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Psychosexual Development ( Freud)
Age Birth- 1 ½ years
Task Oral Stage
Description During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting.
1 ½-3 years
During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults.
During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. Children also discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother s affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. The term Electra complex has been used to described a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy. Eventually, the child realizes begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. Psychologists such as Karen Horney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead, Horney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.
The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests. The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
Puberty and after
During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. Where in earlier stages the
If the other stages have been completed successfully. toy preferences. or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. and clothing selection. Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. Theory Psychosocial Development (Erikson) Age Birth-18 months Task Trust vs. he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. 18 months.3 years Autonomy vs. while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. If a child successfully develops trust. the individual should now be well-balanced. Confusion During adolescence.focus was solely on individual needs. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident. Like Freud. 6-12 years Industry vs. Erikson believe that learning to control one s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas. children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. Mistrust Description The first stage of Erikson s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Shame and Doubt The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. 3-5 years Initiative vs. However. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about . emotionally unavailable. Inferiority Through social interactions. warm and caring. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Because an infant is utterly dependent. self-doubt and lack of initiative. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices. the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child s caregivers. interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. 12-20 years Identity vs. Caregivers who are inconsistent. Guilt During the preschool years. children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents. teachers. Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills.
Isolation This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships.and he assumes that others see situations from his viewpoint. Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. These individuals will attain wisdom. Teaching must take into account the child's vivid fantasies and undeveloped sense of time. Using neutral words.the way he'd like things to be .all serve as appropriate techniques. focusing on our career and family. body outlines and equipment a child can touch gives him an active role in learning. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. 65 yearsdeath Integrity vs. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. a stern or soothing voice -. which in the past he needed to manipulate physically to understand.themselves and the future. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. Early in this stage he also personifies objects. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. He is now better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. He takes in information and then changes it in his mind to fit his ideas. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity.his parents or favorite toy -. the child has difficulty conceptualizing time. committed relationships with other people. Applying his new knowledge of language. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close.continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses. Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. 2-7 years Preoperational 7-11 years Concrete Operational . Thought derives from sensation and movement. the child begins to use symbols to represent objects. The child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of his environment -. Teaching for a child in this stage should be geared to the sensorimotor system. we continue to build our lives. Stagnation During adulthood. the child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. 25-65 years Generativity vs. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgments about concrete or observable phenomena. accommodation increases. Theory Cognitive Development (Piaget) Age Birth-2 years Task Sensorimotor Description During this stage. During this stage. even when confronting death. 18-25 years Intimacy vs. giving him the opportunity to ask questions and to explain things back to you allows him to mentally manipulate information. Despair This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. In teaching this child. Oriented to the present. His thinking is influenced by fantasy -. You can modify behavior by using the senses: a frown.
opinions and beliefs of other people. people follow these internalized principles of justice. Middle-age (2565) or Older Adulthood (65death) Level 3. Pre-school (3-5)School age (6-12) Level 1. .11-adulthood Formal Operations This stage brings cognition to its final form. children see rules as fixed and absolute. but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. At this stage. people begin to account for the differing values. At his point. Teaching for the adolescent may be wide-ranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspectives. Theory Moral Development (Kohlberg) Age Toddler-7 years Task Level 1. Postconventional Morality Stage 6 Universal Principles Kolhberg s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. In the Heinz dilemma. but members of the society should agree upon these standards. he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. At this stage. Reciprocity is possible. children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz s needs. Preconventional Morality Stage 1Obedience and Punishment Description The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children. doing one s duty and respecting authority.Adulthood (18-65) Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation. Conventional Morality Stage 4 Maintaining Social Order Level 3.Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage of moral development. Adolescence (1220) and Adulthood (1865) Level 2. Preconventional Morality Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange Level 2. but only if it serves one's own interests. even if they conflict with laws and rules. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment. Postconventional Morality Stage 5 . being "nice. School Age (612). people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules. Middle-age (2565) or Older Adulthood (65death) At this stage. Conventional Morality Stage 3 Interpersonal Relationships At this stage of moral development. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles." and consideration of how choices influence relationships. There is an emphasis on conformity.
becoming distinct from views held by others. Meaning is trapped in story and so one cannot "step out" of the story to reflect and analyze. society.e. One takes on the stories. which brings symbols in speech and ritual play. For some adults this stage can be precipitated by changes in primary relationships. such as divorce. one has increased accuracy in taking the perspective of others and thus a morality begins to develop based upon reciprocal fairness and justice. Transition to the next stage begins with the emergence of thought and language. This is a very fantastical and imaginative stage uninhibited by logic. or changing jobs. previously defined from the perspective of a member of a group. beliefs and observances of the group to which they belong. With a child s discovery of language and imagination. changes to include English. The major step towards stage 2 is obtaining concrete operational thought. and religion.Theory Spiritual Development (Fowler) Age 0-3 years Task Stage 0 Undifferentiated Faith Description Although it is largely inaccessible to empirical research. school. Because of strong egocentrism. One can examine what one believes. Changes in religious practices. This is the stage when an individual is developing in two major ways. A stage 2 person understands the difference between makebelieve and reality. this stage is when the foundation of faith begins to be formed. The individual in Stage 3 does not take an individual perspective. During this stage. During this stage the child begins to understand cultural taboos concerning sex and death. One in this stage believes stories one hears basing understanding of self and universe by them. This is "unexamined" faith. but seeks to conform to the group that they belong to. the perspectives of others cannot be understood. narrative construction of meaning and coherence. When one has aquired concrete operational thought he/she begins to separate what things are real and what are make-believe. This individual is very tuned into the expectations and judgments of the group and seeks to reside in an ideology rather than fully adopting an individual belief. Or it can result from the challenges of moving. The baby will come to develop faith in its care giver as its needs for security and comfort are met. The imagination is very active and long lasting images (both good and bad) are formed that will later be sorted out by logical and reflective thought. which story is true." Also as an individual. This is when one begins to form the basis for spiritual identity and outlook. There must be a synthesis of values and information. homosexuality embraced by a religion that formerly forbade it. Things that contribute to going on to the next stage include a contradiction from an authoritative source. work. "no longer depends on one's roles or meaning to others. comparing contradictory stories. he or she begins to build an image of what life is all about. Mistrust. This is a 'demythologizing' stage. the big bang theory or the bible creation story? Which group do you believe? Information about existence comes from family. the death of a parent or children growing up and leaving home. The use of symbols and imagery give the child an understanding about who he or she is and power to develop a feeling about that knowledge. This stage is the first where one has self awareness. This gives rise to a more linear.) There must be a deep reflection and examination of what one believes compared to what his/her religion believes in order to move on to the next stage. This stage begins with formal operational thought. peers. For instance. Catholic belief that mass should only be in Latin. The self. (i. For most this change comes with the natural occurrence of leaving one's childhood home and forming 4-6 years Stage 1 IntuitiveProjective Faith 7-12 years Stage 2 Mythical-Literal Faith Adolescent (1220) or Adult (1865) Stage 3 SyntheticConventional Faith After 18 years Stage 4 IndividuativeReflective Faith . one's individual world view changes. Similar to Erik Erikson's stage of Trust vs. One reflects on the symbols learned in the past and translates those symbols into concepts and ideas. this stage of faith has to do with an infant's knowledge of and fondness towards the primary care giver. STORY becomes the major way of giving unity and value to experience.
These are people who are often martyred by the people they hope to help. One in stage 5 is willing to be converted by other ways of thinking. After 30 years Stage 5 Conjunctive Faith A stage 5 person is so comfortable with their place in the grand scheme of things that they are more interested in what is true than what they believe. Maybe Never Stage 6 Universalizing Faith People that move on to stage six overcome the cynicism of stage 5 and endeavor with everything that they are to become the reality they hope for.one's first adult life structures. Conjunctive faith's "radical openness" to other traditions comes from the belief that "reality" cannot be held entirely in one tradition and spills over into many traditions. They try to see from any wise perspective and are constantly creating a woven tapestry of belief. They wear out their lives in this pursuit through action. They let reality speak for itself regardless of its impact on them. This person trusts that the "known" is out there and takes the initiative to discover it. This does not mean that the person is wishy washy or uncommitted to one's own truth tradition. understanding that the two might be dissimilar. .