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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CONTENTS

1) INTRODUCTION 2) GEOMETRY 3) GEOTECHNICAL DATA 4) MATERIAL 5) CODES AND DESIGN STANDARDS 6) LOADINGS 7) MODELLING 8) DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION 9) DESIGN OF RETAINING WALL 10) DESIGN OF SHEAR WALL 11) DESIGN OF RAMP 12) DESIGN OF INSITU BEAMS 13) DESIGN OF INSITU SLABS 14) DESIGN OF STEEL ROOF REFERENCES. 03 03 03 03 03 03 10 10 15 18 27 30 38 39

1. INTRODUCTION M/s. Jumeirah Golf Estates is setting up a commercial centre in Jumeirah. This report deals with the analysis and design of raft, shear wall and some in-situ beams and slabs 2. GEOMETRY The building utilizes a reinforced concrete structure. All floors are made by precast hollow core slab supported on precast beams. Pre cast columns and shear walls are used for supporting the floors. The building is supported by raft foundation. The length of the building is 110m and breadth is 82.35 m. This has 1 basement floor and 3 floors above that. 3. GEOTECHNICAL DATA As per the soil investigation report, the average bearing pressure of the soil is taken as 150 kN/m2 and modulus of subgrade reaction as 7500kN/m3. 4. MATERIAL M40 grade concrete and Fy 460 steel (conforming to BS: 4449-1997) with moderate exposure condition as per BS: 8110-1- 1997 is assumed. 5. CODES AND DESIGN STANDARDS BS 8110 Part 1:1997 Code of Practice for design and construction BS 6399 Part 1: 1996 Code of practice for dead and imposed loads BS 6399 Part 2: 1997 Code of practice for wind loads BS 6399 Part 3: 1988 Code of practice for imposed loads UBC 1997 Uniform Building Code.

6. LOADINGS

6 .1 Dead Load & Live Load (BS 6399 Part I, Part II) In addition to the self-weight of the structure the following dead & Live loads are taken into account. a) Pitched Roof Concrete Roof Tile 200 mm Thick Slab Ceiling and Services Live Load = 0.51 kN/m2 = 5 kN/m2 = 0.80 kN/m2 =1.5 kN/m2

b) Flat Roof Hollow Core Fill Screed Ceiling and Services Live Load c) 2nd Floor Hollow Core Fill Ceiling and Services Raised Floor Partition Wall Marble Screed Live Load d) 1st Floor Hollow Core Fill Ceiling and Services Raised Floor Partition Wall Marble Screed Live Load e) Ground Floor Hollow Core Fill Ceiling and Services Raised Floor Partition Wall = 3.75 kN/m2 = 0.19kN/m2 = 0.8 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 4 =3.75 kN/m2 = 0.19 kN/m2 = 0.8 kN/m2 =0.7 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 = 0 .7 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 = 3.75 kN/m2 = 0.19kN/m2 = 0.8 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 = 3.75 kN/m2 = 0.19 kN/m2 = 0.7 kN/m2 =1.8 kN/m2 =1.5 kN/m2

Marble Screed Live Load f) Ground Floor (Grid A TO B1) Slab (350mm) Fill (0.75m) Ceiling and Services Live Load g) Ramp Slab (250mm) Finishing Live Load h) Stair Case Slab (250mm) Steps Finishing Live Load 6.2 Wind Load

= 8.3 kN/m2 =15kN/m2 = 0.8 kN/m2 = 3 kN/m2 = 6.25 kN/m2 = 2 kN/m2 = 5 kN/m2 = 6.25 kN/m2 = 2.05kN/m2 = 2 kN/m2 = 5 kN/m2

Wind load corresponding to basic wind speed of 25 m/s is considered as per BS: 6399Part II Data available Height of building Location Basic wind speed Longest side Shortest side Site Altitude qs = 0.613Ve Ve = Effective wind speed (Clause 2.2.3, BS: 6399- Part II) Ve =VsSb Vs = Site speed from (Clause 2.2.2, BS: 6399- Part II) 5 = 20m = Dubai = 25 m/s = 110.3m = 39.15m = 0m

Sb = Terrain and building factor (Clause 2.2.3.3, BS: 6399- Part II) Vs= VbSaSdSsSp Where Vb=Basic wind speed = 25m/s (Clause 2.2.1, BS: 6399- Part II) Sa=Altitude factor = 1+0.001s (Clause 2.2.2.2, BS: 6399- Part II) Sa =1 Sd=Directional factor =1 Ss=Seasonal factor =1(Clause 2.2.2.4, BS: 6399- Part II) Sp=Probability factor =1(Clause 2.2.2.5, BS: 6399- Part II) Then Vs= VbSaSdSsSp = 251111 = 25m/s Ve = Vs Sb Where Sb =1.77(Table 4 BS: 6399- Part II) with respect to He = 20m Ve = 251.77 = 44.25 m/s Therefore qs = 0.613 Ve =0.61344.25 = 1.2 KN/m 6.3 Earthquake load The earthquake forces are considered as per UBC 1997. The loads are applied in two horizontal directions. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION: 1) 1629.2 Occupancy Criteria: The structure shall be placed in one of the standard occupancy category and an importance factor of 1.0 shall be assigned I=1.0 2) 1629.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics Seismic hazards characteristics for the site shall be established based on the seismic zone and proximity of the site to active seismic source site soil profile characteristics and the structure is importance factor. The site shall be assigned a seismic zone and each structure shall be assigned a seismic zone of factor Z Z=2A 3) 1629.5 Configuration Requirement The structure has no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration 6

or in their lateral force resisting system. Therefore the structure has regular and simple with clear and direct path for transmission of seismic forces. 4) 1629.6 Moment Resisting Frame System: Structural system with an essential complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Moment resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members. 5) 1629.7 Height Limits: The structure is in seismic zone 2A, there is no limit. 6 ) 1629.8 Calculation Lateral Force : The static lateral force procedure shall be used in accordance with section 1630 7) 1630.1 Earthquake Loads: The structure shall be designed for ground motion producing structural response and seismic forces in any horizontal direction. Seismic design shall be carried out in accordance with Uniform Building Code 1997, volume 2, Chapter 16 division IV Building Criteria: As per table 16 k, UBC 1997 we have chosen standard occupancy for the building. Seismic Importance Factor Wind Importance Factor Soil Profile Type = SC Dubai is situated in a low seismic zone region. However seismic zone 2A is taken for design. TABLE 16-I, Seismic zone Factor TABLE 16-Q, Seismic Factor Ca TABLE 16-R, Seismic Factor Cv Structural Configuration: The structure has no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or in their lateral force resisting system. Therefore the structure is regular and simple with clear and direct paths for transmission of seismic forces. R (numerical coefficient representative of the inherent over strength and global ductility capacity of lateral force resisting systems as per 16-N or 16-P) =5.5 = 0.15 = 0.18 = 0.25 I =1.0 Iw = 1.0

Lateral force procedure Simplified static approach is applicable Structural period T Ct T =0.0731(20)3/4 b) Calculation of Base Shear The total design base shear in a given duration V = Ct (hn) 3/4 = 0.0731(in SI units) = 0.69 Seconds hn=20m

Where W

C I Total Design Base shear = v W R T The distribution of base shear along vertical direction =

(V Ft ) wx hx

i =1

wi hi

Table-1: Base shear distribution at different storey levels.

Storey Label

=

Base shear(Fx)

(V Ft ) wx hx

i =1

wi hi

nd

With reference to the size of the building it is necessary to consider the thermal effect of the environment on the whole structure. In order to avoid additional self8

straining (creep and shrinkage and additional curvature in the members under thermal gradient) after the design of the structure we have checked the whole structure under the thermal effect. All of the members have pass safely the additional stress due to new load combinations employed the thermal effect as a new load case except some perimeter columns and beams which needed to be modified in terms of No. of reinforcements.

The following load combinations are considered for the analysis and the critical load combination is taken for the design of the structure. 1. 1.4Dead load + 1.6Live load 2. 1.4Dead load 1.4Wind load(X) 3. 1.4Dead load 1.4Wind load(Y) 4. 1.2Dead load + 1.2Live load 1.2Wind load(X) 5. 1.2Dead load + 1.2Live load 1.2Wind load(Y) 6. 1.32Dead load + 0.55Live load 1.11EQ(X) 7. 1.32Dead load + 0.55Live load 1.11EQ(Y) 8. Dead load 1/4EQ(X) 9. Dead load 1/4EQ(Y) 10. 1.4Dead load + 1.6Live load 1.2Temperature Load 11. 1.4Dead load 1.4Wind load(X) 1.2Temperature Load 12. 1.4Dead load 1.4Wind load(Y) 1.2Temperature Load 13. 1.2Dead load + 1.2Live load 1.2Wind load(X) 1.2Temperature Load 14. 1.2Dead load + 1.2Live load 1.2Wind load(Y) 1.2Temperature Load 15. 1.32Dead load + 0.55Live load 1.11EQ(X) 1.2Temperature Load 16. 1.32Dead load + 0.55Live load 1.11EQ(Y) 1.2Temperature Load 17. Dead load 1/4EQ(X) 1.2Temperature Load 18. Dead load 1/4EQ(Y) 1.2Temperature Load 9

7. MODELLING The proposed building is modeled as a three dimensional structure using a standard finite element software Etabs as shown in the Fig.1. The beams and columns are modeled as frame elements and the slabs & walls were modeled as shell elements. At the bottom of the columns raft foundation were modeled and soil spring value was given as per the soil investigation report. Now the appropriate loadings were given and a static earth quake analysis was carried out to obtain the design forces.

The rafts were modeled throughout the area of the building. The soil parameters used in the model were as per the soil investigation report. The Safe Bearing Capacity of the soil assumed was 150kN/m2. The soil springs were modeled below the raft considering the spring value of 7500kN/m3. The Fig2 and Fig3 shows the bending moment diagrams along X and Y direction respectively from the SAFE analysis. The sample calculation for the design of raft is given below.

10

X Negative

X Negative Positive

Sample Calculation:-

Assume M40 grade concrete and Fy-460 steel. From Fig. 2, The maximum sagging bending moment in X direction in slab M11 M11 From Fig. 3, The maximum sagging bending moment in Y direction in slab M22 M22 Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth(d) Moment

Mu b d2

Maximum hogging bending moment in Y direction in slab Design of Bottom Reinforcement in X Direction:-

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required

Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe

= 0.38% = 4247mm2

=5359mm2>4247

Design of Top Reinforcement in X Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth (d) Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required = 0.18% = 2011.5mm2 = 1200mm = 75mm = 1112.5mm = 690kNm = 0.56

12

Hence Safe

=3266mm2>2011.5

Design of Bottom Reinforcement in Y Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth (d) Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe

Design of Top Reinforcement in X Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth (d) Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe Design for shear:Check for punching shear:a) At the face of support:-

The maximum axial load from analysis = 7665kN Breadth of column Depth of column = 600mm = 800mm 13

Perimeter

Shear stress ()

fck =5N/mm2

= 2.46N/mm2<0.8

Hence safe

a) The critical section for shear is 1.5 x effective depth = 1.5 x 1112.5 =1668.75mm

from the column face, thus the length of the perimeter = 2(600+1668.75 x2)+2(800 +1668.75 x 2) = 16150mm Shear stress () 7665 10 3 = 16150 1112.5 = 0.42N/mm2

100 As d

= 0.48%

Allowable shear stress c = 0.49N/mm2>0.42N/mm2

Hence Safe

14

The retaining wall is analysed as fixed at bottom and free at top with a surcharge load of 5kN/m2 and soil pressure of height 5m as shown in Fig-4 Unit weight of soil () =18kN/m3 Angle of repose = 330 Height of soil fill (h) = 5m Surcharge Load = 5kN/m2 Equivalent height of soil = 5/ =0.278m = 1.476kN/m2 Soil Pressure (at bottom of retaining wall) due to 5m height of soil = (1-sin)/ (1+sin) x x h = 26.55kN/m2 Soil pressure due to surcharge = 5/ x x (1-sin)/ (1+sin)

1.476kN/m2

Fig-4

26.55kN/m2

Strength of Concrete(fcu) Strength of Steel(fy) Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) Modulus of Elasticity(Es) B Over all Depth Cover(Cmin)

d Moment dia of bar Spacing area neutral axis depth(Xu) Stress in steel(Fs) Strain in steel Srain in Concrete at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Srain in Concrete at Y2(bottom face) Em at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Em at Y2(bottom face) acr for Y1((d+x/2) from top) acr for Y2(bottom face) Crack width at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Crack width at Y2(bottom face)

240 mm 116 kNm 20 mm 150 mm 2093.333 mm2 94 mm 265 N/mm2 0.001327 mm 6.63E-04 mm 1.87E-03 mm 6.E-04 mm 1.64E-03 mm 85 mm 75 mm 0.10 mm 0.29 mm

Since the crack width is less than 0.3mm, the provided reinforcement (T20-150) is safe.

9(b). Height=3m

The retaining wall is analysed as fixed at bottom and free at top with a surcharge load of 5kN/m2 and soil pressure of height 3m as shown in Fig-5 Unit weight of soil () =18kN/m3 Angle of repose = 330 Height of soil fill(h) = 3m Surcharge Load = 5kN/m2 Equivalent height of soil = 5/ =0.278m = 1.476kN/m2 Soil Pressure (at bottom of retaining wall) due to 5m height of soil = (1-sin)/ (1+sin) x x h = 16kN/m2 Soil pressure due to surcharge = 5/ x x (1-sin)/ (1+sin)

16

1.476kN/m2

Fig-5

Strength of Concrete(fcu) Strength of Steel(fy) Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) Modulus of Elasticity(Es) B Over all Depth Cover(Cmin) d Moment dia of bar Spacing area neutral axis depth(Xu) Stress in steel(Fs) Strain in steel Srain in Concrete at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Srain in Concrete at Y2(bottom face) Em at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Em at Y2(bottom face) acr for Y1((d+x/2) from top) acr for Y2(bottom face) Crack width at Y1((d+x/2) from top) Crack width at Y2(bottom face)

1000 mm 300 mm 50 mm 242 mm 32 kNm 16 mm 150 mm 1339.733 mm2 79 mm 111 N/mm2 0.000554 mm 2.77E-04 mm 7.51E-04 mm 1.E-04 mm 3.78E-04 mm 92 mm 74 mm 0.03 mm 0.07 mm

Since the crack width is less than 0.3mm, the provided reinforcement (T16-150) is safe. 17

The shear wall is modeled as pier element (See Etabs Model) and was labeled as shown in fig. Each area object that makes up a part of a wall is assigned as one pier label. The walls are designed as compression elements under the combined action of in-plane bending and axial forces. The design of the shear wall was done based on BS 8110-1997. One sample design calculation for the shear wall (Pier P2) is given below.

P3

P2

P1 P5 P4

P7

P16 P15

18

Strength of Concrete(fcu) Strength of Steel(fy) Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) Modulus of Elasticity(Es) Modular Ratio(m) Length(L) Thickness(t) From Etab Analysis, Maximum Axial Load(Ultimate)- Nu1 Minimum Axial Load(Ultimate)-Nu2 Maximum Moment (Ultimate )-Mu1 Maximum Axial Load(Service)-N1 Minimum Axial Load(Service)-N2 Maximum Moment (Service)-M1 Reinforcement Ratio Provided(r)

Check for Ultimate Strengths

= 40N/mm2 = 460N/mm2 = 28N/mm2 = 200N/mm2 = 7.14 = 5000mm =200mm =3400kN =575kN =3827kNm =2430kN =480kN = 2734kNm = 0.0136

Hence Safe

N 3400 = u1 = N u 20504.32

N N u

= 0.17

From Chart-1

M u max N L u

Then

= 0.145

Hence Safe

19

Nu N u N u1 575 = N = 20504.32 = 0.03 u

From Chart-1

M u max N L u

Hence Safe

= 0.11

As per BS 8110-1:1997 Max:Permissible Stress in Concrete Max:Permissible Stress in Steel For Max: Compression

M e = 1 =1125mm N 1

e = L

M e = 1 =5695mm N 2

e = L

N From Chart-2 max N 0 N max = = 2.45 N /L

N u1 L

= 2.45

2430 = 1190.7kN/m 5

20

2 2 max c = t (1 + mr ) = 200 (1 + 7.14 0.0136 = 5.43N / mm < 16 N / mm

1190.7

Hence Safe

X/L=0.2915

N max N 0

N max = = N /L

(1 + mr ) 0.5 x / L + mr (1 0.5 x / L)

(1 + 7.14 0.0136) = 0.5 0.2915 + 7.14 0.0136 (1 0.5 0.2915)

N u1 L

= 4.79

480 = 460kN/m 5

N max 460 2 2 = t (1 + mr ) = 200 (1 + 7.14 0.0136 = 2.1N / mm < 16 N / mm

Hence Safe

L x

21

Chart-1(N/N0--Mu/NuL)

Chart-2(Nmax/N0--e)

22

Shear stress()

From Table-3.8BS 8110-1:1997 Shear stress of concrete(c) Area of steel required Minimum area of steel required Area of steel provided Hence Safe The design result from Etabs is shown in Table-2 = 0.82N/mm2 = 449mm2/m = 500mm2/m = 2103mm2/m

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Pier Label P1 P1 P1 P1 P2 P2 P2 P2 P3 P3 P3 P3 P4 P4 P4 P4 P5 P5 P5 P5 P6 Edge Bar 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d End Bar 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d End Spacing 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 Required Ratio of Reinforcement 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0026 0.0025 0.0048 0.0037 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0036 0.0045 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0067 0.0038 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.005 0.0037 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 Provided Ratio of Reinforcement 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0137 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0143 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 Shear Reinforcement 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 630.4 624 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 824 844.9 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

Location Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom

24

Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom

16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d

16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0029 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0045 0.0042 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025

0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0145 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0135 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141

500 500 500 507 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 897.4 894 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

25

P12 P12 P12 P12 P13 P13 P13 P13 P14 P14 P14 P14 P15 P16

Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom Top Bottom

16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d

16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d 16d

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0029 0.0063 0.0052 0.0036 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0061 0.0036 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025

0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0136 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0138 0.0138 0.0137 0.0137

500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 671.2 663.1 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

26

Z Y X Fig-7: Finite Element Model of Ramp The ramp is modeled as shown in Fig.7. The ramp is assumed to be supported on wall on the two sides.

Design of Ramp slab

From the analysis, The Maximum Sagging Moment in shorter direction= 70kNm The Maximum Hogging Moment in shorter direction= 40kNm The Maximum Sagging Moment in longer direction = 16kNm The Maximum Hogging Moment in shorter direction= 0kNm Design of Bottom Reinforcement in Shorter Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section Design of Top Reinforcement in Shorter Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Moment Mu b d2 = 250mm = 50mm = 192mm = 40kNm = 1.08 27 = 0.67% = 1152mm2 =1340mm2 = 250mm = 70mm = 172mm = 70kNm = 2.37

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section = 0.3% = 576mm2 =1340mm2

Design of Bottom Reinforcement in Longer Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required (minimum) Area of steel provided in the section |Design of Top Reinforcement in Longer Direction:Depth of slab provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Moment Percentage of steel required Area of steel required (minimum) Area of steel provided in the section

Design of Ramp wall:-

= 0.17% = 325mm2 =753mm2 = 250mm = 70mm = 172mm = 0kNm = 0.13% = 325mm2 =753mm2

Design of Vertical Reinforcement:Thickness of wall provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Moment (from analysis) Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required = 0.5% = 860mm2 28 = 250mm = 70mm = 172mm = 30kNm =1

Area of steel provided in the section Design of Horizontal Reinforcement:Thickness of wall provided Clear cover assumed Effective depth Since there is no horizontal moment We have to provide minimum area of reinforcement Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

= 635mm2 =753mm2

29

The analysis of the beam was done by modeling it as a frame as shown in Fig-8. The moment at the ends of beam is released. The Bending Moment and shear Force Diagrams are shown in Fig-8 (a), Fig-8 (b) respectively.

1750kN(Ultimate)

Hinge

120kN/m (Ultimate)

Hinge

6500

17400

Fig-8: 2D Frame

1150kNm

1150kNm

11732kNm

2200kN 2200kN 250kN 890kN

250kN

Grade of concrete = 60 N/mm2 Grade of steel = 460 N/mm2 Clear cover to reinforcement = 30mm Width of the beam = 600 mm Depth of the beam = 1600 mm

Design for mid-span moment:-

Diameter of bar = 32 mm Effective depth = 1480mm Moment (from analysis) Check for Compression Reinforcement:Mu b d2 = 8.92< 0.15660=9.36 = 11732kNm

Therefore we dont require compression reinforcement We have k lever arm (z) = d x 0.5 + 0.25 0.9 0.148 = 1480 x 0.5 + 0.25 0.9 = 1172.9mm Area Tension steel required =

M 0.95 f y z

11732 10 6 = 0.95 460 1172.9 = 22889mm2 Area of steel provided in the section Hence Safe Minimum Percentage of steel required at support Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section Hence Safe = 0.13% = 1248mm2 =8040mm2(10T32) =24120mm2(30T32)

31

=2.47N/mm2<0.8 Hence safe Shear force at a distanced from the face of support = 1950kN Shear stress = 1950 10 3 600 1480

= 2.19N/mm2

100 As bd

= 0.9%

As v b (v v c ) = Sv 0.95 f y

= 2.5

Spacing of 6 legged T12 stirrup required Spacing of 6 legged T12 stirrup provided Hence safe

= 200mm

We have As h b d Total load (including total live load) Concentrated load Uniformly distributed load Permanent (1ncluding 25% live load only) Concentrated load Uniformly distributed load = 1190kN = 80kN/m = 966kN, 60kN/m = 966kN = 60kN/m 32 =24120mm2 = 1600mm = 600mm = 1480mm

Short term deflection due to total load:-

= 8250kNm = 7340kNm

We have x 1 M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x) 3 3 8250x106 = 24120 x fs x (1480x 1 ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1) 3 3 = = We have From the strain distribution fc =

E x c f s ---------------(3) ( d x) E s

and by equating tension and compression 1 1 bxf c = Asfs+ bfct(h-x)-----------------(4) 2 2 By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method We have x= 658.7mm fc = 33.37N/mm2

fc 1 = rb x E c

= Short term deflection due to creep From Table3.1, BS8110-2:1985, k= 0.083 Deflection =

1 k L2 rb

33

We have x 1 M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x) 3 3 7340x106 = 24120 x fs x (1480x 1 ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1) 3 3 = = We have From the strain distribution fc =

E x c f s ---------------(3) ( d x) E s

and by equating tension and compression 1 1 bxf c = Asfs+ bfct(h-x)-----------------(4) 2 2 By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method We have x= 660.2mm fc = 29.66N/mm2

fc 1 = rb x E c

= Short term deflection due to creep From Table3.1, BS8110-2:1985, k= 0.083 Deflection =

1 k L2 rb

Eeff

= =

= 436.36mm The value of creep coefficient () From Fig-7.1, BS8110-2:1985 for loading at 28 days with indoor exposure condition is approximately 2 Eeff We have x 1 M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x) 3 3 7270x106 = 24120 x fs x (1480x 1 ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1) 3 3 = = We have From the strain distribution fc = E eff x f s ---------------(3) (d x) E s (h x) 0.55 (d x) (1600 x) 0.55 ------ (2) (1480 x) = 32 =10.67N/mm2 (1 + 2)

and by equating tension and compression 1 1 bxf c = Asfs+ bfct(h-x)-----------------(4) 2 2 By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method We have x= 924.4mm fc = 22.63N/mm2 fc 1 = rb x E eff = Long term deflection due to creep =

22.63 = 2.29x10-6/mm 3 924.4 10.67 10

1 k L2 rb

c =

bx 3 x 2 + bx( ) 2 + c As (d x ) I= 12 2

cs

Thus

= 327 x 10-6

1 327 10 6 18.74 13.41 10 6 =2.76 x 10-7/mm = 11 rcs 2.97 10 Long term deflection due to shrinkage = 1 k L2 rb

= 2.76x10-7 x 0.083 x 174002 = 6.93mm Short term deflection due to total loads Short term deflection due to permanent loads Long term deflection (permanent loads) Long term deflection (shrinkage) Total long term deflection Permissible deflection

Hence safe.

36

13. DESIGN OF IN-SITU GROUND FLOOR SLAB (b/w grids 7, 8, E&F) Material constants:-

Thickness of slab Diameter of bar = 16mm Effective depth = 212mm Mid-span Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe.

= 62kNm = 1.37

Support Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe.

Longer span:Thickness of slab Diameter of bar = 16mm Effective depth = 196mm Mid-span Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required = 0.77% = 1509mm2/m 37 = 60kNm = 1.56 = 250mm

Hence Safe.

Support Moment Mu b d2 From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3 Percentage of steel required Area of steel required Area of steel provided in the section

Hence Safe.

Check for Deflection:-

The total short term deflection from analysis The long term deflection from analysis The Total Deflection Permissible deflection

Hence safe

38

The analysis of the roof was done by using modeling it as a frame as shown in Fig-9. The frame is spaced at 4.05m apart.

Loadings:

Dead load Concrete Roof Tile Ceiling and Services Live Load Wind load:Wind pressure From BS 6399 Part 2 External Pressure Coefficient Cp = 1.2 Internal Pressure Coefficient Cp = 0.2 Max Wind Pressure = 1.2 x (1.2+0.2) = 1.68kN/m2

Design of Purlins:

Provide purlins at 1.5m c/c The purlins are designed as a simply supported beam with the following loads. Total Dead Load coming in the Purlin = (0.5+0.8) x 1.5 = 1.95kN/m Live Load Wind Load (As per BS 5950-2000) = 1 x 1.5 = 1.5kN/m = 1.68 x 1.5 =2.52kN/m

39

Total Dead Load coming in the frame = (0.5+0.8) x 4.05 = 5.26kN/m Live Load Wind Load (As per BS 5950-2000) = 1 x 4.05 = 4.05kN/m = 1.68 x 4.05 =6.8kN/m

40

15. REFERENCES:

1. British standards, Structural Use of Concrete- Code of Practice for design and

construction (BS 8110-1:1997)

circumstances (BS 8110-2:1997)

3. British standards, Structural Use of Concrete- Design Charts (BS 8110-3:1997) 4. British standards, Loading for Buildings- (BS 6399-1,2,3:1996) 5. British standards, Structural Use of Steel work- (BS 5950:2000) 6. Universal Building Code -1997 7. A.W. Irvin Design of Shear wall Buildings,CIRIA(Construction Industry Research and Information Association) Report. 8. L.J Morris and D.R Plum Structural Steel work Design to BS 5950 9. Devdas Menon & S Unnikrisna Pillai, Reinforced Concrete Design , Tata Mc Grawhill publishing company Ltd. , Delhi

Publishing Company(P) Ltd,New Delhi

11. Joseph E Bowles, Foundation analysis and Design , Tata Mc-Graw Hill, International edition, New Delhi 1988 12. Geotechnical report

41

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