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Tugas Tinkom

Nama :Vincent
Kelas :VII A Smp
No :49

Smp Methodist-2,Medan
Computer hardware
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including its digital circuitry, as
distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. The
hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and
hardware data, which are "soft" in the sense that they are readily created, modified or
erased on the computer. Firmware is a special type of software that rarely, if ever, needs
to be changed and so is stored on hardware devices such as read-only memory (ROM)
where it is not readily changed (and is, therefore, "firm" rather than just "soft").

Most computer hardware is not seen by normal users. It is in embedded systems in
automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and
other devices. Personal computers, the computer hardware familiar to most people, form
only a small minority of computers (about 0.2% of all new computers produced in 2003).
See Market statistics.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Typical PC hardware
o 1.1 Motherboard
o 1.2 Power supply
o 1.3 Storage controllers
o 1.4 Video display controller
o 1.5 Removable media devices
o 1.6 Internal storage
o 1.7 Sound card
o 1.8 Networking
o 1.9 Other peripherals
 1.9.1 Input
 1.9.2 Output
• 2 See also

• 3 External links

[edit] Typical PC hardware
A typical personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop) and
the following parts:
Internals of typical personal computer.

Inside a Custom Computer.

[edit] Motherboard

* Motherboard - It is the "body" or mainframe of the computer, through which all
other components interface.

• Central processing unit (CPU) - Performs most of the calculations which enable
a computer to function, sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer.
o Computer fan - Used to lower the temperature of the computer; a fan is
almost always attached to the CPU, and the computer case will generally
have several fans to maintain a constant airflow. Liquid cooling can also
be used to cool a computer, though it focuses more on individual parts
rather than the overall temperature inside the chassis.

'* Random Access Memory (RAM)' - Fast-access memory that is cleared when the
computer is powered-down. RAM attaches directly to the motherboard, and is used to
store programs that are currently running. * Firmware is loaded from the Read only
memory ROM run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) or in newer systems
Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) compliant

• Internal Buses - Connections to various internal components.
o PCI
o PCI-E
o USB
o HyperTransport
o CSI (expected in 2008)
o AGP (being phased out)
o VLB (outdated)
• External Bus Controllers - used to connect to external peripherals, such as printers
and input devices. These ports may also be based upon expansion cards, attached
to the internal buses.
o parallel port
o serial port
o USB
o Firewire
o SCSI (On Servers and older machines)
o PS/2 (For mice and keyboards, being phased out and replaced by USB.)
o ISA (outdated)
o EISA (outdated)
o MCA (outdated)

[edit] Power supply

Main article: Computer power supply

A case control, and (usually) a cooling fan, and supplies power to run the rest of the
computer, the most common types of power supplies are AT and BabyAT (old) but the
standard for PCs actually are ATX and Micro ATX.

[edit] Storage controllers

Controllers for hard disk, CD-ROM and other drives like internal Zip and Jaz
conventionally for a PC are IDE/ATA; the controllers sit directly on the motherboard (on-
board) or on expansion cards, such as a Disk array controller. IDE is usually integrated,
unlike SCSISmall Computer System Interface which is found in most servers. The
floppy drive interface is a legacy MFM interface which is now slowly disappearing. All
these interfaces are gradually being phased out to be replaced by SATA and SAS.

[edit] Video display controller

Main article: Graphics card

Produces the output for the visual display unit. This will either be built into the
motherboard or attached in its own separate slot (PCI, PCI-E, PCI-E 2.0, or AGP), in the
form of a Graphics Card.

[edit] Removable media devices

Main article: Computer storage
• CD (compact disc) - the most common type of removable media, inexpensive but
has a short life-span.
o CD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a CD.
o CD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a
CD.
• DVD (digital versatile disc) - a popular type of removable media that is the same
dimensions as a CD but stores up to 6 times as much information. It is the most
common way of transferring digital video.
o DVD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a DVD.
o DVD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from
a DVD.
o DVD-RAM Drive - a device used for rapid writing and reading of data
from a special type of DVD.
• Blu-ray - a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information,
including high-definition video.
o BD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a Blu-ray disc.
o BD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a
Blu-ray disc.
• HD DVD - a high-density optical disc format and successor to the standard DVD.
It was a discontinued competitor to the Blu-ray format.
• Floppy disk - an outdated storage device consisting of a thin disk of a flexible
magnetic storage medium.
• Zip drive - an outdated medium-capacity removable disk storage system, first
introduced by Iomega in 1994.
• USB flash drive - a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB
interface, typically small, lightweight, removable, and rewritable.
• Tape drive - a device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape, usually used
for long term storage.

[edit] Internal storage

Hardware that keeps data inside the computer for later use and remains persistent even
when the computer has no power.

• Hard disk - for medium-term storage of data.
• Solid-state drive - a device similar to hard disk, but containing no moving parts.
• Disk array controller - a device to manage several hard disks, to achieve
performance or reliability improvement.

[edit] Sound card

Main article: Sound card

Enables the computer to output sound to audio devices, as well as accept input from a
microphone. Most modern computers have sound cards built-in to the motherboard,
though it is common for a user to install a separate sound card as an upgrade.
[edit] Networking

Main article: Computer networks

Connects the computer to the Internet and/or other computers.

• Modem - for dial-up connections
• Network card - for DSL/Cable internet, and/or connecting to other computers.
• Direct Cable Connection - Use of a null modem, connecting two computers
together using their serial ports or a Laplink Cable, connecting two computers
together with their parallel ports.

dial up connections broad band connections

[edit] Other peripherals

Main article: Peripheral

In addition, hardware devices can include external components of a computer system.
The following are either standard or very common.

Wheel mouse

Includes various input and output devices, usually external to the computer system

[edit] Input

Main article: Input

• Text input devices
o Keyboard - a device, to input text and characters by depressing buttons
(referred to as keys), similar to a typewriter. The most common English-
language key layout is the QWERTY layout.
• Pointing devices
o Mouse - a pointing device that detects two dimensional motion relative to
its supporting surface.
o Trackball - a pointing device consisting of an exposed portruding ball
housed in a socket that detects rotation about two axes.
o Xbox 360 Controller - A controller used for Xbox 360, Which with the use
of the application Switchblade(tm), can be used as an additional pointing
device with the left or right thumbstick.
• Gaming devices
o Joystick - a general control device that consists of a handheld stick that
pivots around one end, to detect angles in two or three dimensions.
o Gamepad - a general game controller held in the hand that relies on the
digits (especially thumbs) to provide input.
o Game controller - a specific type of controller specialized for certain
gaming purposes.
• Image, Video input devices
o Image scanner - a device that provides input by analyzing images, printed
text, handwriting, or an object.
o Webcam - a low resolution video camera used to provide visual input that
can be easily transferred over the internet.
• Audio input devices
o Microphone - an acoustic sensor that provides input by converting sound
into an electrical signals

[edit] Output

Main article: Output

• Image, Video output devices
o Printer
o Monitor
• Audio output devices
o Speakers
o Headset

[edit] See also
Electronics portal

• Computer architecture
• Digital circuit
• Green computing
• History of computing hardware
• Origins of computer terms
• Open hardware
• Optical computer
• DNA computing
• Legacy system
• E-waste

[edit] External links
• HowStuffWorks
[hide]
v•d•e
Major information technology companies

Cellular hardware
Apple · HTC · LG · Motorola · Samsung · Nokia · Palm · Qualcomm · RIM · Sony
Ericsson

Conglomerates
GE · HCL · Hitachi · LG · Matsushita · NCR · News Corp. · Philips · Samsung ·
Siemens · Sony · Thomson · Toshiba · Vivendi

Computer hardware
Acer · Apple · Asus · Dell · Fujitsu Siemens · Hewlett-Packard · Lenovo · Samsung ·
Quanta · Sony · Toshiba

Computer networks
3Com · Alcatel-Lucent · Allied Telesis · Avaya · Cisco · Ericsson · Foundry ·
Huawei · Juniper · Nokia Siemens · Nortel · ZTE

Dot-coms
Amazon.com · AOL · eBay · Google · Yahoo!

Electronics manufacturers
Celestica · Elcoteq · Flextronics · Foxconn · Jabil · Kimball · Plexus · Quanta ·
Sanmina-SCI · SMTC

IT services
Accenture · ACS · Atos Origin · Avanade · BearingPoint · Booz Allen Hamilton ·
BT · Capgemini · CGI · Cognizant · CSC · Compuware · Deloitte · EDS · First Data ·
Getronics · HCL Tech · i-flex · IBM · Indra · Infosys · Keane · Logica · Neusoft ·
PA · Perot · SAIC · Sapient · Satyam · Seioglobal · Steria · Syntel · TCS ·
ThoughtWorks · TietoEnator · Titan · Unisys · Wipro · Xansa