EN BANC A.M. No.

03-02-05-SC RE: PROPOSED RULE ON GUARDIANSHIP OF MINORS RESOLUTION The Rule shall take effect on May 1, 2003 following its publication in a newspaper of general circulation not later than April 15, 2003. April 1, 2003. ection 1. Applicability of the Rule. – This Rule shall apply to petitions for guar!ianship o"er the person or property, or both, of a #inor. The father an! the #other shall $ointly e%ercise legal guar!ianship o"er the person an! property of their une#ancipate! co##on chil! without the necessity of a court appoint#ent. &n such case, this Rule shall be suppletory to the pro"isions of the 'a#ily (o!e on guar!ianship. ec. 2. Who may petition for appointment of guardian. – )n groun!s authori*e! by law, any relati"e or other person on behalf of a #inor, or the #inor hi#self if fourteen years of age or o"er, #ay petition the 'a#ily (ourt for the appoint#ent of a general guar!ian o"er the person or property, or both, of such #inor. The petition #ay also be file! by the ecretary of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent an! by the ecretary of -ealth in the case of an insane #inor who nee!s to be hospitali*e!. ec. 3. Where to file petition. – A petition for guar!ianship o"er the person or property, or both, of a #inor #ay be file! in the 'a#ily (ourt of the pro"ince or city where the #inor actually resi!es. &f he resi!es in a foreign country, the petition shall be flie! with the 'a#ily (ourt of the pro"ince or city where his property or any part thereof is situate!. ec. .. Grounds of petition.-The groun!s for the appoint#ent of a guar!ian o"er the person or property, or both, of a #inor are the following/ 0a1 !eath, continue! absence, or incapacity of his parents2 0b1 suspension, !epri"ation or ter#ination of parental authority2 0c1 re#arriage of his sur"i"ing parent, if the latter &s foun! unsuitable to e%ercise parental authority2 or 0!1 when the best interests of the #inor so re3uire. ec. 5. Qualifications of guardians. – &n appointing a guar!ian, the court shall consi!er the guar!ian4s/ 0a1 #oral character2 0b1 physical, #ental an! psychological con!ition2 0c1 financial status2 0!1 relationship of trust with the #inor2 0e1 a"ailability to e%ercise the powers an! !uties of a guar!ian for the full perio! of the guar!ianship2 0f1 lack of conflict of interest with the #inor2 an! 0g1 ability to #anage the property of the #inor. ec. 5. Who may be appointed guardian of the person or property, or both, of a minor. – &n !efault of parents or a court6appointe! guar!ian, the court #ay appoint a guar!ian of the person or property, or both, of a #inor, obser"ing as far as practicable, the following or!er of preference/ 0a1 the sur"i"ing gran!parent an! &n case se"eral gran!parents sur"i"e, the court shall select any of the# taking &nto account all rele"ant consi!erations2 0b1 the ol!est brother or sister of the #inor o"er twenty6one years of age, unless unfit or !is3ualifie!2 0c1 the actual custo!ian of the #inor o"er twenty6one years of age, unless unfit or !is3ualifie!2 an! 0!1 any other person, who in the soun! !iscretion of the court, woul! ser"e the best interests of the #inor. ec. 7. ontents of petition. – A petition for the appoint#ent of a general guar!ian #ust allege the following/ 0a1 The $uris!ictional facts2 0b1 The na#e, age an! resi!ence of the prospecti"e war!2 0c1 The groun! ren!ering the appoint#ent necessary or con"enient2 0!1 The !eath of the parents of the #inor or the ter#ination, !epri"ation or suspension of their parental authority2 0e1 The re#arriage of the #inor4s sur"i"ing parent2 0f1 The na#es, ages, an! resi!ences of relati"es within the .th ci"il !egree of the #inor, an! of persons ha"ing hi# in their care an! custo!y2 0g1 The probable "alue, character an! location of the property of the #inor2 an! 0h1 The na#e, age an! resi!ence of the person for who# letters of guar!ianship are praye!.

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The petition shall be "erifie! an! acco#panie! by a certification against foru# shopping. -owe"er, no !efect in the petition or "erification shall ren!er "oi! the issuance of letters of guar!ianship. ec. 7. Time and notice of hearing. 8 +hen a petition for the appoint#ent of a general guar!ian is file!, the court shall fi% a ti#e an! place for its hearing, an! shall cause reasonable notice to be gi"en to the persons #entione! in the petition, inclu!ing the #inor if he is fourteen years of age or o"er, an! #ay !irect other general or special notice to be gi"en. ec. 9. ase study report. 8 The court shall or!er a social worker to con!uct a case stu!y of the #inor an! all the prospecti"e guar!ians an! sub#it his report an! reco##en!ation to the court for its gui!ance before the sche!ule! hearing. The social worker #ay inter"ene on behalf of the #inor if he fin!s that the petition for guar!ianship shoul! be !enie!. ec. 10. !pposition to petition. – Any intereste! person #ay contest the petition by filing a written opposition base! on such groun!s as the #a$ority of the #inor or the unsuitability of the person for who# letters are praye!, an! pray that the petition be !enie!, or that letters of guar!ianship issue to hi#self, or to any suitable person na#e! in the opposition. ec. 11. "earing and order for letters to issue. – At the hearing of the petition, it #ust be shown that the re3uire#ent of notice has been co#plie! with. The prospecti"e war! shall be presente! to the court. The court shall hear the e"i!ence of the parties in support of their respecti"e allegations. &f warrante!, the court shall appoint a suitable guar!ian of the person or property, or both, of the #inor. At the !iscretion of the court, the hearing on guar!ianship #ay be close! to the public an! the recor!s of the case shall not be release! without its appro"al. ec. 12. When and ho# a guardian of the property for non-resident minor is appointed$ notice. – +hen the #inor resi!es outsi!e the :hilippines but has property in the :hilippines, any relati"e or frien! of such #inor, or any one intereste! in his property, in e%pectancy or otherwise, #ay petition the 'a#ily (ourt for the appoint#ent of a guar!ian o"er the property. ;otice of hearing of the petition shall be gi"en to the #inor by publication or any other #eans as the court #ay !ee# proper. The court #ay !ispense with the presence of the non6resi!ent #inor. &f after hearing the court is satisfie! that such non6resi!ent is a #inor an! a guar!ian is necessary or con"enient, it #ay appoint a guar!ian o"er his property. ec. 13. %er&ice of final and e'ecutory (udgment or order . 8 The final an! e%ecutory $u!g#ent or or!er shall be ser"e! upon the <ocal (i"il Registrar of the #unicipality or city where the #inor resi!es an! the Register of ,ee!s of the place where his property or part thereof is situate! shall annotate the sa#e in the correspon!ing title, an! report to the court his co#pliance within fifteen !ays fro# receipt of the or!er. ec. 1.. )ond of guardian$ amount$ conditions.-)efore he enters upon the e%ecution of his trust, or letters of guar!ianship issue, an appointe! guar!ian #ay be re3uire! to post a bon! in such su# as the court shall !eter#ine an! con!itione! as follows/ 0a1 To #ake an! return to the court, within three #onths after the issuance of his letters of guar!ianship, a true an! co#plete &n"entory of all the property, real an! personal, of his war! which shall co#e to his possession or knowle!ge or to the possession or knowle!ge of any other person in his behalf2 0b1 To faithfully e%ecute the !uties of his trust, to #anage an! !ispose of the property accor!ing to this rule for the best interests of the war!, an! to pro"i!e for his proper care, custo!y an! e!ucation2 0c1 To ren!er a true an! =ust account of all the property of the war! in his han!s, an! of all procee!s or interest !eri"e! therefro#, an! of the #anage#ent an! !isposition of the sa#e, at the ti#e !esignate! by this rule an! such other ti#es as the court !irects2 an! at the e%piration of his trust, to settle his accounts with the court an! !eli"er an! pay o"er all the property, effects, an! #onies re#aining in his han!s, or !ue fro# hi# on such settle#ent, to the person lawfully entitle! thereto2 an! 0!1 To perfor# all or!ers of the court an! such other !uties as #ay be re3uire! by law. ec. 15. Where to file the bond$ action thereon. – The bon! poste! by a guar!ian shall be file! in the 'a#ily (ourt an!, &n case of breach of any of its con!itions, the guar!ian #ay be prosecute! in the sa#e procee!ing for the benefit of the war! or of any other person legally intereste! in the property.

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+hene"er necessary, the court #ay re3uire the guar!ian to post a new bon! an! #ay !ischarge fro# further liability the sureties on the ol! bon! after !ue notice to intereste! persons, if no in$ury #ay result therefro# to those intereste! in the property. ec. 15. )ond of parents as guardians of property of minor . 8 lf the #arket "alue of the property or the annual &nco#e of the chil! e%cee!s :50,000.00, the parent concerne! shall furnish a bon! &n such a#ount as the court #ay !eter#ine, but in no case less than ten per centurn of the "alue of such property or annual inco#e, to guarantee the perfor#ance of the obligations prescribe! for general guar!ians. A "erifie! petition for appro"al of the bon! shall be flie! in the 'a#ily (ourt of the place where the chil! resi!es or, if the chil! resi!es in a foreign country, in the 'a#ily (ourt of the place where the property or any part thereof is situate!. The petition shall be !ockete! as a su##ary special procee!ing &n which all inci!ents an! issues regar!ing the perfor#ance of the obligations of a general guar!ian shall be hear! an! resol"e!. ec. 1>. General duties of guardian. 8 A guar!ian shall ha"e the care an! custo!y of the person of his war! an! the #anage#ent of his property, or only the #anage#ent of his property. The guar!ian of the property of a nonresi!ent #inor shall ha"e the #anage#ent of all his property within the :hilippines. A guar!ian shall perfor# the following !uties/ 0a1 To pay the $ust !ebts of the war! out of the personal property an! the inco#e of the real property of the war!, &f the sa#e is sufficient2 otherwise, out of the real property of the war! upon obtaining an or!er for its sale or encu#brance2 0b1 To settle all accounts of his war!, an! !e#an!, sue for, recei"e all !ebts !ue hi#, or #ay, with the appro"al of the court, co#poun! for the sa#e an! gi"e !ischarges to the !ebtor on recei"ing a fair an! $ust !i"i!en! of the property an! effects2 an! to appear for an! represent the war! in all actions an! special procee!ings, unless another person is appointe! for that purpose2 0c1 To #anage the property of the war! frugally an! without waste, an! apply the inco#e an! profits thereon, insofar as #ay be necessary, to the co#fortable an! suitable #aintenance of the war!2 an! if such inco#e an! profits be insufficient for that purpose, to sell or encu#ber the real or personal property, upon being authori*e! by the court to !o so2 0!1 To consent to a partition of real or personal property owne! by the war! $ointly or in co##on with others upon authority grante! by the court after hearing, notice to relati"es of the war!, an! a careful in"estigation as to the necessity an! propriety of the propose! action2 0e1 To sub#it to the court a "erifie! in"entory of the property of his war! within three #onths after his appoint#ent, an! annually thereafter, the ren!ition of which #ay be re3uire! upon the application of an intereste! person2 0f1 To report to the court any property of the war! not inclu!e! in the in"entory which is !isco"ere!, or succee!e! to, or ac3uire! by the war! within three #onths after such !isco"ery, succession, or ac3uisition2 an! 0g1 To ren!er to the court for its appro"al an accounting of the property one year fro# his appoint#ent, an! e"ery year thereafter or as often as #ay be re3uire!. ec. 17. *o#er and duty of the court 8 The court #ay/ 0a1 Re3uest the assistance of one or #ore co##issioners in the appraisal of the property of the war! reporte! in the initial an! subse3uent in"entories2 0b1 Authori*e rei#burse#ent to the guar!ian, other than a parent, of reasonable e%penses incurre! in the e%ecution of his trust, an! allow pay#ent of co#pensation for his ser"ices as the court #ay !ee# $ust, not e%cee!ing ten per centum of the net inco#e of the war!, if any2 otherwise, in such a#ount the court !eter#ines to be a reasonable co#pensation for his ser"ices2 an! 0c1 ?pon co#plaint of the guar!ian or war!, or of any person ha"ing actual or prospecti"e interest in the property at the war!, re3uire any person suspecte! of ha"ing e#be**le!, conceale!, or !ispose! of any #oney, goo!s or interest, or a written instru#ent belonging to the war! or his property to appear for e%a#ination concerning any thereof an! issue such or!ers as woul! secure the property against such e#be**le#ent, conceal#ent or con"eyance. ec. 19. *etition to sell or encumber property.- +hen the inco#e of a property un!er guar!ianship is insufficient to #aintain an! e!ucate the war!, or when it is for his benefit that his personal or real property or any part thereof be sol!, #ortgage! or otherwise encu#bere!, an! the procee!s in"este! in safe an! pro!ucti"e security, or in the i#pro"e#ent or security of other real property, the guar!ian #ay file a "erifie! petition setting forth such facts, an! praying that an or!er issue authori*ing the sale or encu#brance of the property.

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ec. 20. !rder to sho# cause. – &f the sale or encu#brance is necessary or woul! be beneficial to the war!, the court shall or!er his ne%t of kin an! all person@s intereste! in the property to appear at a reasonable ti#e an! place therein specifie! an! show cause why the petition shoul! not be grante!. ec. 21. "earing on return of order$ costs. – A t the ti#e an! place !esignate! in the or!er to show cause, the court shall hear the allegations an! e"i!ence of the petitioner an! ne%t of kin, an! other persons intereste!, together with their witnesses, an! grant or !eny the petition as the best interests of the war! #ay re3uire. ec. 22. ontents of order for sale or encumbrance and its duration$ bond. 8 &f, after full e%a#ination, it is necessary, or woul! be beneficial to the war!, to sell or encu#ber the property, or so#e portion of it, the court shall or!er such sale or encu#brance the procee!s of which shall be e%pen!e! for the #aintenance or the e!ucation of the war!, or in"este! as the circu#stances #ay re3uire. The or!er shall specify the groun!s for the sale or encu#brance an! #ay !irect that the property or!ere! sol! be !ispose! of at public sale, sub$ect to such con!itions as to the ti#e an! #anner of pay#ent, an! security where a part of the pay#ent is !eferre!. The original bon! of the guar!ian shall stan! as security for the proper appropriation of the procee!s of the sale or encu#brance, but the court #ay, if !ee#e! e%pe!ient, re3uire an a!!itional bon! as a con!ition for the sale or encu#brance. The authority to sell or encu#ber shall not e%ten! beyon! one year, unless renewe! by the court. ec. 23. ourt may order in&estment of proceeds and direct management of property. – The court #ay authori*e an! re3uire the guar!ian to in"est the procee!s of sales or encu#brances, an! any other #oney of his war! in his han!s, in real or personal property, for the best interests of the war!, an! #ay #ake such other or!ers for the #anage#ent, in"est#ent, an! !isposition of the property an! effects, as circu#stances #ay warrant. ec. 2.. Grounds for remo&al or resignation of guardian. – +hen a guar!ian beco#es insane or otherwise incapable of !ischarging his trust or is foun! thereafter to be unsuitable, or has waste! or #is#anage! the property of the war!, or has faile! to ren!er an account or #ake a return for thirty !ays after it is !ue, the court #ay, upon reasonable notice to the guar!ian, re#o"e hi# as such an! re3uire hi# to surren!er the property of the war! to the person foun! to be lawfully entitle! thereto. The court #ay allow the guar!ian to resign for $ustifiable causes. ?pon the re#o"al or resignation of the guar!ian, the court shall appoint a new one. ;o #otion for re#o"al or resignation shall be grante! unless the guar!ian has sub#itte! the proper accounting of the property of the war! an! the court has appro"e! the sa#e. ec. 25. Ground for termination of guardianship. – The court motu proprio or upon "erifie! #otion of any person allowe! to file a petition for guar!ianship #ay ter#inate the guar!ianship on the groun! that the war! has co#e of age or has !ie!. The guar!ian shall notify the court of such fact within ten !ays of its occurrence. ec. 25. %er&ice of final and e'ecutory (udgment or order. – The final an! e%ecutory $u!g#ent or or!er shall be ser"e! upon the <ocal (i"il Registrar of the #unicipality or city where the #inor resi!es an! the Register of ,ee!s of the pro"ince or city where his property or any part thereof is situate!. Aoth the <ocal (i"il Registrar an!4 the Register of ,ee!s shall enter the final an! e%ecutory $u!g#ent or or!er in the appropriate books in their offices. ec. 2>. +ffect of the rule. 8 This Rule a#en!s Rules 92 to 9> inclusi"e of the Rules of (ourt on guar!ianship of #inors. Buar!ianship of inco#petents who are not #inors shall continue to be un!er the $uris!iction of the regular courts an! go"erne! by the Rules of (ourt. ec. 27. +ffecti&ity. - This Rule shall take effect on May 1, 2003 following its publication in a newspaper of general circulation not later than April 15, 2003.

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THE RULE ON THE WRIT OF HABEAS DATA [A.M. No. 08-1-16-SC dated 22 January 2008. This Resolution shall take e e!t on "e#ruary 2$ 2008 ollo%in& its 'u#li!ation in three ()* ne%s'a'ers o &eneral !ir!ulation.+ C(T&); 1. -abeas ,ata.DThe writ of habeas !ata is a re#e!y a"ailable to any person whose right to pri"acy in life, liberty or security is "iolate! or threatene! by an unlawful act or o#ission of a public official or e#ployee, or of a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity engage! in the gathering, collecting or storing of !ata or infor#ation regar!ing the person, fa#ily, ho#e an! correspon!ence of the aggrie"e! party. C(. 2. +ho May 'ile.DAny aggrie"e! party #ay file a petition for the writ of habeas !ata. -owe"er, in cases of e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances, the petition #ay be file! by/ 0a1 Any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily of the aggrie"e! party, na#ely/ the spouse, chil!ren an! parents2 or 0b1 Any ascen!ant, !escen!ant or collateral relati"e of the aggrie"e! party within the fourth ci"il !egree of consanguinity or affinity, in !efault of those #entione! in the prece!ing paragraph. C(. 3. +here to 'ile.DThe petition #ay be file! with the Regional Trial (ourt where the petitioner or respon!ent resi!es, or that which has $uris!iction o"er the place where the !ata or infor#ation is gathere!, collecte! or store!, at the option of the petitioner. The petition #ay also be file! with the upre#e (ourt or the (ourt of Appeals or the an!iganbayan when the action concerns public !ata files of go"ern#ent offices. C(. .. +here Returnable2 Cnforceable.D+hen the writ is issue! by a Regional Trial (ourt or any $u!ge thereof, it shall be returnable before such court or $u!ge. +hen issue! by the (ourt of Appeals or the an!iganbayan or any of its $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such court or any $ustice thereof, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the petitioner or respon!ent resi!es, or that which has $uris!iction o"er the place where the !ata or infor#ation is gathere!, collecte! or store!. +hen issue! by the upre#e (ourt or any of its $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such (ourt or any $ustice thereof, or before the (ourt of Appeals or the an!iganbayan or any of its $ustices, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the petitioner or respon!ent resi!es, or that which has $uris!iction o"er the place where the !ata or infor#ation is gathere!, collecte! or store!. The writ of habeas !ata shall be enforceable anywhere in the :hilippines. C(. 5. ,ocket 'ees.D;o !ocket an! other lawful fees shall be re3uire! fro# an in!igent petitioner. The petition of the in!igent shall be !ockete! an! acte! upon i##e!iately, without pre$u!ice to subse3uent sub#ission of proof of in!igency not later than fifteen 0151 !ays fro# the filing of the petition. C(. 5. :etition.DA "erifie! written petition for a writ of habeas !ata shoul! contain/ 0a1 The personal circu#stances of the petitioner an! the respon!ent2 0b1 The #anner the right to pri"acy is "iolate! or threatene! an! how it affects the right to life, liberty or security of the aggrie"e! party2 0c1 The actions an! recourses taken by the petitioner to secure the !ata or infor#ation2 0!1 The location of the files, registers or !atabases, the go"ern#ent office, an! the person in charge, in possession or in control of the !ata or infor#ation, if known2 0e1 The reliefs praye! for, which #ay inclu!e the up!ating, rectification, suppression or !estruction of the !atabase or infor#ation or files kept by the respon!ent. &n case of threats, the relief #ay inclu!e a prayer for an or!er en$oining the act co#plaine! of2 an! 0f1 uch other rele"ant reliefs as are $ust an! e3uitable. C(. >. &ssuance of the +rit.D?pon the filing of the petition, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall i##e!iately or!er the issuance of the writ if on its face it ought to issue. The clerk of court shall issue the writ un!er the seal of the court an! cause it to be ser"e! within three 031 !ays fro# its issuance2 or, in case of urgent necessity, the $ustice or $u!ge #ay issue the writ un!er his or her own han!, an! #ay !eputi*e any officer or person to ser"e it. The writ shall also set the !ate an! ti#e for su##ary hearing of the petition which shall not be later than ten 0101 work !ays fro# the !ate of its issuance.

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C(. 7. :enalty for Refusing to &ssue or er"e the +rit.DA clerk of court who refuses to issue the writ after its allowance, or a !eputi*e! person who refuses to ser"e the sa#e, shall be punishe! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge for conte#pt without pre$u!ice to other !isciplinary actions. C(. 9. -ow the +rit &s er"e!.DThe writ shall be ser"e! upon the respon!ent by the officer or person !eputi*e! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge who shall retain a copy on which to #ake a return of ser"ice. &n case the writ cannot be ser"e! personally on the respon!ent, the rules on substitute! ser"ice shall apply. C(. 10. Return2 (ontents.DThe respon!ent shall file a "erifie! written return together with supporting affi!a"its within fi"e 051 work !ays fro# ser"ice of the writ, which perio! #ay be reasonably e%ten!e! by the (ourt for $ustifiable reasons. The return shall, a#ong other things, contain the following/ 0a1 The lawful !efenses such as national security, state secrets, pri"ilege! co##unication, confi!entiality of the source of infor#ation of #e!ia an! others2 0b1 &n case of respon!ent in charge, in possession or in control of the !ata or infor#ation sub$ect of the petition/ 0i1 a !isclosure of the !ata or infor#ation about the petitioner, the nature of such !ata or infor#ation, an! the purpose for its collection2 0ii1 the steps or actions taken by the respon!ent to ensure the security an! confi!entiality of the !ata or infor#ation2 an! 0iii1 the currency an! accuracy of the !ata or infor#ation hel!2 an! 0c1 )ther allegations rele"ant to the resolution of the procee!ing. A general !enial of the allegations in the petition shall not be allowe!. C(. 11. (onte#pt.DThe court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay punish with i#prison#ent or fine a respon!ent who co##its conte#pt by #aking a false return, or refusing to #ake a return2 or any person who otherwise !isobeys or resists a lawful process or or!er of the court. C(. 12. +hen ,efenses May Ae -ear! in (ha#bers.DA hearing in cha#bers #ay be con!ucte! where the respon!ent in"okes the !efense that the release of the !ata or infor#ation in 3uestion shall co#pro#ise national security or state secrets, or when the !ata or infor#ation cannot be !i"ulge! to the public !ue to its nature or pri"ilege! character. C(. 13. :rohibite! :lea!ings an! Motions.DThe following plea!ings an! #otions are prohibite!/ 0a1 Motion to !is#iss2 0b1 Motion for e%tension of ti#e to file opposition, affi!a"it, position paper an! other plea!ings2 0c1 ,ilatory #otion for postpone#ent2 0!1 Motion for a bill of particulars2 0e1 (ounterclai# or cross6clai#2 0f1 Thir!6party co#plaint2 0g1 Reply2 0h1 Motion to !eclare respon!ent in !efault2 0i1 &nter"ention2 0$1 Me#oran!u#2 0k1 Motion for reconsi!eration of interlocutory or!ers or interi# relief or!ers2 an! 0l1 :etition for certiorari, #an!a#us or prohibition against any interlocutory or!er. C(. 1.. Return2 'iling.D&n case the respon!ent fails to file a return, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall procee! to hear the petition e% parte, granting the petitioner such relief as the petition #ay warrant unless the court in its !iscretion re3uires the petitioner to sub#it e"i!ence. C(. 15. u##ary -earing.DThe hearing on the petition shall be su##ary. -owe"er, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay call for a preli#inary conference to si#plify the issues an! !eter#ine the possibility of obtaining stipulations an! a!#issions fro# the parties. C(. 15. =u!g#ent.DThe court shall ren!er $u!g#ent within ten 0101 !ays fro# the ti#e the petition is sub#itte! for !ecision. &f the allegations in the petition are pro"en by substantial e"i!ence, the court shall en$oin the act co#plaine! of, or or!er the !eletion, !estruction, or rectification of the erroneous !ata or infor#ation an! grant other rele"ant reliefs as #ay be $ust an! e3uitable2 otherwise, the pri"ilege of the writ shall be !enie!. ?pon its finality, the $u!g#ent shall be enforce! by the sheriff or any lawful officer as #ay be !esignate! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge within fi"e 051 work !ays.

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C(. 1>. Return of er"ice.DThe officer who e%ecute! the final $u!g#ent shall, within three 031 !ays fro# its enforce#ent, #ake a "erifie! return to the court. The return shall contain a full state#ent of the procee!ings un!er the writ an! a co#plete in"entory of the !atabase or infor#ation, or !ocu#ents an! articles inspecte!, up!ate!, rectifie!, or !elete!, with copies ser"e! on the petitioner an! the respon!ent. The officer shall state in the return how the $u!g#ent was enforce! an! co#plie! with by the respon!ent, as well as all ob$ections of the parties regar!ing the #anner an! regularity of the ser"ice of the writ. C(. 17. -earing on )fficer4s Return.DThe court shall set the return for hearing with !ue notice to the parties an! act accor!ingly. C(. 19. Appeal.DAny party #ay appeal fro# the $u!g#ent or final or!er to the upre#e (ourt un!er Rule .5. The appeal #ay raise 3uestions of fact or law or both. The perio! of appeal shall be fi"e 051 work !ays fro# the !ate of notice of the $u!g#ent or final or!er. The appeal shall be gi"en the sa#e priority as habeas corpus an! a#paro cases. C(. 20. &nstitution of eparate Actions.DThe filing of a petition for the writ of habeas !ata shall not preclu!e the filing of separate cri#inal, ci"il or a!#inistrati"e actions. C(. 21. (onsoli!ation.D+hen a cri#inal action is file! subse3uent to the filing of a petition for the writ, the latter shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. +hen a cri#inal action an! a separate ci"il action are file! subse3uent to a petition for a writ of habeas !ata, the petition shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. After consoli!ation, the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall continue to go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs in the petition. C(. 22. Cffect of 'iling of a (ri#inal Action.D+hen a cri#inal action has been co##ence!, no separate petition for the writ shall be file!. The reliefs un!er the writ shall be a"ailable to an aggrie"e! party by #otion in the cri#inal case. The proce!ure un!er this Rule shall go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs a"ailable un!er the writ of habeas !ata. C(. 23. ubstanti"e Rights.DThis Rule shall not !i#inish, increase or #o!ify substanti"e rights. C(. 2.. uppletory Application of the Rules of (ourt.DThe Rules of (ourt shall apply suppletorily insofar as it is not inconsistent with this Rule. C(. 25. Cffecti"ity.DThis Rule shall take effect on 'ebruary 2, 2007 following its publication in three 031 newspapers of general circulation. Que !"o# $#% A# &e' o# W'"! o( H$)e$ D$!$:

W*$! " !*e &'"! o( *$)e$ %$!$+ &t is a re#e!y a"ailable to any person whose right to pri"acy in life, liberty or security is "iolate! or threatene! by an unlawful act or o#ission of a public official or e#ployee, or of a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity engage! in the gathering, collecting or storing of !ata or infor#ation regar!ing the person, fa#ily, ho#e an! correspon!ence of the aggrie"e! party. W*$! 'u,e -o.e'# /e!"!"o# (o' $#% !*e " u$#0e o( $ &'"! o( *$)e$ %$!$+ &t is go"erne! by The Rule on the +rit of -abeas ,ata 0A.M. ;o. 07616156 (1, which was appro"e! by the (ourt on 22 =anuary 2007. That Rule shall not !i#inish, increase or #o!ify substanti"e rights. upre#e

W*$! " !*e Su/'e1e Cou'!2 )$ " "# " u"#- !*e Ru,e+ The Rule was !rafte! pursuant to the upre#e (ourt4s constitutional power to pro#ulgate rules for the protection an! enforce#ent of constitutional rights 0(onstitution, Art. E&&&, ec. 5F5G1. W*e# %oe !*e Ru,e !$3e e((e0!+ The Rule takes effect on 2 'ebruary 2007, following its publication in three 031 newspapers of general circulation. W*o 1$4 (",e $ /e!"!"o# (o' !*e " u$#0e o( $ &'"! o( *$)e$ %$!$+

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The petition #ay be file! by the aggrie"e! party. -owe"er, in cases of e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances, the petition #ay be file! by/ 0a1 Any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily of the aggrie"e! party, na#ely/ the spouse, chil!ren an! parents2 or 0b1 Any ascen!ant, !escen!ant or collateral relati"e of the aggrie"e! party within the fourth ci"il !egree of consanguinity or affinity, in !efault of those #entione! in the prece!ing paragraph. W*e'e 0$# !*e /e!"!"o# )e (",e%+ a. Regional Trial (ourt where the petitioner or respon!ent resi!es, or that which has $uris!iction o"er the place where the !ata or infor#ation is gathere!, collecte! or store!, at the option of the petitioner. b. upre#e (ourt2 c. (ourt of Appeals2 or !. an!iganbayan, when the action concerns public !ata files of go"ern#ent offices. Ho& 1u0* " !*e %o03e! o' (","#- (ee (o' !*e /e!"!"o#+ ;o !ocket an! other lawful fees shall be re3uire! fro# an in!igent petitioner. The petition of the in!igent shall be !ockete! an! acte! upon i##e!iately, without pre$u!ice to subse3uent sub#ission of proof of in!igency not later than 15 !ays fro# the filing of the petition. W*$! $'e !*e 'e5u"'e% 0o#!e#! o( !*e /e!"!"o#+ The "erifie! written petition shall allege the following/ 0a1 The personal circu#stances of the petitioner an! the respon!ent2 0b1 The #anner the right to pri"acy is "iolate! or threatene! an! how it affects the right to life, liberty or security of the aggrie"e! party2 0c1 The actions an! recourses taken by the petitioner to secure the !ata or infor#ation2 0!1 The location of the files, registers or !atabases, the go"ern#ent office, an! the person in charge, in possession or in control of the !ata or infor#ation, if known2 0e1 The reliefs praye! for, which #ay inclu!e the up!ating, rectification, suppression or !estruction of the !atabase or infor#ation or files kept by the respon!ent. &n case of threats, the relief #ay inclu!e a prayer for an or!er en$oining the act co#plaine! of2 an! 0f1 uch other rele"ant reliefs as are $ust an! e3uitable. W*e# " !*e &'"! o( *$)e$ %$!$ " ue%+ ?pon the filing of the petition, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall i##e!iately or!er the issuance of the writ if on its face it ought to issue. The clerk of court shall issue the writ un!er the seal of the court an! cause it to be ser"e! within three 031 !ays fro# its issuance2 or, in case of urgent necessity, the $ustice or $u!ge #ay issue the writ un!er his or her own han!, an! #ay !eputi*e any officer or person to ser"e it. The writ shall also set the !ate an! ti#e for su##ary hearing of the petition which shall not be later than ten 0101 work !ays fro# the !ate of its issuance. I !*e'e $#4 /e#$,!4 "# 0$ e o( 'e(u $, !o " ue o' e'.e !*e &'"!+ Hes. A clerk of court who refuses to issue the writ after its allowance, or a !eputi*e! person who refuses to ser"e the sa#e, shall be punishe! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge for conte#pt without pre$u!ice to other !isciplinary actions. Ho& " !*e &'"! o( *$)e$ %$!$ e'.e%+ The writ shall be ser"e! upon the respon!ent by the officer or person !eputi*e! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge who shall retain a copy on which to #ake a return of ser"ice. &n case the writ cannot be ser"e! personally on the respon!ent, the rules on substitute! ser"ice shall apply. A(!e' !*e &'"! " e'.e%6 &*$! *ou,% !*e 'e /o#%e#! %o+ The respon!ent shall file a "erifie! written return together with supporting affi!a"its within fi"e 051 work !ays fro# ser"ice of the writ, which perio! #ay be reasonably e%ten!e! by the (ourt for $ustifiable reasons. W*$! $'e !*e 0o#!e#! o( !*e &'"!!e# 'e!u'#+ The return shall, a#ong other things, contain the following/ 0a1 The lawful !efenses such as national security, state secrets, pri"ilege! co##unication, confi!entiality of the source of infor#ation of #e!ia an! others2 0b1 &n case of respon!ent in charge, in possession or in control of the !ata or infor#ation sub$ect of the petition/ 0i1 a !isclosure of the !ata or infor#ation about the petitioner, the nature of such !ata or infor#ation, an! the purpose for its collection2 0ii1 the steps or actions taken by the respon!ent to ensure the security an! confi!entiality of the !ata or infor#ation2

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an! 0iii1 the currency an! accuracy of the !ata or infor#ation hel!2 an! 0c1 )ther allegations rele"ant to the resolution of the procee!ing. A general !enial of the allegations in the petition shall not be allowe!. W*$! *$//e# "( !*e 'e /o#%e#! 1$3e $ ($, e 'e!u'# o' 'e(u e !o 1$3e $ 'e!u'#7 o' "( $#4 /e' o# &*o %" o)e4 o' 'e " ! $ ,$&(u, /'o0e o' o'%e' o( !*e 0ou'!+ That person #ay be punishe! with i#prison#ent or fine. Also, when the respon!ent fails to file a return, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall procee! to hear the petition e% parte, granting the petitioner such relief as the petition #ay warrant unless the court in its !iscretion re3uires the petitioner to sub#it e"i!ence. I# !e$% o( *$."#- !*e *e$'"#- "# o/e# 0ou'!6 0$# "! )e %o#e "# 0*$1)e' + Hes. &t can be !one when the respon!ent in"okes the !efense that the release of the !ata or infor#ation in 3uestion shall co#pro#ise national security or state secrets, or when the !ata or infor#ation cannot be !i"ulge! to the public !ue to its nature or pri"ilege! character. W*$! " !*e #$!u'e o( !*e *e$'"#- o# !*e /e!"!"o#+ The hearing on the petition shall be su##ary. -owe"er, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay call for a preli#inary conference to si#plify the issues an! !eter#ine the possibility of obtaining stipulations an! a!#issions fro# the parties. Ho& ,o#- %oe !*e 0ou'! *$.e "# %e0"%"#- !*e /e!"!"o#+ The court shall ren!er $u!g#ent within ten 0101 !ays fro# the ti#e the petition is sub#itte! for !ecision. &f the allegations in the petition are pro"en by substantial e"i!ence, the court shall en$oin the act co#plaine! of, or or!er the !eletion, !estruction, or rectification of the erroneous !ata or infor#ation an! grant other rele"ant reliefs as #ay be $ust an! e3uitable2 otherwise, the pri"ilege of the writ shall be !enie!. W*$! *$//e# $(!e' !*e ("#$,"!4 o( !*e 8u%-1e#!+ ?pon its finality, the $u!g#ent shall be enforce! by the sheriff or any lawful officer as #ay be !esignate! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge within fi"e 051 work !ays. The officer who e%ecute! the final $u!g#ent shall, within three 031 !ays fro# its enforce#ent, #ake a "erifie! return to the court. The return shall contain a full state#ent of the procee!ings un!er the writ an! a co#plete in"entory of the !atabase or infor#ation, or !ocu#ents an! articles inspecte!, up!ate!, rectifie!, or !elete!, with copies ser"e! on the petitioner an! the respon!ent. The officer shall state in the return how the $u!g#ent was enforce! an! co#plie! with by the respon!ent, as well as all ob$ections of the parties regar!ing the #anner an! regularity of the ser"ice of the writ. The court shall set the return for hearing with !ue notice to the parties an! act accor!ingly. Doe !*e (","#- o( !*e /e!"!"o# /'e0,u%e !*e (","#- o( e/$'$!e 0'"1"#$,6 0".", o' $%1"#" !'$!".e $0!"o# + ;o. -owe"er, when a cri#inal action has been co##ence!, no separate petition for the writ shall be file!, but the reliefs un!er the writ shall be a"ailable by #otion in the cri#inal case, an! the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs a"ailable un!er the writ of habeas !ata. +hen a cri#inal action an! a separate ci"il action are file! subse3uent to a petition for a writ of habeas !ata, the petition shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. After consoli!ation, the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall continue to go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs in the petition.

THE RULE ON THE WRIT OF AMPARO C(T&); 1. *etition. , The petition for a writ of amparo is a re#e!y a"ailable to any person whose right to life, liberty an! security is "iolate! or threatene! with "iolation by an unlawful act or o#ission of a public official or e#ployee, or of a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity. The writ shall co"er e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances or threats thereof.

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C(. 2. Who ,ay -ile. – The petition #ay be file! by the aggrie"e! party or by any 3ualifie! person or entity in the following or!er/ 0a1 Any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily, na#ely/ the spouse, chil!ren an! parents of the aggrie"e! party2 0b1 Any ascen!ant, !escen!ant or collateral relati"e of the aggrie"e! party within the fourth ci"il !egree of consanguinity or affinity, in !efault of those #entione! in the prece!ing paragraph2 or 0c1 Any concerne! citi*en, organi*ation, association or institution, if there is no known #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily or relati"e of the aggrie"e! party. The filing of a petition by the aggrie"e! party suspen!s the right of all other authori*e! parties to file si#ilar petitions. <ikewise, the filing of the petition by an authori*e! party on behalf of the aggrie"e! party suspen!s the right of all others, obser"ing the or!er establishe! herein. C(. 3. Where to -ile. 8 The petition #ay be file! on any !ay an! at any ti#e with the Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!, or with the an!iganbayan, the (ourt of Appeals, the upre#e (ourt, or any $ustice of such courts. The writ shall be enforceable anywhere in the :hilippines. +hen issue! by a Regional Trial (ourt or any $u!ge thereof, the writ shall be returnable before such court or $u!ge. +hen issue! by the an!iganbayan or the (ourt of Appeals or any of their $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such court or any $ustice thereof, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!. +hen issue! by the upre#e (ourt or any of its $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such (ourt or any $ustice thereof, or before the an!iganbayan or the (ourt of Appeals or any of their $ustices, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!. C(. .. .o /oc0et -ees. 8 The petitioner shall be e%e#pte! fro# the pay#ent of the !ocket an! other lawful fees when filing the petition. The court, $ustice or $u!ge shall !ocket the petition an! act upon it i##e!iately. C(. 5. ontents of *etition. – The petition shall be signe! an! "erifie! an! shall allege the following/ 0a1 The personal circu#stances of the petitioner2 0b1 The na#e an! personal circu#stances of the respon!ent responsible for the threat, act or o#ission, or, if the na#e is unknown or uncertain, the respon!ent #ay be !escribe! by an assu#e! appellation2 0c1 The right to life, liberty an! security of the aggrie"e! party "iolate! or threatene! with "iolation by an unlawful act or o#ission of the respon!ent, an! how such threat or "iolation is co##itte! with the atten!ant circu#stances !etaile! in supporting affi!a"its2 0!1 The in"estigation con!ucte!, if any, specifying the na#es, personal circu#stances, an! a!!resses of the in"estigating authority or in!i"i!uals, as well as the #anner an! con!uct of the in"estigation, together with any report2 0e1 The actions an! recourses taken by the petitioner to !eter#ine the fate or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party an! the i!entity of the person responsible for the threat, act or o#ission2 an! 0f1 The relief praye! for. The petition #ay inclu!e a general prayer for other $ust an! e3uitable reliefs. C(. 5. 1ssuance of the Writ. – ?pon the filing of the petition, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall i##e!iately or!er the issuance of the writ if on its face it ought to issue. The clerk of court shall issue the writ un!er the seal of the court2 or in case of urgent necessity, the $ustice or the $u!ge #ay issue the writ un!er his or her own han!, an! #ay !eputi*e any officer or person to ser"e it. The writ shall also set the !ate an! ti#e for su##ary hearing of the petition which shall not be later than se"en 0>1 !ays fro# the !ate of its issuance. C(. >. *enalty for Refusing to 1ssue or %er&e the Writ. – A clerk of court who refuses to issue the writ after its allowance, or a !eputi*e! person who refuses to ser"e the sa#e, shall be punishe! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge for conte#pt without pre$u!ice to other !isciplinary actions. C(. 7. "o# the Writ is %er&ed. – The writ shall be ser"e! upon the respon!ent by a $u!icial officer or by a person !eputi*e! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge who shall retain a copy on which to #ake a return of ser"ice. &n case the writ cannot be ser"e! personally on the respon!ent, the rules on substitute! ser"ice shall apply. C(. 9. Return$ ontents. – +ithin se"enty6two 0>21 hours after ser"ice of the writ, the respon!ent shall file a "erifie! written return together with supporting affi!a"its which shall, a#ong other things, contain the following/ 0a1 The lawful !efenses to show that the respon!ent !i! not "iolate or threaten with "iolation the right to life, liberty an! security of the aggrie"e! party, through any act or o#ission2

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0b1 The steps or actions taken by the respon!ent to !eter#ine the fate or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party an! the person or persons responsible for the threat, act or o#ission2 0c1 All rele"ant infor#ation in the possession of the respon!ent pertaining to the threat, act or o#ission against the aggrie"e! party2 an! 0!1 &f the respon!ent is a public official or e#ployee, the return shall further state the actions that ha"e been or will still be taken/ 0i1 to "erify the i!entity of the aggrie"e! party2 0ii1 to reco"er an! preser"e e"i!ence relate! to the !eath or !isappearance of the person i!entifie! in the petition which #ay ai! in the prosecution of the person or persons responsible2 0iii1 to i!entify witnesses an! obtain state#ents fro# the# concerning the !eath or !isappearance2 0i"1 to !eter#ine the cause, #anner, location an! ti#e of !eath or !isappearance as well as any pattern or practice that #ay ha"e brought about the !eath or !isappearance2 0"1 to i!entify an! apprehen! the person or persons in"ol"e! in the !eath or !isappearance2 an! 0"i1 to bring the suspecte! offen!ers before a co#petent court. The return shall also state other #atters rele"ant to the in"estigation, its resolution an! the prosecution of the case. A general !enial of the allegations in the petition shall not be allowe!. C(. 10. /efenses not *leaded /eemed Wai&ed. 2 All !efenses shall be raise! in the return, otherwise, they shall be !ee#e! wai"e!. C(. 11. *rohibited *leadings and ,otions. – The following plea!ings an! #otions are prohibite!/ 0a1 Motion to !is#iss2 0b1 Motion for e%tension of ti#e to file return, opposition, affi!a"it, position paper an! other plea!ings2 0c1 ,ilatory #otion for postpone#ent2 0!1 Motion for a bill of particulars2 0e1 (ounterclai# or cross6clai#2 0f1 Thir!6party co#plaint2 0g1 Reply2 0h1 Motion to !eclare respon!ent in !efault2 0i1 &nter"ention2 0$1 Me#oran!u#2 0k1 Motion for reconsi!eration of interlocutory or!ers or interi# relief or!ers2 an! 0l1 :etition for certiorari, mandamus or prohibition against any interlocutory or!er. C(. 12. +ffect of -ailure to -ile Return. 2 &n case the respon!ent fails to file a return, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall procee! to hear the petition e' parte. C(. 13. %ummary "earing. 2 The hearing on the petition shall be su##ary. -owe"er, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay call for a preli#inary conference to si#plify the issues an! !eter#ine the possibility of obtaining stipulations an! a!#issions fro# the parties. The hearing shall be fro# !ay to !ay until co#plete! an! gi"en the sa#e priority as petitions for habeas corpus. C(. 1.. 1nterim Reliefs. 2 ?pon filing of the petition or at anyti#e before final $u!g#ent, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay grant any of the following reliefs/ 0a1 Temporary *rotection !rder. – The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon #otion or motu proprio, #ay or!er that the petitioner or the aggrie"e! party an! any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily be protecte! in a go"ern#ent agency or by an accre!ite! person or pri"ate institution capable of keeping an! securing their safety. &f the petitioner is an organi*ation, association or institution referre! to in ection 30c1 of this Rule, the protection #ay be e%ten!e! to the officers in"ol"e!. The upre#e (ourt shall accre!it the persons an! pri"ate institutions that shall e%ten! te#porary protection to the petitioner or the aggrie"e! party an! any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily, in accor!ance with gui!elines which it shall issue. The accre!ite! persons an! pri"ate institutions shall co#ply with the rules an! con!itions that #ay be i#pose! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge. 0b1 1nspection !rder. D The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon "erifie! #otion an! after !ue hearing, #ay or!er any person in possession or control of a !esignate! lan! or other property, to per#it entry for the purpose of inspecting, #easuring, sur"eying, or photographing the property or any rele"ant ob$ect or operation thereon. The #otion shall state in !etail the place or places to be inspecte!. &t shall be supporte! by affi!a"its or testi#onies of witnesses ha"ing personal knowle!ge of the enforce! !isappearance or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party.

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&f the #otion is oppose! on the groun! of national security or of the pri"ilege! nature of the infor#ation, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay con!uct a hearing in cha#bers to !eter#ine the #erit of the opposition. The #o"ant #ust show that the inspection or!er is necessary to establish the right of the aggrie"e! party allege! to be threatene! or "iolate!. The inspection or!er shall specify the person or persons authori*e! to #ake the inspection an! the !ate, ti#e, place an! #anner of #aking the inspection an! #ay prescribe other con!itions to protect the constitutional rights of all parties. The or!er shall e%pire fi"e 051 !ays after the !ate of its issuance, unless e%ten!e! for $ustifiable reasons. 0c1 *roduction !rder. – The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon "erifie! #otion an! after !ue hearing, #ay or!er any person in possession, custo!y or control of any !esignate! !ocu#ents, papers, books, accounts, letters, photographs, ob$ects or tangible things, or ob$ects in !igiti*e! or electronic for#, which constitute or contain e"i!ence rele"ant to the petition or the return, to pro!uce an! per#it their inspection, copying or photographing by or on behalf of the #o"ant. The #otion #ay be oppose! on the groun! of national security or of the pri"ilege! nature of the infor#ation, in which case the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay con!uct a hearing in cha#bers to !eter#ine the #erit of the opposition. The court, $ustice or $u!ge shall prescribe other con!itions to protect the constitutional rights of all the parties. 0!1 Witness *rotection !rder. – The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon #otion or motu proprio, #ay refer the witnesses to the ,epart#ent of =ustice for a!#ission to the +itness :rotection, ecurity an! Aenefit :rogra#, pursuant to Republic Act ;o. 5971. The court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay also refer the witnesses to other go"ern#ent agencies, or to accre!ite! persons or pri"ate institutions capable of keeping an! securing their safety. C(. 15. A&ailability of 1nterim Reliefs to Respondent. – ?pon "erifie! #otion of the respon!ent an! after !ue hearing, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay issue an inspection or!er or pro!uction or!er un!er paragraphs 0b1 an! 0c1 of the prece!ing section. A #otion for inspection or!er un!er this section shall be supporte! by affi!a"its or testi#onies of witnesses ha"ing personal knowle!ge of the !efenses of the respon!ent. C(. 15. ontempt. – The court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay or!er the respon!ent who refuses to #ake a return, or who #akes a false return, or any person who otherwise !isobeys or resists a lawful process or or!er of the court to be punishe! for conte#pt. The conte#nor #ay be i#prisone! or i#pose! a fine. C(. 1>. )urden of *roof and %tandard of /iligence Re3uired. – The parties shall establish their clai#s by substantial e"i!ence. The respon!ent who is a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity #ust pro"e that or!inary !iligence as re3uire! by applicable laws, rules an! regulations was obser"e! in the perfor#ance of !uty. The respon!ent who is a public official or e#ployee #ust pro"e that e%traor!inary !iligence as re3uire! by applicable laws, rules an! regulations was obser"e! in the perfor#ance of !uty. The respon!ent public official or e#ployee cannot in"oke the presu#ption that official !uty has been regularly perfor#e! to e"a!e responsibility or liability. C(. 17. 4udgment. 2 The court shall ren!er $u!g#ent within ten 0101 !ays fro# the ti#e the petition is sub#itte! for !ecision. &f the allegations in the petition are pro"en by substantial e"i!ence, the court shall grant the pri"ilege of the writ an! such reliefs as #ay be proper an! appropriate2 otherwise, the pri"ilege shall be !enie!. C(. 19. Appeal. 8 Any party #ay appeal fro# the final $u!g#ent or or!er to the upre#e (ourt un!er Rule .5 . The appeal #ay raise 3uestions of fact or law or both. The perio! of appeal shall be fi"e 051 working !ays fro# the !ate of notice of the a!"erse $u!g#ent. The appeal shall be gi"en the sa#e priority as in habeas corpus cases. C(. 20. Archi&ing and Re&i&al of ases. – The court shall not !is#iss the petition, but shall archi"e it, if upon its !eter#ination it cannot procee! for a "ali! cause such as the failure of petitioner or witnesses to appear !ue to threats on their li"es. A perio!ic re"iew of the archi"e! case shall be #a!e by the amparo court that shall, motu proprio or upon #otion by any party, or!er their re"i"al when rea!y for further procee!ings. The petition shall be !is#isse! with pre$u!ice upon failure to prosecute the case after the lapse of two 021 years fro# notice to the petitioner of the or!er archi"ing the case. The clerks of court shall sub#it to the )ffice of the (ourt A!#inistrator a consoli!ate! list of archi"e! cases un!er this Rule not later than the first week of =anuary of e"ery year. C(. 21. 1nstitution of %eparate Actions. 2 This Rule shall not preclu!e the filing of separate cri#inal, ci"il or a!#inistrati"e actions.

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C(. 22. +ffect of -iling of a riminal Action. 8 +hen a cri#inal action has been co##ence!, no separate petition for the writ shall be file!. The reliefs un!er the writ shall be a"ailable by #otion in the cri#inal case. The proce!ure un!er this Rule shall go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs a"ailable un!er the writ of amparo. C(. 23. onsolidation. – +hen a cri#inal action is file! subse3uent to the filing of a petition for the writ, the latter shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. +hen a cri#inal action an! a separate ci"il action are file! subse3uent to a petition for a writ of amparo, the latter shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. After consoli!ation, the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall continue to apply to the !isposition of the reliefs in the petition. C(. 2.. %ubstanti&e Rights. 2 This Rule shall not !i#inish, increase or #o!ify substanti"e rights recogni*e! an! protecte! by the (onstitution. C(. 25. %uppletory Application of the Rules of inconsistent with this Rule. ourt. – The Rules of (ourt shall apply suppletorily insofar as it is not

C(. 25. Applicability to *ending ases. – This Rule shall go"ern cases in"ol"ing e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances or threats thereof pen!ing in the trial an! appellate courts. C(. 2>. +ffecti&ity. 8 This Rule shall take effect on )ctober 2., 200>, following its publication in three 031 newspapers of general circulation. Que !"o# $#% A# &e' o# W'"! o( A1/$'o: W*$! " !*e &'"! o( $1/$'o+ &t is a re#e!y a"ailable to any person whose right to life, liberty, an! security has been "iolate! or is threatene! with "iolation by an unlawful act or o#ission of a public official or e#ployee, or of a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity. The writ co"ers e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances or threats thereof. W*$! 'u,e -o.e'# /e!"!"o# (o' $#% !*e " u$#0e o( $ &'"! o( $1/$'o+ &t is go"erne! by The Rule on the Writ of Amparo 0A.M. ;o. 0>696126 (1, which was appro"e! by the upre#e (ourt on 25 epte#ber 200>. This Rule also go"erns e%isting cases in"ol"ing e%tralegal killings an! enforce! !isappearances or threats thereof. W*$! " !*e Su/'e1e Cou'!2 )$ " "# " u"#- !*e Ru,e+ The Rule was !rafte! pursuant to the upre#e (ourt4s constitutional power to pro#ulgate rules for the protection an! enforce#ent of constitutional rights 0(onstitution, Art. E&&&, ec. 5F5G1. W*e# %oe !*e Ru,e !$3e e((e0!+ The Rule takes effect on 2. )ctober 200>, following its publication in three 031 newspapers of general circulation. W*o 1$4 (",e $ /e!"!"o# (o' !*e " u$#0e o( $ &'"! o( $1/$'o+ The petition #ay be file! by the aggrie"e! party or by any 3ualifie! person or entity in the following or!er/ 0a1 Any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily, na#ely/ the spouse, chil!ren an! parents of the aggrie"e! party2 0b1 Any ascen!ant, !escen!ant or collateral relati"e of the aggrie"e! party within the fourth ci"il !egree of consanguinity or affinity, in !efault of those #entione! in the prece!ing paragraph2 or 0c1 Any concerne! citi*en, organi*ation, association or institution, if there is no known #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily or relati"e of the aggrie"e! party. The filing of a petition by the aggrie"e! party suspen!s the right of all other authori*e! parties to file si#ilar petitions. <ikewise, the filing of the petition by an authori*e! party on behalf of the aggrie"e! party suspen!s the right of all others, obser"ing the or!er establishe! herein. W*e'e 0$# !*e /e!"!"o# )e (",e%+ The petition #ay be file! on any !ay an! at any ti#e with the Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!, or with the an!iganbayan, the (ourt of Appeals, the upre#e (ourt, or any $ustice of such courts. The writ shall be enforceable anywhere in the :hilippines. +hen issue! by a Regional Trial (ourt or any $u!ge thereof, the writ shall be returnable before such court or $u!ge.

13

+hen issue! by the an!iganbayan or the (ourt of Appeals or any of their $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such court or any $ustice thereof, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!. +hen issue! by the upre#e (ourt or any of its $ustices, it #ay be returnable before such (ourt or any $ustice thereof, or before the an!iganbayan or the (ourt of Appeals or any of their $ustices, or to any Regional Trial (ourt of the place where the threat, act or o#ission was co##itte! or any of its ele#ents occurre!. Ho& 1u0* " !*e %o03e! o' (","#- (ee (o' !*e /e!"!"o#+ There is ;) !ocket an! other lawful fees for the petition. The court, $ustice or $u!ge shall !ocket the petition an! act upon it i##e!iately. W*$! $'e !*e 'e5u"'e% 0o#!e#! o( !*e /e!"!"o#+ The petition shall be signe! an! "erifie! an! shall allege the following/ 0a1 The personal circu#stances of the petitioner2 0b1 The na#e an! personal circu#stances of the respon!ent responsible for the threat, act or o#ission, or, if the na#e is unknown or uncertain, the respon!ent #ay be !escribe! by an assu#e! appellation2 0c1 The right to life, liberty an! security of the aggrie"e! party "iolate! or threatene! with "iolation by an unlawful act or o#ission of the respon!ent, an! how such threat or "iolation is co##itte! with the atten!ant circu#stances !etaile! in supporting affi!a"its2 0!1 The in"estigation con!ucte!, if any, specifying the na#es, personal circu#stances, an! a!!resses of the in"estigating authority or in!i"i!uals, as well as the #anner an! con!uct of the in"estigation, together with any report2 0e1 The actions an! recourses taken by the petitioner to !eter#ine the fate or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party an! the i!entity of the person responsible for the threat, act or o#ission2 an! 0f1 The relief praye! for the petition #ay inclu!e a general prayer for other $ust an! e3uitable reliefs. W*e# " !*e &'"! o( $1/$'o " ue%+ ?pon the filing of the petition, the court, $ustice or $u!ge shall i##e!iately or!er the issuance of the writ if on its face it ought to issue. The clerk of court shall issue the writ un!er the seal of the court2 or in case of urgent necessity, the $ustice or the $u!ge #ay issue the writ un!er his or her own han!, an! #ay !eputi*e any officer or person to ser"e it. The writ shall also set the !ate an! ti#e for su##ary hearing of the petition which shall not be later than se"en 0>1 !ays fro# the !ate of its issuance. I !*e'e $#4 /e#$,!4 "# 0$ e o( 'e(u $, !o " ue o' e'.e !*e &'"!+ Hes. A clerk of court who refuses to issue the writ after its allowance, or a !eputi*e! person who refuses to ser"e the sa#e, shall be punishe! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge for conte#pt without pre$u!ice to other !isciplinary actions. Ho& " !*e &'"! o( $1/$'o e'.e%+ The writ is ser"e! on the respon!ent by a $u!icial officer or by a person !eputi*e! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge who shall retain a copy on which to #ake a return of ser"ice. &n case the writ cannot be ser"e! personally on the respon!ent, the rules on substitute! ser"ice shall apply. A(!e' !*e &'"! " e'.e%6 &*$! *ou,% !*e 'e /o#%e#! %o+ +ithin se"enty6two 0>21 hours after ser"ice of the writ, the respon!ent shall file a "erifie! written return together with supporting affi!a"its which shall, a#ong other things, contain the following/ 0a1 The lawful !efenses to show that the respon!ent !i! not "iolate or threaten with "iolation the right to life, liberty an! security of the aggrie"e! party, through any act or o#ission2 0b1 The steps or actions taken by the respon!ent to !eter#ine the fate or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party an! the person or persons responsible for the threat, act or o#ission2 0c1 All rele"ant infor#ation in the possession of the respon!ent pertaining to the threat, act or o#ission against the aggrie"e! party2 an! 0!1 &f the respon!ent is a public official or e#ployee, the return shall further state the actions that ha"e been or will still be taken/ 0i1 to "erify the i!entity of the aggrie"e! party2 0ii1 to reco"er an! preser"e e"i!ence relate! to the !eath or !isappearance of the person i!entifie! in the petition which #ay ai! in the prosecution of the person or persons responsible2 0iii1 to i!entify witnesses an! obtain state#ents fro# the# concerning the !eath or !isappearance2 0i"1 to !eter#ine the cause, #anner, location an! ti#e of !eath or !isappearance as well as any pattern or practice that #ay ha"e brought about the !eath or !isappearance2 0"1 to i!entify an! apprehen! the person or persons in"ol"e! in the !eath or !isappearance2 an!

1.

0"i1 to bring the suspecte! offen!ers before a co#petent court. The return shall also state other #atters rele"ant to the in"estigation, its resolution an! the prosecution of the case. A general !enial of the allegations in the petition shall not be allowe!. All !efenses shall be raise! in the return, otherwise, they shall be !ee#e! wai"e!. W*$! *$//e# "( !*e 'e /o#%e#! ($", !o (",e 'e!u'#+ The court, $ustice or $u!ge shall procee! to hear the petition e' parte or e"en without the appearance of the respon!ent. W*$! " !*e #$!u'e o( !*e *e$'"#- o# !*e /e!"!"o#+ The hearing on the petition shall be su##ary. -owe"er, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay call for a preli#inary conference to si#plify the issues an! !eter#ine the possibility of obtaining stipulations an! a!#issions fro# the parties. The hearing shall be fro# !ay to !ay until co#plete! an! gi"en the sa#e priority as petitions for habeas corpus. W*$! $'e !*e "#!e'"1 'e,"e( $.$",$),e !o !*e /e!"!"o#e'+ ?pon filing of the petition or at anyti#e before final $u!g#ent, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay grant any of the following reliefs/ 0a1 Temporary *rotection !rder. 8 The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon #otion or motu proprio, #ay or!er that the petitioner or the aggrie"e! party an! any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily be protecte! in a go"ern#ent agency or by an accre!ite! person or pri"ate institution capable of keeping an! securing their safety. &f the petitioner is an organi*ation, association or institution referre! to in ection 30c1 of the Rule, the protection #ay be e%ten!e! to the officers in"ol"e!. The upre#e (ourt shall accre!it the persons an! pri"ate institutions that shall e%ten! te#porary protection to the petitioner or the aggrie"e! party an! any #e#ber of the i##e!iate fa#ily, in accor!ance with gui!elines which it shall issue. The accre!ite! persons an! pri"ate institutions shall co#ply with the rules an! con!itions that #ay be i#pose! by the court, $ustice or $u!ge. 0b1 1nspection !rder. D The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon "erifie! #otion an! after !ue hearing, #ay or!er any person in possession or control of a !esignate! lan! or other property, to per#it entry for the purpose of inspecting, #easuring, sur"eying, or photographing the property or any rele"ant ob$ect or operation thereon. The #otion shall state in !etail the place or places to be inspecte!. &t shall be supporte! by affi!a"its or testi#onies of witnesses ha"ing personal knowle!ge of the enforce! !isappearance or whereabouts of the aggrie"e! party. &f the #otion is oppose! on the groun! of national security or of the pri"ilege! nature of the infor#ation, the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay con!uct a hearing in cha#bers to !eter#ine the #erit of the opposition. The #o"ant #ust show that the inspection or!er is necessary to establish the right of the aggrie"e! party allege! to be threatene! or "iolate!. The inspection or!er shall specify the person or persons authori*e! to #ake the inspection an! the !ate, ti#e, place an! #anner of #aking the inspection an! #ay prescribe other con!itions to protect the constitutional rights of all parties. The or!er shall e%pire fi"e 051 !ays after the !ate of its issuance, unless e%ten!e! for $ustifiable reasons. 0c1 *roduction !rder. 8 The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon "erifie! #otion an! after !ue hearing, #ay or!er any person in possession, custo!y or control of any !esignate! !ocu#ents, papers, books, accounts, letters, photographs, ob$ects or tangible things, or ob$ects in !igiti*e! or electronic for#, which constitute or contain e"i!ence rele"ant to the petition or the return, to pro!uce an! per#it their inspection, copying or photographing by or on behalf of the #o"ant. The #otion #ay be oppose! on the groun! of national security or of the pri"ilege! nature of the infor#ation, in which case the court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay con!uct a hearing in cha#bers to !eter#ine the #erit of the opposition. The court, $ustice or $u!ge shall prescribe other con!itions to protect the constitutional rights of all the parties. 0!1 Witness *rotection !rder. 8 The court, $ustice or $u!ge, upon #otion or motu proprio, #ay refer the witnesses to the ,epart#ent of =ustice for a!#ission to the +itness :rotection, ecurity an! Aenefit :rogra#, pursuant to Republic Act ;o. 5971. The court, $ustice or $u!ge #ay also refer the witnesses to other go"ern#ent agencies, or to accre!ite! persons or pri"ate institutions capable of keeping an! securing their safety. A'e !*e e "#!e'"1 'e,"e( $, o $.$",$),e !o !*e 'e /o#%e#!+ Hes, but only the interi# reliefs of 1nspection !rder an! the *roduction !rder. These interi# or!ers #ay be issue! only after a "erifie! #otion is file! by the respon!ent, supporte! by affi!a"its or testi#onies of witnesses ha"ing personal knowle!ge of the !efenses of the respon!ent, an! after !ue hearing. W*$! " !*e 'e5u"'e% )u'%e# o( /'oo(+ The parties shall establish their clai#s by substantial e"i!ence. The respon!ent who is a pri"ate in!i"i!ual or entity #ust pro"e that or!inary !iligence as re3uire! by applicable laws, rules an! regulations was obser"e! in the perfor#ance of !uty. The respon!ent who is a public official or e#ployee #ust pro"e that e%traor!inary !iligence as re3uire! by applicable laws, rules an! regulations was obser"e! in the perfor#ance of !uty.

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C$# !*e 'e /o#%e#! "#.o3e !*e ,e-$, /'e u1/!"o# 9Ru,e o( Cou'!6 Ru,e :3:6 Se0. 3;1<= !*$! o(("0"$, %u!4 *$ )ee# 'e-u,$',4 /e'(o'1e%+ ;o. The respon!ent public official or e#ployee cannot in"oke the presu#ption that official !uty has been regularly perfor#e! to e"a!e responsibility or liability. Ho& ,o#- %oe !*e 0ou'! *$.e "# %e0"%"#- !*e /e!"!"o#+ The court shall ren!er $u!g#ent within ten 0101 !ays fro# the ti#e the petition is sub#itte! for !ecision. &f the allegations in the petition are pro"en by substantial e"i!ence, the court shall grant the pri"ilege of the writ an! such reliefs as #ay be proper an! appropriate2 otherwise, the pri"ilege shall be !enie!. W*$! *$//e# "( !*e 0ou'! %e!e'1"#e !*$! "! 0$##o! /'o0ee% (o' $ .$,"% 0$u e6 u0* $ !*e ($",u'e o( /e!"!"o#e' o' &"!#e e !o $//e$' %ue !o !*'e$! o# !*e"' ,".e + The court shall not !is#iss the petition, but shall archi"e it. The a#paro court #ay, on its own or upon #otion by any party, or!er the re"i"al of the petition when rea!y for further procee!ings. The petition shall be !is#isse! with pre$u!ice upon failure to prosecute the case after the lapse of two 021 years fro# notice to the petitioner of the or!er archi"ing the case. Doe !*e (","#- o( !*e /e!"!"o# /'e0,u%e !*e (","#- o( e/$'$!e 0'"1"#$,6 0".", o' $%1"#" !'$!".e $0!"o# + ;o. -owe"er, when a cri#inal action has been co##ence!, no separate petition for the writ shall be file!, but the reliefs un!er the writ shall be a"ailable by #otion in the cri#inal case, an! the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall go"ern the !isposition of the reliefs a"ailable un!er the writ of a#paro. +hen a cri#inal action is file! subse3uent to the filing of a petition for the writ, the latter shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. +hen a cri#inal action an! a separate ci"il action are file! subse3uent to a petition for a writ of a#paro, the latter shall be consoli!ate! with the cri#inal action. After consoli!ation, the proce!ure un!er this Rule shall continue to apply to the !isposition of the reliefs in the petition.

Que !"o# $#% A# &e' o# H$)e$ 0o'/u W*$! " $ &'"! o( *$)e$ 0o'/u + I-abeas corpusJ is a <atin phrase which literally #eans Iyou ha"e the bo!yJ. Aasically, it is a writ !irecte! to the person !etaining another, co##an!ing hi# to pro!uce the bo!y of the prisoner at a !esignate! ti#e an! place, with the !ay an! cause of his capture an! !etention, to !o, sub#it to, an! recei"e whatsoe"er the court or $u!ge awar!ing the writ shall consi!er in that behalf. W*$! " !*e 0o/e o( !*e &'"! o( *$)e$ 0o'/u + The writ of habeas corpus generally e%ten!s to all cases of illegal confine#ent or !etention by which a person is !epri"e! of liberty, or the rightful custo!y of a person is withhel! fro# the person entitle! thereto.

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W*o 1$4 " ue !*e &'"! o( *$)e$ 0o'/u + The writ #ay be issue! by the upre#e (ourt or by the (ourt of Appeals or any #e#ber thereof, enforceable anywhere in the :hilippines. &t #ay also be issue! by the Regional Trial (out 0RT(1 or any $u!ge thereof, enforceable only within the $u!icial !istrict. To &*o1 " !*e &'"! %"'e0!e%+ &f the !etention is by an officer, the writ shall be !irecte! to hi#, co##an!ing hi# to bring the bo!y of the person restraine! of liberty before the court at the ti#e an! place specifie!. &f the !etention is by a person other than an officer, then the writ shall be !irecte! to an officer co##an!ing hi# to the sa#e effect an! to su##on the person restraining. The respon!ent will be aske! to e%plain the cause of the !etention. W*e# *$,, !*e u)8e0! /e' o# )e 'e,e$ e%+ +hen the prisoner is unlawfully restraine!, the court or $u!ge shall or!er his !ischarge which shall not be effecti"e until a copy of the or!er is ser"e! on the officer or person !etaining the prisoner. &f such officer or person !oes not !esire to appeal, the prisoner shall be forthwith release!.

Re/u),"0 A0! No. >552 Do1e !"0 A%o/!"o# A0! o( :??> 0:ro#ulgate! 'ebruary 25, 19971 A'!"0,e I. Ge#e'$, P'o." "o# Se0!"o# :. hort Title. D This Act shall be known as the K,o#estic A!option Act of 1997.K Se0. 2. ,eclaration of :olicies. D 0a1 &t is hereby !eclare! the policy of the tate to ensure that e"ery chil! re#ains un!er the care an! custo!y of his@her parent0s1 an! be pro"i!e! with lo"e, care, un!erstan!ing an! security towar!s the full an! har#onious !e"elop#ent of his@her personality. )nly when such efforts pro"e insufficient an! no appropriate place#ent or a!option within the chil!Ls e%ten!e! fa#ily is a"ailable shall a!option by an unrelate! person be consi!ere!. 0b1 &n all #atters relating to the care, custo!y an! a!option of a chil!, his@her interest shall be the para#ount consi!eration in accor!ance with the tenets set forth in the ?nite! ;ations 0?;1 (on"ention on the Rights of the (hil!2 ?; ,eclaration on ocial an! <egal :rinciples Relating to the :rotection an! +elfare of (hil!ren with pecial

1>

Reference to 'oster :lace#ent an! A!option, ;ationally an! &nternationally2 an! the -ague (on"ention on the :rotection of (hil!ren an! (ooperation in Respect of &ntercountry A!option. Towar! this en!, the tate shall pro"i!e alternati"e protection an! assistance through foster care or a!option for e"ery chil! who is neglecte!, orphane!, or aban!one!. 0c1 &t shall also be a tate policy to/ 0i1 afeguar! the biological parent0s1 fro# #aking hurrie! !ecisions to relin3uish his@her parental authority o"er his@her chil!2 0ii1 :re"ent the chil! fro# unnecessary separation fro# his@her biological parent0s12 0iii1 :rotect a!opti"e parent0s1 fro# atte#pts to !isturb his@her parental authority an! custo!y o"er his@her a!opte! chil!. Any "oluntary or in"oluntary ter#ination of parental authority shall be a!#inistrati"ely or $u!icially !eclare! so as to establish the status of the chil! as Klegally a"ailable for a!optionK an! his@her custo!y transferre! to the ,epart#ent of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent or to any !uly license! an! accre!ite! chil!6placing or chil!6caring agency, which entity shall be authori*e! to take steps for the per#anent place#ent of the chil!2 0i"1 (on!uct public infor#ation an! e!ucational ca#paigns to pro#ote a positi"e en"iron#ent for a!option2 0"1 Cnsure that sufficient capacity e%ists within go"ern#ent an! pri"ate sector agencies to han!le a!option in3uiries, process !o#estic a!option applications, an! offer a!option6relate! ser"ices inclu!ing, but not li#ite! to, parent preparation an! post6a!option e!ucation an! counseling2 an! 0"i1 Cncourage !o#estic a!option so as to preser"e the chil!Ls i!entity an! culture in his@her nati"e lan!, an! only when this is not a"ailable shall intercountry a!option be consi!ere! as a last resort. Se0 3. De("#"!"o# o( !e'1 D 'or purposes of this Act, the following ter#s shall be !efine! as/ 0a1 K(hil!K is a person below eighteen 0171 years of age. 0b1 KA chil! legally a"ailable for a!optionK refers to a chil! who has been "oluntarily or in"oluntarily co##itte! to the ,epart#ent or to a !uly license! an! accre!ite! chil!6placing or chil!6caring agency, free! of the parental authority of his@her biological parent0s1 or guar!ian or a!opter0s1 in case of rescission of a!option. 0c1 KEoluntarily co##itte! chil!K is one whose parent0s1 knowingly an! willingly relin3uishes parental authority to the ,epart#ent. 0!1 K&n"oluntarily co##itte! chil!K is one whose parent0s1, known or unknown, has been per#anently an! $u!icially !epri"e! of parental authority !ue to aban!on#ent2 substantial, continuous, or repeate! neglect2 abuse2 or inco#petence to !ischarge parental responsibilities. 0e1 KAban!one! chil!K refers to one who has no proper parental care or guar!ianship or whose parent0s1 has !eserte! hi#@her for a perio! of at least si% 051 continuous #onths an! has been $u!icially !eclare! as such. 0f1 K uper"ise! trial custo!yK is a perio! of ti#e within which a social worker o"ersees the a!$ust#ent an! e#otional rea!iness of both a!opter0s1 an! a!optee in stabili*ing their filial relationship. 0g1 K,epart#entK refers to the ,epart#ent of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent. 0h1 K(hil!6placing agencyK is a !uly license! an! accre!ite! agency by the ,epart#ent to pro"i!e co#prehensi"e chil! welfare ser"ices inclu!ing, but not li#ite! to, recei"ing applications for a!option, e"aluating the prospecti"e a!opti"e parents, an! preparing the a!option ho#e stu!y. 0i1 K(hil!6caring agencyK is a !uly license! an! accre!ite! agency by the ,epart#ent that pro"i!es twenty four 02.16 hour resi!ential care ser"ices for aban!one!, orphane!, neglecte!, or "oluntarily co##itte! chil!ren. 0$1 K i#ulation of birthK is the ta#pering of the ci"il registry #aking it appear in the birth recor!s that a certain chil! was born to a person who is not his@her biological #other, causing such chil! to lose his@her true i!entity an! status. A'!"0,e II. P'e-A%o/!"o# Se'."0e Se0. @. (ounseling er"ice. D The ,epart#ent shall pro"i!e the ser"ices of license! social workers to the following/ 0a1 Aiological :arent0s1 D (ounseling shall be pro"i!e! to the parent0s1 before an! after the birth of his@her chil!. ;o bin!ing co##it#ent to an a!option plan shall be per#itte! before the birth of his@her chil!. A perio! of si% 051 #onths shall be allowe! for the biological parent0s1 to reconsi!er any !ecision to relin3uish his@her chil! for a!option before the !ecision beco#es irre"ocable. (ounseling an! rehabilitation ser"ices shall also be offere! to the biological parent0s1 after he@she has relin3uishe! his@her chil! for a!option. teps shall be taken by the ,epart#ent to ensure that no hurrie! !ecisions are #a!e an! all alternati"es for the chil!Ls future an! the i#plications of each alternati"e ha"e been pro"i!e!. 0b1 :rospecti"e A!opti"e :arent0s1 D (ounseling sessions, a!option fora an! se#inars, a#ong others, shall be pro"i!e! to prospecti"e a!opti"e parent0s1 to resol"e possible a!option issues an! to prepare hi#@her for effecti"e parenting. 0c1 :rospecti"e A!optee D (ounseling sessions shall be pro"i!e! to ensure that he@she un!erstan!s the nature an! effects of a!option an! is able to e%press his@her "iews on a!option in accor!ance with his@her age an! le"el of #aturity.

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Se0. 5. <ocation of ?nknown :arent0s1. D &t shall be the !uty of the ,epart#ent or the chil!6placing or chil!6caring agency which has custo!y of the chil! to e%ert all efforts to locate his@her unknown biological parent0s1. &f such efforts fail, the chil! shall be registere! as a foun!ling an! subse3uently be the sub$ect of legal procee!ings where he@she shall be !eclare! aban!one!. Se0. A. upport er"ices. D The ,epart#ent shall !e"elop a pre6a!option progra# which shall inclu!e, a#ong others, the abo"e #entione! ser"ices. A'!"0,e III. E,"-")",!4 Se0. B. +ho May A!opt. D The following #ay a!opt/ 0a1 Any 'ilipino citi*en of legal age, in possession of full ci"il capacity an! legal rights, of goo! #oral character, has not been con"icte! of any cri#e in"ol"ing #oral turpitu!e, e#otionally an! psychologically capable of caring for chil!ren, at least si%teen 0151 years ol!er than the a!optee, an! who is in a position to support an! care for his@her chil!ren in keeping with the #eans of the fa#ily. The re3uire#ent of si%teen 0151 year !ifference between the age of the a!opter an! a!optee #ay be wai"e! when the a!opter is the biological parent of the a!optee, or is the spouse of the a!opteeLs parent2 0b1 Any alien possessing the sa#e 3ualifications as abo"e state! for 'ilipino nationals/ :ro"i!e!, That his@her country has !iplo#atic relations with the Republic of the :hilippines, that he@she has been li"ing in the :hilippines for at least three 031 continuous years prior to the filing of the application for a!option an! #aintains such resi!ence until the a!option !ecree is entere!, that he@she has been certifie! by his@her !iplo#atic or consular office or any appropriate go"ern#ent agency that he@she has the legal capacity to a!opt in his@her country, an! that his@her go"ern#ent allows the a!optee to enter his@her country as his@her a!opte! son@!aughter/ :ro"i!e!, 'urther, That the re3uire#ents on resi!ency an! certification of the alienLs 3ualification to a!opt in his@her country #ay be wai"e! for the following/ 0i1 a for#er 'ilipino citi*en who seeks to a!opt a relati"e within the fourth 0.th1 !egree of consanguinity or affinity2 or 0ii1 one who seeks to a!opt the legiti#ate son@!aughter of his@her 'ilipino spouse2 or 0iii1 one who is #arrie! to a 'ilipino citi*en an! seeks to a!opt $ointly with his@her spouse a relati"e within the fourth 0.th1 !egree of consanguinity or affinity of the 'ilipino spouse2 or 0c1 The guar!ian with respect to the war! after the ter#ination of the guar!ianship an! clearance of his@her financial accountabilities. -usban! an! wife shall $ointly a!opt, e%cept in the following cases/ 0i1 if one spouse seeks to a!opt the legiti#ate son@!aughter of the other2 or 0ii1 if one spouse seeks to a!opt his@her own illegiti#ate son@!aughter/ :ro"i!e!, -owe"er, that the other spouse has signifie! his@her consent thereto2 or 0iii1 if the spouses are legally separate! fro# each other. &n case husban! an! wife $ointly a!opt, or one spouse a!opts the illegiti#ate son@!aughter of the other, $oint parental authority shall be e%ercise! by the spouses. Se0. >. +ho May Ae A!opte!. D The following #ay be a!opte!/ 0a1 Any person below eighteen 0171 years of age who has been a!#inistrati"ely or $u!icially !eclare! a"ailable for a!option2 0b1 The legiti#ate son@!aughter of one spouse by the other spouse2 0c1 An illegiti#ate son@!aughter by a 3ualifie! a!opter to i#pro"e his@her status to that of legiti#acy2 0!1 A person of legal age if, prior to the a!option, sai! person has been consistently consi!ere! an! treate! by the a!opter0s1 as his@her own chil! since #inority2 0e1 A chil! whose a!option has been pre"iously rescin!e!2 or 0f1 A chil! whose biological or a!opti"e parent0s1 has !ie!/ :ro"i!e!, That no procee!ings shall be initiate! within si% 051 #onths fro# the ti#e of !eath of sai! parent0s1. Se0. ?. +hose (onsent is ;ecessary to the A!option. D After being properly counsele! an! infor#e! of his@her right to gi"e or withhol! his@her appro"al of the a!option, the written consent of the following to the a!option is hereby re3uire!/ 0a1 The a!optee, if ten 0101 years of age or o"er2 0b1 The biological parent0s1 of the chil!, if known, or the legal guar!ian, or the proper go"ern#ent instru#entality which has legal custo!y of the chil!2 0c1 The legiti#ate an! a!opte! sons@!aughters, ten 0101 years of age or o"er, of the a!opter0s1 an! a!optee, if any2 0!1 The illegiti#ate sons@!aughters, ten 0101 years of age or o"er, of the a!opter if li"ing with sai! a!opter an! the latterLs spouse, if any2 an! 0e1 The spouse, if any, of the person a!opting or to be a!opte!. A'!"0,e IC. P'o0e%u'e Se0. :0. -urrie! ,ecisions. D &n all procee!ings for a!option, the court shall re3uire proof that the biological parent0s1 has been properly counsele! to pre"ent hi#@her fro# #aking hurrie! !ecisions cause! by strain or an%iety to gi"e up

19

the chil!, an! to sustain that all #easures to strengthen the fa#ily ha"e been e%hauste! an! that any prolonge! stay of the chil! in his@her own ho#e will be ini#ical to his@her welfare an! interest. Se0. ::. (ase tu!y. D ;o petition for a!option shall be set for hearing unless a license! social worker of the ,epart#ent, the social ser"ice office of the local go"ern#ent unit, or any chil!6placing or chil!6caring agency has #a!e a case stu!y of the a!optee, his@her biological parent0s1, as well as the a!opter0s1, an! has sub#itte! the report an! reco##en!ations on the #atter to the court hearing such petition. At the ti#e of preparation of the a!opteeLs case stu!y, the concerne! social worker shall confir# with the (i"il Registry the real i!entity an! registere! na#e of the a!optee. &f the birth of the a!optee was not registere! with the (i"il Registry, it shall be the responsibility of the concerne! social worker to ensure that the a!optee is registere!. The case stu!y on the a!optee shall establish that he@she is legally a"ailable for a!option an! that the !ocu#ents to support this fact are "ali! an! authentic. 'urther, the case stu!y of the a!opter0s1 shall ascertain his@her genuine intentions an! that the a!option is in the best interest of the chil!. The ,epart#ent shall inter"ene on behalf of the a!optee if it fin!s, after the con!uct of the case stu!ies, that the petition shoul! be !enie!. The case stu!ies an! other rele"ant !ocu#ents an! recor!s pertaining to the a!optee an! the a!option shall be preser"e! by the ,epart#ent. Se0. :2. uper"ise! Trial (usto!y. D ;o petition for a!option shall be finally grante! until the a!opter0s1 has been gi"en by the court a super"ise! trial custo!y perio! for at least si% 051 #onths within which the parties are e%pecte! to a!$ust psychologically an! e#otionally to each other an! establish a bon!ing relationship. ,uring sai! perio!, te#porary parental authority shall be "este! in the a!opter0s1. The court #ay #otu proprio or upon #otion of any party re!uce the trial perio! if it fin!s the sa#e to be in the best interest of the a!optee, stating the reasons for the re!uction of the perio!. -owe"er, for alien a!opter0s1, he@she #ust co#plete the si% 0516#onth trial custo!y e%cept for those enu#erate! in ec. > 0b1 0i1 0ii1 0iii1. &f the chil! is below se"en 0>1 years of age an! is place! with the prospecti"e a!opter0s1 through a pre6a!option place#ent authority issue! by the ,epart#ent, the prospecti"e a!opter0s1 shall en$oy all the benefits to which biological parent0s1 is entitle! fro# the !ate the a!optee is place! with the prospecti"e a!opter0s1. Se0. :3. ,ecree of A!option. D &f, after the publication of the or!er of hearing has been co#plie! with, an! no opposition has been interpose! to the petition, an! after consi!eration of the case stu!ies, the 3ualifications of the a!opter0s1, trial custo!y report an! the e"i!ence sub#itte!, the court is con"ince! that the petitioners are 3ualifie! to a!opt, an! that the a!option woul! re!oun! to the best interest of the a!optee, a !ecree of a!option shall be entere! which shall be effecti"e as of the !ate the original petition was file!. This pro"ision shall also apply in case the petitioner0s1 !ies before the issuance of the !ecree of a!option to protect the interest of the a!optee. The !ecree shall state the na#e by which the chil! is to be known. Se0. :@. (i"il Registry Recor!. D An a#en!e! certificate of birth shall be issue! by the (i"il Registry, as re3uire! by the Rules of (ourt, attesting to the fact that the a!optee is the chil! of the a!opter0s1 by being registere! with his@her surna#e. The original certificate of birth shall be sta#pe! Kcancelle!K with the annotation of the issuance of an a#en!e! birth certificate in its place an! shall be seale! in the ci"il registry recor!s. The new birth certificate to be issue! to the a!optee shall not bear any notation that it is an a#en!e! issue. Se0. :5. (onfi!ential ;ature of :rocee!ings an! Recor!s. D All hearings in a!option cases shall be confi!ential an! shall not be open to the public. All recor!s, books, an! papers relating to the a!option cases in the files of the court, the ,epart#ent, or any other agency or institution participating in the a!option procee!ings shall be kept strictly confi!ential. &f the court fin!s that the !isclosure of the infor#ation to a thir! person is necessary for purposes connecte! with or arising out of the a!option an! will be for the best interest of the a!optee, the court #ay #erit the necessary infor#ation to be release!, restricting the purposes for which it #ay be use!. A'!"0,e C. E((e0! o( A%o/!"o# Se0. :A. :arental Authority. D C%cept in cases where the biological parent is the spouse of the a!opter, all legal ties between the biological parent0s1 an! the a!optee shall be se"ere! an! the sa#e shall then be "este! on the a!opter0s1. Se0. :B. <egiti#acy. D The a!optee shall be consi!ere! the legiti#ate son@!aughter of the a!opter0s1 for all intents an! purposes an! as such is entitle! to all the rights an! obligations pro"i!e! by law to legiti#ate sons@!aughters born to the# without !iscri#ination of any kin!. To this en!, the a!optee is entitle! to lo"e, gui!ance, an! support in keeping with the #eans of the fa#ily. Se0. :>. uccession. D &n legal an! intestate succession, the a!opter0s1 an! the a!optee shall ha"e reciprocal rights of succession without !istinction fro# legiti#ate filiation. -owe"er, if the a!optee an! his@her biological parent0s1 ha! left a will, the law on testa#entary succession shall go"ern. A'!"0,e CI. Re 0" "o# o( A%o/!"o#

20

Se0. :?. Broun!s for Rescission of A!option. D ?pon petition of the a!optee, with the assistance of the ,epart#ent if a #inor or if o"er eighteen 0171 years of age but is incapacitate!, as guar!ian@counsel, the a!option #ay be rescin!e! on any of the following groun!s co##itte! by the a!opter0s1/ 0a1 repeate! physical an! "erbal #altreat#ent by the a!opter0s1 !espite ha"ing un!ergone counseling2 0b1 atte#pt on the life of the a!optee2 0c1 se%ual assault or "iolence2 or 0!1 aban!on#ent an! failure to co#ply with parental obligations. A!option, being in the best interest of the chil!, shall not be sub$ect to rescission by the a!opter0s1. -owe"er, the a!opter0s1 #ay !isinherit the a!optee for causes pro"i!e! in Article 919 of the (i"il (o!e. Se0. 20. Cffects of Rescission. D &f the petition is grante!, the parental authority of the a!opteeLs biological parent0s1, if known, or the legal custo!y of the ,epart#ent shall be restore! if the a!optee is still a #inor or incapacitate!. The reciprocal rights an! obligations of the a!opter0s1 an! the a!optee to each other shall be e%tinguishe!. The court shall or!er the (i"il Registrar to cancel the a#en!e! certificate of birth of the a!optee an! restore his@her original birth certificate. uccession rights shall re"ert to its status prior to a!option, but only as of the !ate of $u!g#ent of $u!icial rescission. Eeste! rights ac3uire! prior to $u!icial rescission shall be respecte!. All the foregoing effects of rescission of a!option shall be without pre$u!ice to the penalties i#posable un!er the :enal (o!e if the cri#inal acts are properly pro"en. A'!"0,e CII. C"o,$!"o# $#% /e#$,!"e Se0. 2:. Eiolations an! :enalties. D 0a1 The penalty of i#prison#ent ranging fro# si% 051 years an! one 011 !ay to twel"e 0121 years an!@or a fine not less than 'ifty thousan! pesos 0:50,000.001, but not #ore than Two hun!re! thousan! pesos 0:200,000.001 at the !iscretion of the court shall be i#pose! on any person who shall co##it any of the following acts/ 0i1 obtaining consent for an a!option through coercion, un!ue influence, frau!, i#proper #aterial in!uce#ent, or other si#ilar acts2 0ii1 non6co#pliance with the proce!ures an! safeguar!s pro"i!e! by the law for a!option2 or 0iii1 sub$ecting or e%posing the chil! to be a!opte! to !anger, abuse, or e%ploitation. 0b1 Any person who shall cause the fictitious registration of the birth of a chil! un!er the na#e0s1 of a person0s1 who is not his@her biological parent0s1 shall be guilty of si#ulation of birth, an! shall be punishe! by prision #ayor in its #e!iu# perio! an! a fine not e%cee!ing 'ifty thousan! pesos 0:50,000.001. .Any physician or nurse or hospital personnel who, in "iolation of his@her oath of office, shall cooperate in the e%ecution of the abo"e#entione! cri#e shall suffer the penalties herein prescribe! an! also the penalty of per#anent !is3ualification. Any person who shall "iolate establishe! regulations relating to the confi!entiality an! integrity of recor!s, !ocu#ents, an! co##unications of a!option applications, cases, an! processes shall suffer the penalty of i#prison#ent ranging fro# one 011 year an! one 011 !ay to two 021 years, an!@or a fine of not less than 'i"e thousan! pesos 0:5,000.001 but not #ore than Ten thousan! pesos 0:10,000.001, at the !iscretion of the court. A penalty lower by two 021 !egrees than that prescribe! for the consu##ate! offense un!er this Article shall be i#pose! upon the principals of the atte#pt to co##it any of the acts herein enu#erate!. Acts punishable un!er this Article, when co##itte! by a syn!icate or where it in"ol"es two 021 or #ore chil!ren shall be consi!ere! as an offense constituting chil! trafficking an! shall #erit the penalty of reclusion perpetua. Acts punishable un!er this Article are !ee#e! co##itte! by a syn!icate if carrie! out by a group of three 031 or #ore persons conspiring an!@or confe!erating with one another in carrying out any of the unlawful acts !efine! un!er this Article. :enalties as are herein pro"i!e!, shall be in a!!ition to any other penalties which #ay be i#pose! for the sa#e acts punishable un!er other laws, or!inances, e%ecuti"e or!ers, an! procla#ations. +hen the offen!er is an alien, he@she shall be !eporte! i##e!iately after ser"ice of sentence an! perpetually e%clu!e! fro# entry to the country. .Any go"ern#ent official, e#ployee or functionary who shall be foun! guilty of "iolating any of the pro"isions of this Act, or who shall conspire with pri"ate in!i"i!uals shall, in a!!ition to the abo"e6prescribe! penalties, be penali*e! in accor!ance with e%isting ci"il ser"ice laws, rules an! regulations/ :ro"i!e!, That upon the filing of a case, either a!#inistrati"e or cri#inal, sai! go"ern#ent official, e#ployee, or functionary concerne! shall auto#atically suffer suspension until the resolution of the case. Se0. 22. Rectification of i#ulate! Airths. D A person who has, prior to the effecti"ity of this Act, si#ulate! the birth of a chil! shall not be punishe! for such act/ :ro"i!e!, That the si#ulation of birth was #a!e for the best interest of the chil! an! that he@she has been consistently consi!ere! an! treate! by that person as his@her own son@!aughter/ :ro"i!e!, further, That the application for correction of the birth registration an! petition for a!option shall be file! within fi"e 051 years fro# the effecti"ity of this Act an! co#plete! thereafter/ :ro"i!e!, finally, That such person co#plies with the proce!ure as specifie! in Article &E of this Act an! other re3uire#ents as !eter#ine! by the ,epart#ent.

21

A'!"0,e CIII. F"#$, P'o." "o# Se0. 23. A!option Resource an! Referral )ffice. D There shall be establishe! an A!option Resources an! Referral )ffice un!er the ,epart#ent with the following functions/ 0a1 #onitor the e%istence, nu#ber, an! flow of chil!ren legally a"ailable for a!option an! prospecti"e a!opter0s1 so as to facilitate their #atching2 0b1 #aintain a nationwi!e infor#ation an! e!ucational ca#paign on !o#estic a!option2 0c1 keep recor!s of a!option procee!ings2 0!1 generate resources to help chil!6caring an! chil!6placing agencies an! foster ho#es #aintain "iability2 an! 0e1 !o policy research in collaboration with the &ntercountry A!option Aoar! an! other concerne! agencies. The office shall be #anne! by a!option e%perts fro# the public an! pri"ate sectors. Se0. 2@. &#ple#enting Rules an! Regulations. D +ithin si% 051 #onths fro# the pro#ulgation of this Act, the ,epart#ent, with the (ouncil for the +elfare of (hil!ren, the )ffice of (i"il Registry Beneral, the ,epart#ent of =ustice, )ffice of the olicitor Beneral, an! two 021 pri"ate in!i"i!uals representing chil!6placing an! chil!6caring agencies shall for#ulate the necessary gui!elines to #ake the pro"isions of this Act operati"e. Se0. 25. Appropriations. D uch su# as #ay be necessary for the i#ple#entation of the pro"isions of this Act shall be inclu!e! in the Beneral Appropriations Act of the year following its enact#ent into law an! thereafter. Se0. 2A. Repealing (lause. D Any law, presi!ential !ecree or issuance, e%ecuti"e or!er, letter of instruction, a!#inistrati"e or!er, rule, or regulation contrary to, or inconsistent with the pro"isions of this Act is hereby repeale!, #o!ifie!, or a#en!e! accor!ingly. Se0. 2B. eparability (lause. D &f any pro"ision of this Act is hel! in"ali! or unconstitutional, the other pro"isions not affecte! thereby shall re#ain "ali! an! subsisting. Se0. 2>. Cffecti"ity (lause. D This Act shall take effect fifteen 0151 !ays following its co#plete publication in any newspaper of general circulation or in the )fficial Ba*ette.

Re/u),"0 A0! No. >0@3 I#!e'-Cou#!'4 A%o/!"o# A0! o( :??5 9P'o1u,-$!e% Du#e B6 :??5= A'!"0,e I. Ge#e'$, P'o." "o# Se0!"o# :. hort Title. D This Act shall be known as the K&nter6(ountry A!option Act of 1995.K Se0. 2. ,eclaration of :olicy. D &t is hereby !eclare! the policy of the tate to pro"i!e e"ery neglecte! an! aban!one! chil! with a fa#ily that will pro"i!e such chil! with lo"e an! care as well as opportunities for growth an! !e"elop#ent.

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Towar!s this en!, efforts shall be e%erte! to place the chil! with an a!opti"e fa#ily in the :hilippines. -owe"er, recogni*ing that inter6country a!option #ay be consi!ere! as allowing aliens not presently allowe! by law to a!opt 'ilipino chil!ren if such chil!ren cannot be a!opte! by 3ualifie! 'ilipino citi*ens or aliens, the tate shall take #easures to ensure that inter6country a!options are allowe! when the sa#e shall pro"e beneficial to the chil!Ls best interests, an! shall ser"e an! protect his@her fun!a#ental rights. Se0. 3. ,efinition of Ter#s. D As use! in this Act. the ter#/ 0a1 &nter6country a!option refers to the socio6legal process of a!opting a 'ilipino chil! by a foreigner or a 'ilipino citi*en per#anently resi!ing abroa! where the petition is file!, the super"ise! trial custo!y is un!ertaken, an! the !ecree of a!option is issue! outsi!e the :hilippines. 0b1 (hil! #eans a person below fifteen 0151 years of age unless sooner e#ancipate! by law. 0c1 ,epart#ent refers to the ,epart#ent of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent of the Republic of the :hilippines. 0!1 ecretary refers to the ecretary of the ,epart#ent of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent. 0e1 Authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency refers to the tate welfare agency or a license! a!option agency in the country of the a!opting parents which pro"i!e co#prehensi"e social ser"ices an! which is !uly recogni*e! by the ,epart#ent. 0f1 <egally6free chil! #eans a chil! who has been "oluntarily or in"oluntarily co##itte! to the ,epart#ent, in accor!ance with the (hil! an! Houth +elfare (o!e. 0g1 Matching refers to the $u!icious pairing of the a!opti"e chil! an! the applicant to pro#ote a #utually satisfying parent6chil! relationship. 0h1 Aoar! refers to the &nter6country A!option Aoar!. A'!"0,e II. T*e I#!e'-Cou#!'4 A%o/!"o# Bo$'% Se0. @. The &nter6(ountry A!option Aoar!. D There is hereby create! the &nter6(ountry A!option Aoar!, hereinafter referre! to as the Aoar! to act as the central authority in #atters relating to inter6country a!option. &t shall act as the policy6#aking bo!y for purposes of carrying out the pro"isions of this Act, in consultation an! coor!ination with the ,epart#ent, the !ifferent chil!6care an! place#ent agencies, a!opti"e agencies, as well as non6go"ern#ental organi*ations engage! in chil!6care an! place#ent acti"ities. As such, it shall/ 0a1 :rotect the 'ilipino chil! fro# abuse, e%ploitation, trafficking an!@or sale or any other practice in connection with a!option which is har#ful, !etri#ental, or pre$u!icial to the chil!2 0b1 (ollect, #aintain, an! preser"e confi!ential infor#ation about the chil! an! the a!opti"e parents2 0c1 Monitor, follow up, an! facilitate co#pletion of a!option of the chil! through authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency2 0!1 :re"ent i#proper financial or other gain in connection with an a!option an! !eter i#proper practices contrary to this Act2 0e1 :ro#ote the !e"elop#ent of a!option ser"ices inclu!ing post6legal a!option2 0f1 <icense an! accre!it chil!6caring@place#ent agencies an! collaborate with the# in the place#ent of 'ilipino chil!ren2 0g1 Accre!it an! authori*e foreign a!option agency in the place#ent of 'ilipino chil!ren in their own country2 an! 0h1 (ancel the license to operate an! blacklist the chil!6caring an! place#ent agency or a!opti"e agency in"ol"e! fro# the accre!itation list of the Aoar! upon a fin!ing of "iolation of any pro"ision un!er this Act. Se0. 5. (o#position of the Aoar!. D The Aoar! shall be co#pose! of the ecretary of the ,epart#ent as e% officio (hair#an, an! si% 051 other #e#bers to be appointe! by the :resi!ent for a nonrenewable ter# of si% 051 years/ :ro"i!e!, That there shall be appointe! one 011 psychiatrist or psychologist, two 021 lawyers who shall ha"e at least the 3ualifications of a regional trial court $u!ge, one 011 registere! social worker an! two 021 representati"es fro# non6 go"ern#ental organi*ations engage! in chil!6caring an! place#ent acti"ities. The #e#bers of the Aoar! shall recei"e a per !ie# allowance of )ne thousan! fi"e hun!re! pesos 0:1,5001 for each #eeting atten!e! by the#/ :ro"i!e!, further, That no co#pensation shall be pai! for #ore than four 0.1 #eetings a #onth. Se0. A. :owers an! 'unctions of the Aoar!. D The Aoar! shall ha"e the following powers an! functions/ 0a1 to prescribe rules an! regulations as it #ay !ee# reasonably necessary to carry out the pro"isions of this Act, after consultation an! upon fa"orable reco##en!ation of the !ifferent agencies concerne! with the chil!6caring, place#ent, an! a!option2 0b1 to set the gui!elines for the con"ening of an &nter6country A!option :lace#ent (o##ittee which shall be un!er the !irect super"ision of the Aoar!2 0c1 to set the gui!elines for the #anner by which selection@#atching of prospecti"e a!opti"e parents an! a!opti"e chil! can be #a!e2 0!1 to !eter#ine a reasonable sche!ule of fees an! charges to be e%acte! in connection with the application for a!option2 0e1 to !eter#ine the for# an! contents of the application for inter6country a!option2 0g1 to institute syste#s an! proce!ures to pre"ent i#proper financial gain in connection with a!option an! !eter i#proper practices which are contrary to this Act2 0h1 to pro#ote the !e"elop#ent of a!option ser"ices, inclu!ing post6legal a!option ser"ices,

23

0i1 to accre!it an! authori*e foreign pri"ate a!option agencies which ha"e !e#onstrate! professionalis#, co#petence an! ha"e consistently pursue! non6profit ob$ecti"es to engage in the place#ent of 'ilipino chil!ren in their own country/ :ro"i!e!, That such foreign pri"ate agencies are !uly authori*e! an! accre!ite! by their own go"ern#ent to con!uct inter6country a!option/ :ro"i!e!, howe"er, That the total nu#ber of authori*e! an! accre!ite! foreign pri"ate a!option agencies shall not e%cee! one hun!re! 01001 a year2 0$1 to take appropriate #easures to ensure confi!entiality of the recor!s of the chil!, the natural parents an! the a!opti"e parents at all ti#es2 0k1 to prepare, re"iew or #o!ify, an! thereafter, reco##en! to the ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs, Me#oran!a of Agree#ent respecting inter6country a!option consistent with the i#ple#entation of this Act an! its state! goals, entere! into, between an! a#ong foreign go"ern#ents, international organi*ations an! recogni*e! international non6 go"ern#ental organi*ations2 0l1 to assist other concerne! agencies an! the courts in the i#ple#entation of this Act, particularly as regar!s coor!ination with foreign persons, agencies an! other entities in"ol"e! in the process of a!option an! the physical transfer of the chil!2 an! 0#1 to perfor# such other functions on #atters relating to inter6country a!option as #ay be !eter#ine! by the :resi!ent. A'!"0,e III. P'o0e%u'e Se0. B. &nter6(ountry A!option as the <ast Resort. D The Aoar! shall ensure that all possibilities for a!option of the chil! un!er the 'a#ily (o!e ha"e been e%hauste! an! that inter6country a!option is in the best interest of the chil!. Towar!s this en!, the Aoar! shall set up the gui!elines to ensure that steps will be taken to place the chil! in the :hilippines before the chil! is place! for inter6country a!option/ :ro"i!e!, howe"er, That the #a%i#u# nu#ber that #ay be allowe! for foreign a!option shall not e%cee! si% hun!re! 05001 a year for the first fi"e 051 years. Se0. >. +ho May be A!opte!. D )nly a legally free chil! #ay be the sub$ect of inter6country a!option. &n or!er that such chil! #ay be consi!ere! for place#ent, the following !ocu#ents #ust be sub#itte! to the Aoar!/ 0a1 (hil! stu!y2 0b1 Airth certificate@foun!ling certificate2 0c1 ,ee! of "oluntary co##it#ent@!ecree of aban!on#ent@!eath certificate of parents2 0!1 Me!ical e"aluation @history2 0e 1:sychological e"aluation, as necessary2 an! 0f1 Recent photo of the chil!. Se0. ?. +ho May A!opt. D An alien or a 'ilipino citi*en per#anently resi!ing abroa! #ay file an application for inter6 country a!option of a 'ilipino chil! if he@she/ 0a1 is at least twenty6se"en 02>1 years of age an! at least si%teen 0151 years ol!er than the chil! to be a!opte!, at the ti#e of application unless the a!opter is the parent by nature of the chil! to be a!opte! or the spouse of such parent/ 0b1 if #arrie!, his@her spouse #ust $ointly file for the a!option2 0c1 has the capacity to act an! assu#e all rights an! responsibilities of parental authority un!er his national laws, an! has un!ergone the appropriate counseling fro# an accre!ite! counselor in his@her country2 0!1 has not been con"icte! of a cri#e in"ol"ing #oral turpitu!e2 0e1 is eligible to a!opt un!er his@her national law2 0f1 is in a position to pro"i!e the proper care an! support an! to gi"e the necessary #oral "alues an! e%a#ple to all his chil!ren, inclu!ing the chil! to be a!opte!2 0g1 agrees to uphol! the basic rights of the chil! as e#bo!ie! un!er :hilippine laws, the ?.;. (on"ention on the Rights of the (hil!, an! to abi!e by the rules an! regulations issue! to i#ple#ent the pro"isions of this Act2 0h1 co#es fro# a country with who# the :hilippines has !iplo#atic relations an! whose go"ern#ent #aintains a si#ilarly authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency an! that a!option is allowe! un!er his@her national laws2 an! 0i1 possesses all the 3ualifications an! none of the !is3ualifications pro"i!e! herein an! in other applicable :hilippine laws. Se0. :0. +here to 'ile Application. D An application to a!opt a 'ilipino chil! shall be file! either with the :hilippine Regional Trial (ourt ha"ing $uris!iction o"er the chil!, or with the Aoar!, through an inter#e!iate agency, whether go"ern#ental or an authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency, in the country of the prospecti"e a!opti"e parents, which application shall be in accor!ance with the re3uire#ents as set forth in the i#ple#enting rules an! regulations to be pro#ulgate! by the Aoar!. The application shall be supporte! by the following !ocu#ents written an! officially translate! in Cnglish. 0a1 Airth certificate of applicant0s12 0b1 Marriage contract, if #arrie!, an! !i"orce !ecree, if applicable2 0c1 +ritten consent of their biological or a!opti"e chil!ren abo"e ten 0101 years of age, in the for# of sworn state#ent2 0!1 :hysical, #e!ical an! psychological e"aluation by a !uly license! physician an! psychologist2 0e1 &nco#e ta% returns or any !ocu#ent showing the financial capability of the applicant0s12

2.

0f1 :olice clearance of applicant0s12 0g1 (haracter reference fro# the local church@#inister, the applicantLs e#ployer an! a #e#ber of the i##e!iate co##unity who ha"e known the applicant0s1 for at least fi"e 051 years2 an! 0h1 Recent postcar!6si*e pictures of the applicant0s1 an! his i##e!iate fa#ily2 The Rules of (ourt shall apply in case of a!option by $u!icial procee!ings. Se0. ::. 'a#ily election@Matching. D ;o chil! shall be #atche! to a foreign a!opti"e fa#ily unless it is satisfactorily shown that the chil! cannot be a!opte! locally. The clearance, as issue! by the Aoar!, with the copy of the #inutes of the #eetings, shall for# part of the recor!s of the chil! to be a!opte!. +hen the Aoar! is rea!y to trans#it the :lace#ent Authority to the authori*e! an! accre!ite! inter6country a!option agency an! all the tra"el !ocu#ents of the chil! are rea!y, the a!opti"e parents, or any one of the#, shall personally fetch the chil! in the :hilippines. Se0. :2. :re6a!opti"e :lace#ent (osts. D The applicant0s1 shall bear the following costs inci!ental to the place#ent of the chil!2 0a1 The cost of bringing the chil! fro# the :hilippines to the resi!ence of the applicant0s1 abroa!, inclu!ing all tra"el e%penses within the :hilippines an! abroa!2 an! 0b1 The cost of passport, "isa, #e!ical e%a#ination an! psychological e"aluation re3uire!, an! other relate! e%penses. Se0. :3. 'ees, (harges an! Assess#ents. D 'ees, charges, an! assess#ents collecte! by the Aoar! in the e%ercise of its functions shall be use! solely to process applications for inter6country a!option an! to support the acti"ities of the Aoar!. Se0. :@. uper"ision of Trial (usto!y. D The go"ern#ental agency or the authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency in the country of the a!opti"e parents which file! the application for inter6country a!option shall be responsible for the trial custo!y an! the care of the chil!. &t shall also pro"i!e fa#ily counseling an! other relate! ser"ices. The trial custo!y shall be for a perio! of si% 051 #onths fro# the ti#e of place#ent. )nly after the lapse of the perio! of trial custo!y shall a !ecree of a!option be issue! in the sai! country a copy of which shall be sent to the Aoar! to for# part of the recor!s of the chil!. ,uring the trial custo!y, the a!opting parent0s1 shall sub#it to the go"ern#ental agency or the authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency, which shall in turn trans#it a copy to the Aoar!, a progress report of the chil!Ls a!$ust#ent. The progress report shall be taken into consi!eration in !eci!ing whether or not to issue the !ecree of a!option. The ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs shall set up a syste# by which 'ilipino chil!ren sent abroa! for trial custo!y are #onitore! an! checke! as reporte! by the authori*e! an! accre!ite! inter6country a!option agency as well as the repatriation to the :hilippines of a 'ilipino chil! whose a!option has not been appro"e!. Se0. :5. C%ecuti"e Agree#ents. D The ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs, upon representation of the Aoar!, shall cause the preparation of C%ecuti"e Agree#ents with countries of the foreign a!option agencies to ensure the legiti#ate concurrence of sai! countries in uphol!ing the safeguar!s pro"i!e! by this Act. A'!"0,e IC. Pe#$,!"e Se0. :A. :enalties. D 0a1 Any person who shall knowingly participate in the con!uct or carrying out of an illegal a!option, in "iolation of the pro"isions of this Act, shall be punishe! with a penalty of i#prison#ent ranging fro# si% 051 years an! one 011 !ay to twel"e 0121 years an!@or a fine of not less than 'ifty thousan! pesos 0:50 ,0001, but not #ore than Two hun!re! thousan! pesos 0:200.0001, at the !iscretion of the court. 'or purposes of this Act, an a!option is illegal if it is effecte! in any #anner contrary to the pro"isions of this Act or establishe! tate policies, its i#ple#enting rules an! regulations, e%ecuti"e agree#ents, an! other laws pertaining to a!option. &llegality #ay be presu#e! fro# the following acts/ 011 consent for an a!option was ac3uire! through, or atten!e! by coercion, frau!, i#proper #aterial in!uce#ent2 021 there is no authority fro# the Aoar! to effect a!option2 031 the proce!ures an! safeguar!s place! un!er the law for a!option were not co#plie! with2 an! 0.1 the chil! to be a!opte! is sub$ecte! to, or e%pose! to !anger, abuse an! e%ploitation. 0b1 Any person who shall "iolate establishe! regulations relating to the confi!entiality an! integrity of recor!s, !ocu#ents an! co##unications of a!option applications, cases an! processes shall suffer the penalty of i#prison#ent ranging fro# one 011 year an! one 011 !ay to two 021 years, an!@or a fine of not less than 'i"e thousan! pesos 0:5,0001, but not #ore than Ten thousan! pesos 0:10,0001, at the !iscretion of the court. A penalty lower by two 021 !egrees than that prescribe! for the consu##ate! felony un!er this Article shall be i#pose! upon the principals of the atte#pt to co##it any of the acts herein enu#erate!. Acts punishable un!er this Article, when co##itte! by a syn!icate or where it in"ol"es two or #ore chil!ren shall be consi!ere! as an offense constituting chil! trafficking an! shall #erit the penalty of reclusion perpetua. Acts punishable un!er this Article are !ee#e! co##itte! by a syn!icate if carrie! out by a group of three 031 or #ore persons conspiring an!@or confe!erating with one another in carrying out any of the unlawful acts !efine! un!er this Article. :enalties as are herein pro"i!e! shall be in a!!ition to any other penalties which #ay be i#pose! for the sa#e acts punishable un!er other laws, or!inances, e%ecuti"e or!ers, an! procla#ations.

25

Se0. :B. :ublic )fficers as )ffen!ers. D Any go"ern#ent official, e#ployee or functionary who shall be foun! guilty of "iolating any of the pro"isions of this Act, or who shall conspire with pri"ate in!i"i!uals shall, in a!!ition to the abo"e6 prescribe! penalties, be penali*e! in accor!ance with e%isting ci"il ser"ice laws, rules an! regulations/ :ro"i!e!, That upon the filing of a case, either a!#inistrati"e or cri#inal, sai! go"ern#ent official, e#ployee or functionary concerne! shall auto#atically suffer suspension until the resolution of the case. A'!"0,e C. F"#$, P'o." "o# Se0. :>. &#ple#enting Rules an! Regulations. D The &nter6country A!option Aoar!, in coor!ination with the (ouncil for the +elfare of (hil!ren, the ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs, an! the ,epart#ent of =ustice, after !ue consultation with agencies in"ol"e! in chil!6care an! place#ent, shall pro#ulgate the necessary rules an! regulations to i#ple#ent the pro"isions of this Act within si% 051 #onths after its effecti"ity. Se0. :?. Appropriations. D The a#ount of 'i"e #illion pesos 0:5,000,0001 is hereby appropriate! fro# the procee!s of the <otto for the initial operations of the Aoar! an! subse3uently the appropriations of the sa#e shall be inclu!e! in the Beneral Appropriations Act for the year following its enact#ent. Se0. 20. eparability (lause. D &f any pro"ision, or part hereof is hel! in"ali! or unconstitutional, the re#ain!er of the law or the pro"ision not otherwise affecte!, shall re#ain "ali! an! subsisting. Se0. 2:. Repealing (lause. D Any law, !ecree, e%ecuti"e or!er, a!#inistrati"e or!er or rules an! regulations contrary to, or inconsistent with the pro"isions of this Act are hereby repeale!, #o!ifie! or a#en!e! accor!ingly. Se0. 22. Cffecti"ity (lause. D This Act shall take effect fifteen 0151 !ays after its publication in two 021 newspapers of general circulation.

T*e Su/'e1e Cou'! *$ " ue% -u"%e,"#e "# /e!"!"o# (o' $%o/!"o# u#%e' RA >552 $#% RA >0@3. B$ "0$,,46 $ /e!"!"o# (o' %o1e !"0 $%o/!"o# u#%e' RA >552 &",, -o !*'ou-* !*e e !e/ : ;:< A lawyer prepares the petition for the person or persons wanting to a!opt. The petition inclu!es !ocu#ents like birth certificates, #arriage certificate, proof of financial capacity 0like &TR, bank !eposit, etc1, clearances 0barangay, police, ;A&, fiscal, court1, an! others as proof of goo! #oral character, goo! health, etc. ;2< ?pon pay#ent of the filing or !ocket fee, the petition is raffle! to a 'a#ily (ourt 0of the city nearest the place where the petitioner resi!es1. &f the petition is sufficient in for# an! substance, the court issues an or!er, usually within a

25

#onth after the filing of the petition, setting the case for initial hearing an! or!ering the court social worker to con!uct a case stu!y an! ho#e "isit. ;3< The court or!er is publishe! in a newspaper of general circulation once a week for three weeks. The newspaper is chosen by raffle con!ucte! by the )ffice of the (lerk of (ourt, in co#pliance with a upre#e (ourt circular. &f a s#all ti#e newspaper wins in the raffle, the total cost for the publication coul! be as low as :hp >,000. Aut if a big ti#e newspaper like the Aulletin or the &n3uirer wins the raffle, the total cost coul! be as high as :hp 50,000. ;@< Aefore the initial hearing, the social worker con!ucts a case stu!y an! ho#e "isit. The social worker sub#its his in"estigation report an! reco##en!ations to the court before the initial hearing. ;5< )n the !ate of the initial hearing, the petitioner an! the prospecti"e a!optee #ust be present. The lawyer presents what are known as the $uris!ictional facts 0petition, proof of publication in newspaper, notice to the )ffice of the olicitor Beneral, etc1. ;A< &f there is no opposition to the petition for a!option by any party, then the lawyer asks the court per#ission for an e%6parte presentation of e"i!ence, !one before only the court stenographer an! the court appointe! co##issioner 0the branch clerk of court1. The court howe"er can re3uire presentation of e"i!ence in open court. All in all, the case coul! take up to about a year to finish. ;B< &f the court !ecision is fa"orable an! there is no appeal by any party, then the court issues a (ertificate of 'inality. The lawyer then coor!inates with the <ocal (i"il Registrar 0of the town or city where the court is locate!, an! the a!optee4s birthplace1 an! the ;ational tatistics )ffice for the issuance of a new birth certificate bearing the petitioner4s surna#e. DISTINCTIONS: ADOPTION LAWS S*o'! T"!,e P'o1u,-$!"o# W*$! "! -o.e'# Re/u),"0 A0! No. >552 ,o#estic A!option Act of 1997 :ro#ulgate! 'ebruary 25, 1997 RA 7552 a#en!e! Articles 173 up to 193 of the 'a#ily (o!e of the :hilippines an! is the go"erning law for 'ilipino citi*ens a!opting other 'ilipinos 0whether relati"es or strangers1 with so#e e%ceptions. Rescission of a!option is no longer allowe! un!er RA 7552. (hil!K is a person below eighteen 0171 years of age. Se0. B. +ho May A!opt. D The following #ay a!opt/ 0a1 Any 'ilipino citi*en of legal age, in possession of full ci"il capacity an! legal rights, of goo! #oral character, has not been con"icte! of any cri#e in"ol"ing #oral turpitu!e, e#otionally an! psychologically capable of caring for chil!ren, at least si%teen 0151 years ol!er than the a!optee, an! who is in a position to support an! care for his@her chil!ren in keeping with the #eans of the fa#ily. The re3uire#ent of si%teen 0151 year !ifference between the age of the a!opter an! a!optee #ay be wai"e! when the a!opter is the biological parent of the a!optee, or is the spouse of the a!opteeLs parent2 0b1 Any alien possessing the sa#e 3ualifications as abo"e state! for 'ilipino nationals/ :ro"i!e!, That his@her country has !iplo#atic relations with the Republic of the Re/u),"0 A0! No. >0@3 &nter6(ountry A!option Act of 1995 :ro#ulgate! =une >, 1995 RA 70.3 on the other han!, go"erns the a!option of 'ilipinos by foreigners, an! is i#ple#ente! by the &nter6(ountry A!option Aoar!.

De("#"!"o# o( C*",% W*o 1$4 $%o/!

(hil! #eans a person below fifteen 0151 years of age unless sooner e#ancipate! by law. Se0. ?. +ho May A!opt. D An alien or a 'ilipino citi*en per#anently resi!ing abroa! #ay file an application for inter6country a!option of a 'ilipino chil! if he@she/ 0a1 is at least twenty6se"en 02>1 years of age an! at least si%teen 0151 years ol!er than the chil! to be a!opte!, at the ti#e of application unless the a!opter is the parent by nature of the chil! to be a!opte! or the spouse of such parent/ 0b1 if #arrie!, his@her spouse #ust $ointly file for the a!option2 0c1 has the capacity to act an! assu#e all rights an! responsibilities of parental authority un!er his national laws, an! has un!ergone the appropriate counseling fro# an accre!ite! counselor in his@her country2 0!1 has not been con"icte! of a cri#e in"ol"ing #oral turpitu!e2 0e1 is eligible to a!opt un!er his@her

2>

W*o 1$4 )e $%o/!e%

:hilippines, that he@she has been li"ing in the :hilippines for at least three 031 continuous years prior to the filing of the application for a!option an! #aintains such resi!ence until the a!option !ecree is entere!, that he@she has been certifie! by his@her !iplo#atic or consular office or any appropriate go"ern#ent agency that he@she has the legal capacity to a!opt in his@her country, an! that his@her go"ern#ent allows the a!optee to enter his@her country as his@her a!opte! son@!aughter/ :ro"i!e!, 'urther, That the re3uire#ents on resi!ency an! certification of the alienLs 3ualification to a!opt in his@her country #ay be wai"e! for the following/ 0i1 a for#er 'ilipino citi*en who seeks to a!opt a relati"e within the fourth 0.th1 !egree of consanguinity or affinity2 or 0ii1 one who seeks to a!opt the legiti#ate son@!aughter of his@her 'ilipino spouse2 or 0iii1 one who is #arrie! to a 'ilipino citi*en an! seeks to a!opt $ointly with his@her spouse a relati"e within the fourth 0.th1 !egree of consanguinity or affinity of the 'ilipino spouse2 or 0c1 The guar!ian with respect to the war! after the ter#ination of the guar!ianship an! clearance of his@her financial accountabilities. -usban! an! wife shall $ointly a!opt, e%cept in the following cases/ 0i1 if one spouse seeks to a!opt the legiti#ate son@!aughter of the other2 or 0ii1 if one spouse seeks to a!opt his@her own illegiti#ate son@!aughter/ :ro"i!e!, -owe"er, that the other spouse has signifie! his@her consent thereto2 or 0iii1 if the spouses are legally separate! fro# each other. &n case husban! an! wife $ointly a!opt, or one spouse a!opts the illegiti#ate son@!aughter of the other, $oint parental authority shall be e%ercise! by the spouses. Se0. >. +ho May Ae A!opte!. D The following #ay be a!opte!/ 0a1 Any person below eighteen 0171 years of age who has been a!#inistrati"ely or $u!icially !eclare! a"ailable for a!option2 0b1 The legiti#ate son@!aughter of

national law2 0f1 is in a position to pro"i!e the proper care an! support an! to gi"e the necessary #oral "alues an! e%a#ple to all his chil!ren, inclu!ing the chil! to be a!opte!2 0g1 agrees to uphol! the basic rights of the chil! as e#bo!ie! un!er :hilippine laws, the ?.;. (on"ention on the Rights of the (hil!, an! to abi!e by the rules an! regulations issue! to i#ple#ent the pro"isions of this Act2 0h1 co#es fro# a country with who# the :hilippines has !iplo#atic relations an! whose go"ern#ent #aintains a si#ilarly authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency an! that a!option is allowe! un!er his@her national laws2 an! 0i1 possesses all the 3ualifications an! none of the !is3ualifications pro"i!e! herein an! in other applicable :hilippine laws.

Se0. >. +ho May be A!opte!. D )nly a legally free chil! #ay be the sub$ect of inter6country a!option. &n or!er that such chil! #ay be consi!ere! for place#ent, the following !ocu#ents #ust be sub#itte! to the Aoar!/

27

W*$! ,$& &",, $//,4 &*e# $ (o'e"-#e' &*o " 1$''"e% !o $ F","/"#o 0"!"Ee# ee3 !o $%o/! 8o"#!,4 &"!* *" F*e' /ou e $ 'e,$!".e &"!*"# !*e (ou'!* %e-'ee o( 0o# $#-u"#"!4 o' $(("#"!4 o( !*e F","/"#o /ou e Su/e'." e% T'"$, Cu !o%4.

one spouse by the other spouse2 0c1 An illegiti#ate son@!aughter by a 3ualifie! a!opter to i#pro"e his@her status to that of legiti#acy2 0!1 A person of legal age if, prior to the a!option, sai! person has been consistently consi!ere! an! treate! by the a!opter0s1 as his@her own chil! since #inority2 0e1 A chil! whose a!option has been pre"iously rescin!e!2 or 0f1 A chil! whose biological or a!opti"e parent0s1 has !ie!/ :ro"i!e!, That no procee!ings shall be initiate! within si% 051 #onths fro# the ti#e of !eath of sai! parent0s1. RA 7552 will apply

0a1 (hil! stu!y2 0b1 Airth certificate@foun!ling certificate2 0c1 ,ee! of "oluntary co##it#ent@!ecree of aban!on#ent@!eath certificate of parents2 0!1 Me!ical e"aluation @history2 0e 1:sychological e"aluation, as necessary2 an! 0f1 Recent photo of the chil!.

RA 70.3 !oes not apply.

Se0. :2. uper"ise! Trial (usto!y. D ;o petition for a!option shall be finally grante! until the a!opter0s1 has been gi"en by the court a super"ise! trial custo!y perio! for at least si% 051 #onths within which the parties are e%pecte! to a!$ust psychologically an! e#otionally to each other an! establish a bon!ing relationship. ,uring sai! perio!, te#porary parental authority shall be "este! in the a!opter0s1. The court #ay #otu proprio or upon #otion of any party re!uce the trial perio! if it fin!s the sa#e to be in the best interest of the a!optee, stating the reasons for the re!uction of the perio!. -owe"er, for alien a!opter0s1, he@she #ust co#plete the si% 0516 #onth trial custo!y e%cept for those enu#erate! in ec. > 0b1 0i1 0ii1 0iii1. &f the chil! is below se"en 0>1 years of age an! is place! with the prospecti"e a!opter0s1 through a pre6 a!option place#ent authority issue! by the ,epart#ent, the prospecti"e a!opter0s1 shall en$oy all the benefits to which biological parent0s1 is entitle! fro# the !ate the a!optee is place! with the prospecti"e a!opter0s1.

Se0. :@. uper"ision of Trial (usto!y. D The go"ern#ental agency or the authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency in the country of the a!opti"e parents which file! the application for inter6 country a!option shall be responsible for the trial custo!y an! the care of the chil!. &t shall also pro"i!e fa#ily counseling an! other relate! ser"ices. The trial custo!y shall be for a perio! of si% 051 #onths fro# the ti#e of place#ent. )nly after the lapse of the perio! of trial custo!y shall a !ecree of a!option be issue! in the sai! country a copy of which shall be sent to the Aoar! to for# part of the recor!s of the chil!. ,uring the trial custo!y, the a!opting parent0s1 shall sub#it to the go"ern#ental agency or the authori*e! an! accre!ite! agency, which shall in turn trans#it a copy to the Aoar!, a progress report of the chil!Ls a!$ust#ent. The progress report shall be taken into consi!eration in !eci!ing whether or not to issue the !ecree of a!option. The ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs shall set up a syste# by which 'ilipino chil!ren sent abroa! for trial custo!y are #onitore! an! checke! as reporte! by the authori*e! an! accre!ite! inter6country a!option agency as well as the repatriation to the :hilippines of a 'ilipino chil! whose a!option has not been

29

Pe#$,!4 (o' $#4 -o.e'#1e#! o(("0"$,6 e1/,o4ee o' (u#0!"o#$'4 &*o *$,, )e (ou#% -u",!4 o( ."o,$!"#- $#4 o( !*e /'o." "o# o( !*" $%o/!"o# ,$& .

hall auto#atically suffer suspension until the resolution of the case.

appro"e!. a#e 9Se0!"o# :B= :ublic )fficers as )ffen!ers

T$3e #o!e $, o o( !*e %"((e'e#0e )e!&ee# $%o/!"o# $#% "1u,$!"o# o( )"'!* 9$# ",,e-$, /'$0!"0e 'e o'!e% !o )4 $ ,o! o( F","/"#o =. A!option is the legal process by which a chil! beco#es the legiti#ate chil! of the a!opting person@s. i#ulation of birth on the other han! occurs when a chil!less couple, for e%a#ple, co#es into possession of a baby or chil!, gi"en to the# by a #i!wife, an unwe! #other or a relati"e, an! this couple then applies for a birth certificate, #aking it appear that the baby or chil! is their biological offspring. ?n!er RA 7552, si#ulation of birth is a cri#inal offense punishable by eight years i#prison#ent an! a fine of fifty thousan! pesos.

;REPUBLIC ACT NO. ?0@>< AN ACT AUTHORIGING THE CITH OR MUNICIPAL CICIL REGISTRAR OR THE CONSUL GENERAL TO CORRECT A CLERICAL OR THPOGRAPHICAL ERROR IN AN ENTRH ANDFOR CHANGE OF FIRST NAME OR NICINAME IN THE CICIL REGISTER WITHOUT NEED OF A DUDICIAL ORDER6 AMENDING FOR THIS PURPOSE ARTICLES 3BA AND @:2 OF THE CICIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES. )e it enacted by the %enate and the "ouse of Representati&es of the *hilippines in ongress assembled/

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C(T&); 1. Authority to orrect lerical or Typographical +rror and hange of -irst .ame or .ic0name � ;o entry in a ci"il register shall be change! or correcte! without a $u!icial or!er, e%cept for clerical or typographical errors an! change of first na#e or nickna#e which can be correcte! or change! by the concerne! city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or consul general in accor!ance with the pro"isions of this Act an! its i#ple#enting rules an! regulations. C(T&); 2. /efinition of Terms � As use! in this Act, the following ter#s shall #ean/ 011 K(ity or Municipal ci"il registrarK refers to the hea! of the local ci"il registry office of the city or #unicipality, as the case #ay be, who is appointe! as such by the city or #unicipal #ayor in accor!ance with the pro"isions of e%isting laws. 021 K:etitionerK refers to a natural person filing the petition an! who has !irect an! personal interest in the correction of a clerical or typographical error in an entry or change of first na#e or nickna#e in the ci"il register. 031 K(lerical or typographical errorK refers to a #istake co##itte! in the perfor#ance of clerical work in writing, copying, transcribing or typing an entry in the ci"il register that is har#less an! innocuous, such as #isspelle! na#e or #isspelle! place of birth or the like, which is "isible to the eyes or ob"ious to the un!erstan!ing, an! can be correcte! or change! only by reference to other e%isting recor! or recor!s/ *ro&ided, ho#e&er, That no correction #ust in"ol"e the change of nationality, age, status or se% of the petitioner. 0.1 K(i"il RegisterK refers to the "arious registry books an! relate! certificates an! !ocu#ents kept in the archi"es of the local ci"il registry offices, :hilippine (onsulates an! of the )ffice of the (i"il Registrar Beneral. 051 K(i"il registrar generalK refers to the A!#inistrator of the ;ational tatistics )ffice which is the agency #an!ate! to carry out an! a!#inister the pro"ision of laws on ci"il registration. 051 K'irst na#eK refers to a na#e or nickna#e gi"en to a person which #ay consist of one or #ore na#es in a!!ition to the #i!!le an! last na#es. C(T&); 3. Who ,ay -ile the *etition and Where. � Any person ha"ing !irect an! personal interest in the correction of a clerical or typographical error in an entry an!@or change of first na#e or nickna#e in the ci"il register #ay file, in person, a "erifie! petition with the local ci"il registry office of the city or #unicipality where the recor! being sought to be correcte! or change! is kept. &n case the petitioner has alrea!y #igrate! to another place in the country an! it woul! not be practical for such party, in ter#s of transportation e%penses, ti#e an! effort to appear in person before the local ci"il registrar keeping the !ocu#ents to be correcte! or change!, the petition #ay be file!, in person, with the local ci"il registrar of the place where the intereste! party is presently resi!ing or !o#icile!. The two 021 local ci"il registrars concerne! will then co##unicate to facilitate the processing of the petition. (iti*ens of the :hilippines who are presently resi!ing or !o#icile! in foreign countries #ay file their petition, in person, with the nearest :hilippine (onsulates. The petitions file! with the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general shall be processe! in accor!ance with this Act an! its i#ple#enting rules an! regulations. All petitions for the clerical or typographical errors an!@or change of first na#es or nickna#es #ay be a"aile! of only once. C(T&); .. Grounds for hange of -irst .ame or .ic0name. � The petition for change of first na#e or nickna#e #ay be allowe! in any of the following cases/ 011 The petitioner fin!s the first na#e or nickna#e to be ri!iculous, tainte! with !ishonor or e%tre#ely !ifficult to write or pronounce. 021 The new first na#e or nickna#e has been habitually an! continuously use! by the petitioner an! he has been publicly known by that by that first na#e or nickna#e in the co##unity/ or 031 The change will a"oi! confusion. C(T&); 5. -orm and ontents of the *etition. � The petition shall be in the for# of an affi!a"it, subscribe! an! sworn to before any person authori*e! by the law to a!#inister oaths. The affi!a"it shall set forth facts necessary to establish the #erits of the petition an! shall show affir#ati"ely that the petitioner is co#petent to testify to the #atters state!. The petitioner shall state the particular erroneous entry or entries, which are sought to be correcte! an!@or the change sought to be #a!e. The petition shall be supporte! with the following !ocu#ents/ 011 A certifie! true #achine copy of the certificate or of the page of the registry book containing the entry or entries sought to be correcte! or change!. 021 At least two 021 public or pri"ate !ocu#ents showing the correct entry or entries upon which the correction or change shall be base!2 an! 031 )ther !ocu#ents which the petitioner or the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general #ay consi!er rele"ant an! necessary for the appro"al of the petition.

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&n case of change of first na#e or nickna#e, the petition shall likewise be supporte! with the !ocu#ents #entione! in the i##e!iately prece!ing paragraph. &n a!!ition, the petition shall be publishe! at least once a week for two 021 consecuti"e weeks in a newspaper of general circulation. 'urther#ore, the petitioner shall sub#it a certification fro# the appropriate law enforce#ent agencies that he has no pen!ing case or no cri#inal recor!. The petition an! its supporting papers shall be file! in three 031 copies to be !istribute! as follows/ first copy to the concerne! city or #unicipal ci"il registrar, or the consul general2 secon! copy to the )ffice of the (i"il Registrar Beneral2 an! thir! copy to the petitioner. C(T&); 5. /uties of the ity or ,unicipal i&il Registrar or the onsul General. � The city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general to who# the petition is presente! shall e%a#ine the petition an! its supporting !ocu#ents. -e shall post the petition in a conspicuous place pro"i!e! for that purpose for ten 0101 consecuti"e !ays after he fin!s the petition an! its supporting !ocu#ents sufficient in for# an! substance. The city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general shall act on the petition an! shall ren!er a !ecision not later than fi"e 051 working !ays after the co#pletion of the posting an!@or publication re3uire#ent. -e shall trans#it a copy of his !ecision together with the recor!s of the procee!ings to the )ffice of the (i"il Registrar Beneral within fi"e 051 working !ays fro# the !ate of the !ecision. C(T&); >. /uties and *o#ers of the i&il Registrar General. � The ci"il registrar general shall, within ten 0101 working !ays fro# receipt of the !ecision granting a petition, e%ercise the power to i#pugn such !ecision by way of an ob$ection base! on the following groun!s/ 011 The error is not clerical or typographical2 021 The correction of an entry or entries in the ci"il register is substantial or contro"ersial as it affects the ci"il status of a person2 or 031 The basis use! in changing the first na#e or nickna#e of a person !oes not fall un!er C(T&); .. The ci"il registrar general shall i##e!iately notify the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general of the action taken on the !ecision. ?pon receipt of the notice thereof, the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general shall notify the petitioner of such action. The petitioner #ay seek reconsi!eration with the ci"il registrar general or file the appropriate petition with the proper court. &f the ci"il registrar general fails to e%ercise his power to i#pugn the !ecision of the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or of the consul general within the perio! prescribe! herein, such !ecision shall beco#e final an! e%ecutory. +here the petition is !enie! by the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general, the petitioner #ay either appeal the !ecision to the ci"il registrar general or file the appropriate petition with the proper court. C(T&); 7. *ayment of -ees. � The city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general shall be authori*e! to collect reasonable fees as a con!ition for accepting the petition. An in!igent petitioner shall be e%e#pt fro# the pay#ent of the sai! fee. C(T&); 9. *enalty lause. - A person who "iolates any of the pro"isions of this Act shall, upon con"iction, be penali*e! by i#prison#ent of not less than si% 051 years but not #ore than twel"e 0121 years, or a fine of not less than Ten thousan! pesos 0:10,000.001 but not #ore than )ne -un!re! Thousan! pesos 0:100,000.001, or both, at the !iscretion of the court. &n a!!ition, if the offen!er is a go"ern#ent official or e#ployee he shall suffer the penalties pro"i!e! un!er ci"il ser"ice laws, rules an! regulations. C(T&); 10. 1mplementing Rules and Regulations. 6 The ci"il registrar general shall, in consultation with the ,epart#ent of =ustice, the ,epart#ent of 'oreign Affairs, the )ffice of the upre#e (ourt A!#inistrator, the ?ni"ersity of the :hilippines <aw (enter an! the :hilippine Association of (i"il Registrars, issue the necessary rules an! regulations for the effecti"e i#ple#entation of this Act not later than three 031 #onths fro# the effecti"ity of this law. C(T&); 11. Retroacti&ity lause. 6 This Act shall ha"e retroacti"e effect insofar as it !oes not pre$u!ice or i#pair "este! or ac3uire! rights in accor!ance with the (i"il (o!e an! other laws. C(T&); 12. %eparability lause. - &f any portion or pro"ision of this Act is !eclare! "oi! or unconstitutional, the re#aining portions or pro"isions thereof shall not be affecte! by such !eclaration. C(T&); 13. Repealing lause 6 All laws, !ecrees, or!ers, rules an! regulations, other issuances, or parts thereof inconsistent with the pro"isions of this Act are hereby repeale! or #o!ifie! accor!ingly.

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C(T&); 1.. +ffecti&ity lause. 6 This Act shall take effect fifteen 0151 !ays after its co#plete publication in at least two 021 national newspapers of general circulation. Appro"e!. MAR(- 22, 2001 Que !"o# $#% A# &e' o# RA ?0@>

WHAT IS REPUBLIC ACT ?0@>+ Republic Act 0RA1 90.7 authori*es the city or #unicipal ci"il registrar or the consul general to correct a clerical or typographical error in an entry an!@or change the first na#e or nickna#e in the ci"il register without nee! of a $u!icial or!er. RA 90.7 a#en!s Articles 3>5 an! .12 of the (i"il (o!e of the :hilippines, which prohibit the change of na#e or surna#e of a person, or any correction or change of entry in a ci"il register without a $u!icial or!er. :resi!ent Bloria Macapagal6Arroyo appro"e! the act on 22 March 2001. +ith the law taking effect on 22 April 2001, the (i"il Registrar6Beneral pro#ulgate! A!#inistrati"e )r!er ;o. 1 eries of 2001, which was publishe! in the newspaper in August that year. WHAT CORRECTIONS CAN BE MADE BH RA ?0@>+ RA 90.7 allows these corrections/ 1. correction of clerical or typographical errors in any entry in ci"il registry !ocu#ents, e%cept corrections in"ol"ing the change in se%, age, nationality an! status of a person. 0A clerical or typographical error refers to an ob"ious #istake co##itte! in clerical work, either in writing, copying, transcribing, or typing an entry in the ci"il register that is har#less an! innocuous, such as a #isspelle! na#e or #isspelle! place of birth an! the like, an! can be correcte! or change! only by reference to other e%isting recor! or recor!s.1 2. change of a personLs first na#e in his@her ci"il registry !ocu#ent un!er certain groun!s specifie! un!er the law through a!#inistrati"e process. WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS UNDER RA ?0@> THAT THE PETITIONER NEEDS TO COMPLH WITH+ 011 The petitioner fin!s the first na#e or nickna#e to be ri!iculous, tainte! with !ishonor or e%tre#ely !ifficult to write or pronounce2 021 The new first na#e or nickna#e has been habitually an! continuously use! by the petitioner an! he has been publicly known by that first na#e or nickna#e in the co##unity2 or, 031 The change will a"oi! confusion. WHO MAH FILE THE PETITION+ +hether it is for correction of clerical or typographical error, or for change of first na#e, the petition #ay be file! by a person of legal age who #ust ha"e a !irect an! personal interest in the correction of the error or in the change of first na#e in the ci"il register. A person is consi!ere! of legal age when he is eighteen years ol! an! abo"e. Thus, a #inor 0less than eighteen years ol!1 cannot by hi#self file a petition, either for correction of clerical or typographical error or for change of his first na#e. )nly the following persons are consi!ere! to ha"e a !irect an! personal interest in the correction of clerical error or change of first na#e/ 1. )wner of the recor! that contains the error to be correcte! or first na#e to be change! 2. )wnerLs spouse, chil!ren, parents, brothers, sisters, gran!parents, guar!ian, or any other person !uly authori*e! by law or by the owner of the !ocu#ent sought to be correcte!. WHAT SHOULD BE THE FORM AND CONTENT OF THE PETITION+ The petition, whether it is for correction of clerical error or for a change of first na#e, shoul! be acco#plishe! properly an! in the prescribe! for#. ection 5 of RA 90.7 an! Rule 7 of A!#inistrati"e )r!er ;o. 1, . 2001 re3uire that the petition shoul! be in the for# of an affi!a"it, hence, it shoul! be subscribe! an! sworn to before a person authori*e! to a!#inister oath. Aasically, the petition #ust contain the following facts or infor#ation/ • Merits of the petition • (o#petency of the petitioner • Crroneous entry to be correcte! an! propose! correction2 first na#e to be change! an! the propose! new first na#e

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WHAT SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS ARE REQUIRED FOR CORRECTING A CLERICAL OR THPOGRAPHICAL ERROR IN A CICIL REGISTRH DOCUMENT+ The petition shall not be processe! unless the petitioner supports it with the re3uire! !ocu#ents. The supporting !ocu#ents shoul! be authentic an! genuine, otherwise, the petition shall be !enie! or !isappro"e! pursuant to Rule 5.7 of A!#inistrati"e )r!er ;o. 1, . 2001. The following supporting !ocu#ents are a!#issible as basic re3uire#ents/ 1. (ertifie! #achine copy of the certificate containing the allege! erroneous entry or entries 2. ;ot less than 2 public or pri"ate !ocu#ents upon which the correction shall be base!. C%a#ples of these !ocu#ents are the following/ baptis#al certificate, "oterLs affi!a"it, e#ploy#ent recor!, B & @ recor!, #e!ical recor!, school recor!, business recor!, !ri"erLs license, insurance, lan! titles, certificate of lan! transfer, bank passbook, ;A&@police clearance, ci"il registry recor!s of ascen!ants, an! others. 3. ;otice an! (ertificate of :osting .. (ertifie! #achine copy of the )fficial Receipt of the filing fee 5. )ther !ocu#ents as #ay be re3uire! by the (ity@Municipal (i"il Registrar 0(@M(R1 WHAT ARE THE SUPPORTING PAPERS FOR CHANGE OF FIRST NAME+ As in the case of correction of clerical error, no petition for change of first na#e shall be accepte! unless the petitioner sub#its the re3uire! supporting papers, as follows/ 1. All the !ocu#ents re3uire! of the petitioner for the correction of clerical error shall also be re3uire! of the petitioner for change of first na#e. 2. (learance fro# authorities such as clearance fro# e#ployer, if e#ploye!2 the ;ational Aureau of &n"estigation2 the :hilippine ;ational :olice2 an! other clearances as #ay be re3uire! by the concerne! (@M(R. 3. :roof of :ublication. An affi!a"it of publication fro# the publisher an! copy of the newspaper clippings shoul! be attache!. HOW MUCH IS THE FEE IN FILING A PETITION+ The (@M(R an! the ,istrict@(ircuit Registrar 0,@(R1 are authori*e! to collect fro# e"ery petitioner the following rates of filing fees/ • )ne thousan! pesos 0:1,000.001 for the correction of clerical error • Three thousan! pesos 0:3,000.001 for the change of first na#e &n the case of a petition file! with the (onsul Beneral 0(B1, the fees are the sa#e for all :hilippine (onsulates. The fees are the following/ • 'ifty ?. . !ollars 0M50.001 for the correction of clerical or typographical error • )ne hun!re! fifty ?. . !ollars 0M150.001 for the change of first na#e A #igrant petitioner shall pay an a!!itional ser"ice fee to the :etition Recei"ing (i"il Registrar 0:R(R1. This ser"ice fee shall accrue to the local treasury of the :R(R. • 'i"e hun!re! pesos 0:500.001 for correction of clerical or typographical error • )ne thousan! pesos 0:1,000.001 for change of first na#e WHERE SHOULD THE PETITION BE FILED+ The general rule is that petition shall be file! with the <ocal (i"il Registry )ffice 0<(R)1 where the recor! containing the clerical error to be correcte! or first na#e to be change! is kept. &nclu!e! in this general rule is the case of the )ffice of the (lerk of hariLa (ourt where recor!s of !i"orces, re"ocations of !i"orces, con"ersions to &sla# are kept an! where so#e Musli# #arriages are registere!. -owe"er, in case the petitioner is a #igrant within or outsi!e the :hilippines, #eaning his present resi!ence or !o#icile is !ifferent fro# where his ci"il registry recor! or recor!s are registere!, he #ay file the petition in the nearest <(R) in his area. -is petition will be treate! as a #igrant petition. Re/u),"0 A0! No. ?255 Fe)'u$'4 2@ 200@ AN ACT ALLOWING ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN TO USE THE SURNAME OF THEIR FATHER6 AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE ARTICLE :BA OF EJECUTICE ORDER NO. 20?6 OTHERWISE INOWN AS THE KFAMILH CODE OF THE PHILIPPINESK SECTION :. Article 1>5 of C%ecuti"e )r!er ;o. 209, otherwise known as the 'a#ily (o!e of the :hilippines, is hereby a#en!e! to rea! as follows/ KArticle 1>5. &llegiti#ate chil!ren shall use the surna#e an! shall be un!er the parental authority of their #other, an! shall be entitle! to support in confor#ity with this (o!e. -owe"er, illegiti#ate chil!ren #ay use the surna#e of their father if their filiation has been e%pressly recogni*e! by the father through the recor! of

3.

birth appearing in the ci"il register, or when an a!#ission in a public !ocu#ent or pri"ate han!written instru#ent is #a!e by the father. *ro&ided, the father has the right to institute an action before the regular courts to pro"e non6filiation !uring his lifeti#e. The legiti#e of each illegiti#ate chil! shall consist of one6half of the legiti#e of a legiti#ate chil!.K SECTION 2. Repealing lause. All laws, presi!ential !ecrees, e%ecuti"e or!ers, procla#ations, rules an! regulations, which are inconsistent with the pro"isions of this Act are hereby repeale! or #o!ifie! accor!ingly. SECTION 3. +ffecti&ity lause. This Act shall take effect fifteen 0151 !ays fro# its publication in the !fficial Ga5ette or in two 021 newspapers of general circulation.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. >?B2 AN ACT PROCIDING FOR BENEFITS AND PRICILEGES TO SOLO PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN6 APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Se0!"o# :. Title. 6 This Act shall be known as the K olo :arentsL +elfare Act of 2000.K Se0!"o# 2. /eclaration of *olicy. 6 &t is the policy of the tate to pro#ote the fa#ily as the foun!ation of the nation, strengthen its soli!arity an! ensure its total !e"elop#ent. Towar!s this en!, it shall !e"elop a co#prehensi"e progra# of ser"ices for solo parents an! their chil!ren to be carrie! out by the ,epart#ent of ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent 0, +,1, the ,epart#ent of -ealth 0,)-1, the ,epart#ent of C!ucation, (ulture an! ports 0,C( 1, the ,epart#ent of the &nterior an! <ocal Bo"ern#ent 0,&<B1, the (o##ission on -igher C!ucation 0(-C,1, the Technical C!ucation an! kills ,e"elop#ent Authority 0TC ,A1, the ;ational -ousing Authority 0;-A1, the ,epart#ent of <abor an! C#ploy#ent 0,)<C1 an! other relate! go"ern#ent an! nongo"ern#ent agencies.

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Se0!"o# 3. /efinition of Terms. 6 +hene"er use! in this Act, the following ter#s shall #ean as follows/ 0a1 K olo parentK 6 any in!i"i!ual who falls un!er any of the following categories/ 011 A wo#an who gi"es birth as a result of rape an! other cri#es against chastity e"en without a final con"iction of the offen!er/ *ro&ided, That the #other keeps an! raises the chil!2 021 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to !eath of spouse2 031 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! while the spouse is !etaine! or is ser"ing sentence for a cri#inal con"iction for at least one 011 year2 0.1 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to physical an!@or #ental incapacity of spouse as certifie! by a public #e!ical practitioner2 051 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to legal separation or de facto separation fro# spouse for at least one 011 year, as long as he@she is entruste! with the custo!y of the chil!ren2 051 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to !eclaration of nullity or annul#ent of #arriage as !ecree! by a court or by a church as long as he@she is entruste! with the custo!y of the chil!ren2 0>1 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to aban!on#ent of spouse for at least one 011 year2 071 ?n#arrie! #other@father who has preferre! to keep an! rear her@his chil!@chil!ren instea! of ha"ing others care for the# or gi"e the# up to a welfare institution2 091 Any other person who solely pro"i!es parental care an! support to a chil! or chil!ren2 0101 Any fa#ily #e#ber who assu#es the responsibility of hea! of fa#ily as a result of the !eath, aban!on#ent, !isappearance or prolonge! absence of the parents or solo parent. A change in the status or circu#stance of the parent clai#ing benefits un!er this Act, such that he@she is no longer left alone with the responsibility of parenthoo!, shall ter#inate his@her eligibility for these benefits. 0b1 K(hil!renK 6 refer to those li"ing with an! !epen!ent upon the solo parent for support who are un#arrie!, une#ploye! an! not #ore than eighteen 0171 years of age, or e"en o"er eighteen 0171 years but are incapable of self6support because of #ental an!@or physical !efect@!isability. 0c1 K:arental responsibilityK 6 with respect to their #inor chil!ren shall refer to the rights an! !uties of the parents as !efine! in Article 220 of C%ecuti"e )r!er ;o. 209, as a#en!e!, otherwise known as the K'a#ily (o!e of the :hilippines.K 0!1 K:arental lea"eK 6 shall #ean lea"e benefits grante! to a solo parent to enable hi#@her to perfor# parental !uties an! responsibilities where physical presence is re3uire!. 0e1 K'le%ible work sche!uleK 6 is the right grante! to a solo parent e#ployee to "ary his@her arri"al an! !eparture ti#e without affecting the core work hours as !efine! by the e#ployer. Se0!"o# @. riteria for %upport. 6 Any solo parent whose inco#e in the place of !o#icile falls below the po"erty threshol! as set by the ;ational Ccono#ic an! ,e"elop#ent Authority 0;C,A1 an! sub$ect to the assess#ent of the , +, worker in the area shall be eligible for assistance/ *ro&ided, ho#e&er, That any solo parent whose inco#e is abo"e the po"erty threshol! shall en$oy the benefits #entione! in ections 5, > an! 7 of this Act. Se0!"o# 5. omprehensi&e *ac0age of %ocial /e&elopment and Welfare %er&ices. 6 A co#prehensi"e package of social !e"elop#ent an! welfare ser"ices for solo parents an! their fa#ilies will be !e"elope! by the , +,, ,)-, ,C( , (-C,, TC ,A, ,)<C, ;-A an! ,&<B, in coor!ination with local go"ern#ent units an! a nongo"ern#ental organi*ation with pro"en track recor! in pro"i!ing ser"ices for solo parents. The , +, shall coor!inate with concerne! agencies the i#ple#entation of the co#prehensi"e package of social !e"elop#ent an! welfare ser"ices for solo parents an! their fa#ilies. The package will initially inclu!e/ 0a1 <i"elihoo! !e"elop#ent ser"ices which inclu!e trainings on li"elihoo! skills, basic business #anage#ent, "alue orientation an! the pro"ision of see! capital or $ob place#ent. 0b1 (ounseling ser"ices which inclu!e in!i"i!ual, peer group or fa#ily counseling. This will focus on the resolution of personal relationship an! role conflicts. 0c1 :arent effecti"eness ser"ices which inclu!e the pro"ision an! e%pansion of knowle!ge an! skills of the solo parent on early chil!hoo! !e"elop#ent, beha"ior #anage#ent, health care, rights an! !uties of parents an! chil!ren. 0!1 (ritical inci!ence stress !ebriefing which inclu!es pre"enti"e stress #anage#ent strategy !esigne! to assist solo parents in coping with crisis situations an! cases of abuse. 0e1 pecial pro$ects for in!i"i!uals in nee! of protection which inclu!e te#porary shelter, counseling, legal assistance, #e!ical care, self6concept or ego6buil!ing, crisis #anage#ent an! spiritual enrich#ent.

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Se0!"o# A. -le'ible Wor0 %chedule. 6 The e#ployer shall pro"i!e for a fle%ible working sche!ule for solo parents/ :ro"i!e!, That the sa#e shall not affect in!i"i!ual an! co#pany pro!ucti"ity/ *ro&ided, further, That any e#ployer #ay re3uest e%e#ption fro# the abo"e re3uire#ents fro# the ,)<C on certain #eritorious groun!s. Se0!"o# B. Wor0 /iscrimination. 6 ;o e#ployer shall !iscri#inate against any solo parent e#ployee with respect to ter#s an! con!itions of e#ploy#ent on account of his@her status. Se0!"o# >. *arental 6ea&e. 6 &n a!!ition to lea"e pri"ileges un!er e%isting laws, parental lea"e of not #ore than se"en 0>1 working !ays e"ery year shall be grante! to any solo parent e#ployee who has ren!ere! ser"ice of at least one 011 year. Se0!"o# ?. +ducational )enefits. 6 The ,C( , (-C, an! TC ,A shall pro"i!e the following benefits an! pri"ileges/ 011 cholarship progra#s for 3ualifie! solo parents an! their chil!ren in institutions of basic, tertiary an! technical@skills e!ucation2 an! 021 ;onfor#al e!ucation progra#s appropriate for solo parents an! their chil!ren. The ,C( , (-C, an! TC ,A shall pro#ulgate rules an! regulations for the proper i#ple#entation of this progra#. Se0!"o# :0. "ousing )enefits. 6 olo parents shall be gi"en allocation in housing pro$ects an! shall be pro"i!e! with liberal ter#s of pay#ent on sai! go"ern#ent low6cost housing pro$ects in accor!ance with housing law pro"isions prioriti*ing applicants below the po"erty line as !eclare! by the ;C,A. Se0!"o# ::. ,edical Assistance. 6 The ,)- shall !e"elop a co#prehensi"e health care progra# for solo parents an! their chil!ren. The progra# shall be i#ple#ente! by the ,)- through their retaine! hospitals an! #e!ical centers an! the local go"ern#ent units 0<B?s1 through their pro"incial@!istrict@city@#unicipal hospitals an! rural health units 0R-?s1. Se0!"o# :2. Additional *o#ers and -unctions of the /%W/. The , +, shall perfor# the following a!!itional powers an! functions relati"e to the welfare of solo parents an! their fa#ilies/ 0a1 (on!uct research necessary to/ 011 !e"elop a new bo!y of knowle!ge on solo parents2 021 !efine e%ecuti"e an! legislati"e #easures nee!e! to pro#ote an! protect the interest of solo parents an! their chil!ren2 an! 031 assess the effecti"eness of progra#s !esigne! for !isa!"antage! solo parents an! their chil!ren2 0b1 (oor!inate the acti"ities of "arious go"ern#ental an! nongo"ern#ental organi*ations engage! in pro#oting an! protecting the interests of solo parents an! their chil!ren2 an! 0c1 Monitor the i#ple#entation of the pro"isions of this Act an! suggest #echanis#s by which such pro"isions are effecti"ely i#ple#ente!. Se0!"o# :3. 1mplementing Rules and Regulations. 6 An interagency co##ittee hea!e! by the , +,, in coor!ination with the ,)-, ,C( , (-C,, TC ,A, ,)<C, ;-A, an! ,&<B is hereby establishe! which shall for#ulate, within ninety 0901 !ays upon the effecti"ity of this Act, the i#ple#enting rules an! regulations in consultation with the local go"ern#ent units, nongo"ern#ent organi*ations an! peopleLs organi*ations. Se0!"o# :@. Appropriations. 6 The a#ount necessary to carry out the pro"isions of this Act shall be inclu!e! in the bu!get of concerne! go"ern#ent agencies in the Beneral Appropriations Act of the year following its enact#ent into law an! thereafter. Se0!"o# :5. Repealing lause. 6 All laws, !ecrees, e%ecuti"e or!ers, a!#inistrati"e or!ers or parts thereof inconsistent with the pro"isions of this Act are hereby repeale!, a#en!e! or #o!ifie! accor!ingly. Se0!"o# :A. %eparability lause. 6 &f any pro"ision of this Act is hel! in"ali! or unconstitutional, other pro"isions not affecte! thereby shall continue to be in full force an! effect. Se0!"o# :B. +ffecti&ity lause. 6 This Act shall take effect fifteen 0151 !ays following its co#plete publication in the !fficial Ga5ette or in at least two 021 newspaper of general circulation. Que !"o# $#% A# &e' o# !*e So,o P$'e#! 2 We,($'e A0! o( 2000 9RA >?B2= W*o " 0o# "%e'e% $ $ L o,o /$'e#!M+

3>

A Isolo parentJ 0pursuant to Republic Act ;o. 79>2, also known as the I olo :arents4 +elfare Act of 2000 ″1 is any in!i"i!ual who falls un!er any of the following categories/ 011 A wo#an who gi"es birth as a result of rape an! other cri#es against chastity e"en without a final con"iction of the offen!er/ :ro"i!e!, That the #other keeps an! raises the chil!2 021 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to !eath of spouse2 031 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! while the spouse is !etaine! or is ser"ing sentence for a cri#inal con"iction for at least one 011 year2 0.1 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to physical an!@or #ental incapacity of spouse as certifie! by a public #e!ical practitioner2 051 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to legal separation or !e facto separation fro# spouse for at least one 011 year, as long as he@she is entruste! with the custo!y of the chil!ren2 051 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to !eclaration of nullity or annul#ent of #arriage as !ecree! by a court or by a church as long as he@she is entruste! with the custo!y of the chil!ren2 0>1 :arent left solo or alone with the responsibility of parenthoo! !ue to aban!on#ent of spouse for at least one 011 year2 071 ?n#arrie! #other@father who has preferre! to keep an! rear her@his chil!@chil!ren instea! of ha"ing others care for the# or gi"e the# up to a welfare institution2 091 Any other person who solely pro"i!es parental care an! support to a chil! or chil!ren2 0101 Any fa#ily #e#ber who assu#es the responsibility of hea! of fa#ily as a result of the !eath, aban!on#ent, !isappearance or prolonge! absence of the parents or solo parent. A change in the status or circu#stance of the parent clai#ing benefits un!er Republic Act ;o. 79>2, such that he@she is no longer left alone with the responsibility of parenthoo!, shall ter#inate his@her eligibility for these benefits. W*o $'e 0o# "%e'e% $ L0*",%'e#M+ I(hil!renJ refer to those li"ing with an! !epen!ent upon the solo parent for support who are un#arrie!, une#ploye! an! not #ore than eighteen 0171 years of age, or e"en o"er eighteen 0171 years but are incapable of self6support because of #ental an!@or physical !efect@!isability. W*$! " L/$'e#!$, 'e /o# ")","!4M+ +ith respect to #inor chil!ren, it refers to the rights an! !uties of the parents as !efine! in Article 220 of C%ecuti"e )r!er ;o. 209 0also known as the I'a#ily (o!e of the :hilippinesJ1. Article 220 pro"i!es that the parents an! those e%ercising parental authority shall ha"e, with the respect to their une#ancipate! chil!ren on war!s, the following rights an! !uties/ 011 To keep the# in their co#pany, to support, e!ucate an! instruct the# by right precept an! goo! e%a#ple, an! to pro"i!e for their upbringing in keeping with their #eans2 021 To gi"e the# lo"e an! affection, a!"ice an! counsel, co#panionship an! un!erstan!ing2 031 To pro"i!e the# with #oral an! spiritual gui!ance, inculcate in the# honesty, integrity, self6!iscipline, self6reliance, in!ustry an! thrift, sti#ulate their interest in ci"ic affairs, an! inspire in the# co#pliance with the !uties of citi*enship2 0.1 To furnish the# with goo! an! wholeso#e e!ucational #aterials, super"ise their acti"ities, recreation an! association with others, protect the# fro# ba! co#pany, an! pre"ent the# fro# ac3uiring habits !etri#ental to their health, stu!ies an! #orals2 051 To represent the# in all #atters affecting their interests2 051 To !e#an! fro# the# respect an! obe!ience2 0>1 To i#pose !iscipline on the# as #ay be re3uire! un!er the circu#stances2 an! 071 To perfor# such other !uties as are i#pose! by law upon parents an! guar!ians. W*$! $'e !*e e1/,o41e#!-'e,$!e% )e#e("! $.$",$),e !o ALL L o,o /$'e#! M+ -le'ible #or0 schedule. This refers to the right of a solo parent e#ployee to "ary his@her arri"al an! !eparture ti#e without affecting the core work hours as !efine! by the e#ployer. The e#ployer shall pro"i!e for a fle%ible working sche!ule for solo parents, as long as it shall not affect in!i"i!ual an! co#pany pro!ucti"ity. &n case of certain #eritorious groun!s, the e#ployer #ay re3uest e%e#ption fro# ,)<C. .o #or0 discrimination. C#ployer are prohibite! fro# !iscri#inating against any solo parent e#ployee with respect to ter#s an! con!itions of e#ploy#ent on account of his@her status. *arental lea&e. I:arental lea"eJ #eans lea"e benefits grante! to a solo parent to enable hi#@her to perfor# parental !uties an! responsibilities where physical presence is re3uire!. &n a!!ition to lea"e pri"ileges un!er e%isting laws, parental lea"e of not #ore than se"en 0>1 working !ays e"ery year shall be grante! to any solo parent e#ployee who has ren!ere! ser"ice of at least one 011 year. W*$! o!*e' )e#e("! $'e $.$",$),e !o L o,o /$'e#! M+

37

ub$ect to inco#e threshol!s 0Jpo"erty threshol!J1 set by the ;ational Ccono#ic an! ,e"elop#ent Authority 0;C,A1 an! sub$ect to the assess#ent of the , +, worker in the area, Isolo parentsJ shall be entitle! to the following/ +ducational benefits, inclu!ing scholarship progra#s for 3ualifie! solo parents an! their chil!ren in institutions of basic, tertiary an! technical@skills e!ucation, an! nonfor#al e!ucation progra#s appropriate for solo parents an! their chil!ren. "ousing benefits, inclu!ing allocation in go"ern#ent loaw6cost housing pro$ects, with liberal ter#s of pay#ent. ,edical assistance, with co#prehensi"e health care progra#s for solo parents an! their chil!ren to be i#ple#ente! by the ,)- through their retaine! hospitals an! #e!ical centers an! the local go"ern#ent units 0<B?s1 through their pro"incial@!istrict@city@#unicipal hospitals an! rural health units 0R-?s1. W*$! $'e !*e S!e/ Ne0e $'4 !o A.$", !*e P$03$-e o( Se'."0e A solo parent shall apply for a olo :arent &!entification (ar! 0 olo :arent &,1 fro# the (ity@Municipal ocial +elfare an! ,e"elop#ent )ffice. )nce the solo parent &, is issue! by the city@#unicipal social welfare an! !e"elop#ent officer, a solo parent can apply for ser"ices he@she nee!s fro# the (@M +, office or to specific agencies pro"i!ing such assistance@ser"ices. W*$! $'e !*e 'e5u"'e1e#! "# e0u'"#- $ o,o /$'e#! ID+ 011 Aarangay certificate resi!ency in the area 021 !ocu#ents @e"i!ence that the applicant is a solo parent 0e.g. !eath certificate of spouse, !eclaration of nullity of #arriage, #e!ical certificate 0if incapacitate!1 031 &TR or certification for the brgy.@#unicipal treasurer W*$! %o0u1e#!F/'oo( &",, I /'e e#! "( I *$.e $ 0*",% o' %e ($0!o e/$'$!"o# ('o1 14 &"(eF*u )$#%+ A (ertificate issue! by the Aarangay (aptain in!icating the circu#stances of one4s being a solo parent. I( I (",e !*e $//,"0$!"o#6 0$# !*" )e e0u'e% '"-*! $&$4+ ;o, the social worker has to co#plete first the assess#ent@e"aluation of the solo parents4 situation. &, is issue! after 30 !ays of filing. The "ali!ity of the &, is one year. I# 0$ e o( !'$# (e'ee+ Applicant shoul! seek first clearance fro# for#er Aarangay where he@she will surren!er his@her &, issue to hi#@her. I( ID " #o! 4e! $.$",$),e $! !*e C F Mu#"0"/$, ,e.e,+ The ocial +orker can issue a certification of eligibility, pro"i!e! the assess#ent process is co#plete!. C$# o#e $.$", o( P$'e#!$, ,e$.e e.e# &"!*ou! $ So,o P$'e#! ID+ As long as there is a certification of eligibility issue! by the ocial +orker. I /$'e#!$, ,e$.e 'e!'o$0!".e "#0e !*e e((e0!"."!4 o( !*e ,$& &$ ,$ ! No.e1)e' 2000+ ;o, :arental lea"e is non6cu#ulati"e an! can be a"aile! only !uring the current year. 'urther, it can only be a"aile! after the issuance of the olo :arents &,. I( !*e LGU " #o! 4e! " u"#- o,o /$'e#! ID6 *o& 0$# $ So,o P$'e#! $.$", o( e'."0e /$'!"0u,$',4 !*e /$'e#!$, ,e$.e+ A certification of eligibility issue! by the social worker can be presente! #eanti#e that the &, is not yet a"ailable. -owe"er, the certification of eligibility can only be issue! once the assess#ent@e"aluation of the situation of solo parent is co#plete!. I !*e B %$4 /$'e#!$, ,e$.e $/$'! ('o1 !*e eN" !"#- 3 %$4 /e0"$, ,e$.e+ The law clearly in!icates that the granting of the > !ays parental lea"e is or top of the 3 !ay special lea"es an! other #an!atory lea"e benefits. C$# So,o P$'e#! $.$", o( 1$!e'#"!4 ,e$.e+ There is no pro"ision in the law that there is a #aternity lea"e for the applie!.

olo :arents, howe"er, other laws can be

I( I *$.e $,'e$%4 )ee# " ue% $# ID6 &*e'e &",, I -o !o $.$", !*e )e#e("! + A solo parent can !irectly in3uire fro# the following agencies for the a"ail#ent of ser"ices • -ealth er"ices 0,)-1

39

• • •

C!ucational er"ices 0(-C,, TC ,A1 ;-A 0-ousing1 :arental <ea"e 0C#ployee of solo parent, ,)<C, ( (1

A'e !*e'e $#4 e%u0$!"o#$, )e#e("! (o' 0*",%'e# &*o $'e "# *"-* 0*oo, o' e,e1e#!$'4+ ;one, -igh chool an! Cle#entary e!ucation are free in public schools. (-C, an! TC ,A only offer the stu!y grant progra# an! scholarship for college@tertiary@"ocational to olo :arents an! their chil!ren who are li"ing below po"erty threshol!. A'e !*e'e I#0o1e Ge#e'$!"#- P'o8e0! o' ,".e,"*oo% /'o-'$1 + (oncerne! agencies like , +,, TC ,A an! ,)<C pro"i!e skills !e"elop#ent an! li"elihoo! progra#. W*$! $'e !*e o!*e' /'o-'$1 F e'."0e + )ther ser"ices inclu!e! in the co#prehensi"e progra# consist of health, housing, an! psychosocial ser"ices as well as li"elihoo! an! skills !e"elop#ent progra#. A solo parent can !irectly in3uire fro# the agencies concerne! the re3uire#ent for the a"ail#ent of ser"ices

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