Interference Reduction

Siemens

Interference Reduction

Contents
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 Power Control General Information Measurement Preprocessing for Power Control Power Control Decision Power Control Execution Parameters for Power Control Execution Power and Quality Measurements on Uplink/Downlink TCHs Discontinuous Transmission DTX Channel Allocation Due to Interference Level General Parameters for Channel Allocation due to Interference Level Interference Level Measurements on Idle TCHs Exercise 3 4 6 8 12 15 16 19 23 24 28 30 33

MN1788EU08MN_0001

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Siemens

Interference Reduction

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MN1788EU08MN_0001

Interference Reduction

Siemens

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Power Control

MN1788EU08MN_0001

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Siemens

Interference Reduction

1.1

General Information

The objective of power control is to adapt the transmit power of the MS as well as of the BTS to the reception conditions. For example a mobile station MS 1 located near the BTS can use a lower transmit power than a mobile station MS 2 at the edge of a cell to achieve the required uplink quality.

Advantages of power control:
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reduction of the average power consumption (especially in the MS), reduction of the interference experienced by co-channel (for adjacent) channel users.

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MN1788EU08MN_0001

MN1788EU08MN_0001 5 .Interference Reduction Siemens BTS T X P W R T X P W R MS 1 MS 2 Fig. 1 Power control is applied separately for the uplink and the downlink and separately for each logical channel. Remark: Downlink power control is not applied for downlink bursts using the BCCH frequency. It can be enabled/disabled using the following flags (administered within the PWRC object): Specification Name EN_MS_PC EN_BS_PC DB Name EMSPWRC EBSPWRC Meaning Flag to enable/disable uplink power control. Flag to enable/disable downlink power control.

The measurement reports (uplink and downlink) referring to the same SACCH multiframe are used as input parameters for the Measurement Report averaging procedures.RXLEV_UL_FULL / SUB RXQUAL_DL_FULL / SUB. The TRX performs the uplink measurements on the dedicated channel. measurements of: l l received signal level received signal quality are carried out over each SACCH multiframe. Every SACCH multiframe the MS sends in the next SACCH message block the downlink measurements on the dedicated channel (averaged over one SACCH multiframe) via the Measurement Report message to the serving TRX of the BTS. For PC purposes. The adjustment of the transmit power of the MS and the BTS is based on following measurement values: l l RXLEV_DL_FULL / SUB.Siemens Interference Reduction 1. This means that any SACCH message will report the averaged data for the previous reporting period only.2 Measurement Preprocessing for Power Control Any control loop is based on measurements of the controlled system parameters. implemented within the BTS. for each call in progress and for both links (downlink/uplink).RXQUAL_UL_FULL / SUB 6 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a gliding average window and a weighting of FULL and SUB values is used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e. . . . . . . . . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . used for power control decisions Weighting for RXQUAL_FULL values Averaging window size for RXLEV values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The parameters for measurement preprocessing for power control are administered in the object PWRC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification Name A_QUAL_PC DB Name PAVRQUAL AQUALPC PAVRQUAL WQUALPC PAVRLEV ALEVPC PAVRLEV WLEVPC Range 1-31 Meaning Averaging window size for RXQUAL values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens The measurement values are preprocessed within the BTS in the same way as for the handover process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . used for power control decisions Weighting factor for RXLEV_FULL values W_QUAL_PC A_LEV_PC 1-3 1-31 W_LEV_PC 1-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Power Control Decision Process 8 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .3 Power Control Decision For power control decision the average values of RXLEV_UL/DL and RXQUAL_UL/DL are compared with some preset thresholds (O&M parameters).Siemens Interference Reduction 1. PC Decision Process RXQUAL_XX< U_RXQUAL_XX_P no yes yes RXLEV_XX< L_RXLEV_XX_P + 2* POW_RED_ STEP_SIZE no power decrease X RXQUAL_XX> L_RXQUAL_XX_P yes power increase no X RXLEV_XX> U_RXLEV_XX_P yes power increase no X RXLEV_XX< L_RXLEV_XX_P no yes power increase X Fig.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens Power Control Decision RXQUAL 7 Power Increase (bad quality) L_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Increase (bad level) U_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Decrease (good quality) RXLEV 0 L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P 63 Power Decrease (good level) 2 * POW_RED_STEP_SIZE Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Because sudden fades may deteriorate the quality very rapidly.g. i. The reason for this is that the transmitter power directly affects the quality of the radio link regardless of the overall received signal level. that the O&M parameter POW_RED_STEP_SIZE is defined in terms of a difference between two transmit power levels. This introduces stability into the control process and guarantees an adequate speech quality. a power decrease decision for quality reasons should not be followed by power increase decision for signal level reasons.e. e. An unit power level step corresponds to a nominal 2 dB step in the variation of the transmit power. rather than on the received signal level. i. a “deadband” type of control response is produced. RXQUAL_XX = 0 corresponds to the least BER (best signal quality: BER<0. The test RXLEV_XX < L_RXLEV_XX_P + 2 * POW_RED_STEP_SIZE should prevent the control loop from oscillating. that the controlled variables involved in the algorithm are used in accordance with their coding.e. If the controlled variable (its average value) lies in the tolerance defined by the thresholds.2%). 10 MN1788EU08MN_0001 . Note. which may be dominated by co-channel interference. if the above condition is satisfied.Siemens Interference Reduction The power control decision is primarily based upon the received signal quality. then no control action is taken. Field measurements have shown that even at very low received power levels a good quality for a radio link can be obtained with a relative high probability. Note. the received power level is then compared with the corresponding lower threshold to ensure a required minimum power level on the radio link.

Interference Reduction Siemens Parameters for Power Control Decision The parameters for power control decision are administered in the object PWRC Specification Name L_RXLEV_DL_P L_RXLEV_UL_P U_RXLEV_DL_P U_RXLEV_UL_P L_RXQUAL_DL_P L_RXQUAL_UL_P U_RXQUAL_DL_P U_RXQUAL_UL_P DB Name LOWTLEVD LOWTLEVU UPTLEVD UPTLEVU LOWTQUAD LOWTQUAU UPTQUAD UPTQUAU Range 0. DL...7 0. DL. DL.: U_RXQUAL_XX_P L_RXLEV_XX_H < < L_RXQUAL_XX_P < L_RXLEV_XX_P < L_RXQUAL_XX_ H U_RXLEV_XX_P XX = UL..e. DL.7 The following integrity conditions on the power control thresholds have to be observed: U_RXQUAL_XX_P < L_RXLEV_XX_P < L_RXQUAL_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P XX = UL.63 Meaning RXLEV threshold on downlink/uplink for power increase RXLEV threshold on downlink/uplink for power decrease RXQUAL threshold on downlink/uplink for power increase RXQUAL threshold on downlink/uplink for power decrease 0.63 0.. XX = UL. XX = UL. Furthermore the power control thresholds have to harmonize with the ones for handover... MN1788EU08MN_0001 11 ... i.

Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX. The maximum range for uplink power control is given by: 13 dBm .4 Power Control Execution Having detected within the decision process that a change of transmit power should be carried out... 4 or 6 dB POW_RED_STEP_SIZE: 2 or 4 dB. However... the strategy is to change the transmit power in small steps and then analyze the resulting RXQUAL. If power control would only be based on RXLEV. the difference between RXLEV and the level threshold could be used as the step size for power control decision. Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX. the value for this change has to be fixed.Siemens Interference Reduction 1. P) for a GSM-MS for a GSM-MS for a DCS1800-MS Phase 1 Phase 2 where P is the maximum RF output power of the MS (power class) and MS_TXPWR_MAX the maximum transmit power allowed in the respective cell. The minimum step size for transmit power adjustment is 2 dB. 12 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .. P) 5 dBm . To be able to react fast enough on sudden drops of link quality it is recommended: POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE > POW_RED_STEP_SIZE. since the main objective is to maintain an acceptable speech quality and since there is no direct simple relation between a change of the transmit power level and the resulting change of RXQUAL. P) 0 dBm . This means that fixed step sizes for power increase and power decrease are used given by the parameters: l l POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE: 2. Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX..

Thus it is recommended to set P_CON_INTERVAL > A_QUAL_PC in terms of a number of multiframes. The range for downlink power control is then given by: BS_TXPWR_MAX .2 * BS_TXPWR_RED BS_TXPWR_RED = 0.POW_RED_STEP_SIZE (Power Decrease) where CONF_TXPWR is the confirmed power level used by the MS or BTS on the concerned channel. 1. by this means the power control process is stabilized. BS_TXPWR_MAX with a step size of 2 dB. If these values of REQ_TXPWR are not within the range for power control.. i. Unit: 2 dB. The reason for this is to allow an observation of the effect of one power control decision before initializing the next one.e. the power control decision process is suspended for a certain number of SACCH multiframes given by the parameter P_CON_INTERVAL.. 6. . the power control decision process is suspended and it is waited for a confirmation that the transmit power of the MS/BTS is adjusted to requested value.Interference Reduction Siemens For downlink power control the range is determined by the maximum output power PBTS of the BTS and the static reduction BS_TXPWR_RED of the BTS output power: BS_TXPWR_MAX = PBTS .30 dB .. Having requested a transmit power REQ_TXPWR. the nearest value within the range is used instead. In the case of a power control decision a MS/BS Power Control message is created wherein the MS/BS is requested to adjust its transmit power level to: REQ_TXPWR = CONF_TXPWR + POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE (Power Increase) REQ_TXPWR = CONF_TXPWR .. MN1788EU08MN_0001 13 . If a confirmation is received. If such a confirmation is not received within an interval of P_CONFIRM SACCH multiframes. the power control decision process is immediately resumed using the most recently reported confirmed value. CONF_TXPWR = REQ_TXPWR.

Siemens Interference Reduction Time relations for power control execution: l l case 1: case 2: requested transmit power confirmed requested transmit power not confirmed (1) requested transmit power confirmed request TXPWR CONF_TXPWR = REQ_TXPWR resume Power Control (1) (2) suspension of PC decision P_CON_INTERVAL time P_CONFIRM resume Power Control (2) requested transmit power not confirmed Fig. 4 14 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

. MAX (DCS) MAX = Min (MS_TXPWR_MAX.2 * BS_TXPWR_RED Range for downlink power control: BS_TXPWR_MAX . BS_TXPWR_MAX BS_TXPWR_RED PWRRED / TRX POW_INCR_ STEP_SIZE PWRINCSS / PWRC DB2. 19 = 5 dBm (GSM......31 * 2 TSACCH 0. 15 = 13 dBm (GSM. Step size for power increase DB6 DB2..31 * 2 TSACCH Maximum interval for waiting for a confirmation of the new transmit power level.. 15 = 0 dBm (DCS) Range for uplink power control: 5 dBm .Interference Reduction Siemens 1.6 * 2 dB Static reduction of the TRX output power: BS_TXPWR_MAX = PBTS . 1. phase 2) 0 dBm . phase 1) 0 = 43 dBm. DB4..... DB4 Step size for power reduction POW_RED_ STEP_SIZE PWREDSS / PWRC P_CONFIRM PWRCONF / PWRC 1..19 GSM maximum TXPWR an MS may use 0.30 dB ..5 Parameters for Power Control Execution DB Name /Object Range Meaning Specification Name MS_TXPWR_MAX MSTXPMAX / BTSB 0. Minimum interval between changes of the RF transmit power level (time for suspension of a power control decision after a power control execution) P_CON_INTERVA PCONINT L / PWRC MN1788EU08MN_0001 15 ..15 DCS in the serving cell * 2 dB 0 = 43 dBm.. P) P: power class of the MS 0. phase 2) 0 = 30 dBm. MAX (GSM.

used in the handover and RF power control processes. 16 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .0 --- BR3. This measurements considers the kind of configuration of the Traffic Channel (Fullrate.6 Overview Long name OMC name Power and Quality Measurements on Uplink/Downlink TCHs Power and quality measurements on uplink/downlink TCHs powerAndQualityMeasOnTCHsUplinkDownlink PWRUPDW CHANMEAS (64+8) *2 = 144 64 values. one for each RXQUAL band 2 times of these values (uplink.Siemens Interference Reduction 1.08). downlink) CC. Integer --TRX per TCH BR3. Halfrate).0 short name Function group Number of counters Kind of counters Unit of counters Observed object Measurement depth First release implemented GSM/CCITT reference Description These performance measurements are based on the radio link measurements RXLEV and RXQUAL (as standardized in GSM 05. one for each RXLEV band 8 values.

.4% RXQUAL_7: 12.. One "scanReport" notification is generated at the end of the granularity period and sent by the BTS to the BSC.. The RXQUAL. (equivalent to BER.8% BER < 1. -109 dBm -109 dBm.. The performance measurements to be processed with these raw data provide for each busy traffic channel: a) the number of times the received signal level exists. -48 dBm > -48 dBm BER < 12. the MS received signal level in dBm (reported as RXLEV value) and received signal quality.8% RXLEV_63: RXLEV_0: RXLEV_1: RXLEV_2: <-110 dBm -110 dBm./ RXLEV-Bands are separated as follows: RXQUAL_0: RXQUAL_1: 0.8% BER = Bit error rate < < < < < < < BER < 0.2% BER < 6.4% BER < 0.2% RXQUAL_2: 0.Interference Reduction Siemens Trigger Events For the selected Traffic Channel in use. -108 dBm MN1788EU08MN_0001 17 .4% BER RXLEV_62: -49 dBm.6% BER < 3. The measurements on uplink and downlink idle TCHs are always reported together. reported as RXQUAL value) are reported to the BTS at 480 ms intervals. containing the accumulated value for each RXLEV/RXQUAL band.. b) the number of times the received signal quality exists.8% RXQUAL_4: 1. as the corresponding RXLEV value (0 to 63).6% RXQUAL_5: 3..2% RXQUAL_6: 6. within the corresponding RXQUAL bands The counters per RXLEV/RXQUAL band are implemented in the BTS.4% RXQUAL_3: 0.2% BER < 0.

Siemens Interference Reduction 18 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

Interference Reduction Siemens 2 Discontinuous Transmission DTX MN1788EU08MN_0001 19 .

The difficulty is to find techniques to distinguish noisy speech from real noise even in a noisy environment. Each direction of transmission is occupied about 50% of time. The receive sides generates a similar noise called comfort noise during periods where the radio transmission is cut. DTX is a mode of operation where the transmitters are switched on only for those frames containing useful information. SBS parameter for DTX / VAD administration: Specification Name Object/ Package DB Name DTXUL Meaning 0: MS may use DTX (if possible) 1: MS shall use DTX 2: MS shall not use DTX FALSE: downlink DTX disabled at BTS TRUE: downlink DTX enabled at BTS DTX indicator uplink BTS/BTS O DTX indicator down-link BTS/BTS O DTXDL 20 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .Siemens Interference Reduction The goal of DTX is to reduce MS power consumption and to reduce the interference in a cell. The background acoustic noise has to be evaluated in order to transmit characteristic parameters to the receive side. These algorithms are implemented in the VAD (Voice Activity Detection) function.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This means instead of one frame of 260 bits per 20 ms only one frame per 480 ms is sent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This low rate is enough to encode the background noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . These so called SID frames (Silence Descriptor Frames) are sent at the start of every inactivity period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Between TRAU and BTS these comfort noise frames are sent all 20 ms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . then all 480 ms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens The goal of DTX is to reduce the speech data rate from 13 kbit/s (user speaking) to 500 bit/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as long as the inactivity lasts between BTS and MS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The time behavior looks like following: TRAU <-> BTS SSSSCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCSSCCCCCCCS BTS <-> MS SSSSC where C C C SSC C S S = speech frame C = comfort noise frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DL 35 5 6 Contents of a speech block for transmission at 16 kbit/s. data. UL frame synchronization discrimination: speech. full rate.60 22 MN1788EU08MN_0001 . half rate time alignment bad frame indication DTX mode other info speech spare 35 5 6 1 1 3 260 5 1 1 260 9 number of bits. details in GSM 08.Siemens Interference Reduction The so called TRAU frame contains not only these 260 bit: number of bits.

Interference Reduction Siemens 3 Channel Allocation Due to Interference Level MN1788EU08MN_0001 23 .

24 MN1788EU08MN_0001 . The averaged value is mapped on an RXLEV value (0.. i. the level values in [dBm] in each TDMA frame are averaged over one SACCH period. Since these measurements are related to idle channel the measured level is interpreted as interference level caused by a mobile in another cell using this channel or an adjacent channel (or by an external source of interference). an arithmetic mean RXLEV_IDLE of a certain number of successive interference level samples.1 General The BTS performs measurements of the (uplink) received level on all its idle traffic channels (TCHs) in the same way as for the busy channels. Having measured the interference level for some SACCH multiframes.e. i... . given by a parameter INTAVE.e. The information on the interference level can be taken into account at channel selection to assign the channel with the lowest interference level which is expected to guarantee the best link quality. l l in cells with low traffic load where some idle channels are available for assignment if the interference level on idle channels differs significantly (this is not the case if random frequency hopping is applied). 63).Siemens Interference Reduction 3. is calculated if the channel has been idle for the whole measurement period INTAVE * TSACCH. The following section describes the classification and selection of traffic channels due to interference level in more detail. An improvement of link quality by this mechanism is only possible if there is a choice.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . an idle traffic channel is classified as a channel of Interference Band 1 if Interference Band 2 if Interference Band 3 if Interference Band 4 if Interference Band 5 if 0 X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 < RXLEV_IDLE < < < < < X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 = 63 < RXLEV_IDLE < RXLEV_IDLE < RXLEV_IDLE < RXLEV_IDLE where X1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens Using this averaged interference level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X5 denote the boundaries (O&M parameter) of the five interference bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 < X1 < X2 < X3 < X4 < X5 = 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 MN1788EU08MN_0001 . The period for sending the RF Resource Indication message can be set by a parameter RF_RES_IND_PERIOD. it is not taken into account in the classification procedure. the TRX immediately sends the result of this classification to the BSC (RF Resource Indication message) where it is used in the channel allocation process.Siemens Interference Reduction RXLEV_IDLE low quality X5 Interference Band 5 X4 Interference Band 4 X3 Interference Band 3 X2 Interference Band 2 X1 Interference Band 1 0 high quality Fig. Having classified all the traffic channels which have been idle during the whole measurement period. 5 If a traffic channel has not been idle during the whole measurement period.

In the case of a call setup as well as in the case of a handover a traffic channel out of the best non-empty interference class is allocated. RF resource indication period RF_RES_IND_PERIOD = 15 averaging period INTAVE = 5 averaging period INTAVE = 5 time SACCH_ Multiframe RF RES IND (TRX -> BSC) RF RES IND (TRX -> BSC) Fig. A condensed form of the information on the “quality” of the idle traffic channels at a certain BTS is sent from the BSC to the MSC using the RESOURCE INDICATION message. the number of idle TCHs which are available separately in each of the five interference bands.Interference Reduction Siemens The time relations between measurements in the BTS and information sending to the BSC is illustrated in the figure below. 6 MN1788EU08MN_0001 27 . This message contains. for a specified cell (BTS).

. 0.Siemens Interference Reduction 3... Specification Name EN_INT_CLASS INTAVE DB Name INTCLASS INTAVEPR averaging Period Range Meaning TRUE/ Flag to enable the classification FALSE procedure in the BTS 1..254 Period for sending the classification * TSACCH information to the BSC. X5 INTAVEPR interference Thresholds Boundaries RF_RES_IND_PERIO RFRSINDP D 1.. A traffic channels which has not been idle during the whole measurement and averaging period..2 Parameters for Channel Allocation due to Interference Level The parameters are administered in the object BTS in the package BTSI and are listed in the table below. Relations: 0 < X1 < X2 < X3 < X4 < X5 = 63 INTAVE < RF_RES_IND_PERIOD 28 MN1788EU08MN_0001 ... X1. X2. it is not take into account in the classification procedure..63 Boundaries of the interference classes/ bands.31 Period for averaging the measured * TSACCH interference level..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This measurement is executed per selected cell.Siemens Interference Reduction 3. of idle TCHs one value for each of the 5 interference bands CC. Integer --TRX per idle TCH. 30 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .0 short name Function group Number of counters Kind of counters Unit of counters Observed object Measurement depth First release implemented GSM/CCITT reference Description The measurement "Interference measurements on uplink idle TCHs" provides the number of times the measured RXLEV value on the idle TCHs exists within the appropriate interference bands. per interference band BR3.3 Overview Long name OMC name Interference Level Measurements on Idle TCHs Interference level Measurements on idle TCHs interferenceLevelMeasOnIdleTCHs ILUPLKIC TRXMEAS 5 * No.0 --- BR3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The BTS transmits the result of this classification regularly to the BSC using the RF RESource INDication message. . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interference Reduction Siemens Trigger Events This performance measurement is based on the radio link measurement RXLEV on idle traffic channels (standardized in GSM 05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .08. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of the received level are made over every SACCH multiframe period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interference measurements have to be performed on all idle TCHs of a BTS separately by each TRX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . These radio link measurement data are used to calculate this proprietary performance measurement within the BSC described below. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vers. . . . . . . . . . . . An arithmetic mean of a certain number of successive interference level measurements shall be calculated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . used for definition of the channel allocation algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'They are also used for execution of the GSM 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13: "Mean Number of Idle TCHs per Interference Band". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM 08. . . . . . . . . . . B. . . The idle TCHs are classified using 5 interference bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values are calculated for those TCHs which have been idle during the whole measurement period INTAVE x TSACCH (480ms). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This number is given by the parameter INTAVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1788EU08MN_0001 31 . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The BTS maps the averaged interference level measurements into these 5 interference bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 defined performance measurement Annex B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens Interference Reduction 32 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

Interference Reduction Siemens 4 Exercise MN1788EU08MN_0001 33 .

Siemens Interference Reduction 34 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

the following thresholds for the uplink power control decision are set: L_RXQUAL_P = 4 U_RXQUAL_P = 3 L_RXLEV_P = 20 U_RXLEV_P = 26 Power Control In the table below some examples for the measured and average (uplink) RXLEV and RXQUAL as well as for the last confirmed TXPWR are given. Within the cell serving that MS the following parameters are set: MS_TXPWR_MAX = 33 dBm BS_TXPWR_MAX = 43 dBm POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE = 3 (6 dB) POW_RED_STEP_SIZE = 2 (4 dB) Furthermore. What are the corresponding values for the new commended TXPWR? Example last confirmed TXPWR (dBm) 25 21 15 31 17 RXQUAL RXLEV new commanded TXPWR ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 23 28 30 25 34 MN1788EU08MN_0001 35 .Interference Reduction Siemens Exercise 1 Title: Task Consider a mobile station (of GSM phase 1) of maximum output power PMS = 39 dBm.

Siemens Interference Reduction 36 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

Interference Reduction Siemens Exercise 2 Title: Task Consider a cell with the following parameters or interference classification: INTAVE = 2 RF_RES_IND_PERIO = 4 X1 = 10 X2 = 20 X3 = 30 X4 = 40 X5 = 63 The following levels have been measured by the BTS on its channels each SACCH frame Channel Allocation due to Interference Level chan 1 chan 2 chan 3 chan 4 B B 12 20 1 19 B 14 22 2 21 B 14 18 3 23 B 16 18 4 15 B 14 17 5 15 B 14 18 6 SACCH frame B: busy channel Last RF Resource indication message To which interference bands do channel 1-4 belong at SACCH frame 7? Which channel is allocated this time in the case of an assignment request? MN1788EU08MN_0001 37 .

Siemens Interference Reduction 38 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .

Interference Reduction Siemens Exercise 3 Enable the power control mechanism and create the related scanner MN1788EU08MN_0001 39 .

Siemens Interference Reduction 40 MN1788EU08MN_0001 .