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FREE ENERGY AND ANTIGRAVITATIONAL
DEVICES AND SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE
GRAVITATIONAL MASS FLUCTUATIONS
William S. Alek
INTALEK, INC., 3506 43rd Place, Highland, IN 463223129, USA Phone:(219) 9242742 http://www.intalek.com/ mailto:wsalek01@intalek.com
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to reveal a portion of classical physics that contains an intrinsic relativistic phenomenon called Gravitational Mass Fluctuations. A correlation has been established between mass, inductors, and capacitors, thereby linking gravity to electromagnetism. A simplified gravitational mass relativity model called Natural Relativity (NR) Theory is presented and shown to be a primary gravitational effect. This theory is correlated to Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) Theory, and as a consequence, creates a new “Principle of Equivalence Theorem” and a secondary gravitational effect. A temporal rotation operator is introduced using Euler’s Identity, which shows the complex (i.e., timefuture) motion of matter. The speed of light c, Planck's constant h, permeability µ0, permittivity ε0, Boltzmann's Constant k, electric charge q, and the Fine Structure Constant α are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity because the fluctuation or curvature of the parameters that compose these constants are shown to evaluate to unity gain. In other words, these constants remain constant anywhere with a given gravity well. Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that the magnetic field energy produced by a moving electron is equivalent to its’ special relativistic mass fluctuation, and therefore, is shown to couple to gravity. This motion can either have a typical velocity or a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity. If the velocity is complex, then the special relativistic mass fluctuation of an electron is NEGATIVE, exhibit an antigravitational effect, and produce a complex (i.e., timefuture) magnetic field. In addition, the total field energy of a complex magnetic field contained within a volume is NEGATIVE. In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, an Amperian Current is described as an electron circulating around a nucleus at a relativistic speed. This creates a magnetic induction emerging from the center of the nucleus. Canceling this field by applying an external magnetic induction causes the velocity of the electron to become complex. The presence of NEGATIVE RESISTANCE, the production of NEGATIVE ENERGY, and the control of GRAVITY/ANTIGRAVITY occur by fluctuating the mass of an object. The theory presents a conceptual breakthrough in energy and highspeed field propulsion technology, and explores solutions based entirely within the framework of classical physics.
INTRODUCTION
Puthoff (1996) coined the phrase, “metric engineering”, and Puthoff, Little and Ibison (2002) consider the vacuum to be a polarizable medium, and that it can be expressed in terms of tensor formulations of curved spacetime. The bending of light passing near a massive object is caused by induced spatial variation in the refractive index of the vacuum near the object. This is correlated to changes in permeability µ0 and permittivity ε0 of the vacuum. Changes occurring in the vacuum also affect the mass of objects, the length and bending of rulers, the frequency of clocks, the energy of light, etc. This paper links gravity with electromagnetism by presenting formulations of curved spacetime in terms of classical physics, which are caused by relativistic fluctuations of mass M , inductance L , and capacitance C of an object. For example, when an object with mass M naturally falls downward in a given gravity well, its’ natural relativistic mass M increases due to Newtonian Gravitation, or universal mass attraction. Therefore, the new mass of an object is displaced to a new position within this well, and massenergy remains conserved. However, by converting this increase in relativistic mass M to energy, a force acts upon the object, and
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
the new mass is now displaced to its original position that was higher vertically in the well. The object exhibits an antigravitational effect. The rate of change of this fluctuation could cause the speed of the object to easily exceed the speed of light. This is because the relativistic gravitational mass of the object, which is shown to be convergent, is moving at right angles to a relativistic inertial mass, which is shown to be divergent. Since the speed of the object with relativistic gravitational mass has no known upper limit, the resulting speed through deep space could be enormous and necessitates the use of the warp factor equation.
EVERYTHING IN THIS UNIVERSE IS CURVED!
CURVATURE DUE TO GRAVITY
OBSERVER ON MOON WOULD SEE SAME OBJECT ON EARTH AS BEING MORE MASSIVE AND SMALLER IN SIZE
SAME OBJECT WITH MASS OF 1kg AND VOLUME OF 1m3
SAME OBJECT WITH MASS OF 1kg AND VOLUME OF 1m3
r EYE SURFACE OF MOON
gMOON
r
g0 EYE
SURFACE OF EARTH
OBSERVER ON EARTH WOULD SEE SAME OBJECT ON MOON AS BEING LESS MASSIVE AND LARGER IN SIZE
FIGURE 1. The same sphere changes in mass and size due to changes of gravity.
Shown above are two spheres with equal mass and size. Since the gravity of the Moon g MOON is approximately 1 6 the gravity of the Earth g 0 , an observer on the Moon would measure an identical sphere on the Earth as having more mass and being smaller in volume. Likewise, an observer on the Earth would measure an identical sphere on the Moon as having less mass, and larger in volume. This is due to the curvature of space and time caused by universal mass attraction, or gravity. So, relative to an observer on the Earth, a 1 kg sphere of mass on the Moon has less mass than the same 1 kg sphere of mass on the Earth. And, a 1m3 sphere of volume on the Moon is larger in size than the same 1m3 sphere of volume on the Earth. This relativistic change in mass and volume are referred to as Gravitational Mass Fluctuations, or GMF.
THE MUTUAL EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE
Marmet (2001) considers “separately” the influence of a gravitational potential upon matter, and assumes for the moment that kinetic energy is zero. He’s implicitly invoking what I call the mutual exclusion principle, and therefore, considers kinetic energy and gravitational energy independently. The mutual exclusion principle is a tool used to compute the curvature or fluctuation of various parameters related to Gravitational Energy systems. For Kinetic Energy systems, the following fluxbased parameters mass M , inductor L , and capacitor C , are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity gY . However, for Gravitational Energy systems, and given an equipotential surface of gravity reference, the following temporalbased parameters relativistic mass ±∆M , relativistic inductor ±∆L , and relativistic capacitor ±∆C , fluctuate or curve between equipotential surfaces of gravity. The kinetic energy of Gravitational Energy systems is assumed to be zero. By applying the product rule, the mutual exclusion principle is mathematically expressed as,
z (t ) = d dx dy ( x y) = y + x = yx+ x y dt dt dt
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is,
z (t ) = y x
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
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And the Gravitational Coupling Term or temporalbased fluctuating system is,
z (t ) = x y
The first term is regarded as kinetic or fluxes, and therefore, couples to inertia and is Newtonianbased. The second term is regarded as temporal, and therefore, couples to gravity and is nonNewtonianbased. This principle, which has been implicitly used for several centuries, excludes one term from the other. The fixed distance + y and the changing distance + y or +∆y are directed towards the center of gravity. The fixed distance + x and the changing distance + x or +∆x are directed across an equipotential surface of gravity.
GRAVITATIONAL MASS FLUCTUATION
FLUCTUATING MASS M ±M
−y +y
r∓r
g0
FIGURE 2. The fluctuating mass of an object.
The complete ideal momentum model is composed of two terms,
fM (t ) =
dpY d ( M vY ) dv dM = = M Y + vY = M vY + vY M dt dt dt dt
(1)
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is M vY , and mass M is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . The Gravitational Coupling Term is vY M , and changing mass M fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. For a “mass fluctuating system”, the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero Newtons. So, given an object 2 having mass M moving at constant velocity vY , or vY = 0 m s , the Flux Coupling Term is,
fM (t ) = M vY = 0 N
(2)
This removes the Flux Coupling Term, leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term,
fM (t ) = vY M ≠ 0 N
(3)
Since M has units of resistance in mNs m 2 , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If
M is negative, it has units of negative resistance or, M < 0 mNs m 2
(4)
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for certain values of M . INC. integrating PM with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of mass M or. EM (t ) = ∫ PM (t ) dt = vY 2 ∫ M dt = vY 2 M (t ) > 0 Joules (11) So. for certain values of M . EM (t ) = M (t ) vY 2 (12) By rearranging terms. Rev 3. fM (t ) = M vY = EM E v = M 2 Y vY vY (15) William Alek Page 4 5/22/2005 . the mass equivalent of energy M is. the total instantaneous power PM can be NEGATIVE or. M > 0 mNs m 2 (8) Now.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PM of a fluctuating mass M is. EM (t ) = ∫ PM (t ) dt = vY 2 ∫ M dt = vY 2 M (t ) < 0 Joules (7) If M is positive. PM (t ) = vY fM (t ) = vY 2 M (9) So. M (t ) = EM (t ) vY 2 (13) The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M is.2 Now. the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EM is. PM (t ) < 0 Watts (6) Then. integrating PM with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of mass M or. PM (t ) > 0Watts (10) Then. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PM of a fluctuating mass M is. the gravitational momentum model is. the total instantaneous power PM can be POSITIVE or. PM (t ) = vY fM (t ) = vY 2 M (5) So. M = EM vY 2 (14) So. it has units of positive resistance or.
∆M = fM ∆y c2 (23) William Alek Page 5 5/22/2005 . INC.2 Letting y = dy dt = vY . the change in total mass M is. the Gravitational Force Coupling Term is. EM (t ) = M (t ) c 2 (18) The change in this total energy EM is. EM = fM (t ) y (17) The total energy EM contained within matter is. M = fM (t ) y c2 (21) The derivative form is. dM = fM dy c2 (22) The difference form is. the time derivative form of the Gravitational Mass Coupling Term is. fM (t ) = EM y (16) By rearranging terms. Rev 3. the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EM is. M = EM c2 (20) So. EM = M c 2 (19) By rearranging terms.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.
The complete ideal inductor model is composed of two terms. PL (t ) = I L ν L (t ) = I L 2 L (28) So. the Flux Coupling Term is. By applying a constant current I L through inductor L .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. The Gravitational Coupling Term is I LL . the total instantaneous power PL can be NEGATIVE or. the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero volts. The fluctuating inductance of an object. changing inductance L fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. L < 0Ω (27) Now. (25) ν L (t ) = I L L ≠ 0 Volts (26) Since L has units of resistance in ohms. ν L (t ) = L I L = 0Volts This removes the Flux Coupling Term. PL (t ) < 0Watts (29) William Alek Page 6 5/22/2005 . or I L = 0 Amps s . Ω . ν L (t ) = dI d dL ( L I L ) = L L + I L = L I L + I LL dt dt dt (24) Where. Rev 3. and inductance L is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . For an “inductive fluctuating system”. INC. the Flux Coupling Term is L I L . its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PL of a fluctuating inductor L is. for certain values of L .2 GRAVITATIONAL INDUCTIVE MASS FLUCTUATION FLUCTUATING INDUCTANCE −y +y IL L±L g0 + vL  FIGURE 3. If L is negative. leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term. it has units of negative resistance or.
fL (t ) = M L vY = EL E I 2L vY = L = L vY 2 vY vY (40) William Alek Page 7 5/22/2005 . INC.2 Then. L > 0Ω (31) Now. for certain values of L . the mass equivalent of energy M L is. M L (t ) = EL (t ) I L 2 L(t ) = vY 2 vY 2 I L 2 L(t ) M L (t ) (37) vY 2 = (38) The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M L is. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PL of a fluctuating inductor L is. it has units of positive resistance or. EL (t ) = EM (t ) (35) Then. Rev 3. integrating PL with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of inductor L or. the total instantaneous power PL can be POSITIVE or. PL (t ) = I L ν L (t ) = I L 2 L (32) So. EL (t ) = ∫ PL dt = I L 2 ∫ L dt = I L 2 L(t ) < 0 Joules (30) If L is positive. the gravitational inductor model is. ML = EL I L 2 L = vY 2 vY 2 (39) So. the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EL is. integrating PL with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of inductor L or. PL (t ) > 0 Watts (33) Then.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. EL (t ) = ∫ PL dt = I L 2 ∫ L dt = I L 2 L(t ) > 0 Joules (34) Equate this to the energy equivalent of mass EM . EL (t ) = vY 2 M L (t ) = I L 2 L(t ) (36) By rearranging terms.
Rev 3. EL = M L c 2 (44) By rearranging terms.2 Letting y = dy dt = vY .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. dL = fL L dy M L c2 (47) The difference form is. ∆L = f L L ∆y M L c2 (48) William Alek Page 8 5/22/2005 . EL = fL (t ) y (42) The total energy EL contained within matter is. fL (t ) = EL (t ) y (41) By rearranging terms. L= fL (t ) L(t ) y M L (t ) c 2 (46) The derivative form is. ML = EL fL (t ) y I L 2 L I 2L M (t ) L = = 2 = 2L = L 2 2 L(t ) c c y I L L(t ) M L (t ) (45) So. the Gravitational Inductive Force Coupling Term is. INC. the time derivative form of the Gravitational Inductive Coupling Term is. the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EL is. EL (t ) = M L (t ) c 2 (43) The change in this total energy EL is. the change in total mass M is.
it has units of negative conductance or. leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term. its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PC of a fluctuating capacitor C is PC (t ) = iC (t ) VC = VC 2 C (53) So. iC (t ) = VC C ≠ 0 Amps (51) Since C has units of conductance in mhos. and changing capacitance C fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. The fluctuating capacitance of an object.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. The complete ideal capacitor model is composed of two terms. Rev 3. the Flux Coupling Term is CVC . C<0 (52) Now. iC (t ) = dV d dC = C VC + VC C (C VC ) = C C + VC dt dt dt (49) Where. The Gravitational Coupling Term is VC C . . PC (t ) < 0Watts (54) William Alek Page 9 5/22/2005 . the total instantaneous power PC can be NEGATIVE or. INC.2 GRAVITATIONAL CAPACITIVE MASS FLUCTUATION FLUCTUATING CAPACITANCE C ±C −y +y g0 + iC VC  + V  FIGURE 4. For a “capacitive fluctuating system”. or VC = 0Volts s . the Flux Coupling Term is. By applying a constant voltage across capacitor C . and capacitor C is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . iC (t ) = C VC = 0 Amps (50) This removes Flux Coupling Term. If C is negative. for certain values of C . the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero amps.
for certain values of C . the mass equivalent of energy M C is. EC (t ) = EM (t ) (60) Then. the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PC of a fluctuating capacitor C is. EC (t ) = ∫ PC dt = VC 2 ∫ C dt = VC 2 C (t ) > 0 Joules (59) Equate this to the energy equivalent of mass EM .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. C>0 (56) Now. EC (t ) = vY 2 M C (t ) = VC 2 C (t ) (61) By rearranging terms. it has units of positive conductance or. integrating PC with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of capacitor C or. the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EC is. fC (t ) = M C vY = EC E V 2C v = C = C 2 Y vY vY vY (65) William Alek Page 10 5/22/2005 . the total instantaneous power PC can be POSITIVE or PC (t ) > 0 Watts (58) Then. EC (t ) = ∫ PC dt = VC 2 ∫ C dt = VC 2 C (t ) < 0 Joules (55) If C is positive. the gravitational capacitor model is. PC (t ) = iC (t ) VC = VC 2 C (57) So. M C (t ) = EC (t ) C (t ) VC 2 = vY 2 vY 2 VC 2 C (t ) M C (t ) (62) vY 2 = (63) The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M C is.2 Then. INC. Rev 3. MC = EC VC 2 C = vY 2 vY 2 (64) So. integrating PC with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of capacitor C or.
2 Letting y = dy dt = vY . C= fC (t ) C (t ) y M C (t ) c 2 (71) The derivative form is. ∆C = fC C ∆y M C c2 (73) William Alek Page 11 5/22/2005 . the time derivative form of the Gravitational Capacitive Coupling Term is. EC = M C c 2 (69) By rearranging terms. the Gravitational Capacitive Force Coupling Term is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EC is. the change in total mass M is. EC (t ) = M C (t ) c 2 (68) The change in this total energy EC is. EC = fL (t ) y (67) The total energy EC contained within matter is. fC (t ) = EC y (66) By rearranging terms. dC = fC C dy M C c2 (72) The difference form is. MC = EC fC (t ) y VC 2 C VC 2 C M (t ) C = = = 2 = C 2 2 2 C (t ) c c y VC C (t ) M C (t ) (70) So. Rev 3. INC.
Rev 3.9787 × 10 kg ) g0 = = = 9. INDUCTOR OR CAPACITOR y 22.920 1kg OBJECT (BEFORE) y0 RADIUS g yn = G ME yn 2 NATURAL MASS FLUCTUATION DUE TO FREE FALL ∆y = y0 − y1 INCREASED GRAVITY 7. fy = G ME M = gy M y2 (74) So. given.0 7.1 0.0 g y1 = 7.529 6. Gravitational constant G = 6.5 1kg OBJECT (AFTER) y1 10. INC.0 g yn g y0 = 1. Natural universal mass attraction or classic Newtonian gravity is a force f y that acts through a center of mass of the Earth with mass M E and a test mass M separated by a distance y .3781× 106 m The surface gravity g 0 of the Earth is.9787 × 1024 kg Radius of Earth yE = 6.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5.500.3781× 106 m ) ( (75) William Alek Page 12 5/22/2005 .80665 m sec2 2 yE 2 6.67259 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5. −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.2 THE GRAVITATIONAL COUPLING OF A FLUCTUATING MASS.378.0 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY m sec2 g 0 = 9.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. The natural mass fluctuation of an object due to gravitational free fall.0 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE 19.5 5.0 2.8 FIGURE 5.
00537 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 (19.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5.03767 m sec 2 g y1 = 2 y12 7.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.529 × 106 m ) ( (77) Marmet (2001) equates force fM produced by a fluctuating mass dM to the gravitational force f y . dM dEM g y dy = = 2 M EM c (80) Marmet states the equation above shows a “calculated change of energy levels as a function of gravitational potential is in perfect agreement with the Pound and Rebka and also the Pound and Snider experiments”.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 1.2 The gravity g y0 at GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE position y0 is. Therefore. −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6. f y (t ) = fM (t ) (78) The derivative form of a fluctuating mass dM is.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 7. Let dYg y = g y dy . dM = fM dy g y M dy = c2 c2 (79) The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of mass dM M and the energy equivalent of mass dE E displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is. Rev 3.920 ×10 m ) (76) The gravity g y1 at position y1 is. g y0 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6. the exponential solutions of the derivative form of mass and energy equivalent of mass are.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5. ∫ M y1 M y0 1 1 dM = 2 M c My ∫ g y1 y1 g y0 y0 dYg y (81) ln ( M ) M 1 = y0 1 Yg c2 y g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0 (82) ⎛ My ln M y1 − ln M y0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ My ⎝ 0 ( ) ( ) ⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠ ( ) (83) M y1 M y0 =e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (84) M y1 = M y0 e⎝ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (85) William Alek Page 13 5/22/2005 . INC. energy increases as a function of downward or positive displacement within a given gravity well.
the exponential solution of the derivative form of an inductor is. SHIFT = ∆M ∆EM g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = = M EM c2 (87) SHIFT = (9.806650 m sec )( 6.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2. f y (t ) = fL (t ) (92) The derivative form of a fluctuating inductor dL is. the Pound.806650 m sec 2 )( 6.3781226 × 106 m) − ( 9. dL = fL L dy g y L dy = M L c2 c2 (93) The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductor dL L displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is. Rev 3.3781000 ×10 m ) − (9. they showed the BLUE SHIFT was.465961× 10−15 (90) (91) Now.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22. Rebka and Snider experiment used Mossbaurer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14. the force fL produced by a fluctuating inductor dL is equated to the gravitational force f y . SHIFT = ( 9.465961× 10−15 (88) (89) With the gamma rays emitted downward. ∫ Ly1 Ly0 1 1 dL = 2 L c Ly ∫ g y1 y1 g y0 y0 dYg y g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0 (95) ln ( L ) L 1 = y0 1 Yg c2 y (96) William Alek Page 14 5/22/2005 .806581 m sec )(6.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = −2. they showed the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result. dL g y dy = 2 L c (94) Let dYg y = g y dy .3781000 × 106 m ) (2.2 EM y1 = EM y0 e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ (86) So. With the gamma rays emitted upward. INC.6 m .3781226 ×10 m) 2 6 2 6 (2.806581 m sec2 )(6.
INC. f y (t ) = fC (t ) (101) The derivative form of a fluctuating inductor dC is.2 ⎛ Ly ln Ly1 − ln Ly0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ Ly ⎝ 0 ( ) ( ) ⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠ ( ) (97) Ly1 Ly0 =e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (98) Ly1 = Ly0 e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ (99) So. ∫ C y1 C y0 1 1 dC = 2 C c Cy ∫ g y1 y1 g y0 y0 dYg y (104) ln ( C ) C 1 = y0 1 Yg c2 y g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0 (105) ⎛ Cy ln C y1 − ln C y0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ Cy ⎝ 0 ( ) ( ) ⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠ ( ) (106) C y1 C y0 =e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (107) C y1 = C y0 e⎝ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (108) William Alek Page 15 5/22/2005 . dC = fC C dy g y C dy = M C c2 c2 (102) The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitor dC C displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the force fC produced by a fluctuating capacitor dC is equated to the gravitational force f y . SHIFT = ∆L g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = L c2 (100) Now. the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an inductor L is. dC dEC g y dy = = 2 C EC c (103) Let dYg y = g y dy . Rev 3. the exponential solution of the derivative form of a capacitor is.
an equivalent energy of the rest mass EM y0 . Rev 3. given a common equipotential surface of gravity reference g y . and is used throughout this paper. a decrease in gravity causes a natural relativistic decrease in the same metrics. M y1 = γ NR M y0 = M y0 ± ∆M y0 EMy1 = γ NR EMy0 = EMy0 ± ∆EMy 0 Ly1 = γ NR Ly0 = Ly0 ± ∆Ly0 (110) (111) (112) William Alek Page 16 5/22/2005 .2 So. and given an equipotential surface of gravity reference. Therefore. frequency. a new and simplified relativity model is introduced. an object of mass M displaced a distance ∆y changes back to its original mass when returned to its original position within a given gravity well. fluctuate or curve as a function of displacement ±∆y from this point of reference. Natural relativistic changes of mass. energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy). relativistic inductance ±∆L . This point may be located in a plane of equipotential surface of gravity. INC. the new equivalent energy of the rest mass EMy0 . the new rest mass M y1 .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a capacitor C is. and the gravity at that point may be increased or decreased based upon the sign of the displacement. Likewise. The establishment of a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE is defined as a fixed point of reference within a given gravity well g y . and capacitance. Marmet (2001) invokes the principle of massenergy conservation regarding the displacement of matter between planes. inductance. So. fluctuate or curve between equipotential surfaces of gravity by displacement ±∆y . A change of relativistic mass due to gravity. This displacement defines a new point within a new plane of equipotential surface of gravity g ±∆y . and the new capacitance C y1 are. energy. For example. an increase in gravity causes a natural relativistic increase in mass. an inductance Ly0 . the kinetic energy of gravitational energy systems is assumed to be zero. the following parameters including relativistic mass ±∆M . volume. and relativistic capacitance ±∆C . Again. For gravitational energy systems. SHIFT = ∆C g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = C c2 (109) NATURAL RELATIVITY THEORY M − ∆M DECREASED GRAVITY DECREASING MASS GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE INCREASING MASS INCREASED GRAVITY M + ∆M TOWARDS CENTER OF GRAVITY CURVATURE DUE TO −∆y GRAVITY gy MASS M AT REST +∆y FIGURE 6. and a capacitance C y0 . Given an object with a rest mass M y0 . etc. the new inductance Ly1 .
A change of relativistic mass due to velocity. and capacitor C y1 model at position ±∆y within a given gravity well g y are. Rev 3.2 C y1 = γ NR C y0 = C y0 ± ∆C y0 (113) The natural relativistic gamma γ NR is. γ NR = e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (114) The difference forms and the exponential forms of the natural relativistic mass M y1 model. William Alek Page 17 5/22/2005 .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. AT REST AND t = 0 sec gy CURVATURE DUE TO VELOCITY +∆y INCREASED GRAVITY t vx M + ∆M FIGURE 7. Natural Relativity (NR) Theory is the primary gravitational effect. ⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ = M y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = M y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ M y1 = M y0 ± ∆M y0 (115) EMy1 = EMy0 + ∆EMy0 = EMy0 ⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = EMy0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (116) ⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Ly1 = Ly0 + ∆Ly0 = Ly0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = Ly0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (117) ⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ C y1 = C y0 ± ∆C y0 = C y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = C y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (118) In summary. SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY TIME FUTURE DECREASED GRAVITY M − ∆M t TIME FORWARD + jvx −∆y GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE INITIAL MASS M. energy equivalent of mass EMy1 model. INC. inductor Ly1 model.
the derivative form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of mass dM M . the special relativistic mass M v model presented by Einstein (1905) shows an object moving at velocity vx is. energy equivalent of mass dEM EM . inductor dL L . or capacitor dC C of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. can be described as complex motion. γ SR = 1 + vx 2 2 c2 (122) The derivative form of the special relativistic mass M v model moving at velocity vx is. The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ . γ SR = 1 + 1 vx 2 3 vx 4 5 vx 6 35 vx 8 + + + + . Mv = M v2 1 − x2 c = γ M = M + dM (119) The gamma γ is. which functions as a temporal rotation operator. vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ (125) So..e.. the new special relativistic gamma γ SR is. where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . dM = M vx 2 2 c2 (124) An object can move at a real (i. INC.. timeforward) velocity vx .2 Given the rest mass of an object M . γ= 1 v2 1 − x2 c (120) Implementing the binomial expansion of the above equation.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. 2 c 2 8 c 4 16 c 6 128 c8 (121) Using the 1st order term of the expansion shown above where vx c . SHIFT = dM dEM dL dC vx 2 = = = = 2 M EM L C 2c (126) William Alek Page 18 5/22/2005 . ⎛ v2 ⎞ M v = γ SR M = M ± dM = M ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2c ⎠ (123) The derivative form of a fluctuating mass dM is. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. Rev 3.e. timefuture) velocity j vx . at an imaginary (i..
energy equivalent of mass EMv model. inductor Lv model. ⎛ v2 M v = M 0 ± ∆M 0 = M 0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c E M v = E M 0 ± ∆E M 0 ⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ = M 0 e⎝ ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (137) ⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ = EM 0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ = EM 0 e ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ (138) William Alek Page 19 5/22/2005 . and capacitor Cv model of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx are. ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ γ SR = e (136) The difference forms and the exponential forms of the special relativistic mass M v model.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. SHIFT = ∆M ∆E M ∆ L ∆ C v x 2 = = = = 2 M EM L C 2c (135) The special relativistic gamma γ SR is. the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a mass M . INC. an energy equivalent of mass EM . Rev 3. an inductor L . and a capacitor C is.2 The exponential solution of the derivative form of mass is. ∫ Mv M0 v2 1 dM = x 2 M 2c Mv (127) ln ( M ) M = 0 vx 2 2 c2 ⎞ vx 2 ⎟= 2 ⎠ 2c (128) ⎛M ln ( M v ) − ln ( M 0 ) = ln ⎜ v ⎝ M0 ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ Mv = e⎝ ⎠ M0 ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (129) ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (130) Mv = M0 e (131) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ EMv = EM 0 e Lv = L0 e ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ (132) (133) (134) ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ vx ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ 2 Cv = C0 e ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ So.
Rev 3. it follows. given an object moving at a complex velocity vx . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ . SHIFT = v2 ∆M = x2 M 2c (142) Then. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis as a complex velocity. an object displaced ±∆y within the Earth’s gravity well g y is equivalent to the same object moving at complex velocity vx . if the displacement ∆y is NEGATIVE. where j = −1 . However. vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ (146) So. SHIFT = ∆M g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = M c2 (141) And the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the same object due to velocity vx is.. then the object is moving at a real velocity vx . INC. where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤ y0 vx 2 is. ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx 2 = g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = G M E ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ (144) So. which functions as a temporal rotation operator. timefuture) velocity −1 vx . ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ( ) (145) If the displacement ∆y of an object is POSITIVE. the equivalent displacement to position y1 within the Earth’s gravity well g y . or velocity j vx . g y y1 − g y0 y0 vx 2 = 1 2 2c c2 (143) A new Principle of Equivalence Theorem is therefore determined as. where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° .2 ⎛ v2 Lv = L0 ± ∆L0 = L0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = L0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (139) ⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ Cv = C0 + ∆C0 = C0 ⎜1 ± x 2 ⎟ = C0 e⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ (140) A NEW PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE THEOREM Since the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object due to gravity g y is. 2G ME William Alek Page 20 5/22/2005 .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.e. then the same object is moving at a complex (i.
the second order special relativistic mass fluctuation of the same elevator accelerating in space is nonzero or d 2 M > 0 . ⎜− ⎟ ⎛ G ME ⎞ ⎜ y c2 ⎟ 0 ⎝ ⎠ = M y0 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ = M y0 e y0 c 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ G ME ⎞ M min (150) AT REST ACCELERATING dM = 0 d 2M > 0 g0 f0 ON THE EARTH IN SPACE FIGURE 8. validating the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem. However. INC. given this second scenario. An elevator traveling a distance + dy in free fall and the same elevator moving at a constant velocity vx at right angles to free fall produce virtually no radiation reaction as shown below. and as a consequence. As shown above. f0 = m a . Therefore. William Alek Page 21 5/22/2005 . or dM = 0 .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the gravitational mass can’t be equivalent to its’ inertial mass due to their differences in mass fluctuations. An elevator at rest on the Earth is NOT equivalent to an elevator accelerating in space. radiates electromagnetic waves. the natural relativistic mass fluctuation of an elevator at rest on the surface of the Earth is zero. the minimum mass M min at y1 = ∞ is.2 y1 = 1 g y1 ⎛ v2 g y0 y0 + x ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ y0 ⎟= y0 vx 2 ⎠ 1+ 2G ME (147) The equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max at y1 = ∞ is −1 = y0 vx 2 2G ME 2G ME y0 (148) vx max = − (149) Given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max . According to Woodward (1998). radiation reaction is observed in bodies being accelerated based upon Newton’s second law of motion. hence. these mass fluctuations are considered equivalent. Rev 3. So.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Therefore.90 1.05 INERTIAL MASS (kg) M0 e vx DECREASING INERTIAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT) TIMEFUTURE TIME FORWARD 0.0 j × 107 2.0 VELOCITY (m/sec) 2.00 M ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜ vx ⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2c ⎠ 1. In summary.5 j × 107 0.10 INCREASING INERTIAL MASS (RED SHIFT) INERTIAL REFERENCE 1. An elevator in free fall above the Earth is equivalent to an elevator moving at constant velocity in space. and diminishes its’ own gravitation with other objects. This object naturally loses more relativistic mass.0 × 108 FIGURE 10. Velocity profile of a 1kg inertial mass. INC.5 × 107 5.0 j × 108 7.95 0. This object naturally acquires more relativistic mass. inductance and capacitance as it moves at a real velocity vx . Rev 3.5 j × 107 5. this new Principle of Equivalence Theorem describes an object moving at onehalf the square of a real velocity vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen down a displacement + dy within a given gravity well g y . inductance and capacitance as it moves at a complex velocity j vx .5 × 107 1.2 FREE FALL A GIVEN DISTANCE CONSTANT VELOCITY dM > 0 dM > 0 NEAR EARTH IN SPACE FIGURE 9. the same object moving at onehalf the square of a complex velocity j vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen up a displacement −dy in the same gravity well. and augments its’ own gravitation with other objects. On the other hand. special relativity is considered to be a secondary gravitational effect. 1.0 × 107 7. William Alek Page 22 5/22/2005 .
vx = v e jθ = (1. Direction of time θ = 90° Mass of object M 0 = 1. Rev 3.0 kg ) = 0.94589 kg ) − (1. compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v . compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v .0 kg ) = −0.0 × 108 m sec The timeforward velocity vx of an object is. So.99793×108 m sec ⎝ ( ) ( ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (156) (157) M v = 0. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic timeforward velocity vx .05721 kg (154) Example 2. So.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1. M v − M 0 = ( 0.0 × 108 m sec The timefuture velocity vx of an object is. M v − M 0 = (1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic velocity timefuture j vx .0 j ×108 m sec ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2 2.0 kg ) e 2 ⎛ 1.94589 kg The inertial mass of the object was reduce by.0 kg ) e 2 ⎛ 1. vx = v e jθ = (1.0 ×108 m sec (151) The new special relativistic inertial mass M v is.2 Example 1. Direction of time θ = 0° Mass of object M 0 = 1. Mv = M0 e ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = (1.0×108 m sec ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2 2.05721 kg ) − (1.0 × 108 m sec ) e j 90° = 1. INC.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1.05721 kg The inertial mass of the object was increased by.0 ×108 m sec ) e j 0° = 1.0 j × 108 m sec (155) The new special relativistic inertial mass M v is. given.05411 kg (158) William Alek Page 23 5/22/2005 .99793×108 m sec ⎝ ( ) ( ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (152) (153) M v = 1. given. Mv = M0 e ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = (1.
9999999996 ⎛ gy y −gy y ⎞ 0 0⎟ ⎜ 1 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ M y0 e 0.9999999992 INCREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (RED SHIFT) y 4.3781×10 m ) (159) The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 1.67260 × 10 = y12 −11 (1.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.0 ×10 m ) 8 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9999999994 0.0 × 107 6.0 × 107 y0 0.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 9.2 1.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5. Example 3. So. Rev 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Given the gravitational profile above of an object having a mass M y0 displaced to a position −∆y within Earth’s gravity well g y . INC.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.0000000000 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE g y0 0.0 × 108 m above the Earth is. g y1 = G M E ( 6.9999999990 M 2.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2 = 0.3781× 106 m Object displaced to y1 = 1.9999999993485 DECREASING GRAVITY 0.0 × 107 0. Mass of object M y0 = 1.9787 × 1024 kg The acceleration due to gravity at surface of Earth is.0 × 107 10.0 × 108 m Speed of light c = 2. g y0 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.3781× 106 DISPLACEMENT FROM CENTER OF EARTH (m) FIGURE 11. Displacement profile of a 1kg gravitational mass due to Earth’s gravity well.0 kg Object on Earth’s surface y0 = 6.80665 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 6.0 × 107 8.039894 m sec 2 (160) William Alek Page 24 5/22/2005 .0 6. given.9999999998 GRAVITATIONAL MASS (kg) DECREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT) 0. compute the new natural relativistic gravitational mass M y1 .
039894 m sec 1.2 Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model.516 × 10−10 kg (163) Example 4. Likewise. width Wy .99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6. INC.3781×10 m ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2.0 kg ) = −6.0 kg ) = −6.9787 × 1024 kg The minimum gravitational mass M min at y1 = ∞ is. So.99792458×108 m sec ⎝ ( )( )⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ M min = M y0 e = (1.959 × 10−10 kg (166) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE VOLUME OF OBJECTS An object of volume Vy (length L y .3781×106 m 2.0×10 m − 9. Rev 3. So.0 kg ) e ( ) (161) (162) M y1 = 0.0 kg ) e ( )( ) (164) (165) M min = 0. the same the volume Vy dilates as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. ⎛ G ME ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ y c2 ⎟ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −11 2 2 24 ⎜ 6.9787×10 kg ⎜− 2 ⎜ 6. Mass of object M y0 = 1. M y1 − M y0 = ( 0. compute the new minimum natural relativistic gravitational mass M min of an object at y1 = ∞ . given. M y1 − M y0 = ( 0. the new gravitational mass is. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth.0 kg Object on Earth’s surface y0 = 6.67260×10 N m kg 5.99792458×108 m sec ⎝ ( )( )( )( )⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ M y1 = M y0 e = (1. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 8 2 6 ⎜ 0.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.9999999993485 kg ) − (1.9999999993485 kg The gravitational mass of the object was reduced by. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L ∆W ∆H = = =− 1 L W H c2 (167) William Alek Page 25 5/22/2005 .9999999993041 kg The gravitational mass of the object was reduced by. the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object of volume ∆V V displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2. and height H y ) contracts as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y .80665 m sec 6.9999999993041 kg ) − (1.
slows down) as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . the same object of volume Vv dilates moving at a complex velocity j vx . and height Hv ) contracts moving at a real velocity vx .e. speeds up) as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 = L y0 e⎝ ⎟ 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (168) ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Wy1 = Wy0 ∓ ∆Wy0 = Wy0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = Wy0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (169) ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ H y1 = H y0 ∓ ∆H y0 = H y0 ⎜ 1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = H y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (170) HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS THE VOLUME OF OBJECTS An object of volume Vv (length Lv . So.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Rev 3. the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object of volume ∆V V moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. the same mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f y dilates (i. width Wv ..e. v2 ∆L ∆W ∆H = = =− x2 2c L W H (171) The difference forms and exponential forms of the special relativistic object of volume Vv moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. So. ⎛ v2 Lv = L0 ∓ ∆L0 = L0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎝ 2c ⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = L0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (172) ⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ ⎠ Wv = W0 ∓ ∆W0 = W0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎟ = W0 e⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎝ (173) ⎛ v2 H v = H 0 ∓ ∆H 0 = H 0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎝ 2c ⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = H0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (174) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE FREQUENCY OF TIME A mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f y contracts (i. Likewise. INC. Likewise. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆f =− 1 f c2 (175) William Alek Page 26 5/22/2005 . the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating at a frequency ∆f f displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is.2 The difference forms and exponential forms of the natural relativistic object of volume Vy at position ±∆y is..
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ t y1 = t y0 ∓ ∆t y0 = t y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = t y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (180) William Alek Page 27 5/22/2005 . INC. v2 ∆f =− x2 2c f (177) The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic frequency f v of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is.2 The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic frequency f y of an oscillator at position ±∆y is. speeds up) while moving at a complex velocity j vx ... slows down) while moving at a real velocity vx . the same mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time t y dilates (i. slows down) as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. f y1 = f y0 ∓ ∆f y0 ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ = f y0 ⎜ 1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = f y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (176) HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS THE FREQUENCY OF TIME A mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f v contracts (i. So.e. the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating at a frequency ∆f f while moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. Likewise. the same mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f v dilates (i. ⎛ v2 f v = f 0 ∓ ∆f 0 = f 0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎝ 2c ⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = f0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (178) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS AN INTERVAL OF TIME A mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time t y contracts (i.e. So.e.. speeds up) as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆t =− 1 t c2 (179) The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic time interval t y of an oscillator at position ±∆y is. Rev 3.e.. the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating for an interval of time ∆t t displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is.
So. the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum ∆p p of an object displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. INC. ∆p vx 2 = p 2 c2 (185) William Alek Page 28 5/22/2005 . slows down) while moving at a real velocity vx . the momentum p y of the same object decreases as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. ⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ p y1 = p y0 ± ∆p y0 = p y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = p y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (184) HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS LINEAR MOMENTUM The momentum pv of an object of mass M 0 increases moving at a real velocity vx . the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating for an interval of time ∆t t while moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is.2 HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS AN INTERVAL OF TIME A mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time tv contracts (i..e.e. v2 ∆t =− x2 2c t (181) The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic time interval tv of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. Likewise. So. ⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ ⎠ tv = t0 ∓ ∆t0 = t0 ⎜1 ∓ x 2 ⎟ = t0 e⎝ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (182) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS LINEAR MOMENTUM The momentum p y of an object of mass M y moving at velocity vx increases as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum ∆p p of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. Likewise. So. the same mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time tv dilates (i. Rev 3. the momentum pv of the same object decreases moving at a complex velocity j vx . speeds up) while moving at a complex velocity j vx . Likewise.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.. ∆p g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = p c2 (183) The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic momentum p y at position ±∆y is.
Likewise.2 The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic momentum pv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. Rev 3. the angular momentum S y of the same object is invariant as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. So.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. S y1 = S y0 (188) HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS ANGULAR MOMENTUM The angular momentum Sv of an object of mass M 0 is invariant moving at a real velocity vx with a radius r . ∆S =0 S (189) The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic angular momentum Sv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum ∆S S of an object displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. So. Likewise. the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum ∆S S of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is. the angular momentum Sv of the same object is invariant moving at a complex velocity j vx . Sv = S0 (190) William Alek Page 29 5/22/2005 . INC. ∆S =0 S (187) The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic angular momentum S y at position ±∆y is. ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎛ v2 ⎞ pv = p0 ± ∆p0 = p0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ = p0 e⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (186) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS ANGULAR MOMENTUM The angular momentum S y of an object of mass M y moving at velocity vx with a radius r is invariant as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y .
. the aether) is composed of uncondensed relativistic mass. atoms) and given a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point undergoes universal mass attraction (i. which causes light passing near these objects to amplify in energy Eλ y and increase in frequency f λ y as proven by the Pound and Rebka experiment (1964). causes the volume of space occupied by both objects and the space between them to be reduced. Both objects acquire relativistic mass by a natural means from the surrounding spacetime media as a function of displacement +∆y between the two objects. The “active vacuum” of space.e.e.2 THE SPACETIME MEDIA OR THE AETHER E Zε M TI E ZG t Zµ B FIGURE 12.. inductance Ln + ∆Ln .e. Two similar objects undergoing natural universal mass attraction. or spacetime media (i. The spacetime media between these objects rarefy or relativistic mass condenses out of the media thereby affecting both the magnetic permeability µ0 and the dielectric permittivity ε0 of free space. The spacetime media or aether. and as a consequence. gravitational free fall) with another object M 2 . Direct modification of these components changes the nature of light and matter. and capacitance Cn + ∆Cn .. INC. The spacetime media in a rarefying state means gravity between these objects is increasing. This rarefaction of media is referred to as a gravity well. Little and Ibison (2002). This behavior of spacetime media acts as an impedance upon the natural motion of matter and the propagation of light. According to Puthoff (1996) and Puthoff. and acts to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. This media condenses onto both objects as more relativistic mass. the vacuum is described as having magnetic permeability µ0 and dielectric permittivity ε0. thereby increasing their total mass M n + ∆M n . gy +∆y gy' +∆y ' CURVATURE DUE TO GRAVITY r1 r1 − ∆r1 RAREFYING OF SPACETIME MEDIA r2 − ∆r2 r2 M 1 + ∆M 1 M 2 + ∆M 2 M2 M1 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE FIGURE 13. This action changes the relativistic momentum of both objects resulting with increasing force of attraction. An object M 1 made of matter (i. Rev 3. William Alek Page 30 5/22/2005 .
Using the difference form of fluctuating energy ∆Eλ of an electromagnetic wave propagating through gravity well g y and the gamma rays emitted upward.6 m . the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result.2 THE GRAVITATIONAL COUPLING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE DECREASED GRAVITY g −∆y PHOTON A −∆y RED SHIFTING: DECREASING FREQUENCY AND ENERGY GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE gy MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT SOURCE +∆y BLUE SHIFTING: INCREASING FREQUENCY AND ENERGY PHOTON B INCREASED GRAVITY g +∆y TOWARDS CENTER OF GRAVITY FIGURE 14. PHOTON B increases in energy Eλ y and frequency f λ y as it propagates through increasing gravity g +∆y .3781000 × 106 m ) (2. This effect was demonstrated in the Pound.806581 m sec 2 )(6.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. INC. which used Mossbaurer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14. Shown above is the BLUE SHIFTING of an electromagnetic wave due to gravity. Electromagnetic waves propagating within a given gravity well. Likewise.806650 m sec 2 )( 6. PHOTON A decreases in energy Eλ y and frequency f λ y as it propagates through decreasing gravity g −∆y .465961× 10−15 (193) William Alek Page 31 5/22/2005 . Relative to a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point or equipotential surface of gravity within a given gravity well g y . Rebka and Snider experiment.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22. Rev 3.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 (192) SHIFT = −2.3781226 × 106 m) − ( 9. SHIFT = ∆Eλ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = Eλ c2 (191) SHIFT = (9.
SHIFT = ( 9.806650 m sec )( 6.806581 m sec )(6. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ hy1 = Eλ y1 f λ y1 = Eλ y0 e f λ y0 e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ = Eλ =h fλ (201) Therefore. INC. ⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = Eλ y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ Eλ y1 = Eλ y0 ± ∆Eλ y0 = Eλ y0 Since the energy Eλ of a single photon is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Rev 3. the Planck's constant h is.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 (194) SHIFT = 2.2 And with the gamma rays emitted downward. the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. ∆f λ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = fλ c2 (199) The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic frequency f λ y at position ±∆y is. the BLUE SHIFT was.465961× 10−15 (195) The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic energy Eλ y at position ±∆y is. f λ y1 = f λ y0 ± ∆f λ y0 = f λ y0 ⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = f λ y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (200) So.3781226 ×10 m) 2 6 2 6 (2. the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. (196) Eλ = h f λ (197) Then.3781000 ×10 m ) − (9. h= Eλ fλ (198) The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of frequency ∆f λ f λ of an electromagnetic wave propagating ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is.6260755 × 10 −34 Joule ⋅ sec (202) William Alek Page 32 5/22/2005 . hy = 6.
INC. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎠ c y1 = λ y1 f λ y1 = λ y0 e⎝ f λ y0 e⎝ = λ fλ = c (206) Therefore. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2 (209) The inductance Ly of spacetime media at position ±∆y is. Rev 3. µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m (208) The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductance ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. λ y = λ y ∓ ∆λ y = λ y ⎜1 ∓ 1 0 0 0 ⎛ ⎝ ⎜− g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ = λ y0 e 2 c ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (205) So.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. natural relativistic the speed of light c y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. ∆λ =− g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2 λ (204) The natural relativistic wavelength λ y at position ±∆y is.2 The speed of light c is.99792458 × 108 m sec (207) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE PERMEABLILITY OF SPACETIME MEDIA The permeability µ0 of spacetime media is given as. ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Ly1 = Ly0 ∓ ∆Ly0 = Ly0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = Ly0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (210) William Alek Page 33 5/22/2005 . c = λ fλ (203) The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the wavelength ∆λ λ of an electromagnetic wave displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. the natural relativistic speed of light c y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. c y = 2.
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2 (211) The length L y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is. INC.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ µy = 1 Ly1 L y1 = Ly0 e = L y0 e L = µ0 L (213) Therefore. ε 0 = 8. µ y = 4π × 10−7 H m (214) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE PERMITTIVITY OF SPACETIME MEDIA The permittivity ε 0 of spacetime media is given as. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆C =− 1 C c2 (216) The capacitance C y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is.2 The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. the natural relativistic permeability µ y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. Rev 3. ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ C y1 = C y0 ∓ ∆C y0 = C y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = C y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (217) William Alek Page 34 5/22/2005 .85419 × 10−12 F m (215) The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitance ∆C C displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = L y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (212) So. the natural relativistic permeability µ y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or.
the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. isn't capable of absorbing or dissipating electromagnetic energy.85419 × 10−12 F m (221) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE VIRTUAL RESISTANCE OF SPACETIME MEDIA The spacetime media has virtual resistance or impedance Z 0 . Z y = 376. it follows the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. Rev 3. INC. R0 = ∞ . and therefore. the natural relativistic permittivity ε y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2 (218) The length L y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is. Z y1 = µy εy 1 = Z0 (223) 1 Therefore. Z0 = µ0 ε0 (222) Since it has been shown the permeability µ y and permittivity ε y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity. the natural relativistic permittivity ε y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or.2 The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ εy = 1 C y1 L y1 = C y0 e L y0 e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ = C = ε0 L (220) Therefore.730 Ω (224) William Alek Page 35 5/22/2005 . ε y = 8. ⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = L y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠ (219) So. This media serves to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter and is calculated as. Its REAL resistance is infinite or.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.
the electric force f y decreases with the square of a William Alek Page 36 5/22/2005 . c= 1 µ 0ε 0 (225) Since it has been shown the permeability µ y and permittivity ε y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity.380658 × 10−23 Joules ° K (230) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS AN ELECTRIC CHARGE A fundamental electric charge q is given as.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. c y1 = 1 =c µy ε y 1 (226) 1 Therefore.2 HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE SPEED OF LIGHT The speed of light c between spacetime media is. INC. and the electric field E y also increases with the square of a decreasing distance at position + dy . Likewise. Rev 3. k= R N0 (228) Since the Ideal Gas Constant Ry and Avogadro's Number N y are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity. q= f E (231) The electric force f y increases with the square of a decreasing distance. it follows the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or. the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. it follows the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or.997924 × 108 m sec (227) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS BOLTZMANN'S CONSTANT The Boltzmann's Constant k is given as. k y1 = Ry1 N y1 =k (229) Therefore. the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. k y = 1. c y = 2.
2 increasing distance.0356 (236) William Alek Page 37 5/22/2005 . it follows the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant α y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or.29738 × 10−3 = 1 137.60217733 × 10−19 Coul (233) HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT The Fine Structure Constant α is. INC. the natural relativistic electric charge q y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. and Planck's constant hy are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity. the speed of light c y . α y = 7. the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant α y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or. Rev 3. α= q2 2ε0 h c (234) Since an electric charge q y . the permittivity ε y . αy = 1 q y1 2 2 ε y1 hy1 c y1 =α (235) Therefore. and the electric field E y also decreases with the square of a increasing distance at position −dy . q y1 = f y1 E y1 =q (232) Therefore. q y = 1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. it follows the natural relativistic electric charge q y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or.
2 A TYPICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE E B FLAT SPACETIME MEDIA t FIGURE 15.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Typical B and E Fields. INC. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in flat spacetime. E B t t FIGURE 16. William Alek Page 38 5/22/2005 . Rev 3.
INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in rarefied spacetime. William Alek Page 39 5/22/2005 . B RAREFYING SPACETIME MEDIA t FIGURE 17. Increasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function. E B t t FIGURE 18. Rev 3.2 GRAVITATIONAL BLUE SHIFTING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE E NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS. INC.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. E B t t FIGURE 20. B COMPRESSING SPACETIME MEDIA t FIGURE 19. William Alek Page 40 5/22/2005 . Propagation of electromagnetic wave in compressing spacetime. Decreasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function.2 GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFTING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE E NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS. INC. INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED. Rev 3.
000000 Hz . and has an orbital velocity of 3.5649 × 106 m (237) William Alek Page 41 5/22/2005 . y0 = y1 + ∆y = ( 6. A Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) transmits an electromagnetic signal at a frequency f λ SAT of ~ 10. Example 5.874 × 103 m sec Corrected frequency of satellite f λ SAT = 10229999. The natural relativistic BLUE SHIFT due to gravity and the special relativistic RED SHIFT due to velocity changes the frequency of this transmitted signal. Altitude of satellite ∆y = 20. f λ RX that is precisely So. given.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.1868 × 106 m Orbital velocity vx = 3. Rev 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. compute the BLUE SHIFT and RED SHIFT such that a groundbased receiver will read a signal 10230000.8 km . INC.186. So.1868 × 106 m ) = 26.2 FIGURE 21.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5. A Global Positioning Satellite.9787 × 1024 kg The initial radius y0 of the satellite above the Earth is.995444 Hz Receiver located on surface of Earth y1 = 6. given the corrected transmitted frequency f λ SAT .23 MHz down to the Earth from an altitude of 20.3781× 106 m ) + ( 20. The signal frequency of the satellite is adjustable down to 1 µ Hz .874 km sec .
80665 m sec 6. the gravitational BLUE SHIFTED frequency is.874×103 m sec ⎜ ⎜− ⎜ 2 2. Rev 3.529 × 106 m above the Earth is.5649×10 m ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2.5653 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 26.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.5653 m sec 26. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 6 2 6 ⎜ 9.99792458×108 m sec ⎝ ( )( )( )( )⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ f λ y1 = f λ y0 e = (10229999. g y0 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6. the RED SHIFTED frequency of the BLUE SHIFTED frequency computed above is. g y1 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6. a groundbased receiver will read a signal that is precisely 10230000. ⎛ vx 2 ⎜− 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ 3.000854 Hz = f λ Given the exponential solution of the special relativistic frequency model. FIGURE 22.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. A constellation of 24 Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) orbiting the Earth.000000 Hz with a satellite frequency f λ SAT given above.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 6 y12 ( 6.000854 Hz ) e ( ( ) ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (242) (243) f λ v = 10230000.3781×10 m ) (239) Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic frequency model.5649 ×10 m ) (238) The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 7.99793×108 m sec ⎝ fλv = fλ e = (10230000.3781×10 m − 0. INC.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 0.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5. William Alek Page 42 5/22/2005 .2 The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 26.5649 × 106 m above the Earth is.995444 Hz ) e ( ) (240) (241) f λ y1 = 10230000.000000 Hz = f λ RX So.
dB = µ0 I dx × r 4π r3 (244) Or.2 GRAVITOMAGNETIC THEORY P dB r CURRENT ELEMENT θ MAGNETIC INDUCTION I dx FIGURE 23. A constant positive electric current I must create a stable magnetic field B around a wire.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. I =q= − dq d ( N e ) = dt dt (246) And velocity vx of an electron passing a fixed point is defined as change of distance dx per change of time dt or. The change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by a current element dx is calculated using the BiotSavart’s Law. Rev 3. dB = µ0 I sin (θ ) dx r2 4π (245) Since charge q is quantized in a single electron e − then. This stable field is due to the flow of electric current shown above. The magnetic induction produced by a current element. vx = x = dx dt (247) William Alek Page 43 5/22/2005 . electric current I is defined as quantity N of charges e − passing a fixed point per change of time dt or. INC.
B = ∫ dB = µ0 e − vx 4π r 2 (250) The total energy density uB of magnetic field B contained within volume V is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. the change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by quantity N of charges e − moving at velocity vx is. the electric current I is redefined as. EM = M c 2 (254) Equate total magnetic field energy U B to the total energy EM contained within matter. the total field energy U B of magnetic field B contained within volume V is. dB = − µ0 vx sin (θ ) d ( N e ) 4π r2 (249) To find the magnetic induction B produced by a single electron at point P when θ = 90 and N = 1 . uB = UB B2 = V 2 µ0 (251) Therefore. Rev 3. dU B = dM B c 2 (256) William Alek Page 44 5/22/2005 . the change of magnetic field energy dU B is. µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 B2 UB = V= V 2 µ0 32 π 2 r 4 2 (252) The change of magnetic field energy dU B contained within a change of volume d V is. then integrate. U B = EM (255) So. dU B = µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 2 32 π 2 r 4 dV (253) The total energy EM contained within matter is.2 Then. I = vx d ( N e− ) dx (248) So. INC.
Rev 3. the derivative form of a moving electron is. µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 dM B = c2 8π 2 ∫ ∞ re 1 dr r2 (260) The fluctuating magnetic mass dM B is. V = 2 π ∫ sin (ω ) d ω ∫ 0 π rmax rmin r 2 dr = 4 π ∫ rmax rmin r 2 dr (258) The fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V of a hollow spheroid is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.2 Therefore. The volume V of an electron is modeled as a hollow spheroid. no field component can be present at its’ center. µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 ⎛ r 1 ⎞ r 2 dM B = d 4 π ∫ r dr = d⎜ dr ⎟ r c 2 ⎝ ∫r r 2 ⎠ 32 π 2 r 4 c 2 8π 2 ( max min ) 2 max (259) min Given the radius of a fluctuating magnetic mass dM e ranging from a classic electron radius re to infinity. µ 0 ( e ) vx 2 dU dM B = 2 B = dV c 32 π 2 r 4 c 2 − 2 (257) ω rmax rmin FIGURE 24. the volume of an electron is modeled as a hollow spheroid. INC. So. Since the energy of an electron is finite. µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 dM B = 8 π re c 2 2 (261) William Alek Page 45 5/22/2005 . the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V is. or re ≤ r ≤ ∞ .
Rev 3.2 So.109390 × 10 −31 kg ( 4π ×10 −7 8 π ( 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. given.602177 × 10−19 C Classic electron radius re = 2. MB = Me = µ0 ( e − ) 4 π re 2 (268) And the fluctuating magnetic mass ∆M B and the fluctuating mass ∆M e is. 4. µ0 ( e − ) 8π re 2 ⇔ Me 2 (264) So. µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 ∆M B = ∆M e = 8 π re c 2 2 (269) William Alek Page 46 5/22/2005 . the difference form of the special relativistic mass M ev of an electron moving at velocity vx is ⎛ v2 ⎞ M ev = γ SR M e = M e ± dM e = M e ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2c ⎠ (262) Test the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B with the special relativistic mass dM e .602177 × 10−19 C ) 2 ⇔ 9. dM B = dM e (267) So.554693 ⇔ 4. Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.109390 × 10−31 kg 2 (265) The fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is identical to the special relativistic mass at any velocity vx . µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 M v2 ⇔ e x2 2 8π re c 2 c 2 (263) The equation reduces to. INC.817941× 10−15 m ) H m )(1.554695 (266) Therefore.817941× 10−15 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. given the rest mass of an electron M e . the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B is the fluctuating mass dM e of an electron. the magnetic mass M B and the mass M e of the electron is.
or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass ∆M B M B and the mass ∆M e M e of a particle moving at a velocity vx is. which functions as a temporal rotation operator. where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex velocity vx is. Rev 3. timeforward) velocity vx . ⎟ µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 ( g y y1 − g y y0 ) = G M M ⎜ y1 y0 ⎠ vx 2 ⎝ ∆M e = = Me 2 = Me E e c2 c2 8 π re c 2 2c 2 1 0 ⎛1 − 1 ⎞ (274) ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx 2 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ (275) (276) The position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤ y0 v x 2 is. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . the difference forms of the special relativistic magnetic mass M ev model of a particle moving at a complex velocity vx . vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ (271) Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore. 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟ g y1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ (277) William Alek Page 47 5/22/2005 . INC. apply the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem where the fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is equivalent to natural relativistic mass due to the Earth’s gravity well..2 So.e. ∆M B ∆M e vx 2 = = 2 2c MB Me (270) A particle can move at a real (i. M ev ⎛ v2 = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c 2 ⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = Me e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (272) M ev − µ0 ( e − ) ⎛ ⎜ vx 2 ⎞ µ0 ( e ) ⎜ 2 c e⎝ = M e ± ∆M e = ⎜1 ± 2 ⎟ = 4 π re ⎝ 2 c ⎠ 4 π re 2 (273) Now. can be described as complex motion..e. timefuture) velocity j vx . where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° are. at an imaginary (i. The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ .
Example 6. vx max = − 2G ME y0 (279) Given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max . and couples to gravity. g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ∆M B ∆M e = = MB Me c2 ( ) (281) Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re . In addition. INC.2 y1 = y0 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E (278) The equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max at y1 = ∞ is. Given. and produce a complex (i. the minimum mass M e min at y1 = ∞ is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. This motion can either have a velocity vx or a complex (i. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟ = M e e⎝ c = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± 2 ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠ M ey1 ( ) (282) M ey1 = M e ± ∆M e = 2 µ0 ( e − ) ⎛ 4 π re ⎜ ⎝ (g ⎜1 ± y1 ⎛ g y −g y ⎞ y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ µ0 ( e− ) ⎜ y1 1c2 y0 0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟= e⎝ 2 ⎟ 4 π re c ⎠ 2 ) (283) In summary. the total field energy U B of a complex magnetic field j B contained within a volume V is NEGATIVE.e.. Direction of time is forward θ = 0° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1. Rev 3. If the velocity is complex. An electron e − moving through a wire at a timeforward velocity vx produces a timeforward magnetic induction B at a distance r . timefuture) velocity j vx . the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass ∆M B M B and the mass ∆M e M e of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within a given gravity well gY is.. timefuture) magnetic field j B . then the electron will exhibit an antigravitational effect. Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that a moving electron produces an increase in relativistic mass that extends from its’ classic radius re to infinity. M e min ⎛ G ME = M e ⎜1 − y0 c 2 ⎝ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ y c2 ⎟ ⎞ = M e e⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ G ME ⎞ (280) So.109390 × 10−31 kg William Alek Page 48 5/22/2005 . the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within a given gravity well gY are.e.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.067782 × 10−52 kg (288) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.602177 ×10 C )(1.9787 × 1024 kg The timeforward velocity vx .0 m Gravitational constant G = 6. An electron e − moving through a wire at a timeadvanced velocity vx produces a timeadvanced magnetic induction B at a distance r . Rev 3. (1. B= −7 −19 −2 µ0 e− vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1. the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.602177 × 10−28 T (286) The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is. ∆y = y0 − y1 = 5. y1 = y0 = y0 v x 2 1+ 2G M E 1+ ( 6.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. Given.0 m ) (285) B = 1.0 m William Alek Page 49 5/22/2005 . Direction of time is advanced θ = 45° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.3781×10 m )(1.0 ×10−2 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.9787 × 10 6 6 −2 2 −11 2 2 (289) 24 kg ) y1 = 6.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.3781×10 m ) ( 6.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.37809999999490 × 106 m (290) So. where θ = 0° is.0 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.0 × 10−2 m sec (284) The timeforward magnetic induction B at distance r is. INC.109390 × 10−31 kg Radius r = 1.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (287) ∆M e = 5.0 ×10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1.2 Radius r = 1. vx = v e jθ = (1.0981× 10−6 m (291) Example 7.0 × 10−2 m sec ) e j 0° = 1.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.
132910 × 10−28 + 1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.9787 × 1024 kg ) y1 = 6. where θ = 45° is.071068 ×10−3 + 7.3781× 106 m − 5.0986 j × 10−6 m (301) Example 8.071068 ×10−3 + 7.3781×106 m ) y0 y1 = = 2 y v2 ( 6.071068 j × 10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1. INC.071068 j × 10−3 m sec (292) The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is.067782 j × 10−52 kg 2 (297) (298) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem. ( 7. the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is.132910 j × 10−28 T (296) The IMAGINARY fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is.071068 × 10 + 7.071068 × 10−3 + 7. ( 6.9787 × 1024 kg The timeadvanced velocity vx .3781×106 m )( 7.1093897 × 10 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec ) ∆M e = 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − y0 ( 6.11846 j × 104 m sec vx (293) (294) The timeadvanced magnetic induction B at distance r is.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.0986 j × 10−6 m (299) (300) So.071068 j ×10−3 m sec ) vx 2 −31 ∆M e = M e 2 = ( 9.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.602177 × 10 C )( 7.071068 j ×10−3 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.0 m ) (295) B = 1. B= −7 −19 −3 −3 µ0 e − vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1. William Alek Page 50 5/22/2005 . An electron e − moving through a wire at a timefuture velocity vx produces a timefuture magnetic induction B at a distance r .2 Gravitational constant G = 6.3781×106 m ) vx max = 1. vx = v e jθ = (1. ∆y = y0 − y1 = 5. Rev 3.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5. vx max = − 2 ( 6.0 × 10−2 m sec ) e j 45° = 7.
0 m Gravitational constant G = 6. Direction of time is future θ = 90° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.0 ×10 −2 m sec ) e j 90° = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. INC.0 j × 10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1.067782 × 10−52 kg (308) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem. B= −7 −19 −2 µ0 e − vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − y0 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.2 Given.0 j ×10−2 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.0 m ) (305) B = 1. vx max = − 2 ( 6.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (307) ∆M e = −5. (1.602177 × 10 C )(1.37800000000510 × 106 m (310) William Alek Page 51 5/22/2005 .109390 × 10−31 kg Radius r = 1.0 j ×10 −2 m sec (302) The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is.9787 × 10 6 6 −2 2 −11 2 2 (309) 24 kg ) y1 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2. where θ = 90° is. Rev 3. vx = v e jθ = (1.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.11846 j × 104 m sec vx (303) (304) The timefuture magnetic induction B at distance r is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.602177 j × 10−28 T (306) The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is.9787 × 1024 kg The timefuture velocity vx .3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )(1. y0 y1 = = y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ ( 6.0 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.3781×106 m ) vx max = 1.
2 So. Direction of time θ Frequency of orbit f Permeability of free space µ0 Fundamental charge of an electron e − Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r Rest mass of an electron M e Speed of light c Gravitational constant G Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 Mass of the Earth M E William Alek Page 52 5/22/2005 . electrons move at relativistic speeds in discrete circular orbits around a nucleus. The complete complex Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom. If an opposing external magnetic field is applied to this field. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as complex motion.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . So. ∆y = y0 − y1 = −5. The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ . a magnetic field B is produced at the center of the orbit. the velocity of the electron will rotate into the imaginary axis or becomes complex. INC.0981× 10−6 m (311) COMPLEX AMPERIAN CURRENTS y e− vx e jθ ELECTRON NUCLEUS Fv r B e jθ z MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT x TEMPORAL ROTATION 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° FIGURE 25. The complete complex Bohr model includes the following characteristic equations shown below. In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom. Rev 3. the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is. given. which functions as a temporal rotation operator. The electron moving at a timefuture velocity j vx will create a timefuture magnetic field j B that will emerge from the center. As a consequence of this motion.
i = e− f0 (313) The complex magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is. The difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass ∆M e M e of a particle moving at a velocity vx is. Fv = e − vx × B = e− r ω × B = µ0 π ( e− ) f 0 2 2 (318) The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. Rev 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.2 Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 Mass of the Sun M SUN The complex frequency of orbit f 0 . where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is. B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 = µ0 r 2 e− f0 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 (314) B = µ0 e− f0 2r (315) The complex angular velocity ω of the electron e − is. ⎛ v2 M ev = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c ⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = Me e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ (320) William Alek Page 53 5/22/2005 . ω = 2 π f0 The complex velocity vx of the electron e − is. vx = r ω = 2 π r f 0 (316) (317) The complex magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is. INC. ∆M e vx 2 r 2ω 2 2 π 2 r 2 f 0 2 = 2 = = 2c 2 c2 Me c2 (319) The special relativistic mass M ev of the circulating electron e − is. f 0 = f e jθ = f cos θ + j f sin θ (312) The complex Amperian Current i is.
or j vx and a complex magnetic field j B emerges. or θ → 90° . As the motion of an electron rotates from real to imaginary. INC. which affected the flow of electrons. the electrons special William Alek Page 54 5/22/2005 . where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . or B = 0 T . the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within Earth’s gravity well gY are. the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass ∆M e M e of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within Earth’s gravity well gY is. due to an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . the velocity of the circulating electron is complex. g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ∆M e G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = = ⎜ − ⎟ Me c2 c 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ( ) (326) Given the rest mass of an electron M e . 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟ g y1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ (324) y1 = y0 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E (325) So. The complex Amperian Current uses the temporal rotation operator or Euler’s identity e jθ . ∆M e = M e 2 π r f0 vx rω = Me = Me = Me 2 2 2c 2c c2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c 2 ) ⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ y y = G ME Me ⎝ 1 2 0 ⎠ c (321) ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx 2 = g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = G M E ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ (322) ( ) (323) The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤ y0 vx 2 is. Rev 3. if the real component of the magnetic field is cancelled.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. This complex magnetic field is believed to be present in the AharonovBohm Experiment.2 Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟ = M e e⎝ c M ey1 = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜1 ± 2 ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎞ ⎜ − ⎟⎟ c 2 ⎜ y1 y0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ( ) (327) ⎜ ⎛ G M ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎞ ⎜ M ey1 = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜1 ± 2 E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ = M e e⎝ ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ (328) In summary.
e. Rev 3. Example 9.9787 × 1024 kg The timeforward frequency of orbit f 0 . the electrons radius of the orbit r (i. classic 1st Bohr radius) around the nucleus and the magnetic force Fv acting upon the nucleus remain constant or invariant during this rotation.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5. f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 0° = 6. Direction of time is forward θ = 0° Frequency of orbit f = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6. William Alek Page 55 5/22/2005 .8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1. where θ = 0° is..1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.2 relativistic mass M v decreases and radius rv increases.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. In the timeforward Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom the electron e − circulates around the nucleus at a relativistic velocity vx as shown above. INC.8 × 1015 Hz (329) The timeforward Amperian Current i is. The timeforward Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6. given. So. In addition. y e− vx ELECTRON NUCLEUS Fv r B z MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 0° FIGURE 26. This creates a magnetic induction B emerging from the center of the nucleus.
685962 × 10−12 N (335) (336) The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus.291773 × 10−11 m ) ω = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 6.935946 T i = ( 4π × 10−7 H m ) 2r 2 ( 5.272566 × 1016 Hz (332) The timeforward angular velocity ω of the electron e − is. Rev 3.8 × 1015 Hz ) = 1.3781×10 m ) ( 6.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( 2.8 × 1015 Hz ) = 4. vx = r ω = ( 5. INC.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (337) The increased special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is. (333) The timeforward velocity vx of the electron e − is. The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is.1093897 × 10 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.260945 ×106 m sec ) (12. ( 2.935946 T ) Fv = 4.590585 × 10−35 kg ) = 9.260945 ×106 m sec ) = 2.602177 × 10−19 C )( 6.272566 × 1016 Hz ) = 2. Fv = e − vx B = (1.089481× 103 Amps (330) The timeforward magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is.590585 ×10−35 kg vx 2 −31 ∆M e = M e 2 = ( 9.2 i = e − f 0 = (1.3781×10 m )( 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.9787 × 10 kg ) 6 6 6 2 −11 2 2 24 (339) y1 = 156. M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9.0784 m (340) William Alek Page 56 5/22/2005 .089481×10−3 Amps ) = 12. y0 = y1 = y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ ( 6.602177 × 10−19 C )( 2.260945 × 106 m sec (334) The timeforward magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is.109649 × 10 −31 kg (338) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.260945 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.291773 × 10 −11 m )( 4. B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 = µ0 r 2 e− f0 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 (331) B = µ0 (1.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.
The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above.9787 × 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.808326 × 1015 + 4.98892 × 1030 kg The timeadvanced frequency of orbit f 0 . a complex magnetic field B e j 45° emerges. given.96 × 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1. the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is. Example 10.1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2. the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is partially cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . ∆y = y0 − y1 = 6. As a consequence of this complex velocity v e j 45° .8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. INC. where θ = 45° is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Direction of time θ = 45° Frequency of orbit f = 6. In the timeadvanced Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 45° = 4. f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6. So.377944 × 106 m y (341) e− vx e j 45° ELECTRON NUCLEUS Fv EXTERNAL MAGNETIC INDUCTION BEXT z r B e j 45° MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 45° FIGURE 27.2 So. The timeadvanced Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.808326 j × 1015 Hz (342) William Alek Page 57 5/22/2005 . Rev 3.
02116 × 1016 + 3.598729 j × 106 m sec (348) (349) (350) (351) The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is.02116 × 1016 + 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. INC.2 The timeadvanced Amperian Current i is.808326 j × 1015 Hz ) ω = 3.808326 × 1015 + 4.02116 j × 1016 Hz ) vx = 1.17542 j × 105 m sec vx (354) (355) William Alek Page 58 5/22/2005 .808326 × 1015 + 4. B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 = µ0 r 2 e− f 0 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 (345) ( 7.703791 j ×104 Amps ) i −7 = ( 4π × 10 H m ) B = µ0 2r 2 ( 5.11846 j × 104 m sec vx (352) (353) The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Earth’s gravity well! The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Sun’s gravity well is.703791×10−4 + 7.147095 j T (346) (347) The timeadvanced angular velocity ω of the electron e − is.598729 × 106 + 1. Rev 3.02116 j × 1016 Hz The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − is.96 x 108 m ) vx max = 6. i = e − f 0 = (1. vx max 2 ( 6.703791 j × 104 Amps (343) (344) The timeadvanced magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is.808326 j × 1015 Hz ) i = 7. vx max 2 ( 6.602177 × 10−19 C )( 4.291773 × 10−11 m )( 3.291773 × 10−11 m ) B = 9. ω = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 4.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.147095 + 9. vx = r ω = ( 5.3781×106 m ) vx max = 1.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − = − y0 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )(1.703791× 10 −4 + 7.98892 × 1030 kg ) 2 G M SUN = − = − y0 ( 6.
99792458 × 108 m sec ) ∆M e = 2.0822 j m (362) (363) So.685962 j × 10−12 N (356) (357) The direction of electron motion vx is timeadvanced or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Rev 3.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5. INC.1093897 × 10 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.590585 j × 10−35 kg 2 (358) (359) The special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( 2.598729 ×106 + 1.3781×106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 ( 6.3781× 10−6 + 156.819579 × 10−3 − 156. ∆y = y0 − y1 = 6.602177 × 10−19 C )(1. (1.598729 ×106 + 1.3781×106 m )(1.1093897 × 10−31 + 2. the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well or.147095 + 9.598729 ×106 + 1. The IMAGINARY fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is.147095 j T ) Fv = 4.590585 j × 10−35 kg ) M v = 9.598729 j ×106 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.2 The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Sun’s gravity well! The timeadvanced magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is.598729 j × 106 m sec ) ( 9.598729 j ×106 m sec ) vx 2 −31 ∆M e = M e 2 = ( 9.9787 × 10 24 kg ) y1 = 3. y1 = ( 6.0822m (364) William Alek Page 59 5/22/2005 . M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9. Fv = e − vx B Fv = (1.590585 j × 10 −35 kg (360) (361) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.
67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6. f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6.9787 × 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6. the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is being cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT .8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. INC.602177 × 10−19 C )( 6.8 j × 1015 Hz (365) The timefuture Amperian Current i is. Direction of time θ = 90° Frequency of orbit f = 6.1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.96 × 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1.98892 × 1030 kg The timefuture frequency of orbit f 0 .8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 90° = 6. a complex magnetic field j B emerges. given.089481 j × 103 Amps (366) William Alek Page 60 5/22/2005 .99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6. Rev 3. The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above. As a consequence of this complex velocity j vx . So. The timefuture Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.8 j × 1015 Hz ) = 1. where θ = 90° is. In the timefuture Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5. Example 11.2 y e− j vx ELECTRON NUCLEUS Fv EXTERNAL MAGNETIC INDUCTION BEXT z r jB MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 90° FIGURE 28. i = e − f 0 = (1.
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Sun’s gravity well is.291773 × 10 −11 m )( 4.17542 j × 105 m sec vx (373) (374) The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Sun’s gravity well! The magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.089481 j ×10 Amps ) = 12.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.685962 × 10−12 N (375) (376) The direction of electron motion vx is timefuture or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus.2 The timefuture magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is. (369) The timefuture velocity vx of the electron e − is. vx = r ω = ( 5.272566 j × 1016 Hz ) = 2.8 j × 1015 Hz ) = 4. INC.272566 j × 1016 Hz (368) The timefuture angular velocity ω of the electron e − is.291773 × 10−11 m ) ω = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 6. William Alek Page 61 5/22/2005 .260945 j × 106 m sec (370) The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is.3781×106 m ) vx max = 1.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − y0 ( 6. Rev 3.11846 j × 104 m sec vx (371) (372) The timefuture velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Earth’s gravity well.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )(1. B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 ) 3 2 = µ0 r 2 e− f 0 2(r2 + z2 ) −3 3 2 (367) B = µ0 (1.260945 j × 106 m sec ) (12.96 x 108 m ) vx max = 6.98892 × 1030 kg ) 2 G M SUN = − = − y0 ( 6.935946 j T i = ( 4π × 10−7 H m ) 2r 2 ( 5.602177 × 10−19 C )( 2. vx max 2 ( 6. vx max = − 2 ( 6.935946 j T ) Fv = −4. Fv = e − vx B = (1.
∆y = y0 − y1 = 6.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. therefore. the associated electric field j E and magnetic field j B are also timefuture.3781×10 m )( 2. INC.378256 × 106 m (381) COMPLEX ELECTRON DRIFT VELOCITY SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT E e jθ e vx e − e− vx e jθ e− vx e jθ A’ jθ r I e jθ A x TEMPORAL ROTATION 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° FIGURE 29.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( −2. the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is.109131× 10 −31 kg (378) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5. If the electron drift velocity j vx is timefuture.590585 ×10−35 kg v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9. The electrons. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as a complex particle. The electric field that acts on the electrons doesn’t produce a net acceleration because the electrons keep colliding with the atoms that make up the conductor.260945 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6. If a copper wire is connected to a battery. y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+ ( 6. The complete complex electron drift velocity model in a copper wire.590585 × 10−35 kg ) = 9. M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9.0860 m (380) So. The William Alek Page 62 5/22/2005 . an electric field E will be set up at every point within the wire. This field E will act on electrons and will give them a resultant motion.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (377) The decreased special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is. The complete complex electron drift velocity model includes the following characteristic equations shown below.9787 × 10 kg ) 6 6 6 2 −11 2 2 24 (379) y1 = −156. An electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in time t .2 The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is.260945 j ×106 m sec ) = −2. ( 2.3781×10 m ) ( 6.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2. Rev 3. move at an average drift velocity vx .
qatom = natom V e − (386) The complex velocity vx is. where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is. The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ . INC. J0 = I0 I = 02 A πr (383) The volume V of a segment of a conductor is. Rev 3. given. I 0 = I e jθ = I cos θ + j I sin θ (382) The complex current density J 0 is. V = A x = π r2x The quantity of conduction electrons natom in a volume of conductor is. where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . natom = Datom N 0 katom Watom (384) (385) The net charge qatom in a volume of a conductor is. So. Direction of time θ Current flowing through a conductor I Fundamental charge of an electron e − Radius of copper wire r Density of conductor material ( 20°C ) Datom Number of conduction electrons per atom of conductor katom Avogadro’s Number N 0 Atomic weight of conductor material Watom Segment length of conductor x Speed of light c Rest mass of an electron M e Radius of surface of Earth y0 Gravitational constant G Mass of the Earth M E Resistivity of conductor material ( 20°C ) ρ atom The complex current I 0 flowing through a conductor.2 rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. vx = x t (387) William Alek Page 63 5/22/2005 . which functions as a temporal rotation operator.
INC. the complex drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a conductor is. I0 = qatom natom V e − = = π r 2 natom e − vx x t vx (388) So. Rev 3. vx = I0 J0 = − π r natom e natom e− 2 (389) The fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is. 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟ g y1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ (394) y1 = y0 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E (395) The resistivity ρ Atom of a conductor is given as.2 The complex current I 0 flowing through a conductor is. ∆M e = M e vx 2 2 c2 (390) Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem. ρ Atom = V V E x = x= I 2 J I A πr (396) William Alek Page 64 5/22/2005 . ∆M e = M e vx = Me 2 c2 2 ( g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2 ) ⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ y y = G ME Me ⎝ 1 2 0 ⎠ c (391) ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx 2 = g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = G M E ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ (392) ( ) (393) The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤ y0 vx 2 is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.9787 × 1024 kg (398) William Alek Page 65 5/22/2005 . So. A timeforward electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeforward t .0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63. INC. Example 12.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.0 Amps ) e j 0° = 10.68 × 10−8 Ω m The timeforward current I 0 flowing through a conductor.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6. given.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1. The electrons move at an average timeforward drift velocity vx . Direction of time θ = 0° Current through copper wire I = 10.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2. Rev 3.294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8.2 The resistance R of a segment of conductor is.0 Amps Mass of the Earth M E = 5. I 0 = I e jθ = (10. R= V x x = ρ Atom = ρ Atom π r2 I A (397) SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT E e− vx e− e− vx A’ r vx A I x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 0° FIGURE 30.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9. where θ = 0° is. The timeforward electron drift velocity in a copper wire.
4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1. J0 = (10.60217733 × 10−19 C ) vx = 1.126 × 104 C (404) (405) The timeforward velocity vx is.2 The timeforward current density J 0 is.0 Amps x t vx (407) So. V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 (403) The net charge qCu in a volume of copper wire is.0 Amps ) I0 I = 02 = = 1.901×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = vx = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.92 ×10 6 gm m3 )( 6. I0 = qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 10.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom ) ( 63.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C ) qCu = 7. INC.261× 10−6 m3 2 (400) The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is.546 gm mole ) (402) nCu = 8. vx = x t (406) The timeforward current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is. (1. Rev 3.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.294 × 10−3 m ) (399) The volume V of a segment of copper wire is. qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.901× 106 Amps m 2 2 A πr π (1. nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu (401) nCu = (8.403 × 10−4 m sec (408) (409) William Alek Page 66 5/22/2005 . the timeforward drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is.
294 × 10 m ) (416) William Alek Page 67 5/22/2005 . (1.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (410) ∆M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2. y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+ ( 6.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.403 ×10−4 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.8627 × 10−9 m (414) Given a timeforward voltage V and a timeforward current I . the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as.9787 × 10 6 6 −4 −11 2 2 2 (412) kg ) 24 y1 = 6.403 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6. ρCu = V V E x = 1.3781× 106 m (413) So. Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr (415) The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is. INC.2 The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is. ∆y = y0 − y1 = 1. Rev 3. R= (1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.980 × 10−56 kg (411) The POSITIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its’ rest mass M e .3781×10 m )(1. the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is.
294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8. A timeadvanced electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeadvanced t .67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6. The timeadvanced electron drift velocity in a copper wire.071 + 7.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.071 + 7. given.344 j × 106 Amps m 2 2 −3 A πr π (1.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1. Direction of time θ = 45° Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps ) e j 45° = 7. INC.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6. So. where θ = 45° is.344 × 106 + 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.9787 × 1024 kg (417) The timeadvanced current density J 0 is.294 × 10 m ) (418) William Alek Page 68 5/22/2005 . The electrons move at an average timeadvanced drift velocity vx .071 j Amps Mass of the Earth M E = 5. I 0 = I e jθ = (10. Rev 3.2 SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT E e j 45° e vx e − e− vx e j 45° e− vx e j 45° A’ j 45° r I e j 45° A x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 45° FIGURE 31.071 j Amps ) = 02 = = 1. J0 = I0 I ( 7.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1. Example 13.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6.68 × 10−8 Ω m The timeadvanced current I 0 flowing through a conductor.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
The volume V of a segment of copper wire is,
V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.261× 10−6 m3
2
(419)
The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is,
nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu
(420)
nCu =
(8.92 ×10
6
gm m3 )( 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom )
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(421)
nCu = 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3
(422)
The net charge qCu in a volume of a copper wire is,
qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C ) qCu = 7.126 × 104 C
(423) (424)
The timeadvanced velocity vx is,
vx = x t
(425)
The timeadvanced current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is,
I0 =
qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 7.071 + 7.071 j Amps x t vx
(426)
So, the timeadvanced drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.344 ×106 + 1.344 j ×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C )
vx = 9.923 × 10−5 + 9.923 j × 10−5 m sec
(427)
(428)
The fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
( 9.923 ×10−5 + 9.923 j ×10−5 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 ×108 m sec )
∆M e = 9.980 j × 10−56 kg
2
(429)
(430)
William Alek
Page 69
5/22/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
The fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude beyond its’ rest mass M e and is imaginary. Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 =
( 6.3781×106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 ( 6.3781×106 m )( 9.923 ×10−5 + 9.923 j ×10−5 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg )
y1 = 6.3781× 106 m
(431)
(432)
So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 1.0041 j × 10−9 m
(433)
Given a timeadvanced voltage V and a timeadvanced current I , the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as,
ρCu =
V V E x = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr
(434)
The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is,
R=
(1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.294 × 10 m )
SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT
(435)
jE e−
e− j vx e− j vx
A’
j vx
r
jI
A
x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 90°
FIGURE 32. The timefuture electron drift velocity in a copper wire.
Example 14. A timefuture electric current + j I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timefuture t . The electrons move at an average timefuture drift velocity + j vx .
William Alek
Page 70
5/22/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m The timefuture current I 0 flowing through a conductor, where θ = 90° is,
I 0 = I e jθ = (10.0 Amps ) e j 90° = 10.0 j Amps
Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg
(436)
The timefuture current density J 0 is,
J0 = I0 I (10.0 j Amps ) = 02 = = 1.901 j × 106 Amps m 2 2 −3 A πr π (1.294 × 10 m )
(437)
The volume V of a segment of copper wire is,
V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.261× 10−6 m3
2
(438)
The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is,
nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu
(439)
nCu =
(8.92 ×10
6
gm m3 )( 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom )
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(440)
nCu = 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3
(441)
The net charge qCu in a volume of a copper wire is,
qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C )
(442)
William Alek
Page 71
5/22/2005
(1.980 × 10−56 kg (449) The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its’ rest mass M e . the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is.99792458 × 108 m sec ) 2 (448) ∆M e = −9.126 × 104 C (443) The timefuture velocity vx is.403 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6. I0 = qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 10.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.3781×10 m ) ( 6.901 j ×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8. Rev 3.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1. ∆y = y0 − y1 = −9. the timefuture drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is.3132 × 10−10 m (452) William Alek Page 72 5/22/2005 .60217733 × 10−19 C ) vx = 1.0 j Amps x t vx (445) So.3781× 106 m (451) So. vx = x t (444) The timefuture current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is. vx = (1.9787 × 10 6 6 −4 −11 2 2 2 (450) kg ) 24 y1 = 6. Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.2 qCu = 7.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.3781×10 m )(1.403 j × 10 −4 m sec (446) (447) The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is. INC.403 j ×10−4 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9. y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+ ( 6.
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
Given a timefuture voltage V and a timefuture current I , the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as,
ρCu =
V V E x = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr
(453)
The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is,
R=
(1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.294 × 10 m )
COMPLEX RESISTOR
IR
(454)
+
Ve jθ
+
VR R


FIGURE 33. The complete complex resistor.
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, a complex direct current flows through resistor R . A complex voltage VR appears across the resistor. The resulting complex instantaneous power PR is dissipated or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ Voltage supply V Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ
(455)
The complex current I R flowing through resistor R is,
IR = VS R
(456)
The complex voltage VR across resistor R is,
VR = I R R = VS
(457)
William Alek
Page 73
5/22/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
The real resistance R is,
R= VS IR
(458)
The complex instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor is,
PR = VR I R = I R 2 R =
VR 2 R
(459)
Example 15. Given a timeforward voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeforward voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0Volts
(460)
The timeforward current I R is,
IR = VS (10.0 Volts ) = = 4.0 Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(461)
The timeforward instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor is,
V 2 (10.0Volts ) PR = R = = 40.0Watts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(462)
Example 16. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeadvanced current and power being dissipated and absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeadvanced voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 45° = 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts
(463)
The timeadvanced current I R is,
IR = VS ( 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts ) = = 2.8284 + 2.8284 j Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(464)
William Alek
Page 74
5/22/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.2
The timeadvanced instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed of the resistor is,
PR = VR 2 ( 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts ) = = 40.0 jWatts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(465)
The resistor is dissipating and absorbing an equal amount of heat. The resistor is therefore, temperature neutral or adiabatic. Example 17. Given a timefuture voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timefuture current and instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timefuture voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0 jVolts
(466)
The timefuture current I R is,
IR = VS (10.0 jVolts ) = = 4.0 j Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(467)
The timefuture instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor is,
V 2 (10.0 jVolts ) PR = R = = −40.0Watts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(468)
COMPLEX INDUCTOR
iL
S t ≥ 0sec
+
vR R
+
Ve jθ

L vL
+
FIGURE 34. The complete complex magnetizing inductor.
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R and magnetizes
William Alek
Page 75
5/22/2005
the complex instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor.2 inductor L . INC. Rev 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. vL ( t ) = L diL dt (471) Letting t0 = 0. and the complex energy EL stored in the inductor. vR ( t ) = iL ( t ) R (470) The complex voltage across the inductor L is. given. VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ (469) The complex voltage across the resistor R is. So. Direction of time θ Time t Voltage supply V Inductor L Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is. the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is.0sec . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vL appears across inductor L . VS = vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) = iL ( t ) R + L VS L diL = iL ( t ) + R R dt iL ( t ) = VS L diL − R R dt diL = − R t dt L ∫t0 diL dt (472) (473) (474) ∫ iL ( t ) 1 iL ( t ) − VS R 0 (475) V ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ iL ( t ) − S ⎟ R ⎠0 ⎝ iL ( t ) =− R t t L t0 ⎞ ⎟ R ⎟ = − ( t − t0 ) L ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (476) V ⎛ ln ⎜ iL ( t ) − S R ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ VS ⎟ − ln ⎜ − R ⎠ ⎝ VS ⎛ ⎜ iL ( t ) − R ⎞ ⎟ = ln ⎜ ⎠ ⎜ − VS ⎜ ⎝ R (477) William Alek Page 76 5/22/2005 . The resulting complex instantaneous power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor.
and the energy stored in the inductor. the complex energy EL stored in the inductor L is. INC. given. So.2 iL ( t ) − − VS R VS R R R = e − L ( t − t0 ) = e − L t (478) iL ( t ) = R − t ⎞ VS VS − R t VS ⎛ − e L = ⎜1 − e L ⎟ R R R⎝ ⎠ (479) The complex instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2. PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iL ( t ) = R iL 2 ( t ) = The complex instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10. a known resistor value R and inductor value L . compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. Rev 3.0Volts (486) William Alek Page 77 5/22/2005 .0sec .0sec Voltage supply V = 10.5 Ω The timeforward voltage supply VS is. VS = V e jθ = (10. Given a timeforward voltage source VS . PL ( t ) = vL ( t ) iL ( t ) = L iL R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ V2 1− e L ⎟ − S ⎜ R ⎝ ⎠ R 2 R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ 1− e L ⎟ ⎜ R ⎝ ⎠ 2 (480) diL = VS iL ( t ) − R iL 2 ( t ) dt (481) PL ( t ) = 2R R R R − t ⎞ − t ⎞⎛ − t ⎞⎞ − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ V2⎛ V 2 ⎛ −Rt 1 − e L ⎟ = S ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎟ = S ⎜ e L − e L ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ R ⎝ ⎠ (482) Letting t0 = 0. Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0. EL ( t ) = ∫ PL dt = L ∫ iL t t t0 t0 i (t ) 2 2 diL 1 dt =L ∫ iL diL = L ⎡ ⎡iL ( t ) ⎤ − ⎡iL ( t0 ) ⎤ ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ i ( t0 ) ⎣⎣ dt 2 (483) 2 R R ⎡V ⎛ − t ⎞⎤ − t0 1 ⎡ ⎡ VS ⎛ L EL ( t ) = L ⎢ ⎢ ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ ⎥ − ⎢ S ⎜ 1 − e L 2 ⎢⎢ R ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎢ R ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎥ ⎦ 2 ⎤ LV 2 S ⎥= ⎥ 2 R2 ⎦ 2 2 2 R R ⎡⎛ − t ⎞ − t0 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ L L ⎢⎜ 1 − e ⎟ − ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (484) EL ( t ) = R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ 1− e L ⎟ ⎜ 2 R2 ⎝ ⎠ (485) Example 18.
0sec ) = 39.0sec is. compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor. VS = V e jθ = (10.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec ) = 0.071 + 7.609Watts (490) The timeforward instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.0 Watts PL (1.980 Amps (488) The timeforward instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 1.0Volts ) PL ( t ) = S ⎜ e L − e L ⎟ = R ⎝ ( 2.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS . Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0. INC.5 Ω ) ⎠ 2 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (487) iL (1.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.5 Ω ) ⎠ 2 2 ( 2.0sec to t = 1. R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )(10.723 Joules (495) Example 19.2 The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1. given.0Volts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎟ R⎝ ( 2.0Volts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L ⎜1 − e PR ( t ) = ⎜1 − e ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.0sec is. 2R − t ⎞ V 2 ⎛ −Rt (10.0sec ) = 3.5 Ω ) ⎛ − ( 2.0Volts ) EL ( t ) == ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = 2 2 2R ⎝ 2 ( 2.0sec is.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ (10.5 Ω ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 2 (489) PR (1. and the energy stored in the inductor. a known resistor value R and inductor value L .071 jVolts (496) William Alek Page 78 5/22/2005 . So.5 Ω The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2. ( 2.5 Ω) t t ⎞ − ( 470 mH ) ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜e −e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (491) PL ( 0.5Ω ) R − t ⎞ VS ⎛ (10.5 Ω ) ⎞ ⎛ t − ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜1 − e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (494) EL (1.0sec is.130sec ) = 10. 2 ( 2.130sec and at t = 1.195Watts (492) (493) The timeforward energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0. Rev 3.0sec ) = 3.
5Ω ) ⎞ R ⎛ − t ⎞ VS ⎛ ( 7.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.195 jWatts (502) (503) The timeadvanced energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0.071 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L L ⎜e ⎟ −e PL ( t ) = ⎜e − e ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.0sec ) = 39.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (499) PR (1.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10. 2 ( 2.0 jWatts PL (1.2 The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (504) EL (1. and the negative energy stored in the inductor.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (497) iL (1.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. given.071 jVolts ) ⎜ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L PR ( t ) = 1− e ⎜1 − e ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2. ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 2R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − R t ( 7.0sec to t = 1.0sec is. 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )( 7.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (501) PL ( 0. Rev 3.0sec ) = 2.071 jVolts ) ⎜ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L 1− e iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R⎝ ( 2.815 j Amps (498) The timeadvanced instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 1. Given a timefuture voltage source VS . 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ( 2.0sec ) = 3.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R ⎛ − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ ( 7.071 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ EL ( t ) == ⎜1 − e ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 R2 ⎝ 2 ( 2.0sec is.130sec and at t = 1.0sec ) = 0. Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.071 + 7.815 + 2. VS = V e jθ = (10.071 + 7.071 + 7. compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor.130sec ) = 10. a known resistor value R and inductor value L .071 + 7.5 Ω The timefuture voltage supply VS is. INC. So.0 jVolts (506) William Alek Page 79 5/22/2005 .0sec Voltage supply V = 10.723 j Joules (505) Example 20.609 jWatts (500) The timeadvanced instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.0sec is.0sec is.
0sec to t = 1.0sec ) = −39.5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (511) PL ( 0.0sec ) = 3. Rev 3.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ EL ( t ) = ⎜1 − e ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 R2 ⎝ 2 ( 2. William Alek Page 80 5/22/2005 .2 The timefuture iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1. a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R .609 Watts (510) The timefuture instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.195Watts (512) (513) The timefuture energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0.5Ω ) R − t ⎞ VS ⎛ (10. when switch S closes at t = 0sec .5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (507) iL (1.130sec ) = −10. The complete complex demagnetizing inductor.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L ⎜1 − e PR ( t ) = ⎜1 − e ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2. 2( 2. 2 ( 2.0 Watts PL (1.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎟ R⎝ ( 2. where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage. 2 ( 2.0sec ) = −0.980 j Amps (508) The timefuture instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 1.5 Ω ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 2 (509) PR (1.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (514) EL (1. Given a complex energy EL stored in inductor L with a temporal rotation operator e jθ . INC.0sec ) = −3.0sec is. ( 2.0sec is.5 Ω ) 2 R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )(10.723 Joules (515) iL S t ≥ 0sec + vR R + vL L  FIGURE 35.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ (10.5 Ω ) ( 2.130sec and at t = 1.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L L ⎜e −e PL ( t ) = ⎜e − e ⎟= ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.0sec is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.5 Ω ) 2 2R ⎞ − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − R t (10.0sec is.
A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R . V0 = I 0 R (517) The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is. given. INC. the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is.2 The inductor L demagnetizes into the resistor.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. vR ( t ) = R iL ( t ) (518) The complex voltage vL across the inductor L is.0sec . the voltage V0 across the resistor R is. I 0 = I e jθ = I cos θ + j I sin θ (516) At t = 0sec . The resulting complex instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. Rev 3. vR ( t ) = vL ( t ) iL ( t ) R = − L iL ( t ) = − diL dt (520) (521) L diL R dt (522) 1 R diL = − dt iL ( t ) L (523) ∫ i(t ) I0 1 R t diL = − ∫ dt iL ( t ) L t0 iL ( t ) I0 (524) ln ( iL ( t ) ) =− R t L t t0 (525) ⎛ i (t ) ⎞ R ln ( iL ( t ) ) − ln ( I 0 ) = ln ⎜ L ⎟ = − ( t − t0 ) L ⎝ I0 ⎠ (526) William Alek Page 81 5/22/2005 . So. Direction of time θ Time t Initial current through inductor I Inductor L Resistor R The complex current I 0 through the inductor L is. vL ( t ) = − L diL dt (519) Letting t0 = 0.
compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (534) (535) (536) iL ( 0.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.0sec ) = 0. iL ( t ) = I 0 e R − t L = ( 4. I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 0° = 4.0 Amps ) e − ( 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec and at t = 1. PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iL ( t ) = R iL 2 ( t ) = R I 0 2 e − 2R t L (529) Letting t0 = 0.0sec ) = 4.0 Amps iL (1. and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.0sec is. ER ( t ) = ∫ PR dt = R I 0 2 ∫ e t t t0 t0 − 2R t L dt (530) 2R 2R 2R t⎤ − L I 2 ⎡ − 2 R t0 ⎛ −L ⎞ − L t ⎛ − L ⎞ − L t0 − R I02 ⎜ == 0 ⎢ e L − e L ⎥ ER ( t ) = R I 0 2 ⎜ e e ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎣ ⎝ 2R ⎠ ⎝ 2R ⎠ ⎦ 2R − t⎤ ⎡ 1− e L ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (531) ER ( t ) = L I02 2 (532) Example 21. Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0.0sec .2 iL ( t ) I0 =e − R ( t − t0 ) L (527) iL ( t ) = I 0 e R − t L (528) The complex instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is. given.020 Amps William Alek Page 82 5/22/2005 .0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.5 Ω The timeforward current I 0 through the inductor L is. a known resistor value R and inductor value L . INC. So.0 Amps (533) The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4. the complex energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is. Given a timeforward voltage V across inductor L . Rev 3.
014 + 0.828 j Amps ) e 2 − 2 ( 2. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across inductor L .0sec ) = 3.0sec ) = 40.828 j Amps (542) The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0. PR ( t ) = R I 0 2 e − 2R t L = ( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (537) (538) (539) PR ( 0.0sec and at t = 1.5 Ω )( 2.5 Ω The timeadvanced current I 0 through the inductor L is.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (543) (544) (545) iL ( 0. INC.0sec is. Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.0sec ) = 9.828 j Amps iL (1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps ) 1− e L ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ( 2.828 j Amps ) e − ( 2. compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor. PR ( t ) = R I 0 e 2 − 2R t L = ( 2.828 + 2.760 Joules (541) Example 22. I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4.014 j Amps The timeadvanced instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.2 The timeforward instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.592 × 10−4 Watts The timeforward energy ER dissipated by the resistor R at t = 1.828 + 2.0 jWatts William Alek Page 83 5/22/2005 .5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (540) ER (1.0sec ) = 40.0sec is. a known resistor value R and inductor value L .0sec ) = 0.0sec and at t = 1. and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor. iL ( t ) = I 0 e R − t L = ( 2.0sec is. ER ( t ) = L I02 2 2R − t⎤ ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 4. given.0sec ) = 2.828 + 2.0sec is.0 Amps ) e j 45° = 2. Rev 3.0Watts PR (1.0 Amps ) e 2 − 2 ( 2.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. So.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec and at t = 1.828 + 2.5 Ω )( 4.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (546) (547) PR ( 0.
0sec ) = 4. Rev 3.0sec is. and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.0sec is.828 + 2.0sec and at t = 1. I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4. INC. a known resistor value R and inductor value L .0 j Amps (551) The timefuture current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is.0 Amps ) e j 90° = 4.5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜ 1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (558) William Alek Page 84 5/22/2005 .592 j × 10−4 Watts (548) The timeadvanced energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0. 2R − t⎤ LI 2 ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 2.5 Ω The timefuture current I 0 through the inductor L is.0sec is.0 j Amps ) ER ( t ) = 0 ⎢1 − e L ⎥ = 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 2( 2.0sec ) = 0.592 × 10−4 Watts The timefuture energy ER absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (552) (553) (554) iL ( 0. Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec ) = −9. iL ( t ) = I 0 e R − t L = ( 4.5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (549) ER (1.0 j Amps ) e − ( 2.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.0sec ) = −40.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. 2R − t⎤ LI 2 ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 4.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH ) (555) (556) (557) PR ( 0. given.0 Watts PR (1.2 PR (1. PR ( t ) = R I 0 2 e − 2R t L = ( 2.0sec and at t = 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4. Given a timefuture voltage V across inductor L . compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor.0 j Amps ) e 2 − 2 ( 2.0 j Amps iL (1.760 j Joules (550) Example 23.0sec and at t = 1.020 j Amps The timefuture instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0. So.5 Ω )( 4.828 j Amps ) ER ( t ) = 0 ⎢1 − e L ⎥ = 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 2 ( 2.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec ) = 3.0sec ) = 9.
So.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.2 ER (1. when switch S closes at t = 0sec . VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ (560) The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is. The complete complex charging capacitor. Direction of time θ Time t Voltage supply V Capacitor C Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is. a complex direct current flows through resistor R and charges capacitor C . where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage.760 Joules (559) COMPLEX CAPACITOR iC S t ≥ 0sec + vR R + Ve jθ  C vC + FIGURE 36. VS = vR ( t ) + vC ( t ) = iC ( t ) R + vC ( t ) (563) William Alek Page 85 5/22/2005 .0sec . Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ . INC. vR ( t ) = iC ( t ) R (561) The complex current iC through a capacitor C is. The resulting complex power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor and the complex energy EC is stored in the capacitor.0sec ) = −3. given. Rev 3. iC ( t ) = C dvC dt (562) Letting t0 = 0. A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vC appears across capacitor C . the complex voltage vC across the capacitor C is.
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iC ( t ) = vR 2 ( t ) R (V = S − vC ( t ) ) R 2 = 2 VS 2 − RC t e R (571) The complex instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec . Rev 3. the complex energy EC stored in the capacitor C is. PC ( t ) = vC ( t ) iC ( t ) = C vC 2 2 dvC (VS vC ( t ) − vC ( t ) ) = dt R (572) 1 1 1 1 2 − t ⎞ − t ⎞ − t ⎞⎛ − t ⎞⎞ − t ⎞ ⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ −1t PC ( t ) = S ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ − S ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ = S ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎟ = S ⎜ e RC − e RC ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ R R ⎝ R ⎝ ⎠ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (573) Letting t0 = 0. EL ( t ) = ∫ PL dt = C ∫ vC t t t0 t0 v (t ) 2 2 dvC 1 dt = C ∫ vC dvC = C ⎡ ⎡ vC ( t ) ⎤ − ⎡ vC ( t0 ) ⎤ ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ v ( t0 ) dt 2 ⎣⎣ 2 2 1 1 ⎡⎛ − t ⎞ − t0 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎢⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ − ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (574) 2 2 1 1 ⎤ CV 2 ⎡ ⎛ − t ⎞⎤ − t ⎞⎤ 1 ⎡⎡ ⎛ S ⎢ ⎢VS ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎥ − ⎢VS ⎜1 − e RC 0 ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ = EC ( t ) = C 2 ⎢⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ (575) 1 − t ⎞ C VS 2 ⎛ EC ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 (576) William Alek Page 86 5/22/2005 . INC.2 vC ( t ) = VS − R C 1 dvC dt 1 dt RC (564) vC ( t ) − VS dvC = − (565) ∫ vC ( t ) 0 vC ( t ) − VS 1 dvC = − vC ( t ) 0 1 t dt R C ∫t0 (566) ln ( vC ( t ) − VS ) =− 1 t RC t t0 (567) ⎛ v ( t ) − VS ln ( vC ( t ) − VS ) − ln ( −VS ) = ln ⎜ C ⎝ −VS vC ( t ) − VS −VS =e − 1 ( t − t0 ) RC ⎞ 1 ( t − t0 ) ⎟=− RC ⎠ 1 t RC (568) =e − (569) vC ( t ) = VS − VS e − 1 t RC 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ = VS ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (570) The complex instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is.
33sec and at t = 1.33sec ) = 0.0 Volts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (578) vC (1. So.0 k Ω ) 2 2 (580) PR ( 0.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t ⎜e − e (1. VS = V e jθ = (10. Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0. Rev 3.0Volts ) e − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ (1.0105Watts (584) (585) The timeforward energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.0 k Ω The timeforward voltage supply VS is. given.2 Example 24. V 2 − 2 t (10.0Volts (577) The timeforward voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1. and the energy stored in the inductor.0sec ) = 1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.809 Volts (579) The timeforward instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec is.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec ) = 0.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0 k Ω ) ⎝ ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t PR ( t ) = S e RC = e R (1.419 × 10−3 Watts (581) (582) The timeforward instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.0245Watts PC (1.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0sec ) = 8. compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor. INC.0Volts ) EC ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0sec is.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (583) PC ( 0.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (586) William Alek Page 87 5/22/2005 . a known resistor value R and capacitor value C .0sec Voltage supply V = 10. 1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = (10.0sec is.0sec to t = 1. Given a timeforward voltage source VS .0sec is.0 Volts ) ⎜ 1 − e (1.0sec and at t = 1. 1 − t ⎞ C VS 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.0sec ) = 0. PC ( t ) = VS 2 R 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − RC t (10.10 Watts PR (1.
071 jVolts (588) The timeadvanced voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1.419 j × 10−3 Watts (592) (593) The timeadvanced instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.0sec to t = 1. a known resistor value R and capacitor value C .0 k Ω ) 2 2 (591) PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0. Rev 3.33sec and at t = 1.071 + 7.0 k Ω ) ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.229 jVolts (590) The timeadvanced instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t ⎜e − e (1.0sec is.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7. So.229 + 6.10 jWatts PR (1. given.0 k Ω The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is.071 + 7.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (589) vC (1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. PR ( t ) = 2 VS 2 − RC t ( 7.071 jVolts ) ⎜ 1 − e (1. 1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = ( 7.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1. and the energy stored in the inductor.0sec ) = 1.071 jVolts ) − e RC ⎟ = ⎜e R ⎝ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (594) PC ( 0.0sec is.0sec is. VS = V e jθ = (10. compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.0182 Joules (587) Example 25. INC.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec ) = 6.0sec is. William Alek Page 88 5/22/2005 . Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS .33sec ) = 0. PC ( t ) = 1 2 − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − RC t ( 7.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.071 + 7.0105Watts (595) (596) The timeadvanced energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.071 + 7.2 EC ( t ) = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec ) = 0.0245 jWatts PC (1. Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.071 jVolts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t e e = R (1.
a known resistor value R and capacitor value C .0 k Ω The timefuture voltage supply VS is.0sec and at t = 1.0105Watts (606) (607) The timefuture energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.0 jVolts ) − (1.071 jVolts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e (1. Given a timefuture voltage source VS .10 Watts PR (1. INC.0 jVolts (599) The timefuture voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1. V 2 − 2 t (10. given. Rev 3.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (600) vC (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t ⎜e − e (1.071 + 7.0 k Ω ) ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.419 × 10−3 Watts (603) (604) The timefuture instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.0245Watts PC (1.33sec ) = −0. PC ( t ) = 1 2 − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − RC t (10. Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec Voltage supply V = 10. and the energy stored in the inductor.0sec is.33sec and at t = 1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (597) EC ( t ) = 0.0 jVolts ) − e RC ⎟ = ⎜e R ⎝ (1. compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1. 1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = (10.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec to t = 1.0sec is.0sec ) = −0.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10.2 C VS 2 EC ( t ) = 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ( 470 µ F )( 7.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (605) PC ( 0. So.0sec ) = 8. William Alek Page 89 5/22/2005 .0sec is.0sec ) = −1.809 jVolts (601) The timefuture instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec ) = −0.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t PR ( t ) = S e RC = e R (1. VS = V e jθ = (10.0 jVolts ) ⎜ 1 − e (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2 (602) PR ( 0.0sec is.0182 j Joules (598) Example 26.
given.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. a complex direct current iC flows through resistor R . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R .0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (608) EC ( t ) = −0. the voltage V0 across the resistor R is. when switch S closes at t = 0sec .0 jVolts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 − e (1. The complete complex discharging capacitor. INC. where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage. vR ( t ) = R iC ( t ) (611) The complex current iC through a capacitor C is. V0 = I 0 R (610) The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is. Given a complex energy EC stored in capacitor C with a temporal rotation operator e jθ . So. Rev 3.0182 Joules (609) iC S t ≥ 0sec + vR R + vC C  FIGURE 37. Direction of time θ Time t Initial voltage across capacitor V Capacitor C Resistor R At t = 0sec . vC ( t ) = vR ( t ) = R iC ( t ) = − R C dvC dt (613) William Alek Page 90 5/22/2005 .2 C VS 2 EC ( t ) = 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10. The resulting complex instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. iC ( t ) = −C dvC dt (612) Letting t0 = 0. the complex voltage vC across the capacitor C is.0sec . The capacitor C discharges into the resistor.
given.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10. INC.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. Rev 3. So. the complex energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is. PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iC ( t ) = vR 2 ( t ) R = V0 2 − R C t e R 2 (620) Letting t0 = 0. V2 ER ( t ) = ∫ PR dt = 0 t0 R t ∫ t − t0 e 2 t RC dt (621) ER ( t ) = V0 2 R 2 2 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − 2 t0 ⎛ − R C ⎞ − R C t V0 ⎛ − R C ⎞ − R C t0 1 − = C V0 2 ⎜ e R C − e R C ⎟ e e ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ 1 ER ( t ) = C V0 2 ⎜ 1 − e R C ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (622) (623) Example 27. William Alek Page 91 5/22/2005 .0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1. a known resistor value R and capacitor value C . and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.0 k Ω The timeforward voltage V0 across the capacitor C is.0sec . Given a timeforward voltage V across capacitor C . Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0.2 vC ( t ) 1 dvC = − 1 dt RC (614) ∫ vC ( t ) V0 vC ( t ) 1 dvC = − vC ( t ) V0 1 t dt R C ∫t0 1 t RC t t0 (615) ln ( vC ( t ) ) =− (616) ⎛ v (t ) ⎞ 1 ln ( vC ( t ) ) − ln (V0 ) = ln ⎜ C ( t − t0 ) ⎟=− V0 ⎠ RC ⎝ (617) vC ( t ) V0 =e − 1 ( t − t0 ) RC =e 1 t RC − 1 t RC (618) vC ( t ) = V0 e − (619) The complex instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor.
So. Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.071 + 7.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is. given. INC.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) 1 t (625) (626) (627) vC ( 0.0sec ) = 0.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t PR ( t ) = 0 e RC = e R (1.0 Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0 Volts ) − (1.023 Joules (632) Example 28.191Volts The timeforward instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0 k Ω The timeadvanced voltage V0 across the capacitor C is.071 + 7. ER ( t ) = 2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.10 Watts PR (1.0sec ) = 0.0 Volts ) e − (1. compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor. Rev 3.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (631) ER (1.0 Volts vC (1. vC ( t ) = V0 e − 1 t RC = ( 7.2 V0 = V e jθ = (10.071 jVolts (633) The timeadvanced voltage vC across the capacitor C is. vC ( t ) = V0 e − 1 t RC = (10.0sec is.0sec ) = 1.419 × 10−3 Watts (629) (630) The timeforward energy ER dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0 k Ω ) 2 2 (628) PR ( 0.0sec ) = 10.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) 1 t (634) William Alek Page 92 5/22/2005 . V 2 − 2 t (10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0Volts (624) The timeforward voltage vC across the capacitor C is. and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.0sec and at t = 1. V0 = V e jθ = (10.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across capacitor C .0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.071 jVolts ) e − (1. a known resistor value R and capacitor value C .0sec ) = 1.0Volts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e (1.
0sec ) = 0. INC. Rev 3.0sec ) = 7.0sec ) = 1.0 jVolts ) e − (1.0sec is.842 jVolts (635) (636) The timeadvanced instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.419 j × 10−3 Watts (638) (639) The timeadvanced energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. V0 = V e jθ = (10.2 vC ( 0.0sec is. given. Given a timefuture voltage V across capacitor C . compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t PR ( t ) = 0 e RC = e R (1.071 + 7.0sec ) = 10.842 + 0.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) 1 t (643) (644) (645) vC ( 0.071 + 7. So.0 k Ω ) 2 2 (637) PR ( 0.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (640) ER (1.023 j Joules (641) Example 29.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1. a known resistor value R and capacitor value C .071 jVolts ) − (1.0sec ) = 0. V 2 − 2 t ( 7.0 jVolts vC (1.071 + 7.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10. vC ( t ) = V0 e − 1 t RC = (10.0sec and at t = 1.0sec ) = 1.0sec and at t = 1. and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.0 jVolts (642) The timefuture voltage vC across the capacitor C is. Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0. William Alek Page 93 5/22/2005 . 2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )( 7.0 k Ω The timefuture voltage V0 across the capacitor C is.0sec and at t = 1.191 jVolts The timefuture instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec ) = 0.071 jVolts vC (1.071 jVolts ) ER ( t ) = ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.10 jWatts PR (1.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0sec is.
0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (649) ER (1.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.0sec ) = −0.0 k Ω ) 2 2 (646) PR ( 0.0sec and at t = 1. INC.10 Watts PR (1.023 Joules (650) William Alek Page 94 5/22/2005 .0sec ) = −1. Rev 3.0sec is.0sec ) = −0.0 jVolts ) − (1. ER ( t ) = 2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.2 PR ( t ) = 2 V0 2 − RC t (10.0 jVolts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e (1.419 × 10−3 Watts (647) (648) The timefuture energy ER absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t = e e R (1.
θ > 0° M Fe + ( −∆M Fe ) F t ≥ 0sec +  H iK e jθ . jθ Nikola Tesla was the first to develop the phenomenon of complex fields back in the 1880's. Rev 3. θ > 0° FIGURE 38. θ > 0° H L + + K L’  vK e . INC. An imaginary magnetic field j BM emerges due to this cancellation and couples back into the magnetizing direct current as iM e jθ . Therefore. Magnetizing the high inductance coils M create an opposing field µ0 H M that acts upon the ordered domains of the material. which he later called RADIANT ENERGY. thus canceling or partially canceling the real magnetic field created by the Amperian Currents. the pivoting magnetic domains created by Amperian Currents of the ferromagnetic material are ordered in the direction of field BG by magnetizing coil G . θ > 0° vR e . As shown above. the magnetizing direct current becomes complex because the circulating motion of the electrons is rotating into the imaginary axis. Nikola Tesla’s US patent 568. He devised a series of machines patented in the 1890's that greatly amplify this phenomenon.2 TESLA’S COMPLEX FIELD GENERATOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PWR + VS  A” + N iG G S S A” + N  M −∆E = −∆M Fe c 2 M  S BG µ0 H M N + iM e jθ . θ > 0° R + jθ L’ iR e jθ .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.176. William Alek Page 95 5/22/2005 . where θ > 0° .
William Alek Page 96 5/22/2005 . At the moment of switch F closure. The complex field energy is stored in capacitors H . INC.2 As shown above. Rev 3. the capacitors H are charged with a complex direct current iM e jθ produced by an opposing flux from coils M . A very large complex electric potential vL e jθ is observed across the secondary coil L . before switch F is closed. t = 0sec . the complex direct current flows through coil K .Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. rapidly discharging capacitors H .
During the demagnetizing/discharging phase.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Then. Both technologies are electrical devices with the first being inductivebased. TIMEFUTURE AMPERIAN CURRENTS INDUCTOR L DECREASED MASS −∆M L TIMEFUTURE AMPERIAN CURRENTS CAPACITOR C DECREASED MASS −∆M C + vL iL  v'L FOR COP > 1. and the second being capacitivebased. the cycle begins again.2 MASS FLUCTUATION TECHNOLOGIES Since a theoretical link was established between gravity and electromagnetism. and alter the local gravity well. clocks runs faster due to broken symmetry of massenergy conservation in the proximity of these devices because mass is converted to timefuture energy.0 iL < i 'L + i'L iC + vC  + v'C  FOR COP > 1. Two mass fluctuating systems. Shown below is a simplified schematic diagram that highlights their operation. Rev 3. These systems are cyclic. William Alek Page 97 TUNGSTEN 5/22/2005 . excess electrical energy is collected. As a consequence. A CONCEPT VEHICLE THAT UTILIZES GRAVITATIONAL MASS FLUCTUATIONS + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + FLUCTUATING MASS + ++ M + + + + INSULATING + + + LAYER + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + R + + L + + GRAVIMETRIC ENERGY + + + + + + + + + + + + + + VP + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + FLUCTUATING + MASS ++ + M ++ + + + ++ CLOCKS RUN FASTER + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + GRAVIMETRIC ENERGY FIGURE 40. two mass fluctuation technologies are presently under investigation. and mass is restored after this phase. The mass of these systems is converted to excess field energy during the magnetizing/charging phase.0 vC < v 'C RLOAD S1 RLOAD i'C D1 RLOAD D1 RLOAD S1 vLOAD S1 S1 + RS RS + vLOAD  + VS MAGNETIZATION PHASE + VS DEMAGNETIZATION PHASE + VS CHARGE PHASE + VS DISCHARGE PHASE INDUCTIVE MAGNETIZATION / DEMAGNETIZATION CYCLE CAPACITIVE CHARGE / DISCHARGE CYCLE FIGURE 39. A cutaway view of a capacitivebased mass fluctuating concept vehicle. INC.
The vehicle seeks a new equipotential surface of gravity that corresponds to its’ new mass. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a vehicle of mass 1 kg positioned at an initial radius y0 as shown in the diagram above.5 5. ENERGIZING THE GRAVITATIONAL PROPULSION UNIT (GPU) y 22.1 0.5 1kg VEHICLE (BEFORE) y0 10.2 Shown above is a concept vehicle for tunneling through vast distances of space. William Alek Page 98 5/22/2005 . This system decreases the relativistic mass of the vehicle such that it displaces or vectors in height to a new equipotential surface of gravity above the Earth.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. it radiates away this gravitational energy in the form of a temporal field within the vehicle. Rev 3. Example 30. The first step concerning this antigravitational system is the controlled fissioning or disassociation of tungsten metal.0 2. or used to power the vehicle. Mass converted to electrical energy is amplified as field energy in the outer hull.500. This metal is used as a fuel source of gravitational energy bound as mass within the element.0 7.378. Deactivating this system causes the same vehicle to naturally fall based on universal mass attraction. thereby turning off the temporal field. compute the new gravitational mass M y1 of the vehicle displaced ∆y away from the Earth. As the matter of the metal disassociates. The second step begins by switching off the fissioning process. INC.920 1kg VEHICLE (AFTER) y1 RADIUS g yn = G ME yn 2 VEHICLE UNDERGOES A RELATIVISTIC MASS REDUCTION ∆y = y0 − y1 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE 7. The diagram above shows a 1 kg vehicle undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation in a given an equipotential surface of gravity reference. A typical gravity profile of the Earth shown above is based on Newton’s gravity.0 DECREASED GRAVITY 19.529 6. Vehicle is undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation above the Earth. thus producing lift. This causes clocks to speedup and the mass of the vehicle to decrease.0 g y0 = 7.8 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY m sec2 FIGURE 41. radiated away.0 g yn g y1 = 1.0 g0 = 9. which can be stored. the cycle begins again. Then.
99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6. g y1 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.529 × 106 m ) − ( −12.9999999996333 kg ) − (1.920 × 106 m above the Earth is. Mass of vehicle M y0 = 1. g y0 = −11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6. M y1 − M y0 = ( 0.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.9999999996333 kg The gravitational mass was reduced by.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 7.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 1. ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 6 2 6 ⎜ 1.920 ×10 m ) (653) Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model. Rev 3.391× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.0 kg Vehicle at initial radius y0 = 7.0 kg ) = −3.005 m sec 19.667 × 10−10 kg (656) William Alek Page 99 5/22/2005 .005 m sec 2 2 6 y12 (19.99792458×10 m sec ⎝ ( )( )( )( )⎞ ⎟ M y1 = M y0 e = (1. given.0 kg ) e ( ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (654) (655) M y1 = 0. y1 = y0 − ∆y = ( 7.529 ×10 m ) (652) The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 19.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.920 × 106 m (651) The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 7.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.391× 106 m ) = 19. the new gravitational mass is.9787 × 1024 kg The final radius y1 of the vehicle above the Earth is.920×10 m − 7.038 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 7.529×10 m ⎜ 2 8 ⎜ 2.038 m sec 7.2 So. INC.529 × 106 m Displacement of vehicle ∆y = y0 − y1 = −12.529 × 106 m above the Earth is.
The first step for a Gravitational Flight Control System. W is the warp factor. vectors to the desired position. The PID calculates and transmits in realtime an error value to the GPU. then energize the GPU and vectored to new position. The third step requires the pilot to determine what the next desired position will be. or GPU. the second step involves calculating the current mass fluctuation M cur . The error value sent to the GPU determines the rate of mass fluctuation. William Alek Page 100 5/22/2005 . v =W3 c ∆y T c (657) W= 3 v c = 3 (658) Where. Therefore. It acquires new height information and computes the error difference between current and desired position. so. Once this height information is acquired. The warp factor W equation is.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. INC.2 CLOSEDLOOP GRAVITATIONAL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM DECREASED GRAVITY y1 VECTOR VEHICLE TO NEW POSITION IN GRAVITY WELL x0 +∆x ' θ −∆y ' −∆y y0 +∆x GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE x1 ALTIMETER ACQUIRE HEIGHT h MICROWAVES KNOWN SURFACE GRAVITY g0 INERTIAL REFERENCE SURFACE OF EARTH FIGURE 42. but by a gravitational means. c is the speed of light. and in turn. Acquire position information. This system can run “closedloop” by implementing a software algorithm called a highspeed ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control loop. is to acquire vehicle height h information above a known surface gravity g 0 . or GFCS. Rev 3. and v is the velocity. predicted mass fluctuation M pre is calculated and transmitted to a Gravitational Propulsion Unit. warp factor equation shown by Whitfield (1968) could be used. The GPU is energized causing the mass of the vehicle to fluctuate. This rate may exceed the speed of light because the vehicle isn’t traversing space by an inertial means.
0 × 10−3 sec ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ M y1 = 0. The warp factor vs.0 × 10−4 gm sec Operating time T = 1.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.2 1000 800 TIMES THE SPEED OF LIGHT 600 400 3 v c 200 0 2 6 4 WARP FACTOR W 8 10 FIGURE 43. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a GPU with a NEGATIVE mass fluctuation rate ∆M RATE ( t ) operating for a period of time T .0 kg ) + ⎡( −1. the speed of light.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5. Example 31. given. INC.0 kg Mass fluctuation rate ∆M RATE ( t ) = −1.0 kg . Initial mass of vehicle M y0 = 1. M y1 = M y0 + ( ∆M RATE ( t ) × T ) = (1.9787 × 1024 kg The new gravitational mass of the vehicle M y1 operating a GPU for a period of time T is. So. compute the displacement ∆y of a vehicle leaving from the surface of the Earth at warp factor W with a vehicle mass of 1.0 × 10−4 gm sec )(1.0 × 10−3 s ec Vehicle located at initial radius Y0 = 6. Rev 3.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.9999999999000 kg (659) (660) William Alek Page 101 5/22/2005 .
controls gravity.4484 × 106 m ) ∆y = −1. time. ∆y T = c W= 3 v c = 3 3 ( 2.0703 × 106 m (666) (667) (668) The warp factor W is.2 Given the exponential form of the natural relativistic mass M ∆y model.5284 (670) Leaving from the surface of the Earth. temperature. for example. but more precisely. The control of how fast mass fluctuates controls the speed of the vehicle through this well.99792458 ×10 8 m sec ) (669) W = 1.4484 × 106 m ∆y = y0 − y1 = ( 6. volume. Whether the vehicle implementing GMF is above the surface of the Earth or William Alek Page 102 5/22/2005 . CONCLUSION The parameters of space and time identified as mass.0703 ×10 m ) (1. the vehicle is displaced over 665 miles above the Earth within 1 millisecond. compute the new radius y1 within a given gravity well g y is.9787 ×10 kg ) ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ 6 6 8 2 −11 2 2 24 (665) y1 = 7.9999999999000 kg ⎞ 1+ ⎟ 1. Therefore. INC.99792458 ×10 m sec ) ln ⎛ 0.0 ×10 sec ) 6 −3 8 m sec ) == −1.3781×10 m ) ( 6.0 kg ( 6.3781×10 m )( 2.0703 × 109 m sec 3 ( 2.3781× 106 m ) − ( 7. and energy are functions of gravity. ⎛ G ME G ME − ⎜ y0 ⎜ y1 ⎜ c2 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ M y1 = M y0 e ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ = M y0 e ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (661) M y1 M y0 ⎛ M y1 c 2 ln ⎜ ⎜M ⎝ y0 =e ⎛ G ME G ME − ⎜ y0 ⎜ y1 ⎜ c2 ⎜ ⎝ (662) ⎞ G ME G ME − ⎟ = ⎟ y1 y0 ⎠ (663) y1 = y0 ⎛ My y c 1+ 0 ln ⎜ 1 G M E ⎜ M y0 ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (664) y1 = ( 6. controls its’ current position within a given gravity well.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. Rev 3. frequency.67260 ×10 N m kg )( 5.99792458 ×10 ( −1. controlling the mass of a space vehicle.
1. Rev 3. New Energy Technologies. “Ferrites and Ferromagnetics Free Energy Generation”. INC. JBIS. 4.com/Index/Projects/Research/Dragone.htm James F. “Natural Length Contraction Due to Gravity”. On the web at: http://www.pdf Nickolay Zaev.53 through deep space. On the Web at: http://www. and includes the nearby stars.intalek. This changes the frequency of clocks within the vehicle relative to clocks outside of the vehicle. 1989. The vehicles’ Gravitational Propulsion Unit.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev1.intalek. Woodward. “Analysis of Leon Dragone's. or GFCS.intalek. On the web at: http://www.com/Index/Projects/Research/jbis_final.intalek.intalek. New Energy Technologies. and the Alcubierre Warp Drive: An Integrating View”.42. Issue #1 JanFeb 2002.intalek. On the web at: http://www. On the web at: http://www. 2001. 1993. Letters. 1997.com/Index/Projects/Research/PoundRebka.com/Index/Projects/Research/OnTheNatureOfElectricalInduction. pp. “Transient Mass Fluctuation”.com/Index/Projects/Research/TRANSIENT%20MASS%20FLUCTUATIONS. S. “The Parametric Power Conversion”. “Radiant Pressure of Remote Forces”. New Energy Technologies. “Inductive Conversion of Heat Environmental Energy to Electrical Energy”.htm Bruce DePalma.intalek. “Natural Length Contraction Due to Kinetic Energy”.intalek.A. “Energetics of Ferromagnetism”.intalek. or GPU.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev3.htm Paul Marmet. “Engineering the ZeroPoint Field and Polarizable Vacuum for Interstellar Flight”. Either device can change its’ own mass by converting it to excess electrical energy.com/Index/Projects/Research/ppc. On the web at: William Alek Page 103 5/22/2005 . 9.com/Index/Projects/Research/seti. No.htm Robert Neil Boyd. Pound and G. 55 pp 137144.intalek.htm R. 1998.intalek.2 traveling at warp factor 1.htm Leon Dragone. On the web at: http://www. On the web at: http://www. capable of controlling the GPU.com/Index/Projects/Research/UGCQEfinal. On the web at: http://www. On the web at: http://www. and M.rialian. the VelocityofLight Limitation.V. using one of the two devices that are under investigation control mass by an electrical means. REFERENCES Hal Puthoff. Vol.com/Index/Projects/Research/zaev2.pdf Nickolay Zaev. “On the Nature of Electrical Induction”. the broken symmetry of massenergy conservation causes the gravitational energy equivalent of mass to be radiated away as a temporal field. On the Web at: http://www. Woodward.com/Index/Projects/Research/RADIATION_REACTION. On the web at: http://www.PDF Nickolay Zaev. “Alterations of Aether Density”. On the Web at: http://www.pdf Stanley Byers.com/Index/Projects/Research/NaturalLengthContractionMechanismDueToKineticEnergy. Energetics of Ferromagnetism”. On the web at: http://www. Rev. 2002. Journal of New Energy 2001. This control system acts as an interface between man and the GPU. and as a consequence. 1996. On the web at: http://www.337 1964. 1998. 2003.com/Index/Projects/Research/FundamentalNatureOfRelativisticMassAndMagneticField. 4044. The vehicle will require a Gravitational Flight Control System.intalek. “Fundamental Nature of Relativistic Mass and Magnetic Fields”. A force is created and acts antigravitationally on the device. 1995. On the web at: http://www.intalek.pdf Paul Marmet.pdf William Alek. Rebka “Apparent Weight of Photons”. 2003.intalek. On the web at: http://www.pdf James F.com/Index/Projects/Research/DragoneAnalysis.intalek.pdf JeanLouis Naudin. On the web at: http://www.Gravitational Mass Fluctuations INTALEK. thus utilizing the theoretical link between gravity and electromagnetism presented in this paper.com/Index/Projects/Research/NaturalLengthContractionDueToGravity. The development of this system can be directly implemented from the mathematical formulations in this paper.pdf Hal Puthoff. Physics Essays. “FuelLess Energetics”. Vol. Little.htm Carlos Calvet. Phys. Issue #2 MarApr 2002. “Gravitation and Inertia as a Consequence of Quantum Vacuum Energy”. “SETI.com/rnboyd/aether.intalek. Journal of Theoretics Vol. Ibison. 156158. Issue #5 SepOct 2002.htm Paul Marmet. pp. An additional requirement is the development of realtime navigation software programs that maps the gravity of the entire Sol System. the physical constants where shown in previous sections to remain invariant within the vehicle. “Radiation Reaction”.
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