Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Systems

This presentation provides introductory information on gas turbine fuel systems.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Systems
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems: Purpose
The purpose of a fuel system is to supply an exact amount of clean fuel to the engine under all operating conditions. The amount of fuel is based on turbine speed and load requirements. The fuel pressure required for a gas turbine is primarily a function of the compression ratio of the compressor section. For example, the lower the compression ratio, the lower the fuel pressure requirement; the higher the compression ratio, the higher the fuel pressure Gas Turbine_Fuel requirement. Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

However. Both fuel gas and liquid fuel must be clean for efficient turbine operations. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. fuel requirement specifications differ among manufacturers. either gaseous or liquid. The following information on fuel gas and liquid fuel requirements is provided to illustrate the differences in specifications. Some gas turbines operate on both liquid fuel and fuel gas.Fuel Systems Gas Turbine Fuel Systems: Purpose Almost any combustible fluid. can be used for turbine fuel. Walid Abdelghaffar .

These requirements are: · lower heating value · supply pressure · gas temperature · fuel quality Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Systems Fuel Gas Requirements The figure lists typical fuel gas requirements for gas turbine engines. Walid Abdelghaffar .

The main components of a fuel gas system and liquid fuel system are given next.Fuel Systems Liquid Fuel Requirements The figure lists typical liquid fuel requirements for gas turbine engines. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . These requirements are: · fuel temperature · fuel viscosity · pour point · fuel quality NOTE: Always check the turbine manufacturer's fuel specifications to ensure that the fuel meets the specifications for the gas turbine you are operating.

Fuel Systems Fuel Gas System: Components The main components of a typical gas turbine fuel gas system are as follows: · fuel shutoff valve (SOV) · vent valve · pressure control valve (PCV) · pressure indicator controller (PIC) · pressure safety valve(s) (PSV) · instruments and alarms · filter separators · control system · fuel gas heater (optional depending on gas dew point) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Fuel Systems Liquid Fuel System: Components The main components of a typical liquid fuel system are: · manifold · nozzles · pumps · filters · pressure switches · fuel control valves · solenoid-operating valves · control system Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

whereas a fuel gas system does not. The main difference between the two systems is that the liquid fuel system has a storage tank and fuel pumps. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Systems NOTE: Nozzles are not shown in the figure. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Gas Supply System: Purpose The purpose of the gas turbine fuel gas supply system is to provide the correct amount of clean. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. dry fuel gas to the engine under all operating conditions. Each component of the fuel gas supply system is important to its overall operating efficiency.

Fuel Gas Supply System Components & Operation The main components of a typical fuel gas supply system are as follows: · · · · · · · fuel shutoff valve (SOV) vent valve pressure control valve (PCV) pressure indicator controller (PIC) pressure safety valve(s) (PSV) filter separator control system The purpose and operation of these components are discussed next. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

or prevent.Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Shutoff & Vent Valve The purpose of the fuel shutoff valve is to allow. the flow of fuel to the gas turbine fuel system. Contd. The purpose of the vent valve is to release the pressure of trapped gas in the fuel lines. Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . The position of both valves is controlled by actuators. which are operated by instrument air or control oil.

a hand switch controls a four-way air valve to send instrument air pressure to either side of the shutoff valve actuator piston. The actuator is operated by the hand switch or by the fire detection system by means of an interlock. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Supply System In the figure. In some cases actuator piston movement is controlled by hydraulic control oil ported through a servo valve.

Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Shutoff & Vent Valve The hand switch opens or closes the fuel shutoff valve through the control system. Contd. the shutoff valve is electrically operated. The fire detection system sends a signal through the interlock when an engine fire is detected. Dr. or both locations. The switch may be located at the local control panel. In some systems. The interlock closes the fuel shutoff valve and opens the vent valve. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . the DCS.

Walid Abdelghaffar . the vent valve must be open. When the fuel shutoff valve is closed. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Supply System The interlock receives signals from the hand switch and the fire detection system to change the positions of the fuel shutoff valve and the vent valve. The interlock is usually a part of the control system logic that closes the vent valve before the fuel shutoff valve opens.

In the figure. The pressure indicator controller measures the fuel gas pressure. the pressure control valve regulates fuel gas pressure to the turbine according to instrument air signals from the pressure indicator controller (PIC). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Supply System PCV & PIC Valve The figure shows fuel gas flow when the fuel shutoff valve is open. The first device located downstream of the shutoff valve is the pressure control valve (PCV). compares this pressure to the setpoint. Walid Abdelghaffar . and modulates the pressure control valve to maintain setpoint pressure.

Two other instruments receive fuel gas pressure from the same instrument line as the pressure indicator controller: the local pressure indicator (PI) and the Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar . a pressure safety valve (PSV) is located between the pressure control valve and the pressure indicator controller. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. pressure transmitter (PT). The purpose of the pressure safety valve is to vent excessive fuel gas pressure to the flare should the PCV malfunction.Fuel Gas Supply System Pressure Safety Valve In the figure.

Fuel Gas Supply System The pressure transmitter signals gas pressure information to the DCS pressure indicator (PI). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. and high pressure alarm (PAH). Walid Abdelghaffar . low pressure alarm (PAL). The fuel gas pressure can be read from the turbine control system CRT and from the DCS.

Operators should monitor the filter separator sight glass (LG) during routine operating checks. Any liquid accumulation must be drained off. The fuel gas should be relatively clean and dry by the time it reaches this part of the system. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Supply System Filter Separators The purpose of the filter separators in the fuel gas supply system is to provide filtration and separation of the fuel gas before it enters the fuel control system. If liquid levels in the filter separator become excessively high. the high level switch (LSH) signals the DCS high liquid level alarm (LAH) and an alarm is initiated. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Fuel Gas Supply System Filter Separators Like the lube oil and some hydraulic oil filters. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the filter separators are equipped with differential pressure indicators and alarms. Walid Abdelghaffar . The differential pressure initiates the high differential pressure alarm when the high differential pressure setpoint is reached. The system shown in the figure contains a high differential pressure indicator switch (PDISH) and a DCS differential pressure alarm (PDAH). Operators should place the standby filter in operation and service the operating filter before the high differential pressure alarm is initiated.

Fuel Gas Supply System

Control System
Fuel gas flows from the filter to the gas turbine fuel system which is controlled by the turbine control system. Several measuring devices are located between the filter separator and the gas turbine: · pressure transmitter (PT) · flow transmitter (FT) - optional · temperature measuring elements (TE)

Contd.
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Fuel Gas Supply System

These devices provide fuel gas supply information to the control system instruments. This information may be used for pressure indicators, pressure recorders, pressure alarms, flow indicators, totalizers, recorders, temperature indicators, and temperature recorders.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Supply System

Control System
The information is also analyzed and computed by the control system to schedule fuel flow to the engine as needed for speed and load requirements.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Control System Introduction The figure shows a simplified gas turbine package fuel gas system. Walid Abdelghaffar . It represents the system on the gas turbine being controlled. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

A simplified view of the fuel gas control system is shown in the figure. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Fuel Gas Control System: Purpose The purpose of a fuel gas control system is to provide required fuel flow and pressure to the engine. It uses specially designed components to accomplish this function. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Fuel Gas Control System: Components The main components of the fuel gas control system are: · strainer · gas supply pressure switch · stop/speed ratio valve assembly (stop/ratio valve and gas control valve) · fuel gas pressure transducer · fuel vent solenoid valve · four linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) position sensors · two electrohydraulic servo valves · three gas pressure gauges · Speedtronic controls The strainer is discussed first.

Fuel Gas Control System Strainer The purpose of the strainer is to remove foreign particles from the fuel gas before it enters the stop/speed ratio valve assembly. A blowdown connection on the bottom of the strainer body is used for periodic cleaning of the strainer screen. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Downstream of the gas supply pressure switch is the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve assembly. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Gas Supply Pressure Switch The gas supply pressure switch is installed in the gas piping upstream of the stop/speed ratio valve. This switch initiates an alarm when fuel gas pressure decreases below the setpoint. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Fuel Gas Control System Stop/Speed Ratio & Gas Control Valve The combination stop/speed ratio and gas control valve assembly contains the following independent valves: · stop/speed ratio valve · gas control valve Both of these valves are actuated by hydraulic pressure through servos which receive the signal from the Speedtronic control system The stop/speed ratio valve has two functions: · a stop valve · gas pressure regulation Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

the stop/speed ratio valve shuts off fuel gas flow during normal and emergency shutdowns. The hydraulic dump valve is located between the electrohydraulic servo valve and the actuating cylinder. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Stop/Speed Ratio Valve As a stop valve.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. and servo valves control the action of the stop/speed ratio valve as a stop valve. (Contd. control oil. The hydraulic dump valve.

When hydraulic pressure is removed. Fuel gas flow to the gas control valve and gas turbine is stopped. a closing spring on the stop/speed ratio valve plug closes the valve. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System When control oil pressure is low. a spring moves an internal spool to the "dump" position.

Fuel Gas Control System
Stop/Speed Ratio Valve
As a pressure regulator, the stop/ speed ratio valve regulates the gas pressure to the gas control valve. The stop/speed ratio valve is positioned by the actuating cylinder and servo valve according to FSR (Fuel Stroke Reference) signals from the stop/speed ratio valve control. (Contd.)

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Control System
The stop/speed ratio valve has two control loops:
· position control of the valve · gas pressure control to the inlet of the gas control valve referenced to the speed of the turbine The stop/speed ratio valve position control loop functions by comparing an FSR signal with a valve position signal generated by the LVDTs (position sensors).

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Control System
Pressure Transducer
The pressure control loop senses the fuel gas pressure exiting the stop/speed ratio valve. The pressure transducer changes the gas pressure input signal to a DC voltage output signal. The output signal is relayed to the stop/speed ratio valve Speedtronic control. The Speedtronic control compares the signals received from the intervalve pressure, position control loop, and turbine speed. The control system then adjusts the stop/speed ratio valve to maintain fuel gas pressure requirements.
Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

The gas control valve position is detected by the LVDTs. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . The sensors signal the valve's position to the GCV Speedtronic control.Fuel Gas Control System Gas Control Valve The purpose of the gas control valve is to meter or supply fuel gas to the turbine based on turbine speed and requirements of the load or driven equipment. The DC signal is compared with the FSR input signal. The valve is activated by an electronic signal from the GCV segment of Speedtronic control system. which changes the signal to a DC signal.

The gas control valve then meters the correct fuel flow. This adjustment maintains a relationship between valve position and FSR. the control system signals the hydraulic servo valve to adjust the gas control valve in a direction to decrease the error. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . Located between the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve is the vent solenoid valve Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Gas Control Valve If the feedback signal is in error (differs) with the FSR.

This venting prevents gas pressure buildup between the valves and fuel gas leakage through the gas control valve. When the master control/protection circuit is energized. The solenoid valve vents the gas line when the solenoid is de-energized. Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Vent Solenoid Valve The purpose of the fuel vent solenoid valve is to vent fuel gas from the line between the stop/speed ratio and gas control valve when the gas turbine is shut down and prior to firing the machine during startup. the vent valve is closed and remains closed until the turbine Systems Gas Turbine_Fuelis shut down. the solenoid is energized and the vent valve is closed. When a turbine start signal is initiated.

) Dr.Fuel Gas Control System LVDTs (Position Sensors) Linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are position sensors attached to the valve stems. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . A fuel gas control system contains four LVDTs: · two sense the position of the stop/speed ratio valve · two sense the position of the gas control valve ( Contd.

repositioning the SRV and the GCV. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. This signal is then transmitted to the servo valves. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System LVDTs sense the position of the SRV and the GCV and transmit signals to the appropriate Speedtronic control system segment. Here the signals are changed into DC signals. which regulate the flow of oil to the actuator cylinder. which are compared to the FSR.

They provide directional and proportional hydraulic flow control in response to a low power DC input signal from the Speedtronic control system.Fuel Gas Control System Servo Valves The electrohydraulic servo valves are two-stage. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The first-stage valve changes the small electric signal into a hydraulic force that precisely positions the piston of the second-stage valve. Walid Abdelghaffar . The servo valves control the direction and rate of movement of the pistons in the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve actuating cylinders. four-way flow control devices.

Fuel Gas Control System Servo Valves The second-stage valve meters hydraulic pressure to and from the actuating cylinder. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The last two components in the fuel gas control system are the pressure gauges and Speedtronic control system. Movement of the single-acting piston actuator is opposed by a spring in the gas control valve.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The downstream gauge measures the pressure of the gas that has been metered to the fuel gas manifold and fuel nozzles. The middle gauge measures fuel gas pressure between the stop/speed ratio valve and the gas control valve.Fuel Gas Control System Pressure Gauges Three gas pressure gauges are installed in the fuel gas supply line. The upstream gauge measures fuel gas pressure entering the stop/speed ratio valve. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control System The positions of the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve are controlled by an electrical signal from the Speedtronic control system. The signal causes the electrohydraulic servo valve to send oil to or release oil from the hydraulic cylinder that actuates the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve. Dr. A signal from the position sensors (LVDTs) tells the Speedtronic control system that the valve is in the correct position or that a Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems position change is needed.

Walid Abdelghaffar . The primary operating parameters of a gas turbine are start-up. and speed. flow to the engine.Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control Components The Speedtronic control system is a microcomputer control system that provides analog and digital signals to control and protect gas turbine operation. All are controlled by regulating fuel Contd. temperature. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The Speedtronic control system is also equipped with protective devices as a backup to the main system.Fuel Gas Control System Turbine operations are sensed and used as feedback signals to the Speedtronic control system.

Fuel Gas Control System Control Loops The Speedtronic control system consists of three major control loops: · start-up and shutdown · speed · temperature The output of these control loops is connected to a minimum value select logic circuit. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .

FSR control is the command signal for fuel Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System The minimum value select logic circuit interfaces the speed. start-up.. Walid Abdelghaffar . and start-up control output signals to FSR for fuel control. or temperature) calling for the lowest voltage output is allowed to pass the gate to the fuel control system as controlling FSR voltage.g. temperature. speed. Only the control segment (e.

gas turbines: · zero-speed detector · minimum-speed relay detector · accelerating relay speed detector Contd.Fuel Gas Control System Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops Proper speed sensing is an important part of the start-up and shutdown sequence control of the turbine. Walid Abdelghaffar .E. · high-speed relay detector Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The graphic shows the speed sensors used on G.

Fuel Gas Control System The following is a basic description of how these sensors function. The zero-speed detector provides a signal when the turbine shaft starts rotating. Walid Abdelghaffar . If speed is zero. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. permissive logic allows clutch engagement and the cranking sequence for turbine startup is initiated.

A minimum speed detector indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed before ignition. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops During the shutdown cycle. or turning device. the zerospeed detector provides a signal to permit the ratchet gear. to be placed in service in the cool-down sequence. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The high-speed sensor indicates that the turbine is at operating speed and that the accelerating sequence is complete. The acceleration speed relay indicates that the turbine has reached approximately 40% to 50% speed in the acceleration cycle.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Temperature Control Loop The purpose of the temperature control loop is to limit the turbine firing temperature by regulating fuel flow. Contd. The actual firing temperature is most difficult to measure and generally is not measured.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. causing the firing temperature to increase for a given speed.Fuel Gas Control System Exhaust temperature is measurable and is proportional to the firing temperature. Air is more dense on cool days. Thermocouples mounted in the exhaust provide temperature feedback proportional to the firing temperature.

but the control system must prevent overfiring the machine. Contd.Fuel Gas Control System Protective System The increased firing temperature improves turbine efficiency. This is accomplished by the control system lowering the temperature control point. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Protection systems are also provided to prevent abnormal conditions that can damage the turbine.

The protective systems will trip the machine when overspeed or over-temperature trip conditions occur. Walid Abdelghaffar . The over-temperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overfiring. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System These control and protective systems are independent systems that back up the primary control systems. It is a backup system that operates only after failure of the temperature control loops.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Supertonic Control: Basic Function Under normal operating conditions. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Contd. the temperature control system limits increases in fuel flow when the firing temperature limit is reached.

Fuel Gas Control System If the system malfunctions. If a malfunction occurs. exhaust temperature can exceed control limits. Walid Abdelghaffar . Speed control software changes the FSR based on the difference between the actual turbine generator speed/load and the speed/load reference set point. the over-temperature protection system provides an over-temperature alarm before it trips the gas turbine. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

or synchronous.Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control: Basic Function When the generator breaker is closed. Dr. When there is a difference between turbine speed and setpoint. Walid Abdelghaffar . Isochronous controls hold turbine speed steady during load changes. the electronic controls increase or decrease the FSR until there are no error Turbine_Fuel Systems Gas signals. speed is held relatively constant. on a power grid. Fuel flow in excess of that necessary to maintain full speed/no load will increase power generator output capabilities instead of increasing turbine speed.

although high viscosity fuels present special problems. at the correct pressure. Gas turbine liquid fuels are liquid hydrocarbons similar to kerosene. to the engine. The figure shows a typical liquid fuel system. Almost any combustible fluid can be used for turbine fuel.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System: Purpose The purpose of a liquid fuel system is to deliver metered quantities of fuel. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. is stored in a storage vessel and routed to the gas turbine. or fuel oil. Liquid fuel. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Dr.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System Components The main components of a typical liquid fuel system are as follows: · fuel storage tank · fuel oil pumps · pressure switches · fuel filters · manifold · nozzles · fuel control valve · solenoid-operated valves · control system A fuel storage tank is discussed first. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems .

Storage tanks usually store enough fuel for 24 hours of gas turbine operation.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Tank Storage & PSV The purpose of a fuel storage tank is to store fuel oil received from an outside source. They are sometimes called day tanks. Dr. Fuel storage tanks are often equipped with the following devices: · relief valve · pressure controls · pressure indicator · temperature indicator · level indicators · level controls and/or alarms Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems The relief valve (PSV) is a safety device designed to prevent excessive pressure in the tank. Walid Abdelghaffar .

and control valve (PV).Liquid Fuel System Pressure. is installed on the boot of the tank. These controls consist of a pressure transmitter (PT). usually a sight glass. Operators can monitor the fuel oil storage tank pressure at local pressure indicators (PI). controller (PIC). Temperature. the storage tank is protected against over-pressurization by pressure controls. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. actuator (PY). A local temperature indicator (TI) and a level gauge (LG) are also provided. Walid Abdelghaffar . Another level gauge. & Level Controls In the figure.

The valve is opened or closed by a hand switch (HS). The level indicator contains alarms for high level. and low-low level. Walid Abdelghaffar . In the figure. The low-low level alarm is usually accompanied by a unit shutdown. low level.Liquid Fuel System Level Control & Shutoff Valve A level transmitter (LT) signals fuel level information to the DCS level indicator (LI). the storage tank shutoff valve (MOV) is motor operated. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

When the hand switch is in the H position. the fuel oil pump is under manual control. Walid Abdelghaffar . When in the O position.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Oil Pumps & Hand Switches The purpose of fuel oil pumps is to deliver fuel oil. Fuel oil pumps are started and stopped by a local HOA hand switch (HS). HOA means hand/off/automatic. to the gas turbine fuel control system. (Contd. the pump is off. under pressure.

the running pump becomes the lead pump and the other pump is in auto standby. the standby pump will start automatically with no interruption in fuel supply. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System When both pump switches are placed in the A position. If the lead pump fails when operating with both pumps in auto. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

(Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Boost Inlet Pump There are two types of liquid fuel system pumps: · fuel boost inlet · high pressure fuel The purpose of a fuel boost inlet pump is to raise the inlet fuel pressure to the pressure that is required for proper fuel system operation.

positive-displacement. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. An electric boost pump is a rotary. The pump takes fuel from the low pressure liquid fuel supply and delivers it to the fuel system inlet at the required pressure. motor-driven pump. gear. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System The boost pump is installed upstream from the low pressure duplex fuel filters.

Liquid Fuel System Hp Fuel Pump. A pressure gauge. Pressure Switch. This switch initiates engine shutdown if fuel pressure decreases below the setpoint. positive displacement pump and may either be enginedriven or electric motor-driven. with the switch. The low fuel pressure switch senses fuel pressure to the high pressure fuel pump. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . indicates the inlet fuel pressure. & Gauge The high pressure fuel pump is a gear-type.

a filter removes solid particles from the fuel oil. filter check valves. Walid Abdelghaffar . In a liquid fuel system. and a differential pressure switch. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. In the figure.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Filters Fuel oil flows from the fuel oil pump to the gas turbine via the pump discharge header. filters are of two types: · low pressure duplex filters · high pressure fuel filter The duplex filter assembly incorporates two parallel-mounted filters equipped with a selector valve.

connected to the fuel system through the control valve so that fuel flow may be directed through either filter.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Filters Each filter contains two replaceable filter elements with a 10-micron nominal rating. Walid Abdelghaffar . This arrangement serves two purposes: · servicing of the inactive filter during engine operation · manual transfer to the clean filter without engine shutdown (Contd.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Liquid Fuel System The high pressure fuel filter is installed in the fuel line between the high pressure fuel pump and the fuel control valve. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. It contains a replaceable filter element rated at 40 microns nominal.

Walid Abdelghaffar . There is an inlet boss and an outlet boss for each fuel nozzle.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Manifold The purpose of a fuel manifold is to divide a single fuel supply into several outlet streams. Injector tube assemblies are connected to the fuel outlet bosses and carry the fuel to the fuel nozzle. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. It incorporates inlet and outlet fuel connections for manifold-to-injector tube assemblies that carry the liquid fuel to the fuel nozzles. A liquid fuel manifold is sometimes called a fuel flow divider manifold. A liquid fuel manifold usually has an inlet and outlet orifice called a boss.

Liquid Fuel System Fuel Manifold Solar gas turbines may also have an air assist manifold. The fuel and air mixture ratio is the weight of combustor primary air in relation to the weight of the fuel. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . A specific proportion of air is needed for efficient operation. Air assist manifold-toinjector tube assemblies carry fuelatomizing air to the fuel nozzles.

The purpose of fuel nozzles is to deliver highly atomized fuel in a controlled spray pattern in the combustors. Fuel nozzles are of three types: · simplex · duplex · air blast Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Fuel Nozzles Fuel nozzles are located in the inlet of the combustor.

Duplex fuel nozzles are: · single line · dual line Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . called flutes. The simplex nozzle has a set of vanes.Liquid Fuel System Simplex Fuel Nozzle The simplex fuel nozzle has a small orifice that provides one spray pattern. This motion reduces the axial velocity of the fuel and provides better mixing of fuel and air. that give a swirling motion to the fuel.

The outer orifice opens at a preset pressure and sprays the primary fuel.Liquid Fuel System Single Line Duplex Fuel Nozzle The single line duplex fuel nozzle receives fuel at one inlet port. A flow divider in the nozzle distributes fuel through two spray orifices.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar . The inner orifice sprays at a wide angle.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. This chamber provides efficient fuel mixing and fuel-air residence time over different fuel pressures.Liquid Fuel System The higher volume and higher pressure fuel flow from the outer orifice narrows the spray pattern so that fuel does not touch the combustion liner. This air also cools and cleans the nozzle head and spray orifices. The head of the fuel nozzle usually has air holes that provide some primary air for combustion. Single line nozzles also use a spin chamber for each orifice. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The dual line duplex nozzle contains flutes and cooling air orifices. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Dual Line Duplex Fuel Nozzle The dual line duplex fuel nozzle is similar to the single line except it does not have a flow divider to separate primary and secondary fuel. The duplex fuel nozzle has a fuel inlet port for each spray orifice.

Liquid Fuel System Air Blast Fuel Nozzle The air blast fuel nozzle enhances the atomization process and produces finer fuel droplets. air blast nozzles atomize the fuel more completely than can be accomplished by only pressurized fuel. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. This nozzle is more effective during start-up when low fuel pressure causes atomization problems. By using a high velocity airflow.

During start-up and other off-rated speeds. The most desirable flame pattern occurs at higher compressor discharge pressures. This pattern optimizes mixing of fuel and air and ensures the highest heat release from the fuel for more complete combustion. atomized spray pattern provides a large fuel surface of very fine fuel droplets. Walid Abdelghaffar . flame length increases because of low compression.Liquid Fuel System A cone-shaped. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Liquid Fuel System Compression Ratio Recall from a previous lesson that a gas turbine engine must maintain its rated compression ratio for efficient operation. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Compression ratio is the amount of discharge pressure in pounds per square inch absolute (psia) over suction pressure in psia. Walid Abdelghaffar . fuel flow is regulated according to load requirements. As the engine nears rated speed. fuel pressure to the engine also increases. As compressor discharge pressure increases.

The purpose of a fuel control valve is to: provide the correct air/fuel ratio to the combustion section · regulate fuel flow to control engine speed and exhaust temperature The main components of a liquid fuel control valve are: · fuel metering valve · fuel topping actuator solenoid · Pcd bleed valve Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Fuel Control Valve: Purpose & Components Turbine speed is controlled by the fuel control valve.

Liquid Fuel System
Solenoid Operation Valves
The fuel valve assembly is mounted on the fuel control assembly. The assembly is an explosion-proof junction box, on which are mounted four solenoid-operated valves. These valves and their functions are described next. The two-way, normally closed bypass valve connects fuel flow from the fuel control valve to a return line leading to the fuel filter inlet. The valve remains closed during start-up and operation. Upon engine shutdown, the bypass valve opens. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Liquid Fuel System
Two-Way Fuel Valve
The two-way, normally closed fuel valve operates in conjunction with the bypass valve during the start-up cycle and normal engine operation. The fuel valve opens during the start-up sequence when the bypass valve closes. This directs metered fuel flow to the fuel nozzles. During engine shutdown, the valve closes.
Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Liquid Fuel System
Torch & Purge Valves
The two-way, normally closed torch valve functions for only a short time during engine start-up. Ten seconds after the engine reaches 15% speed, the valve opens, fuel is directed to the igniter torch assembly, and ignition occurs. At a predetermined engine temperature, the valve closes and combustion is selfsustained. The normally closed purge valve is a two-way valve connecting the fuel supply line to the fuel nozzles and to a return line. During start-up, the valve opens. The purge valve closes when the engine Gas Turbine_Fuelspeed. reaches 15% Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

The valve closes as engine speed drops below 15% speed. The assembly consists of a linkage rod and rod ends. and the opposite end is connected to the fuel control valve fuel metering lever. The linkage assembly is the interconnecting device between the fuel control valve and the electrohydraulic servo actuator. Walid Abdelghaffar . One end of the rod is attached to the servo actuator output shaft. Movement of the servo actuator results in repositioning the fuel metering valve. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the purge valve again opens to permit drainage (purging) of the liquid fuel lines.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Valve Linkage Assembly On engine shutdown.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Fuel Topping Actuator Solenoid The fuel topping actuator solenoid operates on input signals from the electrical control system to decrease fuel flow during the start-up cycle if turbine temperature exceeds a preset limit. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the fuel topping actuator solenoid reduces the metering valve open position. When energized.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . The Pcd bleed valve operates on input signals from the electrical control system. normally open. The purpose of the Pcd bleed valve is to receive or vent Pcd from or to the acceleration limiter. three-way valve mounted on the liquid fuel control valve housing.Liquid Fuel System Pcd Bleed Valve The Pcd bleed valve is a solenoidactuated.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Upon engine shutdown. the valve opens and vents the acceleration limiter.Liquid Fuel System Pcd & Turbine Speed Measurement During engine operation. the valve closes and Pcd is admitted to the acceleration limiter through an orifice. Walid Abdelghaffar . Turbine speed can be measured by the following means: · flyweight governor · magnetic sensors The flyweight governor is discussed next. An increase or decrease in the turbine load causes a corresponding change in the turbine speed.

and centrifugal force moves the flyweights apart. The rod connects the action of the flyweights to the throttle valve. called flyweights. a tension spring. Movement in the flyweight position also repositions the governor rod.Liquid Fuel System Flyweight Governor A flyweight governor consists of a pair of weights. which controls fuel flow. and a governor rod. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The governor rod rotates.

The sensors are mounted around a gear wheel on the gas turbine rotor shaft.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. wrapped with a coil in a sealed case. Walid Abdelghaffar . Each sensor generates an electrical signal proportional to engine speed. A signal is sent each time a gear tooth passes under the sensor.Liquid Fuel System Magnetic Sensors & Main Fuel Actuator Magnetic or pickup sensors consist of a permanent magnet. ( Contd.

The main fuel actuator controller can be programmed to maintain a constant gas producer turbine speed. depending on the requirements of the system. or a constant compressor discharge pressure.Liquid Fuel System Modern gas turbines use an electric or electronically controlled main fuel actuator to control turbine speed. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. a constant power turbine speed.

" These probes emit an electromagnetic field that fluctuates each time the key phasor slot passes the probe. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems (Contd. These are called "key phasors. One fluctuation in the circuit equals one revolution of the shaft.Liquid Fuel System Probes & Sensors The controller receives signals from the: · magnetic proximity probes or sensors · exhaust gas temperature sensors Shaft speed may be monitored by magnetic proximity probes positioned near the shaft.) Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

The controller then increases or decreases fuel flow until the desired speed is reached.Liquid Fuel System Shaft rpm is compared with speed setpoints by the main fuel actuator controller. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. (Contd. The exhaust gas temperature is monitored by several thermocouples. Exhaust gas temperature sensors send signals to the main fuel actuator controller. which signal temperature information to the engine temperature controller.Liquid Fuel System Temperature Sensors Exhaust gas temperature is the most critical of all gas turbine engine operating parameters.

or Turbine Outlet Temperature (TOT) is taken downstream of the turbine wheel(s) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Several different terms are used to describe exhaust gas temperatures: · Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT): temperature is monitored upstream of the turbine wheel(s) · Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT): temperature is taken at an intermediate position between multiple turbine wheels · Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT).

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Operation Introduction The preceding lesson explained liquid fuel system components and their function. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System: Purpose The purpose of a liquid fuel system is to deliver clean liquid fuel to the engine in correct volumes at the correct pressure.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd. from start-up through shutdown. The delivery of the fuel is controlled by a microcomputer control system. This system monitors all phases of engine operation.

2) The load/speed sensing control unit (governor) is energized. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. This action moves the metering valve lever from the minimum fuel stop position. Walid Abdelghaffar . The actuator retracts and moves the fuel control linkage toward the maximum fuel position when servo oil pressure builds up. 3) A signal is transmitted to the electrohydraulic servo actuator. This also allows the acceleration limiter to progressively enrich the fuel and air mixture in accordance with the acceleration schedule.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-up Sequence 1) The start-up sequence of the fuel system is initiated when the start switch is pressed.

The impending high temperature alarm and high turbine temperature shutdown setpoints are temporarily increased approximately 50°F. the liquid fuel purge solenoid valve is energized and remains open until 10 seconds after 15% engine speed is reached. The electric liquid fuel boost pumps are energized.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-Up Sequence Engine temperature control is offset during start-up. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. During the start-up sequence when the engine is operating between 0% and 15% speed. if used.

If 15% engine speed is not reached in 30 seconds after starters begin to crank.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-Up Sequence The air assist solenoid-operated shutoff valve is energized (opened). Walid Abdelghaffar . the fuel pressure. Pcd. and engine oil pressure increases. engine shutdown is initiated and FAIL TO CRANK malfunction is indicated. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. As the engine accelerates.

) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence At 15% engine speed plus 10 seconds: 1) The Pcd bleed valve opens and begins to act on the acceleration limiter. Spark plug starts firing. 2) The purge valve closes. 6) Fuel flows through the torch valve to the torch. Walid Abdelghaffar . 3) The torch valve and the fuel valve open. 5) The ignition relay and ignition exciter are energized. if used. 4) The electric motor-driven main fuel pump starts. (Contd.

Walid Abdelghaffar . The engine continues to accelerate. approximately 350°F. This fuel flow is then atomized by air assist pressure. the torch valve and ignition are de-energized. The torch flame ignites the fuel and air mixture from the fuel nozzles. When engine temperature reaches setpoint. 8) Metered fuel from the fuel control valve flows through the fuel valve and the torch bias relief valve to the fuel nozzles.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence 7) Torch fuel is atomized by air assist pressure and is ignited in combustion air. beginning combustion. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

engine shutdown is initiated and LOW FUEL PRESS malfunction is indicated.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence If turbine temperature has not reached the setpoint in 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed. 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar . engine shutdown is initiated and IGNITION FAIL malfunction is indicated. approximately 7 psig. If high pressure fuel pump suction pressure is lower than the setpoint of the low fuel pressure switch.

Walid Abdelghaffar . If temperature exceeds setpoint while accelerating to 90% engine speed.Liquid Fuel System After light-off occurs. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. engine temperature control warning IMPENDING HIGH ENGINE TEMPERATURE is initiated. turbine temperature increases rapidly.

Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence Fuel topping solenoid valve is energized. If the temperature topping circuit malfunctions. Fuel flow is reduced to topping flow until turbine temperature decreases to normal. a further temperature increase will activate a backup shutdown circuit. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The fuel topping solenoid operates with on-off action if the overtemperature condition persists until 90% engine speed is attained. Walid Abdelghaffar . The fuel topping solenoid is then de-energized.

Walid Abdelghaffar . the engine start system and the atomizing air assist shutoff valve are both de-energized. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence When engine speed reaches 66%. Fuel atomizing air is then supplied by Pcd.

(Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence When engine speed reaches 90%: 1) The electronic load/speed controller (governor) takes control of the electrohydraulic servo actuator and positions the fuel control linkage to accelerate to operating speed.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. 2) Offset setpoints are transferred to normal operating values for engine temperature control.

based on load. 5) Fuel is metered to the engine according to the demand of the electronic control system.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence 3) The topping control circuit is deenergized. (Contd. 4) The temperature shutdown timer is armed. Walid Abdelghaffar . or temperature. speed.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

allowing for transient over-temperatures. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. engine shutdown is immediate and HIGH ENG TEMP is indicated and engine shutdown is initiated. 10) At approximately 1200°F.155°F. the engine shutdown timer is de-energized. HIGH ENG TEMP alarm is indicated.Liquid Fuel System 6) Engine speed increases to operating speed. 7) The following events take place if a turbine over-temperature condition occurs when the engine is operating above 90% speed: 8) At approximately 1. 9) After a 5-second delay. Walid Abdelghaffar .

) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. (Contd.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Shutdown Sequence Shutdown of the fuel system operation occurs in sequence when the stop switch or emergency stop switch (Local Panel) is pressed. When start/run relays are deenergized: 1) The postlube timer relay begins to time out. Walid Abdelghaffar .

5) The Pcd bleed valve opens to cutoff Pcd air and vent the fuel control valve. 3) The purge valve opens to purge the fuel system until engine speed decreases below 15%.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. 4) The fuel bypass valve opens to the filter outlet line. and the governor is deactivated.Liquid Fuel System 2) The pre/postlube pump motor is energized. 7) Control power to the electronic load/speed sensing control is stopped. 6) Fuel valve closes to fuel injectors. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .

10) When engine speed decreases below 15%.Liquid Fuel System 8) Main electric fuel pump. the purge valve and the fuel bypass valve close. if used. combustion stops and the engine begins to decelerate. 11) The engine coasts to a stop. Walid Abdelghaffar . 9) When the fuel supply to the engine is cut off. and fuel boost pump are both deenergized. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Shutdown Sequence 55 minutes after the stop switch is pressed: 1) The postlube timer relay times out. 3) The postlube cycle is complete. Walid Abdelghaffar . 2) The pre/postlube oil pump is deenergized. 4) The master control switch can be turned off and the engine is ready for restart.

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Walid Abdelghaffar .Dr.

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