Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Systems

This presentation provides introductory information on gas turbine fuel systems.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Systems
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems: Purpose
The purpose of a fuel system is to supply an exact amount of clean fuel to the engine under all operating conditions. The amount of fuel is based on turbine speed and load requirements. The fuel pressure required for a gas turbine is primarily a function of the compression ratio of the compressor section. For example, the lower the compression ratio, the lower the fuel pressure requirement; the higher the compression ratio, the higher the fuel pressure Gas Turbine_Fuel requirement. Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

either gaseous or liquid. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Systems Gas Turbine Fuel Systems: Purpose Almost any combustible fluid. can be used for turbine fuel. fuel requirement specifications differ among manufacturers. However. The following information on fuel gas and liquid fuel requirements is provided to illustrate the differences in specifications. Some gas turbines operate on both liquid fuel and fuel gas. Both fuel gas and liquid fuel must be clean for efficient turbine operations.

Fuel Systems Fuel Gas Requirements The figure lists typical fuel gas requirements for gas turbine engines. These requirements are: · lower heating value · supply pressure · gas temperature · fuel quality Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

The main components of a fuel gas system and liquid fuel system are given next. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Systems Liquid Fuel Requirements The figure lists typical liquid fuel requirements for gas turbine engines. These requirements are: · fuel temperature · fuel viscosity · pour point · fuel quality NOTE: Always check the turbine manufacturer's fuel specifications to ensure that the fuel meets the specifications for the gas turbine you are operating.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Systems Fuel Gas System: Components The main components of a typical gas turbine fuel gas system are as follows: · fuel shutoff valve (SOV) · vent valve · pressure control valve (PCV) · pressure indicator controller (PIC) · pressure safety valve(s) (PSV) · instruments and alarms · filter separators · control system · fuel gas heater (optional depending on gas dew point) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Systems Liquid Fuel System: Components The main components of a typical liquid fuel system are: · manifold · nozzles · pumps · filters · pressure switches · fuel control valves · solenoid-operating valves · control system Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Fuel Systems NOTE: Nozzles are not shown in the figure. Walid Abdelghaffar . The main difference between the two systems is that the liquid fuel system has a storage tank and fuel pumps. whereas a fuel gas system does not. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Each component of the fuel gas supply system is important to its overall operating efficiency. dry fuel gas to the engine under all operating conditions.Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Gas Supply System: Purpose The purpose of the gas turbine fuel gas supply system is to provide the correct amount of clean.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Supply System Components & Operation The main components of a typical fuel gas supply system are as follows: · · · · · · · fuel shutoff valve (SOV) vent valve pressure control valve (PCV) pressure indicator controller (PIC) pressure safety valve(s) (PSV) filter separator control system The purpose and operation of these components are discussed next. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

The position of both valves is controlled by actuators. the flow of fuel to the gas turbine fuel system. or prevent. which are operated by instrument air or control oil. The purpose of the vent valve is to release the pressure of trapped gas in the fuel lines. Contd.Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Shutoff & Vent Valve The purpose of the fuel shutoff valve is to allow. Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems .

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . In some cases actuator piston movement is controlled by hydraulic control oil ported through a servo valve.Fuel Gas Supply System In the figure. The actuator is operated by the hand switch or by the fire detection system by means of an interlock. a hand switch controls a four-way air valve to send instrument air pressure to either side of the shutoff valve actuator piston.

The interlock closes the fuel shutoff valve and opens the vent valve.Fuel Gas Supply System Fuel Shutoff & Vent Valve The hand switch opens or closes the fuel shutoff valve through the control system. Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . In some systems. the shutoff valve is electrically operated. or both locations. The switch may be located at the local control panel. Contd. The fire detection system sends a signal through the interlock when an engine fire is detected. the DCS.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Supply System The interlock receives signals from the hand switch and the fire detection system to change the positions of the fuel shutoff valve and the vent valve. the vent valve must be open. When the fuel shutoff valve is closed. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The interlock is usually a part of the control system logic that closes the vent valve before the fuel shutoff valve opens.

and modulates the pressure control valve to maintain setpoint pressure. the pressure control valve regulates fuel gas pressure to the turbine according to instrument air signals from the pressure indicator controller (PIC). compares this pressure to the setpoint. The first device located downstream of the shutoff valve is the pressure control valve (PCV). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Supply System PCV & PIC Valve The figure shows fuel gas flow when the fuel shutoff valve is open. In the figure. The pressure indicator controller measures the fuel gas pressure. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Two other instruments receive fuel gas pressure from the same instrument line as the pressure indicator controller: the local pressure indicator (PI) and the Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The purpose of the pressure safety valve is to vent excessive fuel gas pressure to the flare should the PCV malfunction.Fuel Gas Supply System Pressure Safety Valve In the figure. pressure transmitter (PT). a pressure safety valve (PSV) is located between the pressure control valve and the pressure indicator controller.

The fuel gas pressure can be read from the turbine control system CRT and from the DCS. and high pressure alarm (PAH).Fuel Gas Supply System The pressure transmitter signals gas pressure information to the DCS pressure indicator (PI). low pressure alarm (PAL). Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The fuel gas should be relatively clean and dry by the time it reaches this part of the system. the high level switch (LSH) signals the DCS high liquid level alarm (LAH) and an alarm is initiated. Operators should monitor the filter separator sight glass (LG) during routine operating checks.Fuel Gas Supply System Filter Separators The purpose of the filter separators in the fuel gas supply system is to provide filtration and separation of the fuel gas before it enters the fuel control system. Any liquid accumulation must be drained off. Walid Abdelghaffar . If liquid levels in the filter separator become excessively high.

The system shown in the figure contains a high differential pressure indicator switch (PDISH) and a DCS differential pressure alarm (PDAH).Fuel Gas Supply System Filter Separators Like the lube oil and some hydraulic oil filters. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The differential pressure initiates the high differential pressure alarm when the high differential pressure setpoint is reached. Operators should place the standby filter in operation and service the operating filter before the high differential pressure alarm is initiated. Walid Abdelghaffar . the filter separators are equipped with differential pressure indicators and alarms.

Fuel Gas Supply System

Control System
Fuel gas flows from the filter to the gas turbine fuel system which is controlled by the turbine control system. Several measuring devices are located between the filter separator and the gas turbine: · pressure transmitter (PT) · flow transmitter (FT) - optional · temperature measuring elements (TE)

Contd.
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Fuel Gas Supply System

These devices provide fuel gas supply information to the control system instruments. This information may be used for pressure indicators, pressure recorders, pressure alarms, flow indicators, totalizers, recorders, temperature indicators, and temperature recorders.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Supply System

Control System
The information is also analyzed and computed by the control system to schedule fuel flow to the engine as needed for speed and load requirements.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

It represents the system on the gas turbine being controlled. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Introduction The figure shows a simplified gas turbine package fuel gas system.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Fuel Gas Control System: Purpose The purpose of a fuel gas control system is to provide required fuel flow and pressure to the engine. It uses specially designed components to accomplish this function. A simplified view of the fuel gas control system is shown in the figure. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Fuel Gas Control System Fuel Gas Control System: Components The main components of the fuel gas control system are: · strainer · gas supply pressure switch · stop/speed ratio valve assembly (stop/ratio valve and gas control valve) · fuel gas pressure transducer · fuel vent solenoid valve · four linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) position sensors · two electrohydraulic servo valves · three gas pressure gauges · Speedtronic controls The strainer is discussed first. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . A blowdown connection on the bottom of the strainer body is used for periodic cleaning of the strainer screen. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Strainer The purpose of the strainer is to remove foreign particles from the fuel gas before it enters the stop/speed ratio valve assembly.

Downstream of the gas supply pressure switch is the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve assembly. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . This switch initiates an alarm when fuel gas pressure decreases below the setpoint.Fuel Gas Control System Gas Supply Pressure Switch The gas supply pressure switch is installed in the gas piping upstream of the stop/speed ratio valve.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Stop/Speed Ratio & Gas Control Valve The combination stop/speed ratio and gas control valve assembly contains the following independent valves: · stop/speed ratio valve · gas control valve Both of these valves are actuated by hydraulic pressure through servos which receive the signal from the Speedtronic control system The stop/speed ratio valve has two functions: · a stop valve · gas pressure regulation Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

and servo valves control the action of the stop/speed ratio valve as a stop valve. The hydraulic dump valve. the stop/speed ratio valve shuts off fuel gas flow during normal and emergency shutdowns. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar . control oil.Fuel Gas Control System Stop/Speed Ratio Valve As a stop valve. The hydraulic dump valve is located between the electrohydraulic servo valve and the actuating cylinder.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

When hydraulic pressure is removed. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System When control oil pressure is low. a closing spring on the stop/speed ratio valve plug closes the valve. Fuel gas flow to the gas control valve and gas turbine is stopped. a spring moves an internal spool to the "dump" position. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Fuel Gas Control System
Stop/Speed Ratio Valve
As a pressure regulator, the stop/ speed ratio valve regulates the gas pressure to the gas control valve. The stop/speed ratio valve is positioned by the actuating cylinder and servo valve according to FSR (Fuel Stroke Reference) signals from the stop/speed ratio valve control. (Contd.)

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Control System
The stop/speed ratio valve has two control loops:
· position control of the valve · gas pressure control to the inlet of the gas control valve referenced to the speed of the turbine The stop/speed ratio valve position control loop functions by comparing an FSR signal with a valve position signal generated by the LVDTs (position sensors).

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Fuel Gas Control System
Pressure Transducer
The pressure control loop senses the fuel gas pressure exiting the stop/speed ratio valve. The pressure transducer changes the gas pressure input signal to a DC voltage output signal. The output signal is relayed to the stop/speed ratio valve Speedtronic control. The Speedtronic control compares the signals received from the intervalve pressure, position control loop, and turbine speed. The control system then adjusts the stop/speed ratio valve to maintain fuel gas pressure requirements.
Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

which changes the signal to a DC signal. The DC signal is compared with the FSR input signal. Walid Abdelghaffar . The gas control valve position is detected by the LVDTs. The sensors signal the valve's position to the GCV Speedtronic control.Fuel Gas Control System Gas Control Valve The purpose of the gas control valve is to meter or supply fuel gas to the turbine based on turbine speed and requirements of the load or driven equipment. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The valve is activated by an electronic signal from the GCV segment of Speedtronic control system.

Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . the control system signals the hydraulic servo valve to adjust the gas control valve in a direction to decrease the error. This adjustment maintains a relationship between valve position and FSR. The gas control valve then meters the correct fuel flow.Fuel Gas Control System Gas Control Valve If the feedback signal is in error (differs) with the FSR. Located between the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve is the vent solenoid valve Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Vent Solenoid Valve The purpose of the fuel vent solenoid valve is to vent fuel gas from the line between the stop/speed ratio and gas control valve when the gas turbine is shut down and prior to firing the machine during startup. the vent valve is closed and remains closed until the turbine Systems Gas Turbine_Fuelis shut down. When a turbine start signal is initiated. When the master control/protection circuit is energized. the solenoid is energized and the vent valve is closed. The solenoid valve vents the gas line when the solenoid is de-energized. This venting prevents gas pressure buildup between the valves and fuel gas leakage through the gas control valve.

Fuel Gas Control System LVDTs (Position Sensors) Linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are position sensors attached to the valve stems. A fuel gas control system contains four LVDTs: · two sense the position of the stop/speed ratio valve · two sense the position of the gas control valve ( Contd.) Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems .

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System LVDTs sense the position of the SRV and the GCV and transmit signals to the appropriate Speedtronic control system segment. which are compared to the FSR. Walid Abdelghaffar . This signal is then transmitted to the servo valves. Here the signals are changed into DC signals. which regulate the flow of oil to the actuator cylinder. repositioning the SRV and the GCV.

The first-stage valve changes the small electric signal into a hydraulic force that precisely positions the piston of the second-stage valve.Fuel Gas Control System Servo Valves The electrohydraulic servo valves are two-stage. The servo valves control the direction and rate of movement of the pistons in the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve actuating cylinders. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. They provide directional and proportional hydraulic flow control in response to a low power DC input signal from the Speedtronic control system. four-way flow control devices.

Fuel Gas Control System Servo Valves The second-stage valve meters hydraulic pressure to and from the actuating cylinder. Walid Abdelghaffar . Movement of the single-acting piston actuator is opposed by a spring in the gas control valve. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The last two components in the fuel gas control system are the pressure gauges and Speedtronic control system.

The downstream gauge measures the pressure of the gas that has been metered to the fuel gas manifold and fuel nozzles. The upstream gauge measures fuel gas pressure entering the stop/speed ratio valve.Fuel Gas Control System Pressure Gauges Three gas pressure gauges are installed in the fuel gas supply line. The middle gauge measures fuel gas pressure between the stop/speed ratio valve and the gas control valve. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

A signal from the position sensors (LVDTs) tells the Speedtronic control system that the valve is in the correct position or that a Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems position change is needed. Dr.Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control System The positions of the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve are controlled by an electrical signal from the Speedtronic control system. Walid Abdelghaffar . The signal causes the electrohydraulic servo valve to send oil to or release oil from the hydraulic cylinder that actuates the stop/speed ratio valve and gas control valve.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control Components The Speedtronic control system is a microcomputer control system that provides analog and digital signals to control and protect gas turbine operation. All are controlled by regulating fuel Contd. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. flow to the engine. temperature. The primary operating parameters of a gas turbine are start-up. and speed.

The Speedtronic control system is also equipped with protective devices as a backup to the main system. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Turbine operations are sensed and used as feedback signals to the Speedtronic control system.

Fuel Gas Control System Control Loops The Speedtronic control system consists of three major control loops: · start-up and shutdown · speed · temperature The output of these control loops is connected to a minimum value select logic circuit. Contd. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

start-up.g.Fuel Gas Control System The minimum value select logic circuit interfaces the speed. and start-up control output signals to FSR for fuel control. Walid Abdelghaffar . temperature. FSR control is the command signal for fuel Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. speed. Only the control segment (e.. or temperature) calling for the lowest voltage output is allowed to pass the gate to the fuel control system as controlling FSR voltage.

E. gas turbines: · zero-speed detector · minimum-speed relay detector · accelerating relay speed detector Contd.Fuel Gas Control System Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops Proper speed sensing is an important part of the start-up and shutdown sequence control of the turbine. · high-speed relay detector Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The graphic shows the speed sensors used on G. Walid Abdelghaffar .

The zero-speed detector provides a signal when the turbine shaft starts rotating. permissive logic allows clutch engagement and the cranking sequence for turbine startup is initiated. If speed is zero. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System The following is a basic description of how these sensors function.

Walid Abdelghaffar . to be placed in service in the cool-down sequence. A minimum speed detector indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed before ignition. the zerospeed detector provides a signal to permit the ratchet gear. The high-speed sensor indicates that the turbine is at operating speed and that the accelerating sequence is complete. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The acceleration speed relay indicates that the turbine has reached approximately 40% to 50% speed in the acceleration cycle.Fuel Gas Control System Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops During the shutdown cycle. or turning device.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Temperature Control Loop The purpose of the temperature control loop is to limit the turbine firing temperature by regulating fuel flow. The actual firing temperature is most difficult to measure and generally is not measured. Contd. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Air is more dense on cool days. Thermocouples mounted in the exhaust provide temperature feedback proportional to the firing temperature. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. causing the firing temperature to increase for a given speed. Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas Control System Exhaust temperature is measurable and is proportional to the firing temperature.

Protection systems are also provided to prevent abnormal conditions that can damage the turbine. Walid Abdelghaffar . but the control system must prevent overfiring the machine. This is accomplished by the control system lowering the temperature control point. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Contd.Fuel Gas Control System Protective System The increased firing temperature improves turbine efficiency.

Walid Abdelghaffar . The protective systems will trip the machine when overspeed or over-temperature trip conditions occur. The over-temperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overfiring. It is a backup system that operates only after failure of the temperature control loops.Fuel Gas Control System These control and protective systems are independent systems that back up the primary control systems. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Contd. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the temperature control system limits increases in fuel flow when the firing temperature limit is reached.Fuel Gas Control System Supertonic Control: Basic Function Under normal operating conditions.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Fuel Gas Control System If the system malfunctions. If a malfunction occurs. exhaust temperature can exceed control limits. the over-temperature protection system provides an over-temperature alarm before it trips the gas turbine. Speed control software changes the FSR based on the difference between the actual turbine generator speed/load and the speed/load reference set point.

Fuel Gas Control System Speedtronic Control: Basic Function When the generator breaker is closed. When there is a difference between turbine speed and setpoint. Isochronous controls hold turbine speed steady during load changes. the electronic controls increase or decrease the FSR until there are no error Turbine_Fuel Systems Gas signals. or synchronous. speed is held relatively constant. Fuel flow in excess of that necessary to maintain full speed/no load will increase power generator output capabilities instead of increasing turbine speed. Dr. on a power grid. Walid Abdelghaffar .

at the correct pressure. is stored in a storage vessel and routed to the gas turbine. Almost any combustible fluid can be used for turbine fuel. Gas turbine liquid fuels are liquid hydrocarbons similar to kerosene. Liquid fuel.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System: Purpose The purpose of a liquid fuel system is to deliver metered quantities of fuel. or fuel oil. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. to the engine. although high viscosity fuels present special problems. Walid Abdelghaffar . The figure shows a typical liquid fuel system.

Walid Abdelghaffar Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems . Dr.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System Components The main components of a typical liquid fuel system are as follows: · fuel storage tank · fuel oil pumps · pressure switches · fuel filters · manifold · nozzles · fuel control valve · solenoid-operated valves · control system A fuel storage tank is discussed first.

Dr.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Tank Storage & PSV The purpose of a fuel storage tank is to store fuel oil received from an outside source. Fuel storage tanks are often equipped with the following devices: · relief valve · pressure controls · pressure indicator · temperature indicator · level indicators · level controls and/or alarms Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems The relief valve (PSV) is a safety device designed to prevent excessive pressure in the tank. They are sometimes called day tanks. Walid Abdelghaffar . Storage tanks usually store enough fuel for 24 hours of gas turbine operation.

Walid Abdelghaffar . actuator (PY). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the storage tank is protected against over-pressurization by pressure controls. These controls consist of a pressure transmitter (PT). usually a sight glass. controller (PIC). Operators can monitor the fuel oil storage tank pressure at local pressure indicators (PI). & Level Controls In the figure. is installed on the boot of the tank. Temperature. A local temperature indicator (TI) and a level gauge (LG) are also provided. and control valve (PV).Liquid Fuel System Pressure. Another level gauge.

In the figure. low level. and low-low level. the storage tank shutoff valve (MOV) is motor operated. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Level Control & Shutoff Valve A level transmitter (LT) signals fuel level information to the DCS level indicator (LI). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The valve is opened or closed by a hand switch (HS). The level indicator contains alarms for high level. The low-low level alarm is usually accompanied by a unit shutdown.

When in the O position. to the gas turbine fuel control system. When the hand switch is in the H position. Fuel oil pumps are started and stopped by a local HOA hand switch (HS).Liquid Fuel System Fuel Oil Pumps & Hand Switches The purpose of fuel oil pumps is to deliver fuel oil. HOA means hand/off/automatic. the fuel oil pump is under manual control. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd. under pressure.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the pump is off.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System When both pump switches are placed in the A position. the standby pump will start automatically with no interruption in fuel supply. Walid Abdelghaffar . If the lead pump fails when operating with both pumps in auto. the running pump becomes the lead pump and the other pump is in auto standby.

Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Boost Inlet Pump There are two types of liquid fuel system pumps: · fuel boost inlet · high pressure fuel The purpose of a fuel boost inlet pump is to raise the inlet fuel pressure to the pressure that is required for proper fuel system operation. (Contd.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The pump takes fuel from the low pressure liquid fuel supply and delivers it to the fuel system inlet at the required pressure. An electric boost pump is a rotary. motor-driven pump. gear. positive-displacement. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System The boost pump is installed upstream from the low pressure duplex fuel filters.

This switch initiates engine shutdown if fuel pressure decreases below the setpoint. Walid Abdelghaffar . & Gauge The high pressure fuel pump is a gear-type. Pressure Switch. positive displacement pump and may either be enginedriven or electric motor-driven. The low fuel pressure switch senses fuel pressure to the high pressure fuel pump. indicates the inlet fuel pressure. with the switch. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. A pressure gauge.Liquid Fuel System Hp Fuel Pump.

a filter removes solid particles from the fuel oil.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Filters Fuel oil flows from the fuel oil pump to the gas turbine via the pump discharge header. filter check valves. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. filters are of two types: · low pressure duplex filters · high pressure fuel filter The duplex filter assembly incorporates two parallel-mounted filters equipped with a selector valve. Walid Abdelghaffar . In the figure. In a liquid fuel system. and a differential pressure switch.

Walid Abdelghaffar . This arrangement serves two purposes: · servicing of the inactive filter during engine operation · manual transfer to the clean filter without engine shutdown (Contd. connected to the fuel system through the control valve so that fuel flow may be directed through either filter.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Filters Each filter contains two replaceable filter elements with a 10-micron nominal rating.

It contains a replaceable filter element rated at 40 microns nominal. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System The high pressure fuel filter is installed in the fuel line between the high pressure fuel pump and the fuel control valve.

There is an inlet boss and an outlet boss for each fuel nozzle. It incorporates inlet and outlet fuel connections for manifold-to-injector tube assemblies that carry the liquid fuel to the fuel nozzles. Injector tube assemblies are connected to the fuel outlet bosses and carry the fuel to the fuel nozzle. A liquid fuel manifold is sometimes called a fuel flow divider manifold.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Manifold The purpose of a fuel manifold is to divide a single fuel supply into several outlet streams. A liquid fuel manifold usually has an inlet and outlet orifice called a boss. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar . The fuel and air mixture ratio is the weight of combustor primary air in relation to the weight of the fuel. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Air assist manifold-toinjector tube assemblies carry fuelatomizing air to the fuel nozzles.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Manifold Solar gas turbines may also have an air assist manifold. A specific proportion of air is needed for efficient operation.

Fuel nozzles are of three types: · simplex · duplex · air blast Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Fuel Nozzles Fuel nozzles are located in the inlet of the combustor. The purpose of fuel nozzles is to deliver highly atomized fuel in a controlled spray pattern in the combustors.

Duplex fuel nozzles are: · single line · dual line Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. This motion reduces the axial velocity of the fuel and provides better mixing of fuel and air. The simplex nozzle has a set of vanes. called flutes. Walid Abdelghaffar . that give a swirling motion to the fuel.Liquid Fuel System Simplex Fuel Nozzle The simplex fuel nozzle has a small orifice that provides one spray pattern.

A flow divider in the nozzle distributes fuel through two spray orifices. (Contd. Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Single Line Duplex Fuel Nozzle The single line duplex fuel nozzle receives fuel at one inlet port. The outer orifice opens at a preset pressure and sprays the primary fuel. The inner orifice sprays at a wide angle.

This air also cools and cleans the nozzle head and spray orifices. The head of the fuel nozzle usually has air holes that provide some primary air for combustion. Single line nozzles also use a spin chamber for each orifice. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System The higher volume and higher pressure fuel flow from the outer orifice narrows the spray pattern so that fuel does not touch the combustion liner. This chamber provides efficient fuel mixing and fuel-air residence time over different fuel pressures. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar . The dual line duplex nozzle contains flutes and cooling air orifices.Liquid Fuel System Dual Line Duplex Fuel Nozzle The dual line duplex fuel nozzle is similar to the single line except it does not have a flow divider to separate primary and secondary fuel. The duplex fuel nozzle has a fuel inlet port for each spray orifice. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

This nozzle is more effective during start-up when low fuel pressure causes atomization problems. By using a high velocity airflow.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Air Blast Fuel Nozzle The air blast fuel nozzle enhances the atomization process and produces finer fuel droplets. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd. air blast nozzles atomize the fuel more completely than can be accomplished by only pressurized fuel.

Liquid Fuel System A cone-shaped. During start-up and other off-rated speeds. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . The most desirable flame pattern occurs at higher compressor discharge pressures. flame length increases because of low compression. atomized spray pattern provides a large fuel surface of very fine fuel droplets. This pattern optimizes mixing of fuel and air and ensures the highest heat release from the fuel for more complete combustion.

fuel flow is regulated according to load requirements. As the engine nears rated speed. Compression ratio is the amount of discharge pressure in pounds per square inch absolute (psia) over suction pressure in psia. fuel pressure to the engine also increases. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. As compressor discharge pressure increases. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System Compression Ratio Recall from a previous lesson that a gas turbine engine must maintain its rated compression ratio for efficient operation.

Liquid Fuel System Fuel Control Valve: Purpose & Components Turbine speed is controlled by the fuel control valve. The purpose of a fuel control valve is to: provide the correct air/fuel ratio to the combustion section · regulate fuel flow to control engine speed and exhaust temperature The main components of a liquid fuel control valve are: · fuel metering valve · fuel topping actuator solenoid · Pcd bleed valve Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Liquid Fuel System
Solenoid Operation Valves
The fuel valve assembly is mounted on the fuel control assembly. The assembly is an explosion-proof junction box, on which are mounted four solenoid-operated valves. These valves and their functions are described next. The two-way, normally closed bypass valve connects fuel flow from the fuel control valve to a return line leading to the fuel filter inlet. The valve remains closed during start-up and operation. Upon engine shutdown, the bypass valve opens. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Liquid Fuel System
Two-Way Fuel Valve
The two-way, normally closed fuel valve operates in conjunction with the bypass valve during the start-up cycle and normal engine operation. The fuel valve opens during the start-up sequence when the bypass valve closes. This directs metered fuel flow to the fuel nozzles. During engine shutdown, the valve closes.
Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Liquid Fuel System
Torch & Purge Valves
The two-way, normally closed torch valve functions for only a short time during engine start-up. Ten seconds after the engine reaches 15% speed, the valve opens, fuel is directed to the igniter torch assembly, and ignition occurs. At a predetermined engine temperature, the valve closes and combustion is selfsustained. The normally closed purge valve is a two-way valve connecting the fuel supply line to the fuel nozzles and to a return line. During start-up, the valve opens. The purge valve closes when the engine Gas Turbine_Fuelspeed. reaches 15% Systems

Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . The assembly consists of a linkage rod and rod ends. Movement of the servo actuator results in repositioning the fuel metering valve.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Valve Linkage Assembly On engine shutdown. and the opposite end is connected to the fuel control valve fuel metering lever. The linkage assembly is the interconnecting device between the fuel control valve and the electrohydraulic servo actuator. The valve closes as engine speed drops below 15% speed. One end of the rod is attached to the servo actuator output shaft. the purge valve again opens to permit drainage (purging) of the liquid fuel lines.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. When energized. Walid Abdelghaffar . the fuel topping actuator solenoid reduces the metering valve open position.Liquid Fuel System Fuel Topping Actuator Solenoid The fuel topping actuator solenoid operates on input signals from the electrical control system to decrease fuel flow during the start-up cycle if turbine temperature exceeds a preset limit.

The purpose of the Pcd bleed valve is to receive or vent Pcd from or to the acceleration limiter. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. normally open. The Pcd bleed valve operates on input signals from the electrical control system.Liquid Fuel System Pcd Bleed Valve The Pcd bleed valve is a solenoidactuated. three-way valve mounted on the liquid fuel control valve housing.

Liquid Fuel System Pcd & Turbine Speed Measurement During engine operation. Upon engine shutdown. Turbine speed can be measured by the following means: · flyweight governor · magnetic sensors The flyweight governor is discussed next. the valve closes and Pcd is admitted to the acceleration limiter through an orifice. the valve opens and vents the acceleration limiter. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . An increase or decrease in the turbine load causes a corresponding change in the turbine speed.

Movement in the flyweight position also repositions the governor rod.Liquid Fuel System Flyweight Governor A flyweight governor consists of a pair of weights. The rod connects the action of the flyweights to the throttle valve. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . which controls fuel flow. a tension spring. The governor rod rotates. and a governor rod. and centrifugal force moves the flyweights apart. called flyweights.

Each sensor generates an electrical signal proportional to engine speed. A signal is sent each time a gear tooth passes under the sensor. wrapped with a coil in a sealed case.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The sensors are mounted around a gear wheel on the gas turbine rotor shaft. Walid Abdelghaffar . ( Contd.Liquid Fuel System Magnetic Sensors & Main Fuel Actuator Magnetic or pickup sensors consist of a permanent magnet.

Liquid Fuel System Modern gas turbines use an electric or electronically controlled main fuel actuator to control turbine speed. The main fuel actuator controller can be programmed to maintain a constant gas producer turbine speed. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. depending on the requirements of the system. Walid Abdelghaffar . or a constant compressor discharge pressure. a constant power turbine speed.

Liquid Fuel System Probes & Sensors The controller receives signals from the: · magnetic proximity probes or sensors · exhaust gas temperature sensors Shaft speed may be monitored by magnetic proximity probes positioned near the shaft. Walid Abdelghaffar .) Dr. These are called "key phasors." These probes emit an electromagnetic field that fluctuates each time the key phasor slot passes the probe. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems (Contd. One fluctuation in the circuit equals one revolution of the shaft.

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The controller then increases or decreases fuel flow until the desired speed is reached.Liquid Fuel System Shaft rpm is compared with speed setpoints by the main fuel actuator controller.

(Contd. The exhaust gas temperature is monitored by several thermocouples.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Temperature Sensors Exhaust gas temperature is the most critical of all gas turbine engine operating parameters. which signal temperature information to the engine temperature controller. Exhaust gas temperature sensors send signals to the main fuel actuator controller. Walid Abdelghaffar .

or Turbine Outlet Temperature (TOT) is taken downstream of the turbine wheel(s) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Several different terms are used to describe exhaust gas temperatures: · Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT): temperature is monitored upstream of the turbine wheel(s) · Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT): temperature is taken at an intermediate position between multiple turbine wheels · Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT). Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System Operation Introduction The preceding lesson explained liquid fuel system components and their function.

This system monitors all phases of engine operation.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel System: Purpose The purpose of a liquid fuel system is to deliver clean liquid fuel to the engine in correct volumes at the correct pressure.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. The delivery of the fuel is controlled by a microcomputer control system. from start-up through shutdown. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd.

This also allows the acceleration limiter to progressively enrich the fuel and air mixture in accordance with the acceleration schedule. 2) The load/speed sensing control unit (governor) is energized. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-up Sequence 1) The start-up sequence of the fuel system is initiated when the start switch is pressed. Walid Abdelghaffar . 3) A signal is transmitted to the electrohydraulic servo actuator. This action moves the metering valve lever from the minimum fuel stop position. The actuator retracts and moves the fuel control linkage toward the maximum fuel position when servo oil pressure builds up.

the liquid fuel purge solenoid valve is energized and remains open until 10 seconds after 15% engine speed is reached.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-Up Sequence Engine temperature control is offset during start-up. During the start-up sequence when the engine is operating between 0% and 15% speed. if used. The electric liquid fuel boost pumps are energized. The impending high temperature alarm and high turbine temperature shutdown setpoints are temporarily increased approximately 50°F. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

As the engine accelerates. If 15% engine speed is not reached in 30 seconds after starters begin to crank. and engine oil pressure increases. Pcd. Walid Abdelghaffar . the fuel pressure.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Start-Up Sequence The air assist solenoid-operated shutoff valve is energized (opened). Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. engine shutdown is initiated and FAIL TO CRANK malfunction is indicated.

6) Fuel flows through the torch valve to the torch. 3) The torch valve and the fuel valve open. 4) The electric motor-driven main fuel pump starts. if used. 2) The purge valve closes. Walid Abdelghaffar .Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence At 15% engine speed plus 10 seconds: 1) The Pcd bleed valve opens and begins to act on the acceleration limiter. (Contd. 5) The ignition relay and ignition exciter are energized.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Spark plug starts firing.

This fuel flow is then atomized by air assist pressure. approximately 350°F. Walid Abdelghaffar . the torch valve and ignition are de-energized. The torch flame ignites the fuel and air mixture from the fuel nozzles. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. 8) Metered fuel from the fuel control valve flows through the fuel valve and the torch bias relief valve to the fuel nozzles.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence 7) Torch fuel is atomized by air assist pressure and is ignited in combustion air. The engine continues to accelerate. beginning combustion. When engine temperature reaches setpoint.

If high pressure fuel pump suction pressure is lower than the setpoint of the low fuel pressure switch. (Contd. engine shutdown is initiated and IGNITION FAIL malfunction is indicated. approximately 7 psig. engine shutdown is initiated and LOW FUEL PRESS malfunction is indicated. 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence If turbine temperature has not reached the setpoint in 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

If temperature exceeds setpoint while accelerating to 90% engine speed.Liquid Fuel System After light-off occurs. engine temperature control warning IMPENDING HIGH ENGINE TEMPERATURE is initiated. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. turbine temperature increases rapidly. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence Fuel topping solenoid valve is energized. The fuel topping solenoid operates with on-off action if the overtemperature condition persists until 90% engine speed is attained. a further temperature increase will activate a backup shutdown circuit. Fuel flow is reduced to topping flow until turbine temperature decreases to normal. The fuel topping solenoid is then de-energized. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . If the temperature topping circuit malfunctions.

Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence When engine speed reaches 66%. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. the engine start system and the atomizing air assist shutoff valve are both de-energized. Fuel atomizing air is then supplied by Pcd. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence When engine speed reaches 90%: 1) The electronic load/speed controller (governor) takes control of the electrohydraulic servo actuator and positions the fuel control linkage to accelerate to operating speed. 2) Offset setpoints are transferred to normal operating values for engine temperature control.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd.

(Contd.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. 5) Fuel is metered to the engine according to the demand of the electronic control system. 4) The temperature shutdown timer is armed. speed. Walid Abdelghaffar . or temperature. based on load.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Run Sequence 3) The topping control circuit is deenergized.

Liquid Fuel System 6) Engine speed increases to operating speed. allowing for transient over-temperatures. 7) The following events take place if a turbine over-temperature condition occurs when the engine is operating above 90% speed: 8) At approximately 1. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. HIGH ENG TEMP alarm is indicated. 10) At approximately 1200°F.155°F. the engine shutdown timer is de-energized. engine shutdown is immediate and HIGH ENG TEMP is indicated and engine shutdown is initiated. 9) After a 5-second delay.

When start/run relays are deenergized: 1) The postlube timer relay begins to time out. (Contd.Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Shutdown Sequence Shutdown of the fuel system operation occurs in sequence when the stop switch or emergency stop switch (Local Panel) is pressed. Walid Abdelghaffar .) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

3) The purge valve opens to purge the fuel system until engine speed decreases below 15%.) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. 6) Fuel valve closes to fuel injectors. 5) The Pcd bleed valve opens to cutoff Pcd air and vent the fuel control valve. Walid Abdelghaffar . (Contd. 7) Control power to the electronic load/speed sensing control is stopped. and the governor is deactivated.Liquid Fuel System 2) The pre/postlube pump motor is energized. 4) The fuel bypass valve opens to the filter outlet line.

and fuel boost pump are both deenergized. 10) When engine speed decreases below 15%. the purge valve and the fuel bypass valve close. 11) The engine coasts to a stop.Liquid Fuel System 8) Main electric fuel pump. if used. 9) When the fuel supply to the engine is cut off. combustion stops and the engine begins to decelerate. Walid Abdelghaffar . Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Liquid Fuel System System Operation: Shutdown Sequence 55 minutes after the stop switch is pressed: 1) The postlube timer relay times out. Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar . 3) The postlube cycle is complete. 2) The pre/postlube oil pump is deenergized. 4) The master control switch can be turned off and the engine is ready for restart.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Gas System Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Fuel Gas Metering Valve (General Electric ) Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar .Monitoring Screen for the Fuel Gas Control System Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar .Fuel Oil System Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Dual Fuel Systems Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar .Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar .Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr.

Gas Turbine_Fuel Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar .

Walid Abdelghaffar .Dr.