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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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PROJECT REPORT

SUBMITTED BY: AFNAN RIAZ SUBMITTED TO:LEC AHMED RAZA COURSE: TE 47 A

06-May-11

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INTRODUCTION

INTEGRATION

Integration is an important concept in mathematics and, together with differentiation, is one of the two main operations in calculus. Given a function of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral

is defined informally to be the net signed area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the graph of , the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b.

PURPOSE

This program is built with the purpose to understand the basic programming skills in C++.This program implements the basic formulas of integration. This program is design to calculate definite integrals.

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BRIEF OWERVIEW

The program is design to solve the problems given in Trignometric , exponential and simple definite integrals . Formulas of integration for trigonometric and exponential definite integrals are used as functions. For simple definite integral power rule method is used to solve the problem. The program first prompt the user to select the type of function he/she wants to integrate.

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION

If the user selects trigonometric function it goes to the if statement for trigonometric function Then it ask the user to select the number of identities he wants to integrate.and then to choose the respective identity or identities he wants to integrate. Then it takes the limits of the function under which the user wants to find the area of the function . these limits are taken in degrees.the limits are then converted into radians .The formulas of integrations are used as functions. The program calculates the area under the curve as illustrated in the following example:

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A separate class has been made for the integration of Trigonometric functions. All the required functions are defined in this class . This class is further subdivided into header files and cpp files. This class is inherit from the class basic .

Exponential functions

If the user select exponential function it goes to the if statement for exponential function. It takes the number of variables present in the equation and if more then one variable is present it also takes the relationship between the variables. It takes the limits of the function under which the user wants to find the area of the function in two forms

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1. In real numbers. 2. In logarithmic form. It also takes the power of the exponential function. The program calculates the area under the curve as illustrated in the following example:

A separate class has been made for the integration of exponential functions. This class is further subdivided into header files and cpp files. This class is inherit from the class basic .

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If the user select simple definite integral the program goes to if statement for simple definite integral. It takes the value of power of the function and upper and lower limits(only in real numbers) of the function. It calculates the area as illustrated in following example:

The Program atlast asks the user if he want to use the program again and for this purpose DO-WHILE statement has been used in which if the input is equal to y then program runs again giving the last value again at the top for the ease of user.

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