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Intro [Slide] Nixon and Vietnam (Introductory song Requiem for a Dream) [Slide] The greatest honor history

y can bestow is the title of peacemakerafter a period of confrontation we are entering an era of negotiation Richard M. Nixon (Vietnam War Timeline). _____________ Vietnam 1969 (Wright 61) Act out combat zone. Phuong, first person soldier (holding the camera). Jimmy, solider #2 runs in, Phuong shoots Jimmy Michael, soldier #3 shoots Phuong [Guns/Panting/Shooting/War audio] Scene 1 Background Music: Hail to the Chief Richard M. Nixon (Phuong): I, Richard Milhous Nixon, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will do the best of my ability to preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States. So help me God. (1969 Year in Review: Nixon Becomes President). Scene 2 Subtitle: Vietnam Narration over scene (Michael): By the time Nixons regime initiates in January 1969, there were approximately 540,000 American ground troops stationed in Vietnam (Dowswell 32). Acting out situation in Vietnam (Shooting; getting shot; combat etc) Scene 3 Subtitle: Washington D.C. President Advisor (Jimmy): President Nixon, how do you suppose we handle the situation in Vietnam? Nixon (Phuong): We will achieve peace with honor. May aim is to negotiate a settlement that will allow half a million US troops in Vietnam to be withdrawn, while still allowing South Vietnam to survive (Battlefield: Timeline). The bottom line is, we will train their troops and offer military aid so South Vietnam can fight their own war (Dowswell 35). Scene 4 Subtitle: Cambodia Narration over scene (Horacio) As early as 1965, the North Vietnamese used areas of Cambodia and Laos near the borders of South Vietnam as sanctuaries They used these bases to stock supplies and conduct training without interference (Starry 166). Act out: (Michael and Jimmy) training: running, push ups, crawling with guns Scene 5 Newspaper Boy (Michael): Newspaper! Get your newspaper! Nixon appoints Henry Kissinger as United States Security Advisor! (Dowswell 35) Passerby (Horacio): Can I have one of those? *hands money* Thanks.

Scene 6 Subtitle: Cambodia 1969 (Starry 166) Act out: Vietcong troops at their bases. Jimmy - running through jungle Tony - stocking weapons Horacio and Michael - training; shooting Scene 7 Washington D.C., Early 1969 President Advisor (Horacio): President Nixon, early year reports say that the Vietcong has been crossing over to Cambodia and had set up several bases there (Starry 166). Nixon (Phuong): Set forth Operation Menu, we will secretly bomb the North Vietnamese within Cambodia (Schoenherr). President Advisor (Horacio): Sir, there are government restrictions; this move is too risky (Battlefield: Timeline). Nixon (Phuong): The bombings are to be kept secret. Congress and citizens of the US do not need to know about this. Begin the bombings in March immediately (A Vietnam War Timeline). President Advisor (Horacio): Yes, sir. Scene 8 Black Slide: Vietcong Report: March 18, 1969 Vietcong voice over walkie talkie (Michael): Sir, our bases are being bombed. Reports have said that President Nixon authorized secret bombings as part of the war effort in Southeast Asia (Brenner 131). Scene 9 Subtitle: Midway Island (in the Pacific) June 8, 1969 Narration over scene (Horacio): On June 8, 1969, President Nixon along with Henry Kissinger meets with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu on Midway Island in the Pacific, hoping to negotiate plans on withdraws of US troops from Vietnam (Battlefield: Timeline). *All shakes hand* Nixon (Phuong): Good morning President Thieu. Thieu (Jimmy): Good morning to you too President Nixon. Nixon (Phuong): Now, Im here, with Mr. Kissinger, to discuss about the United States involvement in Vietnam (Battlefield: Timeline). Thieu (Jimmy): Proceed. Nixon (Phuong): As you know, the US has been giving military aid, weapons, etcetera, to South Vietnam in an effort to help win the war (Haugen 9). But the problem here is the war has perpetuated long enough. Its time the US ground troops begin withdraws from South Vietnam (Dowswell 35). Kissinger (Michael): I agree, US withdraw is necessary. The American people have been upset at the deaths and tragedies this war has caused. We have lost too many soldiers and made too little progress to stay involved any longer (Haugen 51). Thieu (Jimmy): So what is South Vietnam to do now? How will we win this war without your help? Why are you backing out now? Nixon (Phuong): President Thieu, I understand winning this war is crucial to your country, but South Vietnam must fight its own war. That is why I will follow up on my policy toward Vietnam known as Vietnamization (Nixon and Vietnam). This allows the US to withdraw troops gradually and replace them with South Vietnamese soldiers. We will provide training and weapons for your troops. The US

ground troops are the main withdraws; our air force will remain in Vietnam to support war effort (Dowswell 35). Thieu (Jimmy): Alright, President Nixon, I respect your policy, and I will agree to it. What is the first step? Nixon (Phuong): I want withdraws to begin immediately25,000 troops to begin with (Wright 128). Thieu (Jimmy): Alright, we shall proceed with those plans. Scene 10 Subtitle: Washington D.C. Advisor 1 (Horacio): President Nixon, theres been trouble brewing at the home front. Nixon (Phuong): The protesters and anti-war demonstrators; I know (Haugen 56). Advisor 1 (Horacio): Reports say that on October 15, 1969, there was an estimated 1 million Americans across the US that participated in anti-war demonstrations, protest rallies, and peace vigils. And to add too that, there were 50 Congress members that were participants (Vietnam War Timeline). Advisor 2 (Michael): I think its best you address the nation about your policy Vietnamization. Nixon (Phuong): I agree. As many protesters against the Vietnam War as there are, there are more supporters of it. The antiwar demonstrators are apart of a larger erosion of American values. Now, the conservatives, supporters of this war against Communism, they are the silent majority, and I believe I will gain much support from the nation with this address (Dowswell 34-35). Scene 11 Narration + pictures (Jimmy): [Insert Nixon [1] Picture] On November 3, 1969, President Nixon addresses the nation (specifically the silent majority) about Vietnamization. In the speech, Nixon ran counter to the antiwar movement's strength. [Insert Nixon [2] Picture] He emphasized peace with honor, Vietnamization, diplomatic negotiations, and troop withdrawals. Nixon ensures the country of the satisfaction his policy would bring. In closing of the speech, he asks for support from the silent majority of the nation (Silent Majority). Scene 12 Washington D.C. Subtitle: Massive Antiwar Demonstration Nov. 15 1969 Voice over Narration (Michael): On November 15, 1969, in an effort to protest against the US involvement in the Vietnam War, approximately 500,000 antiwar demonstrators held a demonstration in Washington D.C., one of the largest anti-war protests yet. This gave a reason for Nixon to fear the demonstration, because it might result in chaos and disorder (Nixon and Vietnam). Act Out: People protesting. From left to right: Horacio holding sign No more war Jimmy holding sign Stop war Anh holding sign No more war Ai holding sign End this war Michael holding sign Bring troops home Scene 13 [Black Slide] 1970 Number of (ground) troops left in Vietnam 335,000 (Dowswell 50). [Gun/Shooting Audio]

Scene 14 Paris, France February 20, 1970 Narration over scene (Phuong): Secret Paris Peace talks between Henry Kissinger along with other negotiators from the US and Le Duc Tho, negotiator of North Vietnam begin in hopes of attaining peace and an end to the Vietnam War (Vietnam War Timeline). *shakes hands* Kissinger (Michael): How are you today, sir? Le Duc (Jimmy): Im fine, thank you, Mr. Kissinger. Kissinger (Michael): Were meeting to discuss the topic of Vietnam. As US National Security Advisor, Ive been sent by President Nixon to attend these Paris Peace talks in hopes of attaining peace (Wright 128). Le Duc (Jimmy): I understand that. I hope our negotiations can resolve this conflict. Kissinger (Michael): I want to address the idea of a cease-firean end to the war (Dowswell 45). Le Duc (Jimmy): *leans back* Well just have to see about that. As you can see Mr. Kissinger, we have different views of Vietnam. If we are going to negotiate, I want US troops leaving within 60 days (Dowswell 65). Kissinger (Michael): Ill have to consult President Nixon about it. But, Im sure he will not approve of this. Le Duc (Jimmy): Itll take more than one meeting to resolve our conflict (Schoenherr). Narration + picture (Phuong): [Insert Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho [1] Picture] It had seemed to be that, for every step forward in the peace talks there seemed to be two backward and that the first Paris Peace talk between Le Duc Tho and Kissinger, wasnt going to be the last (Vietnam War Research Collections). Scene 15 Subtitle: Washington, D.C., April 26 1970 Advisor (Horacio): Sir, I think were about ready to launch a massive invasion in Cambodia. Nixon (Phuong): I agree. Advisor 2 (Jimmy): President Nixon, this would most definitely cause a stir in the US public. We have enough protestors to deal with already. Nixon (Phuong): No, I stand by this operation. We must invade Cambodia, regardless. We need to push toward the Vietcong bases and do what ever is in our power to weaken them. I hereby authorize American troops to invade Cambodia immediately (Hillstrom 19). Scene 16 Subtitle: Cambodia April 30, 1970 Narration over scene (Phuong): The war spreads deep into Cambodia. The US has authorized an invasion. 32,000 troops attack Fishhook and Parrots Beak for two months. The invasion would ultimately destroy Vietcong supplies and set back North Vietnamese plan for 2 yearsa military success, but a political disaster (Schoenherr). Act Out: War scene. Bomb explosions, shooting, getting shot, etc.

Scene 17 Kent State University May 4, 1970 Narration over scene (Michael): The invasion of the war sent a message to the US public that the war was only spreading. On May 4, 1970, students and other demonstrators protested at Kent State University in Ohio. In the midst of chaos, Ohio National Guards opened fire, killing four students. They also confronted, student antiwar protestors with a tear gas barrage, claiming that it was necessary at the time (Lewis). Clip 1 of Kent State: Four people holding sign: Kent State Four Nixons Silent Minority Clip 2 of Kent State: Students protesting. From left to right: Michael holding sign Stop war from moving to Cambodia Anh holding sign Invasion unnecessary David holding sign Stop spreading war! Its not butter Ai holding sign End this war Horacio and Jimmy holding sign Stop War Clip 3 of Kent State: Students protesting yelling Stop this war! throwing rocks at the National Guard (Dowswell 43). One of the students (Jimmy): The National Guard threw tear gas! Run! Clip 4 of Kent State: A student protesting; throwing rocks Student 1 (Michael): Stop this war! Stop this war! Stop this war! St(gunshot) Student 2 (Anh): Cries Scene 18 Narration + picture (Phuong): [Insert Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho [2] Picture] While protests surged on, attempts to attain peace continued. In June 1970, Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho meet in Paris for a second time (Schoenherr). Scene 19 [Black Slide] 1971 Number of (ground) troops left in Vietnam: 160,000 (Dowswell 32). [Guns/Shooting audio] Scene 20 Subtitle: Washington D.C. Advisor (Jimmy): President Nixon, on February 8, 1971, South Vietnamese troops, in a test of Vietnamization policy, invades Cambodia (Roleff 213). Nixon (Phuong): So what were the results? Advisor (Jimmy): Sir, they were decisively beaten. I dont think this war will last any longer once our ground troops withdraw completely (Roleff 213). Nixon (Phuong): Well just have to see. Scene 21 Newspaper Boy (Michael): New York Times! Get your New York Times! Pentagon Papers published! Records of US involvement in Vietnam! (Hillstrom 20) Passerby (Jimmy): What did you say about Vietnam? Newspaper Boy (Michael): Oh, didnt you hear? Documented US-Vietnam relations were released! Here! *hands newspaper over* New York Times has excerpts from Pentagon Paper documents! (Hillstrom 20) Passerby (Jimmy): Thanks. *Gives money* *Reads* Oh boy, this is the biggest leak yet! *Walks off*

Newspaper Boy (Michael): New York Times! Get your New York Times! Scene 22 Subtitle: Washington D.C. April 1972 Advisor 1 (Horacio): President Nixon, reports from Vietnam say that on March 30, 1972, the North Vietnamese launch a massive attack on three fronts in South Vietnam called the Easter Offensive (Roleff 213). Advisor 2 (Jimmy): This is the biggest offensive since Tet (Hillstrom 20). What do you suppose well do? Nixon (Phuong): We attack. Set forth Operation Linebacker. We will bomb the North in Hanoi and Haiphong on April 15 with our B-52 bombers (Schoenherr). Scene 23 Vietcong Report (Michael): Sir, we have captured Quang Tri City on May 1, 1972. We are winning sir! The collapse of South Vietnam is now becoming inevitable (Nixon and Vietnam). Scene 24 Narration (Horacio): [Insert Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho [3] Picture] Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam meet again in Paris on May 2nd for peace talks. This round of talks fail and is suspended to May 4, 1972 (Schoenherr). Scene 25 Subtitle: Washington D.C. Advisor 1 (Michael): President Nixon, were having trouble with the Peace talks. The North Vietnamese just isnt cooperating. Nixon (Phuong): Over my dead body. If they do not respond to peace, then we use violence to get them to the Peace tables. Advisor 2 (Horacio): What are our plans, sir? Nixon (Phuong): I am giving an order. On May 8 we will mine Haiphong and other harbors in North Vietnam (Wright 129). Then we will step up the bombings and proceed by blockading the North Vietnam Coast (Schoenherr). Advisor 1 (Michael): Yes, sir. Scene 26 Narration over scene (Horacio): On June 18, North Vietnam retreats due to the bombings and blockade. Quang Tri City was retaken successfully and North Vietnam agreed to resume the Peace Talks (Nixon and Vietnam). Subtitle: Vietnam - June 18, 1972 Act out: War scene. Clip 1: Soldier (Jimmy): Take cover! War scene. Explosion, shooting, etc. Scene 27 Newspaper Boy (Michael): Newspaper! Get your newspaper! Nixon takes the 1972 election by a landslide! (Haugen 88) Passerby (Robert): Nixon was re-elected?! Oh, brother. *walks out of the scene*

Scene 28 [Black Slide] 1973 Number of (ground) troops left in Vietnam: 160 (Dowswell 32). [Guns/Shooting Audio] Scene 29 Narration over scene (Phuong): [Insert Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho [4] Picture] On January 27, 1973 Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho meet once again in Paris. Kissinger anticipates the closing of the Peace talks despite the shaky previous four meetings (Schoenherr). Kissinger (Michael): Good morning, Mr. Le Duc Tho. Its nice to see you again. *shakes hands* Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): *still shaking hands* Good day, Mr. Kissinger Kissinger (Michael): *motions to sit* [Fades] Narration over black slide (Phuong): After much discussion and negotiation, Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho finally settle on a compromise. Kissinger (Michael): I think were about ready to sign the Paris Peace Accords (Hillstrom 21). Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): I agree, but before we do, we must review the main points. Kissinger (Michael): Of course. The first, is there would be an immediate cease fire (Dowswell 45). Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): Yes, but furthermore, armies from both sides would keep control of whatever territory they held at the time of the cease-fire (Dowswell 45). Kissinger (Michael): Yes. Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): US troops would leave Vietnam within sixty days (Dowswell 45). Kissinger (Michael): Prisoners of war would be exchanged, and after the cease fire, a political settlement would be negotiated that would include democratic elections and the reunification of Vietnam (Dowswell 45). Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): *breathes in* Yes. Kissinger (Michael): Then I presume we are clear on the compromised points. Shall we sign the Peace Accord? Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): Yes, we shall. Negotiator #2 (Tevin): *hands Kissinger the papers* Kissinger (Michael): *hands to Le Duc Tho* Le Duc Tho (Jimmy): I guess this finalizes it. *stands up, opens for hand shake* Kissinger (Michael): *stands up* *shakes hands* Scene 30 Narration over scene (Phuong): From February to March in 1973, the North Vietnamese began returning American Prisoners of War. About 591 prisoners were released (Roleff 214). Act out: Prisoners of War being released Michael Vietcong releasing POWs Prisoners of war (Anh, David, Horacio, Jimmy, and Ai)

Scene 31 Subtitle: Washington D.C. Advisor 1 (Horacio): President Nixon, due to the continuing bombing of Laos and Cambodia, in a 219 to 188 vote, the House cuts off Indochina funds (Vietnam War Timeline). Advisor 2 (Jimmy): Senate also took strong action prohibiting the use of any funds appropriated by Congress to be used for combat activities in Laos or Cambodia (Vietnam War Timeline). Nixon (Phuong): I understand that. When does this become effective? Advisor 1 (Horacio): Congress had officially cut off funds for war on June 30, 1973; this is to become effective on August 15 (Schoenherr). Nixon (Phuong): Oh, alright. Scene 32 Subtitle: October 17, 1973 Newspaper Boy (Michael): Newspaper! Get your newspaper! Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho awarded Nobel Peace Prize for ending the war in Indochina! (Wright 129) Passerby (Tevin): Oh really? Newspaper Boy (Michael): Yup! But Le Duc Tho refused to accept the award though (Wright 129). Passerby (Tevin): Why? Newspaper Boy (Michael): Because he thinks theres still fighting in reality (Wright 129). Do you want one? *offers newspaper* Passerby (Tevin): *shakes head* No thank you, I already know what its about *walks away* Newspaper Boy (Michael): *sighs* *walks away in the other direction* Scene 33 Narration over scene (Horacio): As the year 1973 came to a close and 1974 rolled around, the war in Vietnam continued (Roleff 214). Acting out fighting, combat, war, etc. Scene 34 Vietnam, late mid 1974 [Black Slide] Vietcong Report (Phuong): Reports say that Nixon has resigned on August 9, 1974. US ground troops have almost fully retreated. South Vietnam is weakening. We are making progress. Victory is ours! (Schoenherr). Scene 35 Act out the Fall of Saigon, 1975 Narration voice over scene (Horacio): Communists have broken into Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam on April 29, 1975. The gates of the presidential palace met with the frontline of tanks smashed within minutes. The decades of war had come to an end (1975: Saigon Surrenders). Acting out Vietcong running with guns, trespassing into the palace, opening gates Camera shot of bars Narration voice over scene (Michael): [Insert Fall of Saigon Picture] Without American military aid, the Saigon government was unable to fend off North Vietnamese attacks. [Insert Saigon Vietnam 1975 Picture] South Vietnam crumbled as Americans evacuated and thousands of Vietnamese scrambled to flee their country (1975: Saigon Surrenders). Black Slide: End. (Closing song I Feel Like Im Fixin To Die by Country Joe McDonald [1969])