CARDIAC

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CATHETERIZATION

LABORATORY

INTRODUCTION
A catheterization laboratory or cath lab is an examination room in a hospital or clinic with diagnostic imaging equipment used to support the catheterization procedure. A catheter is inserted into a large artery, and various wires and devices can be inserted through the body via the catheter which is inside the artery. The artery most used is the femoral artery. Most cath labs are ´single plainµ facilities, those that have a single xray generator source and an image intensifier. The latest digital cath labs are µbiplaneµ (have two X-ray sources) and digital, flat panel labs. Biplane laboratories achieve two separate planes of view with the same injection and thus save time and limit contrast dye. It performs all diagnostic procedures like coronary angiography, peripheral angiography, cerebral angiography and interventional procedures. It may also be indicated for: 1.Unstable angina 2.Abnormal treadmill test 3.Valvular disease 4.Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) 5.Cardiomyopathy and/or heart failure 6.congenital heart defect.

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STAFFING PATTERN  Catheterization laboratories are usually staffed by a multidisciplinary team including:  Physician (normally either a cardiologist or radiologist), Anesthetist,  Cardiac Physiologist,  Nurse and Radiographer.

INSTRUMENTS
Cath-lab set up usually consists of :

in-room storage and movement of the patient into and out of the room via stretcher or patient bed. with storage space as well as the clean and soiled utility areas located within the immediate cardiac catheterization suite area. making sure that the viewing space is also low enough to allow visualization of the table from the elevated angle. The American College of Cardiology recommends 500-600 square feet for the procedure area. Haemoximeter.  The preferred position for the control room in relation to the procedure room is at the foot end of the patient table. The catheterization laboratory procedure room should provide ample space for the equipment. This allows for full viewing of the field. Total at least 5 TFT Monitors 18 inch or higher in exam room. Procedure Room. standing-height counter space. Items for consideration in the procedure room include in-room storage cabinetry. X-RAY generator and Tube and integrated Flat panel detector. Radio frequency Ablation Generator and advanced integrated IVUS. From this foot position. Patient support table. a clinical sink. Control Room: The control room is another critical space. the staff member in the . window for viewing into the procedure room is made up of lead glass(200*100cm) should be as large as the space will allow.  The control room floor should also be elevated by one or two steps to allow for full visualization of the field.        Main Unit C-Arm with Gantry. The room should be of adequate size to allow staff movement and required equipment (such as imaging control panels and hemodynamic monitors). Hemodynamic & Electrophysiological Study Recorder.  The American College of Cardiology recommends 150-200 square feet allotted to the control room. Digital Injection System. regardless of whether the physician works on the left or right side of the table. SPECIFICATIONS It is essential for the procedure room and control room to be adjacent to each other. and positioning of computer drops for hospital information system terminals.

 Modifications like False Ceiling.  The unit shall be capable of operating continuously in ambient temperature of 100C .control room has a view that is unrestricted by the backs of staff members working at the table or overhead hanging monitors. Anti Static Flooring and finishing works should be provided.  The entire Cath-Lab including the Air Conditioning should be connected to the Generator of the hospital.  Suitable Servo controlled Stabilizer and UPS with a back up power of minimum 30 min·s should be provided for the entire cath lab.400C  Relative humidity of 15-90%. Wall Tiling. The following information can be obtained from a cardiac catheterization:  Determination of presence of stenoses (narrowing) in arteries or coronary artery bypass grafts the coronary  Determination of how well the heart muscle (contractibility) squeezes  3 Evaluation of the heart valves  Measurement of various pressures inside the chambers of the heart  Determination of presence of any birth defects or shunts .  ISO certified quality should be maintained by using FDA &CE approved products.

 Every person that deals with ionizing radiation should strictly adhere to the AERB &BARC guidelines for radiation safety. thyroid collars and leaded glasses. Protective gonad shield at least 0.  Lead shields and shielding will significantly reduce the risk of exposure.35 mm lead. .A SINGLE-LAB CARDIAC CATHETERIZTION LABORATORY SETUP EQUIPMENT STORAGE / EQUIPMENT ROOM CONTROL/ CONSOLE ROOM DARK ROOM PROCEDURE ROOM SCRUBS ROOM PATIENT HOLDING ROOM TECHNI CIAN¶S WORK ROOM TOILETS ENTRANCE SAFETY MEASURES  The cardiovascular laboratory or cath lab is one such place where ionizing radiation is much in use. protective leaded eyewear is being used by more number of the cardiologists and staff in cardiac cath lab.  With the newly designed frames and ultra light lenses.  Protective equipments include lead aprons(0.50mm).

. Shall meet IEC-60601-1-2: 2001(Or Equivalent BIS) General Requirements of Safety for Electromagnetic Compatibility. ISO certified quality should be maintained by using FDA &CE approved products.  Efforts must be made to reduce the procedure time.

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