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A Paper On EFFECT OF CEMENT REPLACEMENT BY SILICA FUME AND FLY ASH BY K.S.N.MALLESWARI IV/IV B.Tech Email: malli_2sg@yahoo.co.in V.

SUPRAJA IV/IV B.Tech supraja_rvr@yahoo.com

GUNTUR

CONTENTS:

Introduction

Materials used and specifications

Chemistry of fly ash and silica fume

Tests on fresh concrete

Tests on hardened concrete

Results and discussions

Reference

ABSTRACT

In developed countries, use of mineral admixtures such as fly ash and silica fume has already adopted in making concrete. In India too much replacement has been already accepted with the introduction of ready mixed concrete and the process has been accelerated in recent times. Fly ash and silica fume are two such materials that are being used in the production of high strength concrete. An investigation was undertaken to study the effects of fly ash and silica fume in concrete. Mechanical properties at different levels of replacements were found. Silica fume from M/S Elkem India Pvt.Ltd., Mumbai and fly ash from Vijayawada thermal power station, Vijayawada, AP, were used. Maximum size of coarse aggregate was 12.50 mm.water to cementitious materials ratio was 0.30 and aggregate to cementitious material was 3.2. World over, last three-four decades have seen construction of innumerable structures with concrete compressive strength in the range of 60-100 Mpa. In India too with the introduction of ready mixed concrete commercially, use of these byproducts is fast picking up. The present trend globally is to introduce these supplementary cementing materials at high volumes. High strength concrete has been accepted as cost effective for many structural applications.

INTRODUCTION

Earlier notion of using high amounts of cement for concrete has now changed on favour of increased use of high amounts of mineral admixtures and super plasticizers with reduced amounts of cement and water in the concrete mixtures. Energy plays a crucial role in growth of developing countries, like India. In context of low availability of nonrecoverable energy sources coupled with requirements of large quantities of energy to materials like cement, steel etc., the importance of industrial wastes as building materials cannot be underestimated. In India about 110 million tones of fly ash has been produced by 68 major thermal power stations and are likely to be doubled within next 10 years. It has been a published fact from research that waste materials like fly ash; silica fume etc, through their use as construction materials can be converted into meaningful wealth. Also, a partial replacement of cement with fly ash is desirable, and indeed essential due to a variety of technical, economical and ecological reasons. Researchers have reported that silica fume smaller in size and round shape fills the voids between the coarser cement particles which may be otherwise occupied with water. A properly proportional fly ash and silica fume in concrete mix improves properties of the concrete that may not be achievable through the use of Portland cement alone. The resulting concrete mix becomes strong, durable and economical and also eco-friendly as it utilizes an ecological hazardous material.

MATERIALS USED SPECIFICATIONS

1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), 53 Grade.

2. Silica fume (silicon, sio2 63.1%) as mineral admixture (MA) in dry densified form obtained from ELKEM INDIA Pvt.Ltd., Mumbai.

3. Super plasticizer (chemical admixture) based on Sulphonated Napthalene Formaldehyde-CONPLAST SP 430.

4. Locally available graded aggregate of nominal size 12.5 mm with specific gravity 2.68 and fineness modulus, 5.08 for coarse aggregate (CA).

5. Locally available river sand confirming to Grading Zone II with specific gravity 2.58 and fineness modulus 2.54 for fine aggregate (FA). 6. Water: potable water was used for mixing concrete.

7. Fly ash from Vijayawada thermal power station, Vijayawada, AP, is used.

CHEMISTRY OF FLYASH AND SILICA FUME

The fly ash in concrete makes efficient use of product of hydration of cement such as calcium hydroxide (C-H) which is otherwise a source of weakness in normal cement concrete converts it into denser and stronger C-S-H compounds by pozzolanic reaction. The heat generated during hydration initiates the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash.

Silica fume is a by-product of silicon or Ferro-Silica industry and is 100 times finer than cement. It consists of amorphous silica and has high reactivity towards lime. The replacement level of silica fume is generally low at about 10%. When SF is used in concrete mix, its introduction affects the physical arrangement of the system, particularly near the aggregate surface where porosity exists. Silica fume starts reacting at the early stage of hydration process. The pozzolanic action of silica fume reduces substantially the quantity and size of CH crystals in hydrated cement paste. This phenomenon along with low W/C ratio reduces the thickness of transition zones and thus the preferential orientation of CH crystals is considerably reduced. All these result in more uniform, stronger transition zone potential of micro cracking.

TESTS ON FRESH AND HARDENED CONCRETE

SLUMP TEST: It is the most commonly used method of measuring consistency of concrete which can be employed either in laboratory or at the site of work. It gives an indication of uniformity of concrete from batch to batch. COMPACTION FACTOR TEST: This test works on the principle of determining the degree of compaction achieved by a standard amount of work done by allowing the concrete to fall through a standard height. The degree of compaction called the compacting factor is measured by the density ratio i.e., the ratio of the density actually achieved in the test to density of the same concrete fully compacted. PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE COMPRESSION TEST: It is the most common test conducted on the MIX SLUMP(mm) COMPACTION FACTOR 0-0 10-4 20-8 30-12 40-16 45 41 38 33 28 0.85 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.70

hardened concrete, partly because most of the desirable characteristic properties of concrete are quantitatively related to its compressive strength. The compression test is carried out on specimens cylindrical or cubical in shape of size 150x150x150mm. 28- DAYS CUBE AND CYLINDER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH MIX REPLACEMENT FLYASH SILICAFUME (%) 0-0 0 BY CUBE CYLINDER

AND COMPRESSIVE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 57.610 STRENGTH 45.464

10-4

14

68.326

54.504

20-8

28

69.538

55.203

30-12

42

75.146

57.364

40-16

56

63.106

49.946

28 DAYS CUBE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


80 28 days com pressive strength (Map) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5

fly ash-silica fume replacements (%) levels

SPLIT CYLINDER TEST: This test is carried out by placing the cylindrical specimen horizontally between the loading surfaces of a compression testing machine and load is applied until the failure of cylinder along the vertical diameter. The main advantage of this method is that the same type of specimen and same testing machine are used for compression test can be employed for this test. Strength determined by this test is believed to be closer to the true tensile strength of the concrete. Splitting strength gives about 5 to 12% higher value than the direct tensile strength.

28- DAYS SPLIT CYLINDER TEST RESULTS MIX REPLACEMENT FLYASH SILICAFUME (%) 0-0 0 4.049 BY AND SPLIT TENSILE

STRENGTH (Mpa)

10-4

14

4.745

20-8

28

5.143

30-12

42

5.340

40-16

56

4.316

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH


split tenslie strenght (Mpa) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 fly ash-silica fume replacement (%) levels

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FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST: A number of investigations involving the direct measurement of tensile
BEAM FLEXURAL STENGHT
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 28 days flexural strength

strength have been made, beam tests are found to be dependable to measure flexural strength property of concrete. The systems of loading used in finding out the flexural tension are central point

fly ash-silica fume replacemetn (%) levels

loading and third point loading. In central point loading, maximum fibre stress will come below the point of loading where the bending moment is maximum. MIX REPLACEMENT FLYASH SILICAFUME (%) 0-0 0 6.351 BY AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH (Mpa)

10-4

14

7.327

20-8

28

7.741

30-12

42

8.539

40-16

56

6.830

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The optimum percentage of cement replacement by fly ash is 30% and silica fume is 12% for achieving maximum cube compressive strength, cylinder compressive strength, split tensile and beam flexural strengths. With the above replacement, concrete with a strength of 70Mpa can be produced with water to cementitious materials ratio of 0.3 with appropriate dosages of compatible superplasticisers. Substantial savings can be achieved through total replacement levels of 50-55% of cement with locally available fly ash and silica fume.

The maximum 28 days split tensile strength was obtained with 30% fly ash 12% silicafume mix, the strength is about 31% more at 28 days of curing compared. The maximum 28 days flexural strength was obtained again with 30% fly ash and 12% silicafume mix, a strength gain about 34% more than that of reference. The transition zone gets improved and densified with the use of ternary mix concretes containing micro silica and fly ash.

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REFERENCES GopalaKrishnan. S., Use of Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete Mixtures towards Sustainable Development in Concrete Construction, ICFRC National seminar on HPCC, 28-

29December2000, Chennai, India; pp.KNP 423. Reported by ACI committee 226, Silica Fume In Concrete, ACI Material Journal, April 1987; pp.217-223. Ziad Bayasi and Jing Zhou, Properties Of Silica Fume Concrete and Mortar ACI Material Journal, JULY AUGUST 1993; PP349-356. Ravindra. S.R., and DR. Mattur C. Narasimhan, Experimental studies on High Strength Micro Silica Concrete, ICI Journal, JULYAUGUST 2003; PP.19-22. V.Yogendra, B.W.langan, M.N. Haque and M.A. ward, Silica Fume In High Strength Concrete, ACI Material MARCH-APRIL 1987;PP. 124-129

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