address 11.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary address 12.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary address 6.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ip directed-broadcast

router bgp 2 network 6.0.0.0 network 7.0.0.0 network 8.0.0.0 network 9.0.0.0 network 11.0.0.0 network 12.0.0.0 network 20.10.5.0 network 172.16.10.0 redistribute connected neighbor 20.10.5.1 remote-as 1 neighbor 172.16.10.254 remote-as 100

Internet Edge Configurations
The first layer in the topology was the Internet border router layer. At this layer, the peering relationship via BGP to the ISP routers takes place. Also at this layer, the first instance of the OSPF process begins. The BGP process propagates a default route into the OSPF routing instance. Below are the internet edge router configurations.

East Coast Internet Edge Configurations
EdgeRouter1#wr t Building configuration...

! hostname EdgeRouter1 !

The interface configurations below represent the donwstream link to the outside interface or segment of the FWSM link:

Note

The OSPF hello and dead-interval timers must be the same across all links and interface:
! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.253.254 255.255.255.0 no ip route-cache ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3 no ip mroute-cache duplex full !

The following configuration examples are associated with the upstream links to the ISP clouds:
interface FastEthernet3/0

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

13

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

ip address 172.16.11.254 255.255.255.0 no ip redirects no ip route-cache no ip mroute-cache duplex half

The following OSPF and BGP edge configurations allow the edge to redistribute BGP processes to the internal network. The redistribute bgp command within the OSPF process causes this redistribution. This assumes that the router can propagate those routes internal to the other network segments. Injecting full BGP routes into an IGP is not recommended. Doing so adds excessive routing overhead to any IGP. Interior routing protocols were never designed to handle more than the networks inside your autonomous systems, plus some exterior routes from other IGPs. This does not mean that BGP routes should never be injected into IGPs. Depending on the number of BGP routes and how critical the need for them to be in the IGP, injecting partial BGP routes into IGP may well be appropriate. Below are the OSPF and BGP configurations respectively:

Note

Router OSPF is defined as a not so stubby area (NSSA). This is needed to redistribute the external routes form the upstream routing instance: For the sake of the testbed topology and to define that routes have been updated properly, specific BGP routes were redistributed into the architecture:
router ospf 500 log-adjacency-changes area 251 nssa redistribute bgp 100 network 172.16.251.0 0.0.0.255 area 251 network 172.16.253.0 0.0.0.255 area 251

Note

In typical Internet edge deployments, the edge routing instance does not redistribute the BGP process into the OSPF process, but rather uses the default-information originate command to define a default route to edge routing instance. That default route is then redistributed via the OSPF process to the internal network only if the edge routing instance has a default route itself:
router ospf 500 log-adjacency-changes area 251 nssa network 172.16.251.0 0.0.0.255 area 251 network 172.16.253.0 0.0.0.255 area 251 default-information originate route-map SEND_DEFAULT_IF

The ACL's below state that if the router has any entry in its routing table from the next hop ISP router, then it sends the default route internal to the network. This configuration must be deployed on both edge routing devices.
access-list 1 permit 0.0.0.0 access-list 2 permit 172.16.11.1 route-map SEND_DEFAULT_IF permit 10 match ip address 1 match ip next-hop 2

Multi Site Multi Homing

14

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

Note

The route map SEND_DEFAULT_IF is associated with the default-information originate command. This route map matches on the condition that the 0/0 default (access-list 1) has a next hop of 172.16.11.1 (access-list 2). This satisfies the condition that the 0/0 is learned via EBGP rather than I-BGP. Below is the BGP routing instance that defines the upstream BGP neighbor that is necessary for the above route-map to work.
router bgp 100 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes network 172.16.11.0 redistribute connected neighbor 172.16.11.1 remote-as 1 no auto-summary

Below, are the routes available to the East Coast edge routers:

Note

Setting the route propagation via OSPF on the FWSM requires defining route-maps that only allow specific traffic to the edge layer. Therefore, the only internal route propagated is the 172.16.251.x. This can be controlled by supernetting the segment to allow only specific addresses.
EdgeRouter1#sho ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set B B B B B B B 1.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 2.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 3.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 4.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 20.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 5.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:09:13 6.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:13 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 6 subnets C 172.16.253.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 172.16.251.0 [110/11] via 172.16.253.1, 00:44:14, FastEthernet0/0 C 172.16.11.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet3/0 B 7.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:14 B 8.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:14 B 9.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:14 B 11.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:14 B 12.0.0.0/8 [20/0] via 172.16.11.1, 00:08:14

Edge Switching Layer Configurations
The edge switching layer configurations house the FWSM as well as the NSSA instance of the OSPF process. The instance of OSPF that the upstream Internet edge routing layer binds to is the outside interface of the FWSM. The inside instance of the FWSM is an OSPF neighbor to the process running locally on the MSFC on the switch itself. These switches run in a same NSSA area, while running two different OSPF processes. This ensures the tuning of the protocol that defines which routes can be

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

15

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

propagated to the upstream network. This configuration recommendation is to ensure that restricted routes are not externally advertised. With areas defined this way, you can tune the routes appropriately by defining route maps to allow a specific network segment outbound. For instance; if you only wanted to advertise the VIP addresses of the server farm outbound, you could create a route-map that only allows those specific addresses outbound.

East Coast Edge Switching Layer Configurations
EASTEDGE1#wr t Building configuration... hostname EASTEDGE1 !

Below, is the configuration that associates specific VLAN's with the FWSM. VLAN 200 is the internal vlan and VLAN 300 is the external vlan:
firewall module 2 vlan-group 1 firewall vlan-group 1 200,300 ! vlan dot1q tag native

Gigabit 1/1 is the downstream link to the OSPF core Layer 3 switching layer. Note it has be configured to be in VLAN 200:
! ! interface GigabitEthernet1/1 no ip address switchport switchport access vlan 200

FastEthernet 1/1 is the upstream link to the edge routing layer. Note it has be configured to be in VLAN 300:
! interface FastEthernet3/1 no ip address duplex full speed 100 switchport switchport access vlan 300 !

Note

Interface VLAN 200 OSPF configurations are the same across all OSPF interfaces from the timers perspective:
! interface Vlan200 ip address 172.16.251.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3

Note

The OSPF routing process below is the internal OSPF neighbor to the core switching layer:
!

Multi Site Multi Homing

16

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

router ospf 500 log-adjacency-changes area 251 nssa network 172.16.251.0 0.0.0.255 area 251 ! ip classless no ip http server ! ! arp 127.0.0.12 0000.2100.0000 ARPA ! ! line con 0 line vty 0 4 login transport input lat pad mop telnet rlogin udptn nasi ! end

Below are the configurations associated with the FWSM. Notice the OSPF configuration in the FWSM itself and how it binds itself to the OSPF process.
EDGE1# sess slot 2 proc 1 The default escape character is Ctrl-^, then x. You can also type 'exit' at the remote prompt to end the session Trying 127.0.0.21 ... Open

FWSM passwd: Welcome to the FWSM firewall Type help or '?' for a list of available commands. EASTFWSM> en Password: EASTFWSM# wr t Building configuration... : Saved : FWSM Version 1.1(1) no gdb enable nameif vlan200 inside security100 nameif vlan300 outside security0 enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted hostname EASTFWSM fixup protocol ftp 21 fixup protocol h323 H225 1720 fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719 fixup protocol ils 389 fixup protocol rsh 514 fixup protocol smtp 25 fixup protocol sqlnet 1521 fixup protocol sip 5060 fixup protocol skinny 2000 fixup protocol http 80 names access-list outside permit tcp any any access-list outside permit udp any any access-list outside permit icmp host 6.0.0.1 any echo-reply access-list inside permit tcp any any access-list inside permit udp any any access-list inside permit icmp host 172.16.250.10 any echo

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

17

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

ACL 500 defines which addresses need to be matched to support the advertisement of the OSPF:
access-list 500 permit 172.16.251.0255.255.255.0 pager lines 24 icmp permit any inside icmp permit any outside mtu inside 1500 mtu outside 1500 ip address inside 172.16.251.100 255.255.255.0 ip address outside 172.16.253.1 255.255.255.0 no failover failover lan unit secondary failover timeout 0:00:00 failover poll 15 failover ip address inside 0.0.0.0 failover ip address outside 0.0.0.0 pdm history enable arp timeout 14400 static (inside,outside) 172.16.250.10 172.16.250.10 netmask 255.255.255.255 0 0 access-group inside in interface inside access-group outside in interface outside

The OSPF interface timer configurations below are common across the architecture:
interface inside ospf hello-interval 1 ospf dead-interval 3 ! ! interface outside ospf hello-interval 1 ospf dead-interval 3 !

The route-map below states that the permitted advertised traffic must match the access-list 500 addresses. This route-map is then bound to the OSPF process that is redistributing the routes, as seen below in router OSPF 100:
route-map 500 permit 10 match ip address 500 !

The OSPF configurations below are representative of the recommended security configuration. Within the configuration, two different OSPF routing processes were defined to control inbound and outbound route propagation:
router ospf 500 network 172.16.251.0 255.255.255.0 area 251 area 251 nssa log-adj-changes redistribute ospf 100 router ospf 100 network 172.16.253.0 255.255.255.0 area 251 area 251 nssa log-adj-changes

redistribute ospf 500 subnets route-map 500

Multi Site Multi Homing

18

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

! timeout xlate 3:00:00 timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00 timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+ aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius aaa-server LOCAL protocol local no snmp-server location no snmp-server contact snmp-server community public no snmp-server enable traps floodguard enable no sysopt route dnat telnet timeout 5 ssh timeout 5 terminal width 80 Cryptochecksum:03e78100e37fef97b96c15d54be90956 : end [OK]

Showing the routes available to the FWSM ensures that the proper outside/inside routes were propagated:
EASTFWSM# sho route C 127.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 is directly connected, eobc O N2 1.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 2.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 3.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 4.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 5.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:46:35, outside O N2 6.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:35, outside 172.16.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 5 subnets 172.16.252.0 [110/12] via 172.16.251.1, 1:16:14, inside 172.16.253.0 172.16.254.0 172.16.250.0 172.16.251.0 is directly connected, outside [110/22] via 172.16.251.1, 1:10:14, inside [110/11] via 172.16.251.1, 1:21:35, inside is directly connected, inside

O IA C O IA O IA C

O N2 7.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:36, outside O N2 8.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:36, outside O N2 9.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:36, outside O N2 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:36, outside O N2 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 [110/1] via 172.16.253.254, 0:45:36, outside EASTFWSM# exit

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

19

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

Logoff

[Connection to 127.0.0.21 closed by foreign host]

Below are the routes associated with the edge switching layers. Notice that the edge layer has two routes to the Internet backbone: one primary route via the OSPF process running locally on the switch and the redundant route running through Area 0 to the secondary switch. This is the same respectively on each switch.
EASTEDGE1#sho ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set O O O O O O O O O O O C O O O O O N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 IA N2 IA N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 1.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 2.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 3.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 4.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 20.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 5.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:45:56, Vlan200 6.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:56, Vlan200 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 5 subnets 172.16.252.0 [110/3] via 172.16.251.1, 01:15:39, Vlan200 172.16.253.0 [110/11] via 172.16.251.100, 01:20:56, Vlan200 172.16.254.0 [110/13] via 172.16.251.1, 01:09:35, Vlan200 172.16.250.0 [110/2] via 172.16.251.1, 01:20:56, Vlan200 172.16.251.0 is directly connected, Vlan200 7.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:57, Vlan200 8.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:57, Vlan200 9.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:57, Vlan200 11.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:57, Vlan200 12.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:44:57, Vlan200

Core Switching Layer Configurations
The core switching layers are the layers that house the OPSF Area 0 process. This layer becomes the transport for Internet destined traffic for each of the respective data centers in the event of failure. This is also the layer where the configurations are controlled to ensure that traffic is destined to the right geographical areas. This is accomplished using the ip ospf cost configurations on interfaces where the OSPF neighbor areas are present.

East Coast Core Switching Layer Configurations
EASTCOASTCORE#wr t Building configuration... ! hostname EASTCOASTCORE ! ! interface Port-channel1

Multi Site Multi Homing

20

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

The interface configurations below state that Gigabit 1/1 is the OSPF interface that neighbors to the East Coast edge layer. This is where the you can tune the OSPF cost to define that any users locally adjacent to the East Coast core would chose this upstream link for the internet traffic. This same configuration is also tuned to ensure any west coast traffic traverse the west coast routes:
! interface GigabitEthernet1/1 ip address 172.16.251.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3 ip ospf cost 5 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/2 no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on ! interface GigabitEthernet2/1 no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on ! interface Vlan1 no ip address shutdown ! interface Vlan200 ip address 172.16.250.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3 ! router ospf 500 log-adjacency-changes area 251 nssa network 172.16.250.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.251.0 0.0.0.255 area 251 ! ip classless no ip http server ! ! ! line con 0 line vty 0 4 login transport input lat pad mop telnet rlogin udptn nasi ! end

The following displays the routes associated with East Coast core. Note the path preference is the respective edge switching layer.
EASTCOASTCORE#sho ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

21

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set O O O O O O O O O O C C O O C O O O N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 IA IA 1.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 2.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 3.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 4.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 20.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 5.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:06:46, GigabitEthernet1/1 6.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:53, GigabitEthernet1/1 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 5 subnets 172.16.252.0 [110/2] via 172.16.250.254, 00:36:37, Vlan200 172.16.253.0 [110/11] via 172.16.251.100, 00:41:53, GigabitEthernet1/1 172.16.254.0 [110/12] via 172.16.250.254, 00:30:32, Vlan200 172.16.250.0 is directly connected, Vlan200 172.16.251.0 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet1/1 7.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:54, GigabitEthernet1/1 8.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:54, GigabitEthernet1/1 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, EOBC0/0 9.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:54, GigabitEthernet1/1 11.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:54, GigabitEthernet1/1 12.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.251.100, 00:05:54, GigabitEthernet1/1

N2 N2 N2 N2 N2

West Coast Core Switching Layer Configurations The West Coast configurations refer to the IP routes. The West Coast core prefers the West Coast edge as its primary routes: WESTCOASTCORE#wr t Building configuration... ! hostname WESTCOASTCORE ! ! ! ! interface Port-channel1 no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q ! interface GigabitEthernet1/1 ip address 172.16.252.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3 ip ospf cost 5 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/2 no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on ! interface GigabitEthernet2/1 no ip address switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on !

Multi Site Multi Homing

22

Version 1.0

Multi Site Multi Homing Implementation Details

! interface Vlan1 no ip address shutdown ! interface Vlan200 ip address 172.16.250.254 255.255.255.0 ip ospf hello-interval 1 ip ospf dead-interval 3 ! router ospf 500 log-adjacency-changes area 252 nssa network 172.16.250.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.252.0 0.0.0.255 area 252 ! The following displays the routes associated with West Coast core. Note the path preference is that of the West Coast edge switching layer. WESTCOASTCORE#sho ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set O O O O O O O C O O C O O O C O O O N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 N2 1.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 2.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 3.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 4.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 20.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 5.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:02:37, GigabitEthernet1/1 6.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:44, GigabitEthernet1/1 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 5 subnets 172.16.252.0 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet1/1 172.16.253.0 [110/12] via 172.16.250.1, 00:26:19, Vlan200 172.16.254.0 [110/11] via 172.16.252.100, 00:26:19, GigabitEthernet1/1 172.16.250.0 is directly connected, Vlan200 172.16.251.0 [110/2] via 172.16.250.1, 00:26:19, Vlan200 7.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:45, GigabitEthernet1/1 8.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:45, GigabitEthernet1/1 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, EOBC0/0 9.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:45, GigabitEthernet1/1 11.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:45, GigabitEthernet1/1 12.0.0.0/8 [110/1] via 172.16.252.100, 00:01:45, GigabitEthernet1/1

IA

IA N2 N2 N2 N2 N2

BGP Attribute Tuning
In Internet edge topologies, controlling the outbound routes is first and foremost. This is how your network topology is seen by the world. Which also suggests that, by default, this is how traffic returns to your site. Controlling the outbound traffic of the topology allows you to manipulate the amount of traffic that comes in from one ISP or another. In detail, if you wanted to define that all traffic leaves your

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

23

Multi Site Multi Homing Security Considerations

topology from the one ISP link, yet all traffic destined to the topology comes inbound on another ISP link; you must implement autonomous system prepending. This is most commonly deployed in instances where you do not want to leave an link idle. For more information regarding route control via BGP, refer to “Single Site Multi Homing.”

Security Considerations
Security is a necessity in all network architectures today, regardless of your Internet connectivity. Proper requirements must be taken to ensure that the network architecture and the network devices are securely provisioned and managed. Internet edge security is discussed in “Internet Edge Security Design Principles” and “Internet Edge Security Implementation.” This section provides a brief summary from those guides of the security functions supported within Internet edge designs. These functions include:
• •

Element Security - The secure configuration and management of the devices that collectively define the Internet edge. Identity Services - The inspection of IP traffic across the Internet edge requires the ability to identify the communicating endpoints. Although this can be accomplished with explicit user/host session authentication mechanisms, usually IP identity across the Internet edge is based on header information carried within the IP packet itself. Therefore, IP addressing schemas, address translation mechanisms, and application definition (IP protocol/port identity) play key roles in identity services. IP Anti-Spoofing - This includes support for the requirements of RFC-2827, which requires enterprises to protect their assigned public IP address space; and RFC-1918, which allows the use of private IP address spaces within enterprise networks. Demilitarized Zones (DMZ) - A basic security policy for enterprise networks is that internal network hosts should not be directly accessible from hosts on the Internet (as opposed to replies from Internet hosts for internally initiated session, which are statefully permitted). For those hosts, such as web servers, mail servers, VPN devices, etc., which are required to be directly accessible from the Internet, it is necessary to establish quasi-trusted network areas between, or adjacent to both, the Internet and the internal enterprise network. Such DMZs allow internal hosts and Internet hosts to communicate with DMZ hosts, but the separate security policies between each area prevent direct communication originating from Internet hosts from reaching internal hosts. Basic Filtering and Application Definition - Derived from enterprise security policies, ACLs are implemented to provide explicitly permitted and/or denied IP traffic which may traverse between areas (Inside, Outside, DMZ, etc.) defined to exist within the Internet edge. Stateful Inspection - Provides the ability to establish and monitor session states of traffic permitted to flow across the Internet edge, and deny that traffic which fails to match the expected state of an existing or allowed session. Intrusion Detection - The ability to promiscuously monitor network traffic across discrete points within the Internet edge, and alarm and/or take action upon detecting suspect behavior that may threaten the enterprise network.

Multi Site Multi Homing

24

Version 1.0

INDEX
EIGRP
14 1 4 1 24 6

A
ACL

Element security element security Application distribution

exterior gateway protocol

B
basic filtering BGP
1 24

F
Firewall Service Module FWSM
9, 11, 15, 16, 17, 19 9

basic filtering and application definition
6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 7 23

BGP attributes

BGP attribute tuning BGP routing table border routers
10 6

H
hot standby router protocol
6 4

border gateway protocols

HSRP

4, 5, 9 5

HSRP dead timers

C
CAM
5 5

I
Identity services identity services IGP
9, 10 6 14 6 1 24

content addressable memory

D
default routing
6 1 24 4

IGPs

injecting partial BGP routes Demilitarized zones demilitarized zones device redundancy DMZ
1, 24 2 6

interautonomous system routing interior gateway protocols intrusion detection IP anti-spoofing ISP peering point ISP resiliency
1 1 3 1, 24 6

intra-autonomous system routing

7

DNS propagation dynamic routing

E
EBGP EGP
6 15

L
Layer 3 features
4

Multi Site Multi Homing Version 1.0

25

Index

M
MAC address MHSRP multi
1 4 4 5

S
SEND_DEFAULT_IF stateful inspection static routing
1 4 6 24 15

multigroup hot standby router protocol multi-homing multi-site internet edge topologies multi-site topologies
1

N
NAT
11 11

network address translation not so stubby area not-so stubby area NSSA
14 14 9

O
OPSF OSPF
9 10, 12, 14, 16 21 13

OSPF cost

OSPF dead-interval timers OSPF hello timers
13

OSPF interface timer configurations

18

P
P anti-spoofing PIX firewall
8 24 7

pass-through autonomous system routing

R
Replication timeouts route-map
18 4 2

routing protocol metric tuning

Multi Site Multi Homing

26

Version 1.0

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful