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Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara
Spillway is a passage in a dam through which the design flood could be disposed off safely to the downstream. The ogee-crested spillway, because of its superb hydraulic characteristics, has been one of the most studied hydraulic structures. Its ability to pass flows efficiently and safely, when properly designed, with relatively good flow measuring capabilities, has enabled engineers to use it in a wide variety of situations. Although much is understood about the general ogee shape and its flow characteristics, it is also understood that a deviation from the standard design parameters such as a change in upstream flow conditions, slightly modified crest shape, or construction variances can change the flow properties. These small changes often require engineers to evaluate the crest and determine whether or not the change or deviation will be detrimental to the spillway's performance. Such is the case when an updated probable maximum flood calculation requires a spillway to pass a larger flow than it was designed to handle.
In general, spillways comprise five distinct components namely: (i) an entrance channel, (ii) a control structure, (iii) a discharge carrier, (iv) an energy dissipator, and (v) an outlet channel. The entrance channel transfers water from the reservoir to the control structure, which regulates the discharge from the reservoir. Water is then conveyed from reservoir to the low-level energy dissipator on the riverbed by the discharge conveyor. An energy dissipator is required to reduce the high velocity of the flow to a nonscouring magnitude.
Most common types of spillway-control system used are roller, tainter, vertical-lift, and drum gates. In view of the varying conditions, the choice of suitable gate is bound by the cost , the head on the crest, the height of dam, and the hydraulic behaviour of the gate. Piers are located on the spillway crest for the purpose of supporting the control gates, the gate-operating mechanisms or a roadway. Their size and shape will vary accordingly with their function. The piers should be streamlined both in the upstream
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Shaft spillway.L (Full Reservoir Level). Overflow spillway. These structures may be river outlets.R.L is called the "Flood lift". 2. valves. Side channel spillway.S. The crest of the spillway is usually provided at F." One of the most common methods out of several methods are dissipating the flow at the toe of a spillway. Spillway outlets means the combination of structures and equipment required for the safe operation and control of the water released for different purposes for which the dam is planned. This may be accomplished by constructing a stilling basin immediately downstream from the outlet. Flow must expend the energy in order to prevent scour of the bed and banks of the river channel. Following are different types of spillways usually adopted in practice. If the outlets are located in the overflow portion. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Siphon spillway. (gates. or free-flow conduits) has a relatively high velocity. in order to control floods the gates could be provided at the top and the water level could be increased upto maximum water level. 4. is the hydraulic jump. penstocks. Thandaveswara and the downstream sides to reduce contraction of the overflowing jet and to provide a smooth water surface.L and M. 3.R.W. Chute. canal outlets. The element which introduces the energy-reducing action is generally known as " stilling basin. Breaching section (emerging spillway). 5. However. Other types used in conjunction with spillways are roller and trajectory buckets. The size and number of river outlets satisfy the discharge requirements at various stages of the reservoir . Reservoir level should not cross MWL. 6. The height between F. B.Hydraulics Prof. The discharge from an outlet. 1. the conduits should be aligned downwards to minimise disturbance to the flow over spillway.
1). 33.2 Ogee Type Spillway Profile This type of spillway is the most common type adopted in the field. The concept evolves from replacing the lower nappe of the flow over thin plate weir by solid boundary (Fig. Thandaveswara Major dam will be usually provided with an overflow spillway with crest gates.Hydraulics Prof. the type and location of spillway depends on the site conditions of topography. 33. Crest.Flow over a thin weir Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Figure 33. B. However.S.1(a) . spillway face and the toe. It divides naturally into three zones.
The latter behaves exactly in opposite manner namely sub atmospheric pressure. However. higher discharge coeffiicient. From the experimental investigations by Rouse and Reid it is found that the actual head may exceed the design head by atleast 50% with a 10% increase in the coefficient of discharge subject to local pressures do not fall below the cavitation level.S. the analysis of flow profile is not aminable for analytical solutions. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1 (b) . Thandaveswara Figure 33. Hence. The former will result in above atmospheric pressures on the crest and the lower discharge coefficient. The high head spillways are designed for proposed design head for the given discharge. the spillway will also have to operate at lower heads and possibly higher heads as well. B.The fluid boundary bottom nappe) has been replaced by solid boundary The frictional resistance comes into play in case of solid boundary.Hydraulics Prof.
S. (iii) the phenomenon of self . It is possible to obtain very rough estimates of the variation of V and y down the spillway on this basis.aeration of the flow may arise.e.0 Separation p (__)min γ ________ Hd q __ 1.negative pressure develops on the surface..5 Hd.0 ________ Hd -3. accuracy will be slightly improved if a head loss term is Indian Institute of Technology Madras .0 3.5 to 3. Thandaveswara 5. the usual equations for non-uniform flow developed for Gradually Varied Flow cannot really be applied. Conditions in the flow down the spillway face may be quite complex.5 4. If H > Hd . the specific energy equation is usually applied. ____ Hd However.5 Discharge intensity q ___________________ = __ 1. this pressure reduction is not normally a serious problem unless H > 1. separation will not occur until H → 3Hd. and may be 'expanding' as it leaves a bay-pier arrangement.Hydraulics Prof.0 p (__)min γ -2. i.0 4 Ha Normalised Head (actual head to Design head). (i) In a region of rapidly accelerating flow. The acceptable range is 1. in practice. If it is necessary to make estimates of flow conditions on the spillway. For these reasons.5 3. since (i) the flow is accelerating rapidly. Indeed.5 Ha -1. then empirical data must be used.0 4.0 0.5 Ha Actual Head 1. B. (ii) frictional shear promotes boundary layer growth.positive gauge pressure on crest.0 0 1 2 3 -4. (iv) cavitation may occur (Velocity may reach 30 m/s for occurance of cavitation). If H < Hd .0 Hd.
For example Tungabhadra Dam. eddy shedding. which becomes white and foamy in Indian Institute of Technology Madras . below. B. Ha Hd = design head Boundary layer P. 33. will meet the free surface of the water (Fig. or both. increases with the distance downstream of the crest. δ . Thandaveswara incorporated. δ . (ii) A boundary layer will form in the spillway flow. in the light of (ii) and (iii). There have been a number of cases of occurance of cavitation in major dams. This may imply flow seperation. It entails the entrainment of substantial quantities of air into the flow. Such condtions may be instrumental in inducing cavitation at the spillway face. conditions on the spillway are far from those which underly the energy equations.I (point of inception) h point of tangency face m 1 toe Figure 33. The boundary layer thickness. (iii) Aeration has been observed on many spillways.2).S. commencing at the leading edge of the crest.Hydraulics Prof. The depth of the boundary layer. Nevertheless.Boundary Layer Growth on Ogee Spillway The flow of the crest is analogous to the flow round any fairly streamlined body.2 .
33. axis (both quadrants) Hd r2 h b a origin X r1 x1. The entrainment mechanism appears to be associated with the emergence of streamwise vortices at the free surface.4. B. Observations of aeration have led to the suggestion that the point at which aeration commences coincides with the point at which the boundary layer depth meets the free surface called Inception point (Thandaveswara).85 = 2Hd y a = 0. Thandaveswara appearance.175 Hd r1 = 0.20 Hd b = 0.Hydraulics Prof.85 y n -1 xn = KH d y Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5 Hd r2 = 0.S. A typical layout of the spillway is shown in Fig. The geometric elements of an ogee spillway are shown in Fig.282 Hd Y 0. Such vortices would originate in the spillway crest region. 33. The additional air causes the bulkage of the flow.3.
00 1.Hydraulics Prof.6 1. Upstream face slope Vertical 3 (v) on 1 (H) 3 on 2 3 on 3 K 2. Thandaveswara H Y X Hd = design head Y = X*/K 0.776 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .836 1.Ogee Type Spillway Profile K and n depends on the slope of the upstream face.939 1. B.S.873 n 1.810 1.936 1.85 1.0 Point of tangency 1 Spillway face m = 1.67 l slope of face m = m:1 h toe Figure 33.3 .
Spillway face 8. Sector gate 4. Thandaveswara Reservoir 2 1 8 3 7 4 5 6 Schematic representation of typical spillway 5. Spillway crest / bay 6. Armoured scour preventing bed 2.4 -Diagram of spillway layout 33.Hydraulics Prof.3 Spillway Discharge Equation Equation for estimating the spillway discharge. End sill 1.S. Power house 3. B. Energy dissipator . in which h e is the effective head ( m ) effective head = design head + velocity head he = ⎛ h ⎞ Cw = f ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ hd ⎠ Hd + Ha Q = C w L h 3/ 2 m3 / s e Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Pier 7. Q is given below.stilling basin Figure 33.
Hydraulics Prof.1NH ) 2g H3/ 2 3 2 C w = Cd 2g 3 C w is a function of depth of flow.1 NH ) H h 1. Thandaveswara Effective length = measured length .3 (MKS) b Pier shapes vary and has to be choosen carefully. B.40 ⎛H ⎞ ⎜ = 5 to 10 ⎟ ⎝h ⎠ ( MKS) ⎛H ⎞ ⎛ H⎞ C w = 2.5 shows typical pier shapes.S. C w = 1.952 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ = 10 to 15 ⎟ h⎠ ⎝h ⎠ ⎝ 2 Q = Cd ( L − 0. ranges between 1. Figure 33.0.end contraction L = (L ' .5 in which N is the number of contractions.6 to 2.804 + 0. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
Different Pier Shapes Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S. Thandaveswara 0.5 .133 Hd Pier Type II Nose Shape semi circular Nose Shape circular Nose Shape Parabolic Nose Shape Rectangular with Rounded Corners Figure 33. B.Hydraulics Prof.
g is the gravitational constant. the equation converges quickly. Determination of the maximum flood to be used as a basis for spillway design results from hydrological studies and available flood peak data. He is the total head upstream from the crest. crest shape related to the ideal nappe shape.4 Spillway Structures Spillways provide controlled releases of flood / surplus water in excess of the reservoir capacity and convey it to the river channel downstream below the dam in such a manner that the dam and foundation are protected from erosion and scour. as the velocity head is generally small . The capacity of a spillway must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum discharge without allowing the reservoir surface to rise above a predetermined (maximum reservoir elevation). However. Thandaveswara The general equation for discharge is given by 3 2 Q = Cd 2gLH e 2 3 in which Q is the total discharge. as it depends on flow rate which is to be calculated. includes the velocity head. and Cd is the discharge coefficient. this requires an iterative solution technique as the velocity head is unknown. B.Hydraulics Prof.S. structural stability. The discharge coefficient Cd is not constant. The object of spillway design is to provide a safe and adequate structure for the least combined cost of spillway and dam. crest control (gates). upstream face slope. Generally. 33. It depends on several factors such as the depth of approach flow. and downstream submergence. It may be noted that He. and adequate dissipation of energy. the total head. control system. downstream apron. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Basic considerations affecting the design of spillways include design flood. L is the crest width.
different methods are available that depend on the relative height and upstream face slope of the spillway . a comprehensive laboratory investigation was first made to study the ogee shape. Thandaveswara A spillway crest may be uncontrolled. 1958. engineers now face the decision of which method(s) to use in evaluating existing and proposed spillway designs. or it may be controlled by gates installed on the crest. The spillway length is decided based on other parameters such as cost. or interpolating/extrapolating the needed information from design/performance curves can be a tough task. McGraw Hill Publciation. B. and design curves from the USBR and USACF. To determine the shape of the crest of an overflow spillway.. 33.Hydraulics Prof.S. computational model. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The choice of a physical model. The length of the spillway crest affects the elevation of the crest and also the required control. thereby permitting water to spill from the reservoir whenever the water surface is higher than the crest level. student edition. Choice of Spillway in the field Ogee Spillways Chute Spillways Shaft (Tunnel) Spillways Side Channel and Shaft Spillway Siphon Spillway Used in concrete and Masonry dams Used in earthen and rock fill dams Used in earthen and rock fill dams When gorge is very narrow Almost constant head for design range of discharge Reference Chow V. This type of study was completed at the Utah Water Research Laboratory (UWRL) to compare the discharge and crest pressures from flow over an uncontrolled ogeecrested spillway using a physical model.5 Computation of Water Surface Profile Over Spillway With the rapidly changing advances in computational modelling for solving the governing equations of fluid flow. computational model. type of gate. "open Channel Hydraulics". In 1888.T.
in 1965 using potential flow theory and mapping into the complex potential plane.Hydraulics Prof. the pressures are compared over the entire length of the spillway. B. Although there seems to be considerable data in the literature of crest pressures up to the tangent section located at x / Hd = 1. Savage and Johnson approached the problem numerically using the RANS equations. they successfully computed the free surface and velocity and pressure fields using a finite-element grid that adapts locally for a changing water surface. Biirgisser and Rutschmann in 1999 used finite elements and an eddy viscosity to iteratively solve the incompressible 2D vertical steady Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Crest pressures are compared at three different flow rates.value theory. Olsen and Kjellesvig in 1998 showed excellent agreement for water surfaces and discharge coefficients for a limited number of flows. This method was applied successfully to spillways with a free drop. Given a flow rate. These pressures are required if one intends to complete an overall stability analysis of the dam. Olsen and Kjellesvig in 1998 also included viscous effects by numerically solving the RANS equations in two and three dimensions. he obtained the solution for free surface and crest pressures and his results were in good agreement with experimental data. Better convergence of Cassidy's solution was obtained by Ikegawa and Washizu in 1973 and Betts in 1979 using linear finite elements and the variation principle. Furthermore. in 1989 improved on the 2D irrotational gravity flow by using higher-order elements to model the curved water surface and spillway surface.S. pressure data were only recorded at five locations downstream from a nonstandard crest at one flow and showed some variability. using the standard k − ε equations to model turbulence. Li et al. Quo et al. in 1998 extended the potential flow theory by using the analytical functional boundary . Thandaveswara Cassidy. However. including the flip bucket.4 and at flip buckets. there is a dearth of information on pressures extending from the tangent section to the flip bucket.
However.S. Thandaveswara The commercially available CFD package Flow-3D uses the finite-volume method to solve the RANS equations. However. design nomographs provide quick solutions. numerical methods may offer accurate solutions. numerical tools are sufficiently advanced to calculate discharge and pressures on the spillway. For uncontrolled flow over an ogee spillway. model studies cost more and take more time to complete than a numerical study. and applying boundary conditions at the interface. within given parameters. the VOF method allows for a changing free surface over time and space. numerical models have the advantage of providing more details of pressure and velocity. To numerically solve the rapidly varying flow over an ogee crest.7. The VOF method is similar to the FAVOR method in defining cells. This tool may be very useful when reevaluating a dam for higher flows or improved hydrologic event flood calculations. B. As an alternative. Physical model studies are still considered the basis from which all other methods are compared. It has been established that the relative error of the numerical model agrees within 1% with the physical model for He /Hd > 0. Fractional Area / Volume Obstacle Representation (FAVOR) method can be used for computing the free surface over uncontrolled spillway. If only approximate discharge and pressures are required. it is important that the free surface be accurately tracked. defining the surface as a sharp interface between the fluid and air. The general governing continuity and momentum equations for non compressible flows are solved. Also. Tracking involves three parts: locating the surface. at a cost and time that may be less than model studies. VOF numerical techniques tend to be dissipative in nature.Hydraulics Prof. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . New numerical techniques provide practicing engineers with an additional tool in the design or analysis of spillways.
02 m high. 400 m3 / s .54 * 14.L. 9 to 11. Kadana Dam Spillway Main spillway in the Mahi river Kadana Dam across the Mahi river and located about 71 km upstream of Wanakbori weir. the design floods of all the dams were revised. Almost all the major rivers of Gujarat had unprecedented floods.100 m3 / s was experienced in 1968. Accordingly the design flood of Kadana was revised from 31. and there was practically no damage took place to the diversion channel and the performance of the diversion as predicted by the model. and the total length of the spillway is 425. It has 22 radial gates of 15.0 m long and 1. the Sabarmati and the Banas had very heavy floods. The energy dissipation is by a roller bucket.6 Salient Features of Selected Spillways Ukai Dam Spillway The Ukai Dam on the river Tapi is an important Dam in Gujarat state.15 m and the invert of the ski-jump bucket is at 51.5 m thick has been provided horizontally. It has a maximum height of 76.105. only two spans could be added Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As there was foundation difficulty in spillway spans No. The spillway was designed for an outflow capacity of 31. The F. 400 m3 / s to 44 .L.58. In 1973 there were heavy floods throughout Gujarat and damage worth crores of rupees had taken place. It has 21 gates of 15. the Mahi.S.900 m3 / s .2 m. the invert of the roller bucket has been kept 3 m above seperating the spillway in three parts. B.5 m above the foundation with a gross storage of 1554 M m3 .35 * 14.71 m. is at R.Hydraulics Prof.82 m and the lip level at R.22 m. Thandaveswara 33. Immediately downstream of the lip a concrete apron 15. The spillway has been designed for an outflow of 45. Against a design flood of 28. The Tapi. As a result.300 m3 / s . the Narmada.L.R. 600 m3 / s a flood of 37 .
02 m. The width of the spillway is 113 m. B. The original design provided a stilling basin as an energy dissipator. Out of this 9 . 495 m 3 / s is allowed over a breaching dyke of length 365.L.54 * 14.R. which required deep excavations in hard rock.L. Dantiwada Dam Spillway Dantiwada dam has been constructed on the river Banas at Dantiwada about 30 km from Palanpur in north Gujarat. Thandaveswara on the main river .6 m with a radius of 21. Six spans on the right in the main river gorge are provided with a roller bucket whereas the remaining five spans on the left flank are be provided with a ski-jump bucket.Hydraulics Prof. 698 m3 / s . It has a bed slope of 1 in 93. A narrow and deep channel has been excavated in the hills about 50 m high width side slopes 4:1.000 m3 / s was planned in the adjoining saddle by cutting the hill beyond the right flank.20 m with a radius of 15. As such an additional spillway with a capacity of 10 . Thus Dantiwada spillway is a unique combination of a roller bucket and a Ski-jump bucket. Immediately downstream of the glacis the width converges to 52 m (46 %) in a short distance. The design discharge for the spillway had been fixed at 6654 m3 / s . Additional spillway has six radial gates of the same size as the main spillway i.5 * 8.94 m and exit angle of 35 whereas the ski-jump bucket invert was kept at R. The invert of the roller bucket was kept at R. was 183.3 m. It has been provided with 11 radial gates of 12.L. 203 m3 / s have been taken care of in the 202 m long Ogee-shaped spillway and the remaining 8.S.0 m.137. 15.e. Spillway in Panchet Tail Pool Dam on Damodar The lower pool on Damodar about 4 km downstream of Panchet dam is mainly an earthen dam with a concrete gravity spillway in the river bed near the left bank.144. This dam is having a design flood of 17 . The F. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Coming out of the gorge it meets a small natural nala which drains in the Mahi at a short distance from the main dam.24 m and exit angle of 35 . with a divide wall 38 m long beyond the roller bucket.76 m.
L 106.15 m (f) H.S.48 m (k) Elevation of basin floor level 90. Thandaveswara The Salient Features of the Spillway (a) Discharge capacity 9 . Dennison (Canada) 21000 m3/s.8 m (g) Crest level 97.44 m (e) Width of bay 16.F. Melones (Cuba) 8740 m3/s. (one emergency) (d) Width of pier 2. B. Aldeadavila (Cuba) 10000 m3/s.22 m Spillway design discharge Tarbella dam (Pakistan) 18500 to 24000 m3/s.53 m (h) River bed level 94. Bhakra details Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Hydraulics Prof.49 m (i) Type of energy dissipator stilling basin (j) Length of stilling basin 30. 203 m3 / s (b) Total length 202 (c) Total number of bays 11 Nos.
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