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Distance between two points P(x,y) and Q(x,y) is |PQ| = [(x2 -x1)² +(y2 -y1)²]. Hence the distance of the point P (x, y) from the origin (0, 0) = [(x -0)² +(y -0)²] = [x² +y²] Remarks To prove that a quadrilateral is a (i) rhombus, show that all the sides are equal. (ii) square, show that all the sides are equal and the diagonals are also equal. (iii) parallelogram, show that the opposite sides are equal. (iv) rectangle, show that the opposite sides are equal and the diagonals are also equal. Illustrative Examples Example Show that the points (7, 10), (-2, 5) and (3, -4) are the vertices of an isosceles right angled triangle. Solution Let the points be A (7, 10), B (-2, 5) and C (3, -4), then |AB| = [(- 2 -7)² +(5 -10)²] = [81 +25] = 106, |BC| = [(3 +2)² +(11 -3)²] = [25 +81] = 106 and |CA| = [(7- 3)² +(10 -(-4))²] = [16 +196] = 212 => AB² = 106, BC² = 106 and CA² = 212, Hence AB² +BC² = 106 +106 = 212 = CA² => ABC is right angled and it is right angled at B. Also |AB| = 106 = |BC| => ABC is isosceles. Example Show that the points (-1, -1), (2, 3) and (8, 11) are collinear. Solution Let the points be A (-1, -1), B (2, 3) and C (8, 11), then |AB| = [(2 -(-1))² +(3 -(-1))²] = [32 +42] = [9 +16] = 25 =5, |BC| = [(8 -2)² +(11-3)²] = [36 +64] = 100 = 10 and |CA| = [(8 -(-1))² +(11 -(-1))²] = [92 +122] = [81 +144] = 225 =15. Hence |AB| +|BC| = 5 +10 = 15 = |CA| => the given points are collinear. Example

The vertices of a triangle are A (1, 1), B (4, 5) and C (6, 13). Find cos A. Solution If a, b, c are the sides of ABC, then a = |BC| = [(6 -4)² +(13 -5)²] = [4 +64] = 68 = 2. 17, b = |CA| = [(6 -1)² +(13 -1)²] = [25+144] = 169 = 13, and c = |AB| = [(4 -1)² +(5 -1)²] = [9 +16] = 25 = 5 By cosine formula, we have cos A = (b² +c² -a²)/ 2bc = (169 +25 -68)/(2.13.5) = 126/130 = 63/65 Exercise 1. A is a point on y-axis whose ordinate is 5 and B is the point (-3, 1). Compute the length of AB. 2. The distance between A (1, 3) and B (x, 7) is 5. Find the values of x. 3. What point (or points) on the y-axis are at a distance of 10 units from the point (8, 8)? 4. Find point (or points) which are at a distance of 10 from the point (4, 3) given that the ordinate of the point (or points) is twice the abscissa. 5. Find the abscissa of points whose ordinate is 4 and which are at a distance of 5 units from (5, 0). 6. What point on x-axis is equidistant from the points (7, 6) and (-3, 4)? 7. Find the value of x such that |PQ| = |QR| where P, Q, R are (6, -1), (1, 3) and (x, 8) respectively. Are the points P, Q, R collinear? 8. Show that the points (4, 2), (7, 5) and (9, 7) are collinear. 9. Show that the points (2, 3), (-4, -6) and (1, 3/2) do not form a triangle. [Hint. Show that the given points are collinear.] 10. Show that the points A (2, 2), B (-2, 4) and C (2, 6) are the vertices of a triangle. Prove that ABC is an isosceles triangle. 11. Show that the points: (i) (-2, 2), (8, -2) and (-4, -3) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle. (ii) (0, 0), (5, 5) and (-5, 5) are the vertices of a right-angled isosceles triangle. (iii) (1, 1), (-1, -1),(- 3 , 3)are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. (iv) (2 a, 4 a), (2 a, 6 a), (2 a + 3 a, 5 a) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. 12. Show that the points: (i) (2, 1), (5, 4), (4, 7), (1, 4) are the angular points of a parallelogram. (ii) (7, 3), (3, 0), (0, -4), (4, -1) are the vertices of a rhombus. (iii) (2, -2), (8, 4), (5, 7), (-1, 1) are the vertices of a rectangle. (iv) (3, 2), (0, 5), (-3, 2), (0, -1) are the vertices of a square. 13. The points A (0, 3), B (-2, a) and C (-1, 4) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle at A, find the value of a. 14. Two vertices of an isosceles triangle are (2, 0) and (2, 5). Find the third vertex if the length of equal sides is 3 units.

Answers

1. 5

2. 4 or -2 3. (0, 2), (0, 14) 4. (1, 2), (3, 6) 5. 2 or 8 6. (3, 0) 7. 5 or -3; No 13. 1 14. (2 +( 11)/2, 5/2) or (2 -( 11)/2, 5/2)

Section Formula

When the Point divides the line segment Internally Let P (x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) be two given points in the co-ordinate plane, and R (x, y) be the point which divides the segment [PQ] internally in the ratio m 1 : m 2 i.e. PR/RQ = m1 / m 2, where m 1 0, m 2 0, m 1 + m 2 0 Then the coordinates of R are (m 1 x2 +m 2 x1)/(m 1 + m2), (m 1y2 + m 2y1)/(m 1 + m 2) Note. [PQ] stands for the portion of the line PQ which is included between the points P and Q including the points P and Q. [PQ] is called segment directed from P to Q. It may be observed that [QP] is the segment directed from Q to P. If a point R divides [PQ] in the ratio m 1 : m 2 then it divides [QP] in the ratio m 2 : m 1. When the Point divides the line segment Externally Let P (x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) be two given points in the co-ordinate plane, and R (x, y) be the point which divides the segment [PQ] externally in the ratio m 1 : m 2 i.e. PR/RQ = m1 / m 2, where m 1 0, m 2 0, m 1 - m 2 0 Then the co-ordinates of R are m 1 x2 -m 2 x1)/(m 1 -m 2), (m 1y2 -m 2y1)/(m 1 -m2) Mid-point formula The co-ordinates of the mid-point of [PQ] are ((x1 +x2)/2, (y1 +y2)/2) Illustrative Examples Example Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points P (2, -3) and Q (4, 5) in the ratio 2 : 3 (i) internally (ii) externally.

Solution

i.

ii.

Let (x, y) be the co-ordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining the points P (2, -3) and Q (-4, 5) in the ratio 2 : 3 internally, then x = [2.(-4) +3.2]/(2+3) = - 2/5 and y = [2.5 +3.(-3)]/(2+3) = 1/5 Hence the co-ordinates of R are (-2/5, 1/5) Let (x, y) be the co-ordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining the points P (2, - 3) and Q (-4, 5) in the ratio 2 : 3 externally i.e.internally in the ratio 2 : -3.

x = [2.(-4) + (-3).2]/[2 +(-3)] = -14/1 = 14 and y = [2.5 + (-3)(-3)]/[2 +(-3)] = 19/(-1) -19 Hence the co-ordinates of R are (14, -19). Example In what ratio is the line segment joining the points (4, 5) and (1, 2) divided by the y-axis? Also find the co-ordinates of the point of division. Solution Let the line segment joining the points A (4, 5) and B (1, 2) be divided by the y-axis in the ratio k : 1 at P. By section formula, co-ordinates of P are ((k +4)/(k+1), (2k +5)/(k+1)). But P lies on y-axis, therefore, x-coordinate of P = 0 => (k +4)/(k+1) = 0 => k +4 = 0 => k = -4 The required ratio is -4 : 1 or 4 : 1 externally. Also the co-ordinates of the point of division are (0, (2.(-4) +5)/(-4+1)) i.e (0, 1) Exercise 1. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides the join of the points (2, 3) and (5, -3) in the ratio 1 : 2 (i) internally (ii) externally. 2. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides the join of the points (2, 1) and (3, 5) in the ratio 2 : 3 (i) internally (ii) externally. 3. Find the co-ordinates of the point that divides the segment [PQ] in the given ratio: (i) P (5, -2), Q (9, 6) and ratio 3 : 1 internally. (ii) P (-7, 2), Q (-1, -1) and ratio 4 : 1 externally. 4. Find the co-ordinates of the points of trisection of the line segment joining the points (3, - 1) and (-6, 5). 5. Find point (or points) on the line through A (- 5, -4) and B (2, 3) that is twice as far from A as from B. 6. Find the point which is one-third of the way from P (3, 1) to Q (-2, 5). 7. Find the point which is two third of the way from P(0, 1) to Q(1, 0). 8. Find the co-ordinates of the point which is three fifth of the way from (4, 5) to (-1, 0).

9. If P (1, 1) and Q (2, -3) are two points and R is a point on PQ produced such that PR = 3 PQ, find the co-ordinates of R. 10. In what ratio does the point P (2, -5) divide the line segment joining the points A (- 3, 5) and B (4, -9)? 11. In what ratio is the line joining the points (2, - 3) and (5, 6) divided by the x-axis? Also find the co-ordinates of the point of division. 12. In what ratio is the line joining the points (4, 5) and (1, 2) divided by the x-axis? Also find the co-ordinates of the point of division. 13. In what ratio is the line joining the points (3, 4) and (- 2, 1) divided by the y-axis? Also find the co-ordinates of the point of division. 14. Point C (-4, 1) divides the line segment joining the points A (2, - 2) and B in the ratio 3 : 5. Find the point B. 15. The point R (-1, 2) divides the line segment joining P (2, 5) and Q in the ratio 3 : 4 externally, find the point Q. 16. Find the ratio in which the point P whose ordinate is 3 divides the join of (-4, 3) and (6, 3), and hence find the co-ordinates of P. 17. By using section formula, prove that the points (0, 3), (6, 0) and (4, 1) are collinear. 18. Points P, Q, R are collinear. The co-ordinates of P, Q are (3, 4), (7, 7) respectively and length PR = 10 unit, find the co-ordinates of R. 19. The mid-point of the line segment joining (2 a, 4) and (-2, 3 b) is (1, 2 a +1). Find the values of a and b. 20. The center of a circle is (-1, 6) and one end of a diameter is (5, 9), find the co-ordinates of the other end. 21. Show that the line segments joining the points (1, - 2), (1, 2) and (3, 0), (-1, 0) bisect each other. 22. Show that the points A(-2, -1), B (1, 0), C (4, 3) and D (1, 2) from a parallelogram. Is it a rectangle? 23. The vertices of a quadrilateral are (1, 4), (- 2, 1), (0, -1) and (3, 2). Show that the diagonals bisect each other. What does quadrilateral become? 24. Three consecutive vertices of a parallelogram are (4, - 11), (5, 3) and (2, 15). Find the fourth vertex. Answers 2. (i) (12/5, 13/5) (ii) (0, - 7) 4. (0, 1) and (-3, 3) 6. (4/3, 7/3) 8. (1, 2) 10. 5 : 2 internally 12. 5 : 2 externally; (-1 , 0) 14. (- 14, 6) 16. 3 : 2 internally; (2, 3) 19. a = 2, b = 2 22. No 24. (1, 1)

1. (i) (3, 1) (ii) (-1, 9) 3. (i) (4, 8) (ii) (1, - 2) 5. (-1/3, 2/3) and (9, 10) 7. (2/3, 1/3) 9. (4, -11) 11. 1 : 2 internally; (3, 0) 13. 3 : 2 internally 15. (3, 6) 18. (11 , 10) 20. (-7 , 3) 23. Parallelogram

4). Incenter of a triangle The point of the intersection of any two internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle is called the incenter of the triangle. Solution .Centroid and Incenter The point which divides a median of a triangle in the ratio 2 : 1 is called the centroid of the triangle. Hence Find the co-ordinates of the incenter of the triangle whose vertices are(-2. the co-ordinates of I are The symmetry of the co-ordinates of I shows that it also lies on the internal bisector of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent. (5. Illustrative Examples Example C. if AD is a median of the triangle ABC and G is its centroid. the co-ordinates of G are The symmetry of the co-ordinates of G shows that it also lies on the medians through B and C. If the internal bisector of A of a ABC meets the side BC in D. then BD/DC = AB/AC By section formula. Hence the medians of a triangle are concurrent. then AG/GD = 2/1 By section formula.-2). Thus. It is usually denoted by I.5) and (4.

(-1.2).10) and C(-7.-5). b = |CA| = [(4 -2)² +(-2 -4)²] = [36 +36] = 72 = 6 2 and c = |AB| = [(5 -2)² +(5 -4)²] = [49 +1] = 50 = 5 2.-1). Find the third vertex of a triangle if two of its vertices are (3. The co-ordinates of the incenter of ABC are Exercise 1.-2).7) and (0. then a = | BC| = [(4 -5)² +(-2 -5)²] = [1 +49] = 50 = 5 2.1) and C(4. Find the centroid of the triangle ABC whose vertices are A(9. 5).1) are the vertices of ABC.8/3) 2. B (5.4) and (10. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (-1. Yes 5.6). B (-2. (1. [Hint. CA.] 3. then tan is called its slope (orgradient).3) and (-7. 7.7) and (-4. and internal bisector of A meets side BC at D. (2. (2. Do the two triangles have same centroid? 5.-3). (-2.7). (1. If (-1.2).4).2).-8). 4 units.4). Answers 1. Find the co-ordinates of the center of the circle inscribed in a triangle whose angular points are (-36.-2) 4. The slope of a line is usually denoted by m. (1. AB are (-3. (1. (2. (-7. Slope of the line joining two points .-5) and (-7.-6). find |AD|.9) are the middle points of the sides of a triangle. 4. (5.5) and C (4.0) Slope of a Straight Line Slope (or gradient) of a straight line If ( 90°) is the inclination of a straight line.17/3) 6. find the co-ordinates of the centroid of the triangle.5/2) 7. (20. Since tan is not defined when = 90°.-2). B(1. mid-points of BC. and the medians meet at (2. If A(1.-2) be the vertices of the given triangle ABC. (-1. 2. therefore. Remark. (10.Let A (-2. Find the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are (3.2). the slope of a vertical line is not defined. Also find the incenter of ABC. 6.-1) 3.4).5). Find centroid. Find the co-ordinates of the middle points of its sides and hence find the centroid of the triangle formed by joining these middle points.

-5). y1) and Q(x1. 2). Exercise 1. Illustrative Examples Example Without using Pythagoras theorem. show that the points A (1.3 3. Does it make an acute angle with the positive direction of x-axis? 5. Find the equation of the locus of all points P such that the slope of the line joining origin and P is . show that the points A (6.2. (-1) = -1 => AB BC Hence. A line passes through the points (4. 5) and C (6. Find the inclination of a line whose gradient is: (i) 1/ 3 (ii) -1 (iii) . therefore. -6) and (-2. B (5. Two (non-vertical) lines are perpendicular iff the product of their slopes = -1. the given points are the vertices of a right-angled triangle. Find the gradient of the line containing the points (i) (-2. Solution Slope of AB = [0 -(-1)]/(5-6) = 1/(-1) = -1 and slope of AC = [3 -(-1)]/(2-6) = 4/(-4) = -1 => slope of AB = slope of AC => AB and AC are parallel. 3) and (5. the given points A. Solution In ABC. 0) and C (2. -7) and (0. Example Using slopes. B (4. Find the slope of a line whose inclination is: (i) 30° (ii) 2 /3 (iii) /3 2. we have m 1 = slope of AB = (5 -2)/(4-1) = 3/3 = 1 and m 2 = slope of BC = (3 -5)/(6-4) = 2/2 = -1 m 1 m2 = 1. y1) is given by slope = m = (y2 -y1)/(x2 -x1) Remarks y y y Two (non-vertical) lines are parallel iff their slopes are equal. Slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line. B and C are collinear. .The slope m of a non-vertical line passing through the points P(x1 . But AB and AC have point A is common. 3) are collinear. 2) 4. -7) (ii) (3. 3) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle. -1).

-2) and (6. its slope = m = tan . 2) and (6. 5. (2. ) in the line y = x is P'( . 5).4/3. . Find y if the slope of the line joining (-8. . 3) (ii) perpendicular to the line joining (4. No 5. 11). -3) and (-5. (i) Perpendicular (ii) parallel (iii) neither 8. 3) and (1. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis and passing through the point (2.2) 7. y) is . -1) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. (i) 1/ 3 (ii) . 5) and (0. 7) is parallel to the line through (2. through (6. Slope of a line. Find the inclination of a line whose gradient is (i) 1 (ii) 3 (iii) 1/ 3 2. y2) is given by m = (y2 -y1)/(x2 -x1) 4. 3). 3. Find the value of x so that the line through (x. 6) and (2. (i) Equation of a line parallel to x-axis is y = b. y1) and with slope m is y -y1 = m (x -x1). (ii) Slope of a line through (x1. 5) and (-1. Results and Formulae 1. If ( 90°) is the inclination of a line. 4). (iii) Equation of a line with slope m and y-intercept c is y = m x +c. Show that the line joining (2.10/7 (ii) -3 4. 10. The angle which a line makes with the positive direction of x-axis measured in the anti-clockwise direction is called the inclination of the line. 6) and (3. whether the two lines in each of the following problems are parallel. Conditions of parallelism and perpendicularity. then tan is called its slope (or gradient). ).5) (iii) through (8. 4). (iv) Equation of a line through (x1. Without using Pythagoras theorem. perpendicular or neither: (i) through (2. (i). -7). (i) If the inclination of a line is . Two lines with slopes m 1 and m 2 are (i) parallel if and only if m 1 = m 2 (ii) perpendicular if and only if m 1m 2 = -1 6. 2) and (-5. Answers 1. State. 2x +y = 0 7. 9) and (2.3 (iii) not defined 2. (ii) Equation of a line parallel to y-axis is x = a. 9. Reflection of P( ./3 Equation of a Straight Line Important Definitions. 1) is (i) parallel to the line joining (7. 2. . 1) (ii) through (5. -1) and (0. show that the points (4. 15) 8. -5) and (-2. y1) and (x2. 3). -7/3 9. 10. (i) 30° (ii) 135° (iii) 120° 3. through (9. (3.6. through (16. Equation of a straight line. Exercise 1.

Write down the gradient and the intercept on the y-axis of the line 3y + 2x = 12. the line passes through (4. 0) and (0. Write down the equation of the line perpendicular to 3x +8y = 12 and passing through the point (-1.3 units. Find the value of m. Find the equation of a straight line passing through (-1. 0)] 22. 23. 11. 7) respectively. 18. (iii) the area of the triangle enclosed between the line and the co-ordinate axes. -5). 17. 5. (ii) the equation of the line. The co-ordinates of two points E and F are (0. Ext. 20. 21. line on the axes are -3 and 2 units. [Hint. 4) are the vertices of a ABC. 15. Find (i) the gradient of EF (ii) the equation of EF (iii) the co-ordinates of the point where the line EF intersects the x-axis. Find the equation of a line passing through the point (-2. Determine the values of m and c. 16.3. If A (-1. y-intercept = -3 4. The graph of the equation y = mx +c passes through the points (1. Write down the angles which the lines make with the positive direction of x-axis. -3). Find the value of k. 3). The equation to the line PQ is 3y -3x +7 = 0. Find the equation of a straight line whose (i) gradient = 3 . x -ay +7 = 0 and bx +2y +5 = 0 form three consecutive sides of a rectangle. find the value of a. Given that (a. if the lines represented by 2mx -3y = 1 and y = 1 -2x are perpendicular to each other. The intercepts made by a st. 2). 8. 2a) lies on the line& y/2 = 3x -6. line containing the point (3. 3) and having x-intercept 4 units. if the line passes through (k. [Hint. Find the equation of the line passing through the points (4. 3). Given that the line y/2 = x -p and the line ax +5=3y are parallel. . 4) and (3. 12. Since x-intercept is 4. Find the equation of a straight line perpendicular to the line 2x +5y +7 = 0 and with yintercept . 2) and making positive equal intercepts on the axes. line whose inclination is 60° and passes through the point (0. 1) and C (0. y-intercept = -4/3 (ii) inclination = 30°. 13. Find the equation of the st. B (2. The given figure represents the lines y = x +1 and y = 3 x -1. 2) and having y-intercept 4 units. 10. 4) and (-2. s. Find: (i) the gradient of the line. find the equation of the median through A. Find the equation of a st. 14. If the lines 3x +y = 4. = sum of two opposite int. Find the equation of the line which is parallel to 3x -2y -4 = 0 and passes through the point (0. 6. Hence determine . (ii) Calculate the angle that the line PQ makes with the positive direction of x-axis. find the values of a and b. 19. 9. 60° = +45°] 7. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the line 2x +3y = 5 and having the same yintercept as x +y +4 = 0. (i) Write down the slope of the line PQ. find the value of a. 1·5). -2).

-7) 30. 0) 19. 45°. a = 3. (-1. 2x +3y +12 = 0 16. 8x -3y +2 = 0 18. (2. 60°. b = 6 14. 27. (i) 45° (ii) 60° (iii) 30° 2. 8x +3y -10 = 0 28. The line joining the points P (4. y +7 = 0 3. Answers 1. -2/3. k) and Q (-3. 3) under reflection in the x-axis followed by reflection in the line x = -2. B(0. 3x -y -3 = 0 11.3y -3 3 = 0. x +2y -4 = 0 22. m = 3. Find the co-ordinates of the image of the point P (4. 4. c = 1 9. (ii) the co-ordinates of the image of P under reflection in the line y = -2. 1) under reflection in x-axis followed by reflection in the line x =1. 30. 4). y = -2 and y = 6. x -4y +9 = 0 21. 3 8. (-8. 0) and y-axis at B. Find the equations of the diagonals of a rectangle whose sides are x = -1. 3) meets the co-ordinate axes at points A and B. 3/4 13. Find the co-ordinates of the image of (3. x +y -5 = 0 23. Also find the equation of the line AB. units 24. x = 2. 2 20. 26. 3x +4y -12 = 0. 0). 15° 7. 8x -3y +2 = 0. (i) 3 (ii) 4 : 3 27. 29. 6 12. -3) Angle between two Lines The angle between two non-vertical and non-perpendicular lines . (i) 1 (ii) x -y +4 = 0 (iii) (-4. 25. -1) 29. find (i) the co-ordinates of P. 4 5. If P' (-4. 3x +4y -18 = 0 25. -4) meets the x-axis at A (1. 26.9/2). Find (i) the value of k. (i) 3 3x -3y -4 = 0 (ii) x . 3x -2y +6 = 0 17. If PA = 2 PB. y = 2x +4 10. find the co-ordinates of A and B. -3) is the image of the point P under reflection in the origin. A line through the point P (2. 28. (i) (4. (i) 2/3 (ii) 2x -3y +6 = 0 (iii) 3 sq. (ii) the ratio of PB : BQ. (i) 1 (ii) 45° 6. 5x -2y -6 = 0 15. A (6.24. Calculate the co-ordinates of the point of intersection of the lines represented by x +y = 6 and 3x -y = 2. 3) (ii) (4.

3). Find the angle between the following pairs of lines: (i) 3 x -7 y +5 = 0 and 7 x +3 y -11 = 0 (ii) 3 x +y -7 = 0 and x +2 y +9 = 0 (iii) y = (2 .3) x +9 and y = (2 + 3) x +1 (iv) 2 x -y +3 = 0 and x +y -2 = 0 .between the lines l1 and l2. (3.2) and (3.y Let l1 and l2 be the two non-vertical and non-perpendicular lines with slopes m1and m2 respectively. given by tan = ± (m1-m2)(1+m1m2) 1 and m2= Illustrative Examples Example Find the angle between the lines joining the points (-1. Let 1 and 2 be their inclinations. then tan = .0).0) = (0-3)/(5+2) = -3/7 Let be the acute angle between the given lines. = Hence the acute angle tan = 37/49 between the lines is given by Exercise 1.3) and (5. then m1 = tan tan 2.-5) and (-2. m1 = slope of the line joining (-1.-5) = (-5-2)/(3+1) = -7/4 and m2 = slope of the line joining (-2. (5.2). Solution Here. There are two angles and .

3) x -y -1 +2 = 0 10. 11. Find the equations of the other two sides.-1) and inclined at an angle of 45° to the line 2 x -5 y +7 = 0. x -3 y +11 = 0 8. 11. 10. x +3 y -17 = 0 Position of two Points relative to a Line The points P (x1. 8.0). 30° 5.8) are a pair of opposite vertices of a square. 2 x +y -14 = 0.3) and (2.2.-a respectively. 45°. 3 x +y -17 = 0. y2) lie on the same side or on opposite sides of the line a x +b y +c = 0 according as the expressions a x1 + b y1 +c and a x2 + by2 +c have same sign or opposite signs. 7 x -3 y -10 = 0. 7x +23 y -53 = 0. Answers 1. The acute angle is given by tan = 6. A vertex of an equilateral triangle is (2.2) and (3. y1) and Q (x2 . Illustrative Examples Example . If A(-2. (3. by using tables of natural tangents] Find the angle between the lines joining the points (0. 6. 4. 3. Find the equations of the two straight lines passing through the point (1.5) which make an acute angle of 45° with the line 2 x-y +7 = 0. [Hint. If (1. One diagonal of a square lies along the line 8 x -15 y = 0 and one vertex of the square is at (1. Find the measures of the angles of the triangle whose sides lie along the lines x +y -5 = 0. 45°. 3 x +7 y +4 = 0 9. B(2. Find the angles between the lines x +1 = 0 and 3 x +y -3 = 0. Find the equations of the two straight lines passing through the point (4. 7.(i) 90° (ii) 45° (iii) 60° (iv) 71° 34' 2.1). find the equations of the sides and the diagonals of the square.2). x -2 y +13 = 0 and diagonals are 3 x -y -1 = 0. (2 . Find the equations of the sides of the square passing through this vertex. (2. 23 x -7y -9 = 0. 9. 90° 7.-2). (2 + 3) x -y -1 -2 = 0. x -2 y +3 = 0.3) and the equation of the opposite side is x +y +2 = 0. 5. 33° 42' 4. (iv) It will be found that acute angle is given by tan = 3 which gives as 71° 34'. Sides are 2 x +y -4 = 0.5). x -y +1 = 0 and y -1 = 0.-b and b. find the angle between the lines AB and BC. 25° 34' 3.-4) are three points. Find the angle between the lines which make intercepts on the axes a.3) and C(-2.

0) in L. 1) and C (-1.The sides of a triangle are given by the equations 3 x +4 y = 10. 0) 4. 8).H. 5) and (-3. 4 x -3 y = 5 and 7 x +y +10 = 0. Show that the points (3. Exercise 1. Find by calculation whether the points (13.S. 0) lie on the same side of the line 4 x +3 y = 5 on which the origin lies? 4.H. Are the points (2. y1) and the origin lie on the same side or on opposite sides of the line ax +by +c = 0 according as ax1 + by1 + c and c have same sign or opposite signs. (-1. we get -8 -12 -5 = -25 and substituting (0.S..217 = 0. 5) on the same side or on opposite sides of the line y = 2 x +5. B (2.. therefore. -3) On substituting (-2. Prove that the point P (x1. 2. Similarly origin and B lie on the same side of CA. 2) and (-3. 3. 3) and (-3. taking two at a time. we get 0 -0 -5 = -5 Since both have same sign. origin and A lie on the same side of BC. -4) lie in the same. (26. Answers 1.(iii) Let ABC be the triangle formed by these lines. adjacent or opposite angles formed by the straight line 5 x + 6 y -112 = 0 and 10 x +11 y . 2).. Solution The given lines are 3 x +4 y -10 = 0 ..(i) 4 x -3 y -5 = 0 . the vertices of the triangle are A (-2. of (ii). 4). Show that the origin lies with in the triangle. Solving these equations simultaneously.. it follows that the origin lies with in the triangle formed by the given lines. Opposite sides 3.(ii) and 7 x + y +10 = 0 . -2)lie on the same side of the line 3 x = 7 y + 8. 4) in L. of (ii). 1). (-1.. and origin and C lie on the same side of AB. Opposite . . (2. (Please check it) From these results. 5. 3) and (-1. Which of the points (1.

. Choose a point on one of the given parallel lines.e.(i) It will be the required line if its perpendicular distance from origin (0..3/4 = 0 or 3 x -4 y +15 = 0 Example Find the distance between the lines 3 x -4 y +7 = 0 and 6 x -8 y = 18. the equation of the required line is (3/4) x -y + 5. mx -y +5m = 0 ..Distance of a Point from a Line The perpendicular distance d of a point P (x 1. On putting x = 0 in (i). we get -4y +7 = 0 => y = 7/4 . 0) and is at a perpendicular distance of 3 units from the origin. To find distance between these lines. Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of a straight line. 0) is 3 units => |m. 0) and with gradientm is y -0 = m(x +5) i.. Find the perpendicular distance from this point to the other line.0 -0 +5 m| /[ (m² +(-1)²)] = 3 => | 5 m | = 3 [m² +1] => 25 m² = 9 (m² +1) => 16 m² = 9 => m = 3/4 (m > 0) Substituting this value of m in (i). we choose a point on (i). Solution The given lines are 3 x -4 y +7 = 0 .(ii) We note that the slope of (ii) = .6/(-8) = 3/4 = the slope of (i) => the given lines are parallel. y 1) from the line ax +by +c = 0 is given by d =| ax1 +by1 +c|/[ (a² +b²)] Rule to find the distance between parallel lines i. Solution Let m (> 0) be the gradient of the line.. which passes through the point (-5. with a positive gradient.(i) and 6 x -8 y -21 = 0 . ii. then any line through (-5..

units 6. 0) to the straight line 5 x +12 y -9 = 0 and show that it is twice the length of perpendicular from (2. 5/ 2 units 3. Answers 1. 12. we get x + y(b/a) + (c/a). 4 sq. line AB is 2 x -3 y -25 = 0 (ii) P (4. 7. On dividing it by a (or b. which ever is non-zero). 1 unit. 1). 2 units 4. 1) from the line 3 x -4y +k = 0 is 4 units. Find the distance of the point P from the line AB in the following cases: (i) P (2.1) from the line joining the points (1. which can be written as x + By + C = 0 where B =b/a and C = c/a. 17 sq. 1) are the vertices of a triangle. it is not so. In fact. 5. Calculate the length of the perpendicular from (7. 1/7 units. 1 unit 8. given that the distance of the point (4. 3) and (-2. The points A (0. 7/4) is a point on (i). and the number of these arbitrary constants cannot be decreased further. -28 5. 4. Find the distance of the point (0. the equation of every straight line . A vertex of a square is at the origin and its one side lies along the line x -4 y -10 = 0. -7) to the line joining the origin and the point of intersection of the lines 2 x -3 y +14 = 0 and 5 x +4 y -7 = 0.Thus (0. 4 x +3 y = 5 and x +y = 1. B (1. 7). 0). 1). Find the area of the square. units Families of Lines One parameter family of lines It may seem that the equation of a straight line ax +by +c = 0 contains three arbitrary constants. Find the value (s) of k. 1/[5 2] units 7. . 6. (i) 12/ 13 units (ii) 1/5 units (iii) [h² +k²] units 2. 7/4) to the line (ii) = = |-35 | = units Exercise 1. line AB is h (x +h) +k (y +k) = 0 2. C (5. -3). Required distance between given parallel lines = perpendicular distance from (0. Thus. 6). line AB is 3 x -4 y -9 = 0 (iii) P (0. 3. It follows that the equation of a straight line contains two arbitrary constants. 8. 17/ 13 units. Find the length of perpendicular from A to BC and hence the area of ABC. Find the lengths of altitudes of the triangle whose sides are given by x -4 y = 5. Find the length of perpendicular from the point (4. 0).

represents a family of lines which pass through the fixed point (x1. for different real values of k. represents the family of lines parallel to yaxis (including the y-axis itself). The equation b x -a y +k = 0. vi. for different real values of k. The equation 2 x +3 y + k = 0. represents a family of lines parallel to the line ax +by +c = 0. ii. Such a system of lines is called one parameter family of lines and the unknown arbitrary constant is called theparameter. represents a family of lines passing through the point of intersection of the lines l1 and l2. for different real values of m. the lines which satisfy one condition contain a single arbitrary constant. If l1 = a1 x +b1 y +c1 = 0 and l2 = a2 x +b2 y +c2 = 0 then l1 +k l2 = 0. iii. One condition yields a linear relation among two arbitrary constants and hence each arbitrary constant determines the other. The equation x = a. for different real values of m. for different real values of a. Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of the family of lines with x-intercept -4. two conditions are needed to determine the equation of a straight line uniquely. y1) except the vertical line x = x1. v. The equation a x +b y +k = 0. The equation y = m x +2. vii. A few members of this family are shown in figure below. represents a family of lines with yintercept 2 units. iv.contains two arbitrary constants. represents a family of lines perpendicular to the line ax +by +c = 0. consequently. for different real values of k. The equation y -y1 = m (x -x1). represents a family of lines with slope -2/3. Therefore. Examples of one parameter families i. for different real values of k.A few members of this family are shown in figure below. Solution .

units. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to 2 x -5 y +3 = 0 and having x-intercept -4. 5).. Find the equations of straight lines parallel to the lines 3 x . m parameter (ii) y = 2 x +c. each member of the family passes through the point (-4. 8. the equation of this line is x = -4 i. c parameter (iii) 2x + 3 + 3y + k = 0.. 3). Write the equations of the family of lines: (i) with y-intercept -3 (ii) with slope 2 (iii) parallel to 2 x +3 +3 y -5 = 0 (iv) perpendicular to 3 x +7 +7 y = 8 2. y = m (x +4). a) on which the perpendiculars dropped from the point (2 a. k/3 = 3 => k = -9 Substituting this value of k in (ii). 9. Find the equations of two straight lines which are parallel to the line x +7 y +2 = 0 and at a unit distance from the point (2. 0).By using point-slope form. the equation of such a family of lines is y -0 = m (x -(-4)) i. Answers 1.y -3 = 0 and 3 x . Find the equation of the line if the area of the triangle formed by this line with co-ordinate axes is 5 sq. Example Find the equation of the straight line which is parallel to 3 x -7 y = 11 and makes x-intercept 3 units.e. k parameter . To find x-intercept. Find the equation of the line through the intersection of the lines 4 x -3 y +7 = 0 and 2 x +3 y +5 = 0 and the point (-4. Find the equation of the line which lies mid-way between the lines 2 x +3 y +7 = 0 and 2 x +3 y +5 = 0. 3. Find the equations of straight lines which are perpendicular to the line 3 x +4 y -7 = 0 and are at a distance of 3 units from (2. Solution The given line is 3x -7 y -11 = 0 . put y = 0. The above equation of the family does not give the vertical line through the point (-4. 10. Note. 5.. 6. 7. 4. k parameter (iv) 7 x -3 y + k = 0. 2) are each of length a. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to 2 x +3 y = 10 and which is such that the sum of its intercepts on the axes is 15. (i) y = m x -3.(i) The equation of the family of lines parallel to (i) is 3 x -7 y+k = 0 . 0). therefore. However. -1). x +4 = 0. we get 3 x +k = 0 => x =k/3 For the required member of the family which makes x-intercept 3 units.(ii) where k is a parameter. Find the equations of the two straight lines drawn through the point (0. where m is a parameter. A line is drawn perpendicular to 5 x = y +7.Since the x-intercept of the family is given to be -4.y +5 = 0 and whose distances from these lines are in the ratio 3 : 5.e. Point out the line which lies between the given lines.. the equation of the required line is 3 x -7 y -9 = 0 Exercise 1.

y1) and having slope m is y -y1 = m (x -x1) Corollary. 4 x -3 y +16 = 0. y1) and B (x2.y = 0 9. x +7 y +5 +5 ( 2 +1) = 0.y1 = [(y2 . 2 x +3 +3 y +6 = 0 8.x1)](x -x1) Intercept form The equation of the line cutting off intercepts a and b on the axes is x/a + y/b = 1 Normal (or perpendicular) form The equation of a straight line in terms of the length of perpendicular from the origin upon it and the angle which this perpendicular makes with the positive direction of x-axis is given by x cos + y sin = p General form . 3 x .y1)/(x2 . Two-point form The equation of the line passing through two fixed points A (x1. The equation of a line passing through origin and having slope m is y = m x. 3 x . 2 x-5 y +8 = 0 4. 4 x -3 y -14 = 0 6. 2 x +3 +3 y -18 = 0 10. x +7 y -5 ( 2 -1) = 0 5. y -a = 0.2.y = 0. 4 x -3 y +3 +3 a = 0 7. 4x + 16 = 0.y -15 = 0 .y2) is y . 3 x . x +5 y +5 2 = 0 Equation of a Straight Line in different forms Slope-Intercept form The equation of a straight line having slope m and making an intercept c on y-axis is y = m x +c Point-slope form The equation of a straight line passing through the fixed point (x1. x +5 y -5 2 = 0. 8 x +3 +3 y +17 = 0 3.

(k (-5) +1 . Also find the equation of the line containing them. -5) divided by the line joining the points (6..e. 8) and (-3. 0) and (0.2)/(k+1). -2) i.-2)? Solution The equation of the straight line joining the points (6. then the co-ordinates of point P are ((k. -2 b) lies on it if b. 3) and (4. b) is y -0 =[(b-0)/(0-a)](x -a) y . the line (i) divide the line segment joining the points (2. if 0 = 0.(i) Let the line joining the points (6. bx +ay -ab = 0 The third point (3 a. -5) at the point P in the ratio k : 1. The equation A x +B y +C = 0 (where at least one of A and B is non-zero) is called the general form. y represents a straight line. Hence the given points are collinear and the equation of the line containing them is bx +ay -ab = 0.e. Solution The equation of the line through (a. then m = tan 5 /6 = tan 150° = tan (180° -30°) = -tan 30° = 1/ 3 Also c = y-intercept = -4 So the equation of the line is y =(-1/ 3) x +(-4) (As y = m x +c) i. Example In what ratio is the line joining the points (2.ab = 0 i..4 +1. Solution Let m be the slope of the line. and conversely every first degree equation in x. x + 3y + 4 3 = 0 Example Show that the points (a.x1)](x -x1) i.e. Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of a straight line whose inclination is 5 /6 and which cuts off an intercept of 4 units on negative direction of y-axis. 3) and (4.y1)/(x2 .e. ((4k +20)/(k+1).y1 = [(y2 .e. (-5k +3)/(k+1)) Since P lies on (i). -ay = bx -ab i.3)/(k+1)) i. which is true. 3 a + a.e. (-2 b) . -2) is y -8 = [(-2 -8)/(-3 -6)](x -6) (Two-point form) => y -8 = (10/9) (x -6) => 9 y -72 = 10 x -60 => 10 x -9 y +12 = 0 . b) and (3 a. 0). 8) and (-3.Every straight line can be represented by an equation of the first degree in x and y. we get . (0. 8) and (-3. -2 b) are collinear.

-5) is a straight line. 6. what is the abscissa of P? . 9. Find the equation of a straight line passing through origin and making an angle of 120° with the positive direction of x-axis. which is a first degree equation in x and y. 4. 11. 13.2/7. 7) and inclined at 45° to xaxis. -5) be the given points and P (x. Find the equation of a straight whose y-intercept is -5 and which is (i) parallel to the line joining the points (3. Find the equation of a horizontal line passing through (5. this Is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two given points. Example Prove that the locus of the point which is equidistant from the points (-3. Find the equations of the bisectors of the angles between the co-ordinate axes. 5 : 97 externally. y) be any point on the locus. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (5. 3). 0) (ii) perpendicular to the line joining the points (-1. Find the equation of the line passing through the point (2. Find the equation of a line whose (i) gradient = -1. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis at a distance (i) 3 units above it (ii) 3 units below it. 3. 7) and (2. y-intercept = -3 (iii) inclination = 3 /4. The lines which are equally inclined to the axes have slope = ± 1] 8. -3). then | AP | = | BP | (given) => (x +3)² +(y -7)² = (x -2)² +(y +5)² => x² +6 x +9 + y² -14 y +49 = x² -4 x +4 + y² +10 y +25 => 10 x -24 y +29 = 0. Find the equation of a vertical line passing through (-7. 7) and (-2. [Hint.10[(4k +20)/(k+1)] -9[(-5k +3)/(k+1)] + 12 = 0 => 40 k +20 +45 k -27 +12 k +12 = 0 => 97 k +5 = 0 => k = -5/97 Hence the required ratio is -5/97 i. Hence the locus is a straight line. 2. Find the equations of the straight lines cutting off an intercept of 3 units from the negative direction of y-axis and equally inclined to the axes. y-intercept = -5 7. 4) and (-3. y-intercept = 3 (ii) slope = . 7) and B (2. In fact. -5) and making an intercept of -3 on the y-axis. -2). and so it represents a straight line.e. If the straight line y = mx +c passes through the points (2. 12. 6) find the values of m and c. Find the equation of a line which is equidistant from the lines y +5 = 0 and y -2 = 0. Solution Let A (-3. 5. 10. 6) and (-2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis at a distance (i) 2 units to the right (ii) 2 units to the left of it. If it passes through the point P whose ordinate is -7. Exercise 1 1.

find its equation. 9. -4) and makes (i) equal intercepts on the axes (ii) intercepts equal in magnitude but opposite in sign on the axes. 7. 14. x . 2y +3 = 0 6. 2) onto the line joining (1. 3). x -y -3 = 0 8. x +7 = 0 5. x -y +3 = 0 Exercise 2 1. 5. b). 3 x +y = 0 12. . 13.y +2 = 0. x . A straight line is such that the portion of it intercepted between the axes is bisected at the point (x1 . 1) and the portion of the line intercepted between the axes is divided at this point in the ratio 3 : 4. x +y +3 = 0. 0) and (0. the length of the line segment contained between the axes is 13 and the product of the intercepts on the axes in 60. (i) x +y . Prove that the straight line whose intercepts on the axes are 2 and -3 respectively passes through the point (4. c = 24/5 10. 12.14. x +y = 0 13. A straight line passes through the point (2. find the values of a and b. Answers 1. -15) and (8. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (3. Calculate the values of a and b and find the equation of the straight line. 4). Find the equation of the line which cuts off intercepts 3 and 4 from the axes. 6. 3) and the portion of the line intercepted between the axes is bisected at this point. 10. -6) and whose intercept on the x-axis exceeds the intercept on y-axis by 5. Find the equation of a line which passes through (-3. find its equation. -9 14. -9). Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (22. 3). A straight line passes through the point (1. y1). -3) and makes an intercept on y-axis twice as long as on x-axis. 11. (i) x -2 = 0 (ii) x +2 = 0 3. -1) and (0. -2) and cuts off positive intercepts on the x-axis and y-axis which are in the ratio 4 : 3. Find its equation. 3). 4. Find the equation of the line through the point (-5. State the geometrical meaning of the constants involved in (i) x/a + y/b = 1 (ii) x cos + y sin = p (iii) (x -x1)/cos = (y -y1)/ sin = r 2. A straight line passes through the points (a. (i) 7 x -5 y -25 = 0 (ii) x +9 y +45 = 0 11. (2. m = -2/5. 1) and parallel to the line joining the points (7. 2) and whose segment between the axes is divided by this point in the ratio 2 : 3. 8. Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (-5.3 = 0 (ii) 2 x +7 y +21 = 0 (iii) x +y +5 = 0 7. 4 x +7 y +13 = 0 15. x +y +3 = 0 9. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (3. y +2 = 0 4. If the straight line x/a + y/b = 1passes through the points (12. Find the equation of a straight line which passes through the point (1. (i) y -3 = 0 (ii) y +3 = 0 2. 15.y = 0. 3. Find the equation of the perpendicular dropped from the point (-1. 10) and sum of its intercepts on the axes is 8.

on the line and the slope. y) on the line from the point (x1. found by inspection. 2 x . a = 5. is the inclination of the line and r is the directed distance of any point (x. 5 x +12 y +60 = 0. 4 x +3 y = 7 10. b. (x1. The area of a triangle formed by a line and the co-ordinate axes is 6 sq. on the line. a = -5. y2). (i) a and b are the intercepts made by the line on x-axis and y-axis respectively. y2) on the line and using the formula: . 12 x +5 y +60 = 0 15. 5 x +3 y -15 = 0 14. 3 x +4 y = 1 7. and the slope. x/x1 + y/y1 = 2 9. 4 x +3 y +12 = 0 Forms for the equation of a straight line Suppose that we have the graph of a straight line and that we wish to find its equation. a = -12. (ii) p is the length of the perpendicular drawn from origin on the line and the angle which this perpendicular makes with the x-axis. 3 x +4 y +12 = 0. b = 12. 2. 4 x +3 y = 12 4. m. 3 x +2 y -12 = 0 8. y1). In the first case where we are given two points. or the y intercept. b = -12. The constant m is the slope. 3 x -5 y +25 = 0 11. x +2 y -10 = 0 13. or one point. The constant b is simply the y intercept of the line. Answers 1. y1) and (x2.) The equation can be expressed in several possible forms. a = 12. The slope-intercept form: y = m x + b. (iii) (x1. b = -5. To find the equation of the straight line in any form we must be given either: y y y two points. 4 x +3 y = 12. 2 x +y +1 = 0 5.15. 12 x +5 y = 60. (We will assume that the graph has x and y axes and a linear scale. Find the equation (s) of line. (x1. 3 x +4 y = 12. 6 x +11 y -66 = 0. y1) and (x2. m. b = 3 12. 5 x +12 y = 60. a = 2. we can find m by using the formula: Once we have one form we can easily get any of the other forms from it using simple algebraic manipulations. (i) x +y +1 = 0 (ii) x -y = 7 6. b = 5. units and the length of the segment intercepted between the axes is 5 units. found by picking any two points (x1. Here are the forms: 1.y +16 = 0. y1) is the point through which the line passes. y1).

Each value of t gives a different point on the line. 4. y1) is a known point on the line and m is the slope of the line. y2). b and c are constants.2. y1) is a point on the line. y1). The parametric form: x = x1 + t y = y1 + m t This form consists of a pair of equations. Example: Show all of these forms for the straight line shown to the right. The point-slope form: y í y1 = m (x í x1). and so on. (x2. The general form: a x + b y + c = 0. The slope m can be found from a second point. For example when t = 0 then we get the point x = x1 y = y1 or the ordered pair (x1. Note that any one of the constants can be made equal to 1 by dividing the equation through by that constant. and when t = 1 then we get the point x = x1 + 1 y = y1 + m or the ordered pair (x1 + 1. (x1. and using the formula: 3. a. (x1. y1 + m). the first equation gives the x coordinate and the second equation gives the y coordinate of a point on the line as functions of a parameter t. . This form is usually gotten by manipulating one of the previous two forms.

15) as ³the´ point together with m = í5: y í 15 = í5 (x í 0) y í 0 = í5 (x í 3) 5 x + y í15 = 0. 0) and when t = í3 we are at the point (0. when t = 0 we are at the point (3. y2) is given by .2 y í 3 = 0. Thus the y intercept is b = 15 and the slope is = í5 1. To get the slope-intercept form. 0) and get another parametric form: x=3+t y = 0 í5 t With this choice. y1) = (0. or simplifying: or simplifying: y í 15 = í5 x. results in the equation x + 0. With either choice we will get all the points on the line as we let t range through all values. 0) and get: 3. say 5. Line through two points The line through two distinct points (x1.Solution: Two points on this line are (x1. 2. 0). which is also in general form and is equivalent in every way to the previous one. we could use the point (0. take any of these three forms found so far and distribute and collect all terms on the left-hand-side. 0). 4. (3. To get the parametric form. 15). y2) = (3. 15) and when t = 3 we are at the point (3. 15) and (x2. Or we could instead use the other point. The result is the same for all: Note that dividing both sides by. To get the point-slope form. when t = 0 we are at the point (0. We could instead use the other point. y1) and (x2. we could use the point (0. y = í5 (x í 3). 15) as ³the´ point together with m = í5: x=0+t y = 15 í5 t With this choice. (3. we simply substitute in the two values m = í5 and b = 15: y = í5 x + 15. To get the general form.

the equation is simplified to x = x1 and does not require a second point. or even as (x2 . General equation A straight line is defined by a linear equation whose general form is Ax + By + C = 0.y1) = (y2 . y) can be looked at in two ways: as a point or as a radius-vector joining the origin to that point.y1)·(x .(1) y = y1 + [(y2 . the simplest for me to remember is this (y . However.y1)/(y2 . The pair r = (x.y1) / (x2 . In case they are equal.x1).x1). where one does not have to worry whether x1 = x2 or not. . B) normal to the line.x1)/(x2 . Equation (1) can also be written as y . The coefficients A and B in the general equation are the components of vector n = (A.y1) = (x . B are not both 0.x1) which is not as universal is the one before.y1 = [(y2 . where x1 and x2 are assumed to be different.x1)]·(x .y1) / (x2 . where A.x1)]·(x .x1).x1)·(y .

But then we conclude that (r1 . in a normalized equation Ax + By + C = 0.The latter interpretation shows that a straight line is the locus of points r with the property r·n = const..r2)·n = 0. This property can be used to keep the coefficient A non-negative. i.e. That is a straight line is a locus of points whose radius-vector has a fixed scalar product with a given vector n. To see why the line is normal to n. n/||n|| is a unit vector. B) is defined via ||n||2 = A2 + B2 and has the property that. || n/||n|| || = 1. In other words the vector r1 . A2 + B2 = 1. take two distinct but otherwise arbitrary points r1 and r2 on the line.r2 that joins the two points and thus lies on the line is perpendicularto n. Normalized equation The norm ||n|| of a vector n = (A. so that r1·n = r2·n. Note that the line defined by a general equation would not change if the equation were to be multiplied by a non-zero coefficient. for any non-trivial vector n. . It can also be used to normalize the equation by dividing it by ||n||. As a result. normal to the line.

) The normalized equation is conveniently used in determining the distance from a point to a line. As a particular case. which also can be written as xb + ya = ab. the coefficients of the normalized equation are rounded to up to 6 digits. for which reason the above identity may only hold approximately. These are signed distances from the points of intersection of the line with the axes. Intercept-intercept Assume a straight line intersects x-axis at (a. 0) and y-axis at (0. we have Slope-intercept equation The equation of a line with a given slope m and the y-intercept b is . or y .a). Point-slope The equation of a straight line through point (a. The latter form is somewhat more general as it allows either a or b to be 0. a and b are defined as x-intercept and y-intercept of the linear function. b). b) with a given slope of m is y = m(x .a) + b.(In the applet. Then it is defined by the equation x/a + y/b = 1.b = m(x .

.3) and B( . -1) lie on it.5/2 = 7 and = -8 Hence the other end of the diameter is (7. (6. Concentric circles. -f) and radius = [g² +f² -c]. 5). General Form of a Circle The equation x² +y² +2 gx +2 fy +c = 0 represents a circle iff g² +f² -c > 0. -1). The slopeintercept equation is unique because if the uniqueness for the line of the two parameters: slope and y-intercept. -2) and (-1. Also find the radius and the center of the circle on which they lie. Solution The given equation is x² + y² -6 x +5 y -7 = 0 It is easy to see that this represents a circle with center C (3. (-1.1)/2 = 3 and ( +3) / 2 = . -2). .5/2) Let A(-1. ) be the ends of the diameter. . 6) are concyclic. Example Show that the points (7..2) and (-1. This is obtained from the point-slope equation by setting a = 0. 3). Equal circles Circles having equal radius are called equal circles. Its center is (-g. Find the co-ordinates of the other end. It must be understood that the point-slope equation can be written for any point on the line. Solution Let us find the equation of the circle passing through the points(7. -1) and (0. -8). meaning that the equation in this form is not unique. 5).(i) As the points (7. (6.y = mx + b. Let the equation of this circle be x² + y² + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 . Illustrative Examples Example One end of a diameter of the circle x² +y² -6 x +5 y -7 = 0 is (-1. Since C is mid-point of [AB]. Circles having same center are called concentric circles. we get . we get ( . 5). (6.

Find also the equation of the diameter of the circle which passes through the point. Find the equation of the circle passing through the three points (i) (0. Prove that the radii of the circles x² + y² = 1.(iv) Adding (ii) and (iv).. 7. Find the equation of the circle which has its center on the line y = 2 and which passes through the points (2. 1). 6) will lie on (vii) if 0 +36 -0 -24 -12 = 0 i. Hence the given points are concyclic. 0).f +19 = 0 . x² + y² -2 x -6 y -6 = 0 and x² + y² -4 x -12 y -9 = 0 are in A. . we get 16 g +12 f +72 = 0 => 4 g +3 f +18 = 0 . 3. 6. (i) Find the equation of the circle the end points of whose one diameter are the centers of the circles x² +y² +6 x -14 y +5 = 0 and x² + y² -4 x +10 y +7 = 0. we get x² +y² -6 x -4 y -12 = 0 .. 5. 13. Find the equation of the circle which is concentric with the circle x² + y² -4 x +6 y -3 = 0 and of double its (i) circumference (ii) area. (4.(vi) Solving (v) and (vi) simultaneously. Prove that the centres of three circles x² + y² -4 x -6 y -14 = 0.2). 12. we get c = -14 (-3) -10 (-2) -74 = -12. ... x² + y² +2 x +4 y -5 = 0 and x² + y² -10 x -16 y +7 = 0 are collinear.. -3) and has its center on the line 3 x +4 y +10 = 0. 3) . if 0 = 0.. Find the equation of the circle concentric with the circle x² +y² -8 x +6 y -5 = 0 and passing through the point (-2..(iii) 1 -2 g -2 f +c = 0 => 2 g +2 f -c -2 = 0 .(vii) The fourth point (0.49 +25 +14 g +10 f +c => 14 g +10 f +c +74 = 0 . Exercise 1.. Substituting these values of g. Its center is (3. Find the value of p so that x² + y² +8 x.b y = 0 2.a x .. 0) and (4.(vi) From (ii). 4. Find the equation of the circle which passes through the center of the circle x² +y² -4 x -8 y 41 = 0 and is concentric with the circle x² +y² -2 y +1 = 0. we get 14 g -2 f +38 = 0 => 7 g . 1) and (2. Also. +10 y +p = 0 is the equation of a circle of radius 7 units. Find the equation of the circle concentric with the circle 2 x² +2 y² +8 x +10 y -35 = 0 and with area 16 square units. (0.. 9. 11.. f and c in (i).e. determine its center and radius: (i) x² + y² +4 x -4 y -1 = 0 (ii) 2 x² +2 y² = 3 x -5 y +7 (iii) x² +y² +4 x +2 y +14 = 0 (iv) 2 x² +2 y² = 5 x +7 y + 3 (v) (x +3)² +(y -2)² = 0 (vi) x² + y² . -7). 8. 2) and radius = [9 +4 -(-12)] = 5.(ii) 36 +4 +12 g -4 f +c = 0 => 12 g -4 f + c +40 = 0 . 0). f = -2. which is true. Find the value of k..(v) Adding (iii) and (iv).. Which of the following equations represent a circle? If so. we get g = -3.. 10. (vii) is the equation of the circle on which these points lie. (ii) One end of a diameter of the circle x² + y² -3 x +5 y -4 = 0 is (2. find the co-ordinates of the other end. The radius of the circle x² +y² -2 x +3 y +k = 0 is 2.P. Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points (1.

x² +y² -4 x +8 y +15 = 0 13. 1/2). then cos =(r² +r'² -d²)/(2 r r') If the circles S and S' cut orthogonally. then = 90°. 5/4). 1). (i) x² + y² +x -2 y -41 = 0 (ii) (1. x² +y² -8 x +6 y -27 = 0 6. x² + y² -2 y -12 = 0 7. (i) x² + y² -4 x +6 y -51 = 0 (ii) x² + y² -4 x +6y -19 = 0 11. 13 /2 Orthogonal Circles Angle of intersection of two circles An angle between the two tangents to the two circles at a point of intersection is called an angle of intersection between two circles. (5/2.cos = cos 90° = 0 => (r² +r'² -d²)/(2r r') = 0 => r² +r'² = d² Two circles S = x² +y² +2gx +2 f y +c = 0 and S' = x² +y² +2 g' x +2 f'y +c' = 0 cut orthogonally if 2 (g g' +f f') = c +c'.(ii) (0. (3/4.y = 0 -y = 0 . -8 3. (5/4. 2). (3.2 . 2). (i) circle. 4 x² +4 y² +16 x +20 y -23 = 0 8. r' are radii of circles S and S' respectively and d is the distance between their centers and is an angle of intersection of these circles. 26 /2 (ii) x² +y² -3 x -2 y = 0 . (i) x² +y² -5 x . b/2) 2. Also find its center and radius. (-3. Answers 1. 2). (v) point circle. 2 x -2 y = 5 4. . Orthogonal circles Two circles are said to cut orthogonally iff angle of intersection of these circles at a point of intersection is a right angle i. -6) 5. (. (3/2. iff the tangents to these circles at a common point are perpendicular to each other. 3 (ii) circle. -3. If r. x² +y² -6 x -4 y +8 = 0 12.(a/2. (3 10)/4 (iii) empty set (iv) circle.e. 2). 7/4). zero (vi) circle. 0) and (3.

Determine the angle of intersection of the two circles (x -3)² +(y -1)² = 8 and (x -2)² +(y +2)² = 2. (-1)) = c +1 => 2 g -2 f . Show that the circles x² + y² -4 x -6 y +4 = 0 and x² +y² -10 x -14 y +58 = 0 cut orthogonally. which is the equation of the required circle. 3.. we get c = 2 g -2 f -1 = -3 +5 -1 = 1 Substituting these values of g.(-2)) = c +3 => 4 g -4 f -c -3 = 0 . Exercise 1.e.. we get -3 g + f -2 = 0 => 3 g .Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of the circle which intersects the circles x² +y² +2 x -2 y +1 = 0 and x² +y² +4 x -4 y +3 = 0 orthogonally and whose center lies on the line 3 x -y -2 = 0. we get 2 g -2 f -2 = 0 => g -f -1 = 0 .(v) Solving (iv) and (v) simultaneously.2 + f.... a² + b² > | c |.(i) Since this circle cuts the circles x² +y² +2 x -2 y +1 = 0 and x² + y² +4 x -4 y +3 = 0 orthogonally. we get x² +y² -3 x -5 y +1 = 0. 4.f +2 = 0 . Solution Let the equation of the required circle be x² +y² +2 g x +2 f y + c = 0 .(iv) Subtracting (ii) from (iii).c -1 = 0 . -18 is given by cos = 2/ 5 .. we get g = -3/2 and f = -5/2 From (ii). f and c in (i). /2 2. The acute angle 5.(ii) and 2 (g.. 1 + f.. -f) lies on 3 x -y -2 = 0.. Find the angle at which the circles x² + y² = 16 and x² +y² -2 x -4 y = 0 intersect each other. cut orthogonally. (-g. 2. Show that the circles x² +y² -2 a x +2 b y + c = 0 and x² + y² +2 bx +2 a y -c = 0. 5. we get 2 (g. For what value of do the circles x² + y² +5 x +3 y +7 = 0 and x² +y² -8 x +6 y + = 0 cut orthogonally? Answers 1..(iii) As center of (i) i.

(i). Then the equation of the circle is (x -x1)(x -x2) + (y -y1)(y -y2) = 0 Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of a circle whose center is (3. radius = |CP| = [(2 -3)² +(-1 +2)²] = [1 +1] = 2 Hence the equation of the circle is .-1). of the given lines is (2.(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) simultaneously..Equation of a Circle in different forms A circle is the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that it remains at a constant distance from a fixed point.. we get x = 2..y2) be the extremities of a diameter of the circle.y1) and B(x2.-1).-2) and it passes through the point P(2.k) as center and r (>0) as radius is given by (x -h)² +(y -k)² = r² Diameter form Let A(x1.-2) and which passes through the intersection of the lines 5x +7y = 3 and 2x -3y = 7. The fixed point is called the center and the constant distance is called radius. and 2x -3y -7 = 0 .0) as center and r (>0) as radius is x² +y² = r² Central form The equation of a circle with C(h. Solution Given lines are 5x +7y -3 = 0 .. Radius is always positive. say P. Standard (or simplest) form The equation of a circle with O(0. y = -1. Since the center of the circle is C(3. So the point of intersection.

their centers lie on x-axis. 5. 3) lie on a circle with center at the origin. Find the equation of a circle whose two diameters lie along the lines 2x -3y +12 = 0 and x +4y + 12 = 0 and x +4y -5 = 0 and has area 154 square units. 2. There are two circles satisfying given conditions. -3/2) radius of each circle is 3/2. Solution i. clearly. (ii) center is (2. 0) and (-3. -2). . Find the equation of a circle whose center is the point of intersection of the lines 2x +y = 4 and x -y = 5 and passes through the origin. Find the equation of the circle whose center lies on the negative direction of y-axis at a distance 3 units from origin and whose radius is 4 units. 0) and hence the equations of the circles are (x ±3)² +(y -0)² = 3² or x² +y² ±6x = 0 ii. -3) and passes through the intersection of the lines 3x -2y -1 = 0 and 4x +y 27 = 0. Determine the equation of a circle whose center is (8. ii. (ii) center is (-1. 2) and radius is 5 units.(x -3)² +(y +2)² = ( 2)² or x² +y² -6x +4y +11 = 0. the centers of these circles are and (3/2. So the required equation is x² +y² -3x ±3y + (9/4) = 0 or 4x² +4y² -12x ±12y +9 = 0 Exercise 1. Also find its equation. 7. Find the equation of the circle whose (i) center is (a. -9) and (11. Example (central form) Find the equation of a circle which touches i. From above figure. 3. 4. As the circles touch y-axis at the origin. Find the equation of a circle whose (i) center is at the origin and the radius is 5 units. 6.3/2) and (3/2. Prove that the points (7. There are two circles satisfying the given conditions. the y-axis at origin and whose radius is 3 units both the co-ordinate axes and the line x = 3.3). centers of the circles are (3. 8. Since radius is 3 units. b) and passes through origin. -6) and which passes through the point (5. Find the equations of the circles of radius 5 whose centers lie on the x-axis and pass through the point (2.

x² +y² -12x +11 = 0. radius 17 and ordinate of the center is -15. Find the equations to the circles touching axis of y at the point (0. x² +y² ±8x ±10y +16 = 0 . x² +y² ±10x -6y +9 = 0 15. (ii) passing through the origin. -4) and which touches the x-axis. 3) and making an intercept of 8 units on x-axis.9. x² +y² +6x -4y -36 = 0 7. x² +y² -10x ±8y +16 = 0 14. Answers 1. (iii) which touch both the axes and pass through the point (2. 15. 1). Find the equations of circles (i) which touch the x-axis on the positive direction at a distance 5 units from the origin and has radius 6 units. x² +y² ±6y -16 = 0 12. 12. (i) x² +y² -10x ±12y +25 = 0 (ii) x² +y² ±6x +30y = 0 (iii) x² +y² -2x -2y +1 = 0. (i) x² +y² +8y = 0 (ii) x² +y² -6x -8y +16 = 0 10. x² +y² -10x -10y +25 = 0 13. 6. x² +y² -6x +4y = 0. Find the equations of circles which touch both the axes and (i) has radius 3 units (ii) touch the line x = 2a. Find the equations of circles which touch the y-axis at a distance of 4 units from the origin and cut off an intercept of 6 units along the positive direction of x-axis. (ii) whose center is (3. 4) and touches the y-axis. x² +y² -130 = 0 4. 10. (i) x² +y² ±6x ±6y +9 = 0 (ii) x² +y² -2ax ±2ay +a² = 0 11. 14. x² +y² +6y -7 = 0. 13. Find the equations of circles which pass through two points on x-axis at distances of 4 units from the origin and whose radius is 5 units. Find the equations to the circles which touch the x-axis at a distance of 4 units from the origin and cut off an intercept of 6 from the y-axis. (i) x² +y² -2ax -2by = 0 (ii) x² +y² -4x +6y -96 = 0 5. Find the equation of the circle (i) whose center is (0. x² +y² -16x + 12y +75 = 0 3. (i) x² +y² = 25 (ii) x² +y² -2x +4y = 0 2. 8. x² +y² +4x -21 = 0 9. 11.

0 <2 Thus. find center and radius. we get (x -p)² + (y -q)² = c² (cos² +sin² ) => (x -p)² +(y -q)² = c². 0 <2 Example Find the cartesian equations of the curves x = p +c cos . the parametric equations of the given circle x² +y² = 5 are x = 5cos . k +r sin ) is called the point " " on this circle.Parametric form of Circle x = r cos . y = q + c sin => x -p = c cos . y = 5 sin . x = h + r cos . Parametric form of the circle (x -h)² +(y -k)² = r² Every point P on the circle can be represented as x = h + r cos . q) and radius = | c |. y = r sin . 0 < 2 . r sin ) is called the point " " on the circle x² +y² = r². . Solution Given x = p +c cos . on squaring and adding these equations. y = k + r sin . represent the circle (x -h)² +(y -k)² = r². y -q = c sin To eliminate the parameter . 0 <2 The given circle is comparable with x² +y² = r². y = r sin . where is parameter. Illustrative Examples Example Find the parametric equations of the circle x² +y² = 5 Solution The given circle is x² + y² = 5 We know that the parametric equations of the circle x² +y² = r² are x = r cos . where is calledparameter and the point P (r cos . y = k + r sin .0 < 2 represent the circle x² +y² = r². y = q +c sin these equations represent a circle? If so. is called parameter and the point (h +r cos . Do . here r = 5 Therefore. which represents a circle with center (p.

Let S be a circle and P (x1. (i) x = 13 cos . y1) be a point in the plane of S. P is called exterior to S iff | C P | > r. y2) be two points in the plane of S then they lie i. 0 <2 (vi) x = -p/2 +(1/2) (p² +q²) cos . y1).6 y -12 = 0 (iv) 2 x² +2 y² = 5 x +7 y +3 (v) x² + y² -2 a x . y = a +| a | sin . P is called interior to S iff |CP| < r and P is said to lie on S iff |CP| = r. Let S be a circle and P (x1. 4).c > 0. y = 2 +5 sin (iii) x = -3 + 7cos . where is parameter. g² + f² . y = -3 +6 sin . y = 13 sin . 0 <2 (iv) x = cos . 0). 0 <2 (ii) x = 2 +6 cos . circle. then i. y = 3 +5 sin . 0 <2 (iii) x = -2 +5 cos . then i.Exercise 1. 0 <2 (v) x = a +| a | cos . circle. be a circle and P (x1. 0 2.2 a y = 0 (vi) x² + y² + p x +q y = 0 2. (1. Let S = x² + y² +2 g x +2 f y + c = 0. y = -p/2 + (1/2) (p² +q²) sin . ii. and if P is interior to S then we say that P lies inside S Notation. iii. y = sin . then S1 = x1² +y1² +2 g x1 +2 f y1 + c. y = 4 + 7 sin . 2). 7 <2 Point and Circle Let S be a circle with center C and radius r (> 0) and P be any point in the plane of the circle S. 5 (iii) (x +3)² +(y -4)² = 7. Find the parametric equations of the following circles : (i) x² +y² = 13 (ii) (x -2)² +(y +3)² = 36 (iii) x² + y² +4 x . (0. If P is exterior to S then we say that P lies outside S. P is exterior to S iff S1 > 0 P is interior to S iff S1 < 0 P lies on S iff S1 = 0 Corollary. Do these equations represent circles? If so. on the same side of S iff S1 and S2 have same sign . 2 (ii) (x -1)² +(y -2)² = 25. Find the cartesian equations of the following curves: (i) x = 2 cos . y1) be a point in the plane of S. y = 2 sin (ii) x = 1 +5 cos . circle. (-3 . iii. Answers 1. (i) x² +y² = 4. ii. find center and radius. Q (x2.

Condition of the tangency The line y = mx + c will touch the circle x² +y² = a² iff a²(1 + m²) = c² i. 4) and (1. Length of intercept made by a circle on a line Let a line l meet a circle S with center C and radius r in two distinct points. Among the points given below. If d is the distance of C from l then the length of intercept = p [r² -d²] . exterior or lie on the circle S with center (1. -2) (iii) 3. point out which of these are interior. Equations of tangents in slope form Substituting the values of c = ± a [1 +m²] in equation y = mx + c.ii. 2) and radius 3? (i) (2. (i) Interior (ii) exterior 2. -3) and (1. iff c = ± a [1 +m²] Corollary 2.1. there are two parallel tangents to the circle x² +y² = a² having m as their slope. and the line will intersect the circle in one and only one point i. and the line will not intersect the circle iff a²(1 + m²) < c². Corollary 1. 2) and radius? (i) (2. on the opposite sides of S iff S1 and S2 have opposite signs. 3) (ii) (-1. (i) Interior (ii) exterior 3. interior or lie on the circle 3 x 2 +3 y 2 -2 x -11 = 0? (i) (-1.e. 0) (ii) (1. 2) (ii) (0. -3) (iii) (4. the line will be atangent to the circle iff a²(1 +m²) = c². 3) Answers 1. point out which of these are exterior. Among the points given below.e. we get y = mx ± a [1 +m²] Thus. 2) 2. Exercise 1. Do the following pairs of points lie on the same side or on opposite sides of the circle with center (. (i) Opposite sides (iii) lies on (iii) lies on (ii) both lie on the circle Line and Circle The condition that the line y = mx +c may intersect the circle x² + y² = a² is given by a²(1 + m²) c² Remark The line y = m x + c will intersect the circle x² + y² = a² in two distinct points iff a² (1 +m²) > c².

(ii) Let (ii) pass through the point P ( .2 m .a² ..a²) = 0.. and these represent slopes of two tangents passing through P ( .m = a [1 +m²] => ( . PT2 be two tangents to S through P.Length of tangent Let S be a circle and P be an exterior point to S.. say m 1. ). m 1 m 2 = -1 => ² . The length of tangent = Illustrative Examples Example Find the locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to the circle x² +y² = a² Solution he given circle is x² + y² = a² . ) is x² +y² = 2 a² .2 m + ( ² . then = m + a [1 +m²] .a² = . then the distance |PT1| or |PT2| is called the length of tangent from P to the circle S.a² m² = 0 => ( ² .a²) m² . ). which is a quadratic in m having two roots.m )² = a²(1 + m²) => ² + m 2 ² .. m 2. Since the tangents are at right angles. and PT1..a² = -1 => ² .(i) The equation of any tangent to the circle (i) in the slope form is y = mx +a [1 +m²] .² + a² ² -a² => ² + ² = 2 a² The locus of P ( .

13. find the equation of the circle with this chord as diameter. Determine also the equation of the circle described on this chord as diameter. 4. Calculate the co-ordinates of the point of contact. 11. prove that x +1 = 0 is a tangent to the circle. Determine the points of intersection (if any) of the circle x² +y² +5 x = 0 with each of the following lines: (i) x = 0 (ii) 3x . . Determine the number of points of intersection of the circle x² +y² + 6x -4y +8 = 0 with each of the following lines: (i) 2 x + y -1 = 0 (ii) x +1 = 0 (iii) 4x +3y -12 = 0 2. Find the condition that the line l x + m y +n = 0 may touch the circle x² +y² +2 g x +2 f y + c = 0. (i) Find the points of intersection of the circle 3 x² +3 y² -29 x -19 y -56 = 0 and the line y = x +2. 5) and touches the x-axis. Find the lengths of intercepts made by the circle x² + y² -4 x -6 y . Find the points in which the line y = 2 x +1 cuts the circle x² + y² = 2. 9. Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle x² +y² -8 x -6 y = 0 on the line x -7 y -8 = 0. 17. 15. 14. 7. Find the equation to the circle which is concentric with x² +y² -6 x +7 = 0 and touches the line x +y +3 = 0. Also find the length of the chord intercepted. Also find the point of contact. which is a circle concentric with the given circle. The center of the circle described on the chord x +2 y = 5 as diameter is the point of intersection of this line and the line through (0.5 = 0 on the co-ordinate axes. (i) Find the equation of the circle with center (3. Also find points of contact. Find the length of the chord made by the x-axis with the circle whose center is (0. 4) and which touches the line 5x +12y -1 = 0. (ii) Find the equation of the circle whose center is (4. Hence. 10. (i) Prove that the lines x = 7 and y = 8 touch the circlex² + y² -4 x -6 y -12 = 0. Exercise 1.Thus. (ii) If y = 2 x is a chord of the circle x² + y² -10 x = 0. 0) and perpendicular to this line. Prove that the line 4 x +y -5 = 0 is a tangent to the circle x² + y² +2 x -y -3 = 0. or otherwise. 16. Find the equation to the circle concentric with x² +y² -4 x -6 y -3 = 0 and which touches the yaxis.y +1 = 0 (iii) 3x -4 y = 7 3. Prove that the line y = x +a 2 touches the circle x² +y² = a². [Hint. 5. Hence find the length of the chord intercepted. also find the point of contact. If the circle 2 x² +2 y² = 5 x touches the line 3 touches the line 3 x + 4 y = k. Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle x² +y² = 9 on the line x +2 y = 5. Find the condition that the line l x +m y + n = 0 may touch the circle x² +y² = a². 12. If this point of contact is A. find the co-ordinates of the other end of the diameter through A. the locus of point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to the circle x² +y² = a² is x² +y² = 2 a². This is known as director circle of the circle x² +y² = a². find the values of k.] 8. 6. Find the coordinates of the points at which the circle cuts y-axis. Also find the length of the chord intercepted. (ii) Find the co-ordinates of the center and the radius of the circle x² + y² -4 x +2 y -4 = 0. 3 a) and which touches the straight line 3 x +4 y = 37.

(-a/ 2. (-1/10. (i) (0. intercept on y-axis = 2 14 6. 4 2 (ii) x² + y² -2 x -4 y = 0 . 8) (ii) (2. 5 2 7. 2 x . x² + y² -4 x -6 y +9 = 0 16. 4 x + 3 y +5 = 0. 0) (ii) (-1. Show that 3 x -4 y +11 = 0 is a tangent to the circle x² + y² -8y +15 = 0 and find the equation of the other tangent which is parallel to the line 3 x = 4 y. (i) (7. -2).y ± 5 5 = 0 20. 3. 4. -1). a/ 2) 10. x² +y² -2 x -4 y +1 = 0 8. (5. Illustrative Examples Example . Find the equations of the tangents to the circle x² +y² -2 x -4 y = 4 which are perpendicular to the line 3 x . 8) 15. (i) (1. 1) 11.(-1. (1. 4 x +3 y -25 = 0 Tangent and Normal to a Circle at a Point The equation of the tangent at a point on a circle The equation of the tangent to the circle x² +y² +2 g x +2 f y +c = 0 at the point P (x1 . -1). -1) 9. -1). 3). Answers 1. other end of diameter (5.4 y -1 = 0. 7/10) (iii) none 3. (0. 2). y1) is xx1 +yy1 +g (x +x1) +f(y +y1) +c = 0 The equation of the normal at a point on the circle The equation of the normal to the circle x² +y² +2 g x +2 f y +c = 0 at the point P (x1. 2 5 5. Intercept on x-axis = 6. 4. 5/2 14. Find the equations of the tangents to the circle x² +y² = 25 which are parallel to the line y = 2 x +4. point of contact (-1. 19.18. 20. 3 x -4 y +21= 0 19. 8 | a | 18. (0. (2. (l g + m f -n)² = (l² + m²)(g² + f² -c) 13. y1) is (y1 +f) x -(x1 +g) y +(g y1 -f x1) = 0 Normal at a point on the circle passes through the center of the circle. (i) one point (ii) two distinct points (iii) none 2. 3). n = ± a [l² +m²] 12. x² + y² -6 x -9 = 0 17. (i) 169 (x² + y² -6 x -8 y) +381 = 0 (ii) x² + y² -8 x -10 y +16 = 0. 7) . 10.

x +2 y -1 = 0.(y/3) +3 = 0 => 4 x -6 y -5 x -10 +2 y -6 +6 = 0 => -x -4 y -10 = 0 => x +4 y +10 = 0 The slope of the tangent at P = . (ii) x -2 y -7 = 0. (i)12 x -5 y -169 = 0.. x -3 y -10 = 0. -3) is y +3 = 4 (x .. 3 x -y = 0. x -y -3 = 0 (iv) 4 x + 9 y = 0. (i) Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x² + y²= a² at the point P (x1. then (i) One circle lies completely inside the other iff d < | r1 -r2 | (ii) The two circles touch internally iff d = | r1 -r2 | (iii) The two circles intersect in two points iff d > |r1 -r2| and d < r1 +r2 (iv) The two circles touch externally iff d = r1 +r2 (v) One circle lies completely outside the other iff d > r1 +r2 . 4. 5x +12 y = 0 (ii) 6x +8 y +25 = 0. -3). 4x -3y = 0 (iii) x +y +1 = 0. (-3) -5.(1/2). 3. . . (i) x² +y² = 169 at (12. B and radii r1 .y -11 = 0 Exercise 1.Find the equations of tangent and normal to the circle x² +y² -5 x +2 y +3 = 0 at the point (2. 4x . r2 and d be the distance between their centers.y -7 = 0 Relative position of two Circles Let S.e.5) (ii) 4 x² +4 y² = 25 at (3/2. (ii) Find the equation of the normal to the circle x² + y² = a² at the point P (x1. 2 x . 9 x -4 y = 0 3.(x +2) +2. Answers 1. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the following circles: (i) x² +y² = 10 at the points whose abscissa is 1. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the following circles at the given points.(1/2). S' be two (non-concentric) circles with centers A.2) i. (i) The equation of the tangent to the circle (i) at the point P (2.1/4 => the slope of the normal at P = 4 The equation of the normal to the circle (i) at P (2.3) is x. . (ii) x² +y² -8 x -2 y +12 = 0 at the points whose ordinate is -1. 2 x +y -9 = 0. Solution The given circle is x² +y² -5 x +2 +2 y +3 = 0 . y1) on it.5) and (5. -2) (iv) 3 x² +3 y² -4 x -9 y = 0 at the origin. (i) x +3 y -10 = 0. y1) on it. 2. 12) to the circle x² + y² = 169 are perpendicular to each other. Show that the tangents drawn at the points (12. -2) (iii) x² + y² -4 x +2 y +3 = 0 at (1. (i) x x1 +y y1 = a² (ii) y1 x -x1 y = 0 2. 2 + y.

Prove that the circle x² + y² -6 x -2 y +9 = 0 lies entirely inside the circle x² + y² = 18. . (1. and their radii are r1 = [1² +0² -0] = 1 and r2 = [9 +9 -2] = 4 respectively The distance between their centers = d = [(. Do these circles touch externally or internally? Find the point of contact and the common tangent. 2.(i) and S = x² + y²+6x -6y +2 = 0 . 3). If two circles intersect. Show that the circles x² + y² +2 x -6 y +9 = 0 and x² + y² +8 x -6 y +9 = 0 touch internally.0)/(1+4) i. Solution The equations of the given circles are S = x² + y² -2 x = 0 . then we can solve the equations of the circles simultaneously to find the points of intersection. 2..(-3) +4.. 0) and B (-3. 3.Note 1. 4. In particular. Illustrative Examples Example Show that the circles x² +y² -2 x = 0 and x² +y² +6 x -6 y +2 = 0 touch each other. Find their point of contact and also the common tangent. Show that the circles x² + y² = 2 and x² + y² -6x -6 y +10 = 0 touch each other.e. Do these circles touch externally or internally? Also find their point of contact. then the equation of their common tangent is given by S -S' = 0.1)/(1+4). in the ratio 1 : 4 The co-ordinates of the point of contact are (1.. Prove that the circles x² + y² -6x -2 y +1 = 0 and x² + y² +2 x -8 y +13 = 0 touch one another and find the equation of the tangent at their point of contact. (1/5. If the two circles touch (internally or externally). Prove that the circles x² + y² -4 x +6 y +8 = 0 and x² + y² -10 x -6 y +14 = 0 touch each other externally. Find their point of contact and also the common tangent. the equation of the common chord is given by S -S' = 0.3 -1)² +(3 -0)²] = 5 = 1 +4 => d = r1 + r2 => the given circles (i) and (ii) touch externally and the point of contact P divides [AB] internally in the ratio r1 : r2 i.e.. 5.(ii) Their centers are A (1. 3/5) The equation of the common tangent is S -S' = 0 => -8 x +6 y -2 = 0 => 4 x -3 y +1 = 0 Exercise 1.3 +4.

therefore. -1.. x +2 y -1 = 0 3. then S +k S' = 0.. Find the equation of the circle whose radius is 3 and which touches the circle x² + y² -4 x -6 y -12 = 0 internally at the point (-1. Remarks 1. If we need the member S'. 1) 6. Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of the family of circles passing through the points A(0. Solution Let the equation of the desired family of circles be x² +y² +2gx +2fy +c = 0 . Example Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points of inter-section of x² +y² -4 = 0 and x² +y² -2x -4y +4 = 0 and touches the line x +2 y = 0.4) and B(0. 4 x -3 y +6 = 0 5.(ii). Answers 3. we get 0 +16 +0 +8f +c = 0 => 8f +c +16 = 0 .(i) As all these circles pass through the points A(0. It is one-parameter family of circles where g is the parameter. then the equation S +kS' = 0 reduces to S -S' = 0 which represents the common chord in case of intersecting circles or common tangent in case of touching circles. Let S and S' be two intersecting (or touching) circles. If k = -1. (iv) represents a circle.. 3). 5 (x² + y²) -8x -14 y +32 = 0 Families of Circles A collection of circles is called a family or a system of circles.. Substituting these values in (i). 0 +16 +0 -8f +c = 0 => -8f +c +16 = 0 . represents a .. The equation S +kS = 0 represents all members of the family except the member S'.(iv) Note that for every real value of g. (3.(iii) On solving (ii) and (iii). Hence the equation x² +y² +2gx -16 = 0 for different real values of g represents the desired family of circles. x = 0 4. then take the equation of the family as S' +kS = 0. g² +f² -c = g² +16 > 0. we get x² +y² +2gx -16 =0 . k family of circles through their points (or point) of intersection. 2. (1. we get f = 0. Externally.. c = -16. -1). -1.-4).6.4) and B(0. (0.-4)...

x² +y² +2gx -y = 0.. where r is radius. 4. Find the equation of the circle which passes through the point (1. Exercise 1. Find the equation of the circle through the intersection of the circles x² +y² -8x -2y +7 = 0 and x² +y² -4x +10y +8 = 0 and having its center on the x-axis. Find the equation of the family of circles with radius 3 and whose centers lie on the x-axis. Find the equation of the family of circles passing through the origin and the point (0. Also find a member of the family which touches the line x -y = 3. 5.3) and through the points of intersection of the circle x² +y² +3x -4y +5 = 0 and the line x -y +2 = 0. ) be center of the family.e. 2(x² +y²) +16x -8y -41 = 0 7. Answers 1. y = 0 and x = 0. and S' = x² +y² -2 x -4y +4 = 0 The equation of the common chord of these circles is S -S' = 0 => l = 2 x +4 +4 y -8 = 0 The equation of the family of circles passing through the intersection of the given circles is x² +y² -4 +k (2x +4 +4y -8) = 0 . 8.-1) and through the points of intersection of the circles x² +y² +2x -2y -23 = 0 and 3x² +3y² +12x -4y -9 = 0.e. x² +y² +2 gx +2 +2fy = 0. so | | = | | r => = ±r.2). Find the equation of the circle through the points of intersection of the circles x² +y² +2x +3y 7 = 0 and x² +y² +3x -2y -1 = 0 and through the point (1. Find the equation of the family of concentric circles with center as (-4. Find the equation of the family of circles passing through the points A(5. x² + y² -x -2y = 0.(1/2)(2x +4y -8) = 0 i. we have |-k +2 (-2k)|/ [1² +2²] = [5k² +8k +4] => 5|k|/ 5 = [5k² +8k +4] => 5 k² = 5 k²+8 k +4 => 8 k +4 = 0 => k = -1/2 Substituting this value of k in (i). where h is any real number 5. where r is radius. For the particular member of the family which touch the line x +2y = 0. the equation of the required circle is x² +y² -4 . where g. 2. 10. 9. f are any real numbers 2.] Find the equation of the circle which passes through the origin and the points of intersection of the circles x² +y² +2x +2y -2 = 0 and x² +y² +4x -8y +4 = 0. (x -h)² +y² = 9. 11. where g is any real number 3. x² +y² +2fy -25 = 0. 3(x² +y²) +8x -4y = 0 7. .-2k) and radius = [k² +4k² +4 +8k] = [5k² +8k +4].. [Hint. = ±r.(i) Its center is (-k. where f is any real number 4.2). 3. Let ( . Find the equation of the family of circles passing through the origin.Solution The equations of the given intersecting circles are S = x² +y² -4 = 0. Since it touches both the axes i.0) and B(-5.0). x² +y² +8x -4y +20 -r² = 0. 6.1). Show that the equation of the family of circles which touch both the co-ordinate axes can be put into the form x² +y² ±2rx ±2ry +r² = 0. Find the equation of the circle passing through the point (2.

C. 32(x² +y²) +115x -47y -226 = 0 10.8. In particular. Let l be a fixed line and F be a fixed point not on l. The fixed point F is called a focus of the conic and the fixed line l is called thedirectrix associated with F. and e > 0 be a fixed real number. Applonius (before 200 B. hyperbola and ellipse. then the locus of all points P such that |FP| = e |MP| is called aconic. The fixed real number e (> 0) is called eccentricity of the conic.) realized that a conic (or conic section) is a curve of intersection of a plane with a right circular cone of two nappes. . a conic with eccentricity e is called (i) a parabola iff e = 1 (ii) an ellipse iff e < 1 (iii) a hyperbola iff e > 1. 6(x² +y²) -44x +43 = 0 Conics The curves known as conics were named after their historical discovery as the intersection of a plane with a right circular cone. and the three curves so obtained are parabola. x² +y² -9x +8y -19 = 0 11. Let |MP| be the perpendicular distance from a point P (in the plane of the line l and point F) to the line l. x² +y² +4x -7y +5 = 0 9.

sum of whose distances from two given points F and F' (in the plane) is a constant and greater than |FF'|.0) 4a Equations y²= 4ax (a>0) Right hand y=0 x +a = 0 (a. 0) (0.Four standard forms of the parabola Main facts about the parabola y² = -4ax a>0 Left hand y=0 x -a = 0 (-a. The focal property of ellipse gives us a practical method of drawing an ellipse. Keep the string taught by means of a pencil placed against the string and slide it along the string.0) 4a x² = -4ay a>0 Downwards x=0 y -a = 0 (0.a) (0.0) 4a x² = 4ay a>0 Upwards x=0 y +a = 0 (0.0) 4a Axis Directrix Focus Vertex Length of Latusrectum Equation of Latusrectum Focal distance of the point(x. Fasten the ends of a string of length 2a > |FF'| at two distinct points F and F'.y) x -a = 0 x +a = 0 y -a = 0 y +a = 0 x +a a -x y +a a -y Another definition of ellipse An ellipse is the locus of a point in a plane. 0) (0. the curve thus traced is an ellipse with F and F' as its foci. -a) (0. Remark. .

0) (ae. (0. a +ey Equation Equation of major axis Length of major axis Equation of minor axis length of minor axis Vertices Foci Directrices Length of Latus -rectuum Equation of a latera-recta Center Focal distance of any point (x.a/e = 0. ae).0) a -ex. (-ae.0) x . x +ae = 0 (0.Main facts about the ellipse x²/a² + y²/b² = 1 a>b>0 y=0 2a x=0 2b (a. 0).y +ae = 0 a -ey. x + a/e = 0 2b²/a x-ae = 0.y) Another definition of hyperbola .(0.(-a. -a) (0. a). -ae) y .a/e = 0. a +ex x²/b² + y²/a² = 1 a > b> 0 x=0 2a y=0 2b (0.0). y + a/e = 0 2a²/b y -ae = 0.

y) be any point on the parabola and |MP| be the perpendicular distance from P to the . 0) and directrix is the line x +2y -3 = 0. -a) (0. 0) (ae. (-a.A hyperbola is the locus of a point in a plane. the difference of whose distances from two given points F and F' is 2a (constant).x²/b² = 1 a > 0. 0) and whose directrix is the line x +2y -3 = 0. 0) x .b > 0 y=0 2a 2b x=0 (a. Main facts about the hyperbola x²/a² . x + a/e=0 2b²/a x -ae = 0. 0). 0). (0. x + ae = 0 (0. and 0 < a < (1/2)|FF'.|ey +a| Equation Length of transverse axis Equation of transverse axis Length of conjugate axis Equation of conjugate axis Vertices Foci Directrices Length of lactus-rectum Equation of latera-recta center Focal Distance point(x. Solution The focus of the parabola is at F(-2.0) |ey -a|.a/e = 0. (-ae.y²/b²= 1 a > 0.b > 0 x=0 2a 2b y=0 (0. -ae) y .y) Illustrative Examples Example Find the equation of the parabola with focus at (-2.y + ae = 0 (0. y + a/e =0 2a²/b y -ae = 0. Let P(x.a/e= 0. a).0) |ex -a|. ae). |ex +a| y²/a² . (0.

Solution and the equation of directrix is .e. of parabola |FP| = |MP| (As e = 1 for parabola) So ((x +2)² +y²) = |x +2y -3|/ (1² +2²) On squaring. 0) i. as e = 1 for parabola. the corresponding directrix is the line x -y +1 = 0 and e = 2/3. Example Find the equation of the ellipse whose focus is (1. Example Find the focus. Solution The focus of the ellipse is at F(1. 0) is constant equal to 4 units. -2).. then by def. Also 4a = 8/3 => a = 2/3. focus is (a. Let P (x. therefore.(i) which is the same as y² = 4ax. 3) and F'(2. => 5 ((x +2)² +y²) = (x +2 y -3)² (since |x|² = x²) => 5 (x² +4 +4 x +y²) = x² +4 y² +9 +4 x y -6 x -12 y => 4 x² -4 xy +y² +26 x +12 y +11 = 0. of ellipse |FP| = e |MP| => => 9 [(x -1)² +(y +2)²] = 2 (x -y +1)² => 9 [x² -2 x +1 +y +1 +y² +4 y +4] = 2 [x² +y² +1 -2 x y +2 x -2 y] => 7 x² +4 x y +7 y² -22 x +40 y +43 = 0. x +2/3 = 0 i. -2). 3 x +2 = 0. the sum of whose distances from the points F(-2. y) be any point on the ellipse and | MP | be the perpendicular distance from P to the directrix.directrix. the corresponding directrix x -y +1 = 0 and eccentricity is 2/3. then by def. directrix and eccentricity of the conic represented by the equation 3y² = 8x. which is the required equation of the ellipse. Solution The given equation is 3 y² = 8 x i. y² = (8/3) x .e.e. and hence its eccentricity is 1. Example Find the locus of a point P. so (i) represents a standard (right hand) parabola.. which is the required equation of the parabola.

a) and directrix x-axis. Is the conic section an ellipse? 11. Exercise 1. 3) and the directrix is given by 3x -4 y +1 = 0. Find the equation of the parabola whose focus is (2. (iii) which passes through the point (-3. 15. 3. Find the equation of the parabolas with vertices at the origin and satisfying the following conditions: (i) Focus at (-4. b) and directrix x/a + y/b = 1. which is not possible wherever P may be (since sum of two sides of a triangle cannot be less than third side) Therefore. we note that |FF'| = [(2+2)² +(y -2)²] = 5 and |PF| +|PF'| = 4 (given) => |PF| +|PF'| < |FF'|. (ii) the latus rectum is one half of its major axis. . foci and the equations of the directrices of the hyperbola x² -y² = 1. 20. 7. -1). -1). co-ordinates of foci. 0) and eccentricity 2. 0) and directrix y-axis. eccentricity. (iv) whose minor axis is equal to the distance between foci and whose latus-rectum is 10. Write the equation of a conic with eccentricity e. 1) and has eccentricity . Find the lengths of axes. 18. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse if: (i) the latus-rectum is one half of its minor axis. 12. 9. -1) and directrix is x +2 y -1 = 0. 2. find the length of latus-rectum. Find the equation of the parabola whose focus is (5. 4. Write the equation of a conic with eccentricity e. Write the equation of the parabola with the line x +y = 0 as directrix and the point (1.Here. eccentricity is 1/2 and the directrix is the line x -y = 3. 0) (ii) Directrix y -2 = 0 (iii) Passing through (2. 6. If the parabola y² = 4 p x passes through the point (3. 5. Find the vertices. Find the co-ordinates of the foci and the ends of the latera-recta of the ellipse 16x² +9y² = 144. 17. 14. -2). Find the eccentricity. eccentricity = 1/2 (ii) which passes through the points (-3. 1) and directrix is 6 x -3 y = 8. the corresponding directrix is x -y +3 = 0 and e = 1/2. focus (a. Find the equation to the ellipse referred to its axes as co-ordinates axes (i) whose major axis = 8. the eccentricity and the length of latus-rectum of the hyperbola 25 x² -9 y² = 225. 0). the locus of P is the empty set. coordinates of focus and the equation of directrix. (iii) the distance between foci is equal to the length of latus-rectum. Find the equation of the hyperbola with directrix x + 2 y = 1. Find the equation to the conic section whose focus is (1. focus at (0. co-ordinates of the foci and the length of the latus-rectum of the ellipse 4 x² +3 y² = 36. 8. -2). 19. 16. 13. In each of the parabolas (i) y² = 3 x (ii) y² = -4 x (iii) 3 x² = 4 y (iv) x² = -12 y. Find the equation of the ellipse whose eccentricity is 1/2 and whose foci are (±2. Find the equation of the ellipse whose focus is (1. 10. focus (0. 3) and axis along x-axis. 1) and (2. find the length of latus-rectum and the co-ordinates of the focus. 0) as focus. Find the equation to the parabola whose focus is (-2.also find the equation of axis. Find the equation to the parabola with the focus (a.

4/3. (-1. (i) ( 3)/2 (ii) 1/ 2 (iii) ( 5 1)/2 12.7). 3 y +1 = 0 (iv) 12. foci are (0. 2x +1 = 0 15. (0. length of latus-rectum = 3 3 13. 2 x + 3 = 0 (ii) 4. 0).3). 4x +3 y -29 = 0 10. 7 x² +2 x y +7 y² -22 x +22y +7 = 0 6. 0). (-1. Yes 11. 0). (1 -e²) x² +y² -2 a x +a² = 0 2. 4 x² -4x y +y² -18 x +14 y +24 = 0 5.16 x² +24 x y +9 y² -256 x -142 y +849 = 0. x² +(1 -e²) y² -2 ay +a² = 0 3.2 . 0). (i) y² = -16 x (ii) x² = -8y (iii) 2 y² = 9 x 19.34. 2 x -1 = 0. 6. (0. 0). 2 . (. 0). ( 34 . 7 x² +2 x y +7 y² -10 x +10 y +7 = 0. y -3 = 0 17. (i) 3 x² +4 y² = 48 (ii) 3x² +5 y² = 32 (iii) 3 x² +5 y² = 32 (iv) x² +2y² = 100 20. a² x² -2 a b x y +b² y² -2 a³ x -2 b³ y +(a 4 . 10. ( 34)/3. (0. 0) . (0.a² b² +b4) = 0 8. 9 x² +36 x y +36 y² +276 x -138 y -169 = 0 9.(x -y)² -4 x +2 = 0 4. 14. (0. 10 16. . x² +8 2x y +5 y² -8 x -8y +4 = 0 7. 0) 18. (1/3. (1. -3). 7).Answers 1. e = 1/2. ( 2. (i) 2 3 (( 3)/2. 0). . 3 x² +4 y² = 48 . 1/3) . x -1 = 0 (iii) 4/3 . 3). (.

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