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MultiStorey Steel Buildings
Part 5: Joint Design
.
MultiStorey Steel Buildings
Part 5: Joint Design
5  ii
Part 5: Joint Design
5  iii
FOREWORD
This publication is part five of a design guide, MultiStorey Steel Buildings.
The 10 parts in the MultiStorey Steel Buildings guide are:
Part 1: Architect’s guide
Part 2: Concept design
Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design
Part 5: Joint design
Part 6: Fire Engineering
Part 7: Model construction specification
Part 8: Description of member resistance calculator
Part 9: Description of simple connection resistance calculator
Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams
MultiStorey Steel Buildings is one of two design guides. The second design guide is
Single Storey Steel Buildings.
The two design guides have been produced in the framework of the European project
“Facilitating the market development for sections in industrial halls and low rise
buildings (SECHALO) RFS2CT20080030”.
The design guides have been prepared under the direction of Arcelor Mittal, Peiner
Träger and Corus. The technical content has been prepared by CTICM and SCI,
collaborating as the Steel Alliance.
Part 5: Joint Design
5  iv
Part 5: Joint Design
5  v
Contents
Page No
FOREWORD III
SUMMARY VII
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 About this design guide 1
1.2 Joint behaviour 1
1.3 Standardised joints 2
1.4 Tying resistance 3
1.5 Design guidance in this publication 3
1.6 Symbols 4
2 PARTIAL DEPTH END PLATE 5
2.1 Recommended details 5
2.2 Checks for vertical shear 6
2.3 Checks for tying 12
2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 14
3 FIN PLATE 21
3.1 Recommended details 21
3.2 Checks for vertical shear 22
3.3 Checks for tying 33
3.4 Worked Example: Fin Plate 38
4 DOUBLE ANGLE WEB CLEATS 51
4.1 Recommended details 51
4.2 Checks for vertical shear 52
4.3 Checks for tying 63
4.4 Worked Example: Angle Web Cleats 68
5 COLUMN SPLICES (BEARING TYPE) 83
5.1 Recommended details 83
5.2 Checks for tension 86
5.3 Check for horizontal shear 91
5.4 Checks for vertical tying 91
5.5 Worked Example – Column Splice 93
6 COLUMN BASES 101
6.1 Base plate size 101
6.2 Calculation of c 102
6.3 Base plate thickness 103
6.4 Base plate welds 104
6.5 Worked Example – Column base 105
APPENDIX A LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING STRENGTH 108
REFERENCES 109
Part 5: Joint Design
5  vi
Part 5: Joint Design
5  vii
SUMMARY
This design guide gives the design procedure for simple joints in multistorey buildings
according to the Eurocodes.
The guide covers different types of joints:
 Beamtobeam and beamtocolumn joints
÷ Partial depth flexible end plate
÷ Fin plate
÷ Double angle web cleats
 Column splices
 Column bases
Each design procedure is illustrated by a worked example, using the recommended
values given in the Eurocodes.
Part 5: Joint Design
5  viii
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 1
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 About this design guide
This technical guide is for designing simple joints (nominally pinned) for use
in braced multistorey buildings, designed according to the Eurocodes.
Design procedures are provided for:
 Beamtobeam and beamtocolumn joints
÷ Partial depth flexible end plates (also known as header plates)
÷ Fin plates
÷ Double angle web cleats
 Column splices
 Column bases
The design procedures start with recommended detailing rules (joint geometry)
required to ensure ductile behaviour, followed by the checks for each stage of
the load transition through the complete joint including welds, plates, bolts and
the section webs or flanges as appropriate.
Whilst the Eurocodes establish a common framework for structural
calculations across Europe, structural safety remains each country’s
responsibility. For this reason there are some parameters, called National
Determined Parameters (NDP), which each country can decide upon. These are
given in the National Annex (NA) documents, which complement the core
Eurocodes. However the Eurocode gives some recommendations as to what
value each NDP should take. In designing the structure the NDP should be
taken from the NA from the country where the structure is to be built.
In this publication the recommended values given in the Eurocode have been
adopted in the worked examples.
This publication is complemented by a spreadsheet design tool which allows
for NDP for a range of countries. The spreadsheet covers all the joint types
included in this publication and can be used in various languages.
1.2 Joint behaviour
Normal practice in simple construction is for beams to be designed as simply
supported and for columns to be designed for both the axial compression and,
where appropriate, a nominal moment from the beam end connections. In order
to ensure that the structure behaves appropriately it is necessary to provide
‘simple’ connections (‘nominally pinned’ joints) as defined in EN 199318,
§ 5.1.1
[1]
, in which the joint may be assumed not to transfer bending moments.
In other words, the joints possess sufficient rotation capacity and sufficient
ductility.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 2
Nominally pinned joints have the following characteristics:
1. they are assumed to transfer only the design shear reaction between
members
2. they are capable of accepting the resulting rotation
3. they provide the directional restraint to members which has been assumed
in the member design
4. they have sufficient robustness to satisfy the structural integrity
requirements.
EN 199318
[1]
provides two methods to classify joints: stiffness and strength.
 Classification by stiffness: the initial rotational stiffness of the joint,
calculated in accordance with Section 6.3.1 of EN 199318 is compared
with the classification boundaries given in Section 5.2 of the same
document.
 Classification by strength: the following two requirements must be satisfied
in order to classify a joint as pinned:
÷ the moment resistance of the joint does not exceed 25% of the moment
resistance required for a fullstrength joint
÷ the joint is capable of accepting the rotation resulting from the design
loads.
Alternatively, joints may also be classified based on experimental evidence,
experience of previous satisfactory performance in similar cases or by
calculations based on test evidence.
Generally, the requirements for nominally pinned behaviour are met by the use
of relatively thin plates, combined with full strength welds. Experience and
testing have demonstrated that the use of 8 mm or 10 mm end plates, fin plates
and angles in S275, with M20 8.8 bolts leads to connections which behave as
nominal pins. If details are chosen outside these recommended parameters, the
connection should be classified in accordance with EN 199318.
1.3 Standardised joints
In a typical braced multistorey frame, the joints may account for less than 5%
of the frame weight, but 30% or more of the total cost. Efficient joints will
therefore have the lowest detailing, fabrication and erection labour content –
they will not necessarily be the lightest.
Use of standardised joints where the fittings, bolts, welds and geometry are
fully defined offers the following benefits:
 Reduces buying, storage, and handling time
 Improves availability and leads to a reduction in material costs
 Saves fabrication time and leads to faster erection
 Leads to a better understanding of their performance by all sides of the
industry
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 3
 Leads to fewer errors.
To take advantage of these benefits, standardised joints are recommended in
this publication. A summary of the typical components adopted in this guide is
as follows:
 Material of grade S275 for components such as end plates and cleats
 M20 8.8 fully threaded bolts, 60 mm long
 22 mm holes, punched or drilled
 Fillet welds of 6 mm or 8 mm leg length
 Distance from the top of the beam to the first bolt row of 90 mm
 Vertical bolt spacing (pitch) of 70 mm
 Horizontal bolt spacing (gauge) of 90 or 140 mm
 Top of partial depth end plate, cleat or fin plate is 50 mm below the top of
the beam flange.
1.4 Tying resistance
The requirement for sufficient tying resistance is to safeguard the structure
against disproportionate collapse. Guidance on the design tying force that a
connection must carry is given in EN 199117 Annex A
[2]
.
EN 199318 does not give any guidance on how to calculate the tying
resistance of joints. Other authoritative sources
[3]
recommend that the ultimate
tensile strength (f
u
) should be used for calculating the tying resistance and the
partial factor for tying ¸
Mu
should be taken as 1,10. This value applies to the
design resistance of all components of the joint: welds, bolts, plate and beam.
1.5 Design guidance in this publication
In this publication, design checks are presented followed in each case by a
numerical worked example. The guidance covers:
 partial depth flexible end plates
 fin plates
 double angle web cleats
 column splices
 column bases.
In all worked examples, the section headings correspond to the headings in the
design procedure preceeding each workded example.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 4
1.6 Symbols
a is the throat of the fillet weld
b is the breadth of the supported beam
d is the diameter of the bolt
d
0
is the diameter of the hole
f
y,b
is the yield strength of the supported beam
f
u,b
is the ultimate tensile strength of the supported beam
f
y,p
is the yield strength of the plate (end plate, fin plate, flange cover plate,
base plate)
f
u,p
is the ultimate tensile strength of the plate (end plate, fin plate, flange
cover plate, base plate)
f
y,ac
is the yield strength of the angle cleats
f
u,ac
is the ultimate tensile strength of the angle cleats
f
ub
is the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt
h
b
is the height of the supported beam
h
p
is the height of the plate (end plate, fin plate, flange cover plate)
h
ac
is the height of the angle cleats
n
b
is the total number of bolts on supported beam side
n
s
is the total number of bolts on supporting beam side
n
1
is the number of horizontal bolt rows
n
2
is the number of vertical bolt rows
t
f
is the flange thickness of the supported beam
t
w
is the thickness of the supported beam web
t
p
is the thickness of the plate (End plate, Fin plate, Flange cover plate,
Base plate)
t
ac
is the thickness of the angle cleats
s is the leg length of the fillet weld
¸
M0
is the partial factor for the resistance of cross section (¸
M0
= 1,0 is
recommended in EN 199311)
¸
M1
is the partial factor for the resistance of members to instability assessed
by member checks (¸
M1
= 1,0 is recommended in EN 199311)
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 5
2 PARTIAL DEPTH END PLATE
2.1 Recommended details
h
h
3
p
b
p
1
5
4
2
3
6
11
8
7
10
12
9
1 Length of end plate h
p
> 0,6h
b
(see Note 1)
2 Face of beam or column
3 Plate thickness, t
p
t
p
= 10 mm or 12 mm (see note 2)
4 Bolt diameter, d
5 Hole diameter, d
0
d
0
= d + 2 mm for d s 24 mm
d
0
= d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm
6 Gauge; p
3
, 90 mm s p
3
s 140 mm
7 10 mm clearance
8 50 mm but > (t
f,s
+ r
s
) and > (t
f
+ r)
9 Supported beam (single notched)
10 (h
b,s
– 50 mm) but > (h
b
– t
f
– r)
11 Supported beam (double notched)
12 Supporting beam
h
b
is the height of the supported beam
h
b,s
is the height of the supporting beam (if applicable)
t
f
is the thickness of the flange of the supported beam
t
f,s
is the thickness of the flange of the supporting beam (if applicable)
r
is the root radius of the supported beam
r
s
is the root radius of the supporting beam (if applicable)
Notes:
1. The end plate is generally positioned close to the top flange of the beam to
provide adequate positional restraint. A plate length of at least 0,6h
b
is
usually adopted to give nominal torsional restraint.
2. Although it may be possible to satisfy the design requirements with
t
p
< 8 mm, it is not recommended in practice because of the likelihood of
distortion during fabrication and damage during transportation.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 6
2.2 Checks for vertical shear
2.2.1 Shear resistance of the beam web
h h h
Ed Ed Ed
p p p
V V V
1
1 Critical length of web for shear
Shear resistance of the beam web at the end plate
Basic requirement:
Rd c, Ed
V V s
V
c,Rd
is the design shear resistance of the supported beam connected to the
end plate.
V
c,Rd
= V
pl,Rd
=
M0
b y, v
3 /
¸
f A
[EN 199311, §6.2.6(1)]
where:
A
v
is the shear area, A
v
= h
p
t
w
[Reference 8]
2.2.2 Bending resistance at the notch
h
p p
d d
d
Ed Ed
n
t
nt nt
n
t
nb
l l
V V
b
1 1
1 Critical section
V
Ed
× (t
p
+ l
n
) s M
v,N,Rd
or M
v,DN,Rd
M
v,N,Rd
isthe moment resistance of a single notched supported beam at the
notch in the presence of shear.
M
v,DN,Rd
is the moment resistance of a double notched supported beam at the
notch in the presence of shear.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 7
2.2.2.1 For a single notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=
M0
y N, el, b y,
¸
W f
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=
M0
y N, el, b y,
¸
W f


.

\

÷ ÷
2
Rd N, pl,
Ed
1
2
1
V
V
[Reference 4]
2.2.2.2 For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
=
2
nb nt b
M0
w b y,
) (
6
d d h
t f
÷ ÷
¸
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
= ( )


.

\

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2
Rd DN, pl,
Ed
2
nb nt b
M0
w b y,
1
2
1
6 V
V
d d h
t f
¸
[Reference 4]
V
pl,N,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams
V
pl,N,Rd
=
M0
b y, N v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,N
= A
Tee
– bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)
2
f
t
A
Tee
is the area of the Tee section
V
pl,DN,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams
V
pl,DN,Rd
=
M0
b y, DN v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,DN
= t
w
(h
b
– d
nt
– d
nb
)
where:
W
el,N,y
is the elastic modulus of the section at the notch
d
nt
is the depth of the top notch
d
nb
is the depth of the bottom notch
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 8
2.2.3 Local stability of notched beam
h h
d d
d
nt
n
n n
nt
l l
l
nb
b b
When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling, no account
needs be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met:
For one flange notched, basic requirement:
[5][6]
d
nt
s h
b
/ 2 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
For both flanges notched, basic requirement:
[7]
max (d
nt
, d
nb
) s h
b
/ 5 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
Where the notch length l
n
exceeds these limits, either suitable stiffening should
be provided or the notch should be checked to References 5, 6 and 7.
For S235 and S460 members see References 5, 6 and 7.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 9
2.2.4 Bolt group resistance
e e
1 1
2
2
1
1
1 Check these bolts in shear under concentric load
2 Supporting beam
3 Supporting column
Basic requirement: V
Ed
s F
Rd
F
Rd
is the resistance of the bolt group [EN 199318 ,§3.7(1)]
If (F
b,Rd
)
max
s F
v,Rd
then F
Rd
= ¯F
b,Rd
If (F
b,Rd
)
min
s F
v,Rd
s (F
b,Rd
)
max
then F
Rd
= n
s
(F
b,Rd
)
min
If F
v,Rd
< (F
b,Rd
)
min
then F
Rd
= 0,8n
s
F
v,Rd
2.2.4.1 Shear resistance of bolts
F
v,Rd
is the shear resistance of one bolt
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
[EN 199318, Table 3.4]
where:
o
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
¸
M2
is the partial factor for resistance of bolts
2.2.4.2 Bearing resistance
F
b,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
[EN 199318 Table 3.4]
where:
¸
M2
is the partial factor for plate in bearing
÷ For end bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer)
o
b
= min


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 10
÷ For inner bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer)
o
b
= min


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
÷ For edge bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer)
k
1
= min


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
2
d
e
÷ For inner bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer)
k
1
= min


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1
0
2
d
p
2.2.5 Shear resistance of the end plate
e
e e
1
1 1
2
e e
2 2
Ed
2
Ed
2
Ed
2
Ed
V V V V
n
1
1 2
1 Critical section in shear and bearing
2 Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion
Basic requirement: V
Ed
s V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
where:
V
Rd,g
is the shear resistance of the gross section
V
Rd,n
is the shear resistance of the net section
V
Rd,b
is the block tearing resistance
2.2.5.1 Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
p y, p p
3
27 , 1
2
¸
f t h
× [Reference 8]
Note: The coefficient 1,27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance
due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in
the bolts
[9]
.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 11
2.2.5.2 Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
p u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A × [Reference 8]
A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 p p
d n h t ÷
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections
2.2.5.3 Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv p y,
M2
nt p u,
3
2
¸
¸
A f A f
[Reference 8]
But if h
p
< 1.36p
3
and n
1
> 1 then:
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv p y,
M2
nt p u,
3
5 , 0
2
¸
¸
A f A f
A
nt
= ( )
0 2 p
5 , 0 d e t ÷
A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 p p
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
where:
p
3
is the gauge (cross centres)
2.2.6 Weld resistance
Full strength symmetrical fillet welds are recommended.
For a full strength weld, the size of each throat should comply with the
following requirement
[8]
:
a ≥ 0,46 t
w
for S235 supported beam
a ≥ 0,48 t
w
for S275 supported beam
a ≥ 0,55 t
w
for S355 supported beam
a ≥ 0,74 t
w
for S460 supported beam
where:
a is the effective weld throat thickness
The leg length is defined as follows: 2 a s =
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 12
2.3 Checks for tying
EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks. In
this publication ¸
Mu
has been used. A value of ¸
Mu
= 1,1 is recommended.
2.3.1 Resistance of the end plate in bending
1
1
1
1
1
m
p
3
e
p
p
p
e
F
Ed
n
1
There are three modes of failure for end plates in bending:
Mode 1: complete yielding of the flange
Mode 2: bolt failure with yielding of the flange
Mode 3: bolt failure
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ min(F
Rd,u,1
; F
Rd,u,2
; F
Rd,u,3
)
Mode 1 (complete yielding of the end plate)
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) n m e mn
M e n
+ ÷
÷
w
u Rd, pl,1, w
2
2 8
[EN 199318, Table 6.2]
Mode 2 (bolt failure with yielding of the end plate)
F
Rd,u,2
=
n m
F n M
+
+
u Rd, t, u Rd, pl,2,
Σ 2
[EN 199318, Table 6.2]
Mode 3 (bolt failure)
F
Rd,u,3
=
u Rd, t,
ΣF [EN 199318, Table 6.2]
F
t,Rd,u
=
Mu
ub 2
γ
A f k
where:
M
pl,1,Rd,u
=
Mu
p u,
2
p eff
Σ 25 , 0
γ
f t l
M
pl,2,Rd,u
= M
pl,1,Rd,u
m =
2
2 8 , 0 2
w 3
a t p × × ÷ ÷
n = e
min
but n ≤ 1,25m where e
min
= e
2
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 13
e
w
=
4
w
d
d
w
is the diameter of the washer
k
2
= 0,63 for countersunk bolts
= 0,9 otherwise
A
is the tensile stress area of the bolts, A
s
Σl
eff
is the effective length of one plastic hinge
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ +
e
1A
= e
1
but ≤ ( )
2
2 2 5 , 0
0
w 3
d
a t p + ÷ ÷
p
1A
= p
1
but ≤
0 w 3
2 2 d a t p + ÷ ÷
The leg length is defined as follows: 2 a s =
2.3.2 Beam web resistance
p
F h
Ed
Basic requirement: F
Ed
s F
Rd
F
Rd
=
Mu
b u, p w
¸
f h t
[Reference 8]
2.3.3 Weld resistance
The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance, as it is
full strength.
5 – 14
2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate
1 of 7
Made by CZT Date 06/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by ENM Date 07/2009
2. Partial depth end plate
Details and data
140
70
70
70
70
70
40
40
550 kN
275 kN
IPE A 550
S275
8
Beam: IPE A 550 S275
Partial depth flexible end plate: 430 × 200 × 12, S275
Bolts: M20 8.8
Welds: 8 mm fillet (weld throat, a = 5,6 mm)
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 2 of 7
5 – 15
Summary of full design checks
Design forces
V
Ed
= 550 kN
F
Ed
= 275 kN (Tie force)
Shear resistances
Shear resistance of the beam web 614 kN
Bending resistance at the notch N/A
Local stability of notched beam N/A
Bolt group resistance 902 kN
Resistance of the end plate 1182 kN
Weld resistance OK
Tying resistances
Resistance of the end plate in bending 493 kN
Tension resistance of the beam web 1513 kN
Weld resistance OK
2.1. Recommended details
End plate: 200×12 mm
Height of plate: h
p
= 430 mm > 0,6h
b
, OK
Bolts: M20, 8.8 at 140 mm gauge
2.2. Checks for vertical shear
2.2.1. Shear resistance of the beam web
= 430
550 kN
p
h
Unless noted
otherwise, all
references are to
EN 199318
Basic requirement:
Rd c, Ed
V V s
The shear resistance of the beam web, V
c,Rd
=
M0
b y, v
3 /
¸
f A
EN 199311
§ 6.2.6(1)
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 3 of 7
5 – 16
Shear area of beam web,
A
v
= 9 430 × = 3870 mm
2
Shear resistance of beam web,
V
pl,Rd
=
3
10
0 , 1
3 / 275 3870
÷
×
×
= 614 kN
V
Ed
= 550 kN s 614 kN, OK
2.2.2. Bending resistance at the notch
Not applicable (No notch)
2.2.3. Local stability of notched beam
Not applicable (No notch)
2.2.4. Bolt group resistance
2
1
1
550 kN
e
e
p
= 40
= 70
= 30
IPE A 550
Basic requirement:
Rd Ed
F V s
The design resistance of the bolt group,
Rd
F :
if ( )
Rd v,
max
Rd b,
F F s then
Rd b, Rd
ΣF F =
§ 3.7
if
max Rd b, Rd v, min Rd b,
) ( ) ( F F F < s then
min Rd b, s Rd
) ( F n F =
if ( )
min
Rd b, Rd v,
F F < then
Rd v, s Rd
8 , 0 F n F =
2.2.4.1. Shear resistance of bolts
The shear resistance of a single bolt, F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
Table 3.4
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 94 kN
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 4 of 7
5 – 17
2.2.4.2. Bearing resistance
Bearing resistance,
M2
p
p u, b 1
Rd b,
¸
o dt f k
F =
Table 3.4
For edge bolts, k
1
= 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2


.

\

÷
d
e

.

\

÷ × = 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
30
8 , 2 min ( ) 12 , 2 5 , 2 ; 12 , 2 min = =
For end bolts, α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 . 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min( = 0,61
For inner bolts, α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
=

.

\

÷
×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
70
min
= ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 81 , 0 min( = 0,81
End bolts, ( )
3
min
Rd b, end Rd, b,
10
25 , 1
12 20 430 61 , 0 12 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= = F F 107 = kN
Inner bolts, ( )
3
max
Rd b, inner Rd, b,
10
25 , 1
12 20 430 81 , 0 12 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= = F F 142 = kN
94 kN < 107 kN thus F
v,Rd
< (F
b,Rd
)
min
902 94 12 8 , 0 ) ( 8 , 0
min Rd v, s Rd
= × × = = F n F kN
Ed
V
= 550 kN ≤ 902 kN, OK
2.2.5. Shear resistance of the end plate
Basic requirement:
min Rd, Ed
V V s
V
Rd,min
= (V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
1
1
2 2
Ed
Ed Ed
p
h
V V
V
e
e
e
= 40
= 40
= 30
2
n  1) ( p
1
= 350
= 550 kN
1
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 5 of 7
5 – 18
2.2.5.1. Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
p y, p p
3 27 , 1
2
¸
f t h
=
3
10
0 , 1 3 27 , 1
275 12 430 2
÷
×
× ×
× × ×
= 1290 kN
Ref (8)
2.2.5.2. Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
p u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A ×
Ref (8)
Net area, A
v,net
= ( ) 22 6 430 12 × ÷ = 3576 mm
2
V
Rd,n
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
3576 2
÷
×
×
× × = 1420 kN
2.2.5.3. Block tearing resistance
h
p
= 430 and 190 140 36 , 1 36 , 1
3
= × = p mm
Since h
p
> 1,36p
3
then
Ref (8)
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+ ×
M0
nv p y,
M2
nt p u,
3
2
¸
¸
A f A f
Net area subject to tension, ( )
0 2 p nt
5 , 0 d e t A ÷ =
( ) 228 22 5 , 0 30 12 = × ÷ = mm
2
Net area subject to shear, ( )
0 1 1 p p nv
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t A ÷ ÷ ÷ =
( ) 3228 22 ) 5 , 0 6 ( 40 430 12 = ÷ ÷ ÷ = mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
3228 275
25 , 1
228 430
2
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
× = 1182 kN
V
Rd,min
= min(1290; 1420; 1182) = 1182 kN
V
Ed
= 550 kN ≤ 1182 kN, OK
2.2.6. Weld resistance
For a beam in S275 steel
Basic requirement: a ≥ 0,48 t
w
Ref (8)
0,48t
p
= 9 48 , 0 × = 4,32 mm
a = 5,7 mm ≥ 0,48 t
w
OK
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 6 of 7
5 – 19
2.3. Checks for tying
2.3.1. Resistance of the end plate in bending
Basic requirement: ( )
u,3 Rd, u,2 Rd, u,1 Rd, Ed
, , min F F F F s
2
3
m
1
p = 140
n
e = 30
275 kN
Mode 1:
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) n m e mn
M e n
+ ÷
÷
w
u Rd, pl,1, w
2
2 8
Table 6.2
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ +
e
1A
= e
1
but ≤
2
) 2 2 ( 5 , 0
0
w 3
d
a t p + ÷ ÷
2
22
) 2 6 , 5 2 9 140 ( 5 , 0 + × ÷ ÷ = 69 mm
e
1A
= 40
p
1A
= p
1
but ≤
0 w 3
2 2 d a t p + ÷ ÷
0 w 3
2 2 d a t p + ÷ ÷ = 22 2 6 , 5 2 9 140 + × ÷ ÷ = 137 mm
p
1A
= 70
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ + = 70 ) 1 6 ( 40 2 ÷ + × = 430 mm
M
pl,1,Rd,u
=
Mu
p u,
2
p eff,1
Σ 25 , 0
¸
f t l
=
6
2
10
1 , 1
430 12 430 25 , 0
÷
×
× × ×
= 6,05 kNm
m =
2
2 8 , 0 2
w 3
a t p × × ÷ ÷
=
2
2 6 , 5 8 , 0 2 9 140 × × × ÷ ÷
= 59 mm
e
w
25 , 9
4
37
4
w
= = =
d
mm
n = ( ) m e 25 , 1 ; min
2
= ( ) 76 ; 30 min = 30 mm
Title 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 7 of 7
5 – 20
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) 30 59 25 , 9 30 59 2
10 05 , 6 25 , 9 2 30 8
3
+ ÷ × ×
× × ÷ ×
= 493 kN
Mode 2:
F
Rd,u,2
=
n m
F n M
+
+
u Rd, t, u Rd, pl,2,
Σ 2
Table 6.2
05 , 6
u Rd, pl,1, u Rd, pl,2,
= = M M kNm
F
t,Rd,u
=
Mu
ub 2
¸
A f k
=
3
10
1 , 1
245 800 9 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 160 kN
F
Rd,u,2
=
30 59
160 12 30 10 05 , 6 2
3
+
× × + × ×
= 793 kN
Mode 3:
F
Rd,u,3
=
u Rd, t,
ΣF = 160 12× = 1920 kN
Table 6.2
( )
u,3 Rd, u,2 Rd, u,1 Rd,
, , min F F F = min( 493; 793; 1920) = 493 kN
F
Ed
= 275 kN ≤ 493 kN, OK
2.3.2. Beam web resistance
Basic requirement:
Rd Ed
F F s
h
p
1
n
275 kN
F
Rd
=
Mu
b u, p w
¸
f h t
=
3
10
1 , 1
430 430 9
÷
×
× ×
= 1513 kN
Ref (8)
F
Ed
= 275 kN ≤ 1513 kN, OK
2.3.3. Weld resistance
The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance, as it is
full strength.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 21
3 FIN PLATE
3.1 Recommended details
Min. 2,5
p
p
p
z
do
h
h
h
z
b
1
2
3
4
5
1
7
8
9
10
6
13
16
14
15
13
12
11
3
1
1 End projection g
h
3 All end and edge distances > 2d
4 Length of fin plate h
p
> 0,6 h
b
5 Bolt diameter, d. Only 8.8 bolts to be used, untorqued in clearance holes
6 Hole diameter, d
0
. d
0
= d + 2 mm for d s 24 mm; d
0
= d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm
7 Supporting column
8 Face of web
9 Long fin plate if z >
15 , 0
p
t
t
p
= fin plate thickness
10 Fin plate thickness t
p
s 0,5d
11 Double line of bolts
12 All end and edge distances > 2d
13 Supported beam (Single notched)
14 Supporting beam
15 50 mm but > (t
f
+ r) and > (t
f,s
+ r
s
)
16 (h
b,s
– 50 mm) but s (h
s
– t
f,s
– r
s
)
17 Supported beam (Double notched)
h
b
is the height of the supported beam
h
b,s
is the height of the supporting beam (if applicable)
t
f
is the thickness of the flange of the supported beam
t
f,s
is the thickness of the flange of the supporting beam (if applicable)
r
is the root radius of the supported beam
r
s
is the root radius of the supporting beam (if applicable)
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 22
3.2 Checks for vertical shear
3.2.1 Bolt group resistance
3.2.1.1 Shear resistance of bolts
VEd
p
p
p
1
1
1
1
VEd
VEd
2
1
1
1
p
z z z
p
p
p
n
2 2 2
1
1 Centre of bolt group
2 Assumed line of shear transfer
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
b
2
b
Rd v, b
) ( ) (1 n n
F n
 o + +
[Reference 3]
F
v,Rd
is the shear resistance of one bolt
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
where:
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
¸
M2
is the partial factor for resistance of bolts
For a single vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 1)
α = 0 and β =
( )
1 1 1
1
6
p n n
z
+
For a double vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 2)
α =
I
zp
2
2
and β = ( ) 1
2
1
1
÷ n
I
zp
I = ( )
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
6
1
2
p n n p
n
÷ +
z is the transverse distance from the face of the supporting element to the
centre of the bolt group
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 23
3.2.1.2 Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\

+
F
n
F
n
n
 o
[Reference 3]
The bearing resistance of a single bolt is F
b,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt on the fin plate is as follows:
F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt on the fin plate is as follows:
F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
α and β are as defined previously
For F
b,ver,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
0
2
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
0
1
f
f
d
p
d
e
For F
b,hor,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
3.2.1.3 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\
 +
F
n
F
n
n
 o
[Reference 3]
F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 24
α and β are as defined previously
¸
M2
is the partial factor for beam web in bearing
For F
b,ver,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 . 1 ; 7 , 1 8 . 2 min
0
2
0
b 2,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
1
0
b 1,
f
f
d
p
d
e
For F
b,hor,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
3.2.2 Shear resistance of the fin plate
e
e
1
1
1
1
2
2
e
e
V
Ed
V
Ed
2
p
h
p
h
p
2
1
e
e
1 Critical section in shear and bending
2 Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
3.2.2.1 Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
p y, p p
3
27 , 1
¸
f t h
[Reference 8]
Note: The coefficient 1,27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance
due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in
the bolts
9
.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 25
3.2.2.2 Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
p u,
net v,
3¸
f
A [Reference 8]
A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 p p
d n h t ÷
3.2.2.3 Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=
M0
nv p y,
M2
nt p u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
+ [Reference 8]
where:
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nt
= ( )
0 2 p
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nt
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 p
2
3
d p e t
A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 p p
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections
3.2.3 Bending resistance of the fin plate
h
p
Ed Ed Ed z z z
z
V V V
p
Basic requirement: V
Ed
s V
Rd
If h
p
≥ 2,73 × z then V
Rd
= · [Reference 8]
Otherwise V
Rd
=
M0
p y, p el,
¸
f
z
W
where:
W
el,p
=
6
2
p p
h t
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 26
3.2.4 Buckling resistance of the fin plate
Lateraltorsional buckling of the fin plate
8
.
Basic requirement: V
Ed
s V
Rd
If z >
15 , 0
p
t
then V
Rd
=


.

\

M0
p y, p el,
M1
LT p, p el,
;
6 , 0
min
¸ ¸
f
z
W f
z
W
Otherwise V
Rd
=
M0
p y, p el,
¸
f
z
W
where:
W
el,p
=
6
2
p p
h t
f
p,LT
is the lateral torsional buckling strength of the plate obtained from
BS 59501 Table 17
[10]
(See Appendix A) and based on λ
LT
as follows:
λ
LT
=
2 / 1
2
p
p p
5 , 1
8 , 2


.

\

t
h z
z is the lever arm
z
p
is the horizontal distance from the supporting web or flange to the first
vertical boltrow
3.2.5 Shear resistance of the beam web
3.2.5.1 Shear and block tearing resistance
e
e e
e
e
e
g
h
g
h
2,b 2,b 2,b
1,b 1,b
e
h
e
h
Ed Ed Ed
h
e
1,b
V V V
g
h
n
1
3
2 2
3
4
1
1 Critical section in plain shear
2 Shear failure
3 Tension failure
4 Block shear failure tearing out of shaded portion
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 27
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
b y,
wb v,
3¸
f
A [Reference 8]
where:
A
v,wb
= A – 2bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
but ≥ η h
w
t
w
for unnotched beam
A
v,wb
= A
Tee
– bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
/2 for single notched beam
A
v,wb
= t
w
(e
1,b
+ (n
1
–1)p
1
+ h
e
) for double notched beam
η is a factor from EN 199315 (it may be conservatively taken as 1,0.
National Annex may give an alternative value)
A
Tee
is the area of the Tee section
d
nt
is the depth of the top notch
d
nb
is the depth of the bottom notch
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
b u,
net wb, v,
3¸
f
A [Reference 8]
where:
A
v,wb,net
= A
v,wb
– n
1
d
0
t
w
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
M2
nt b u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
+ [Reference 8]
where:
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nt
= ( )
0 b 2, w
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nt
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 b 2, w
2
3
d p e t
For a notched beam A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 1 b 1, w
) 5 , 0 ( ) 1 ( d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
For an unnotched beam A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 1 b 1, w
) 1 ( ) 1 ( d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 28
3.2.5.2 Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts, if the notch
length l
n
> (e
2,b
+ p
2
)
e
e
g
h
2
p
p
p
1
1
1
h
e
V
Ed
p
p
p
1
1
1
h
e
g
h
2
V
Ed
p
2,b
2,b
n
e
p
n
e
l l
1,b 1,b
n
1
1
1 Critical section in plain shear
Basic requirement: V
Ed
(g
h
+ e
2,b
+ p
2
) s M
c,Rd
M
c,Rd
is the moment resistance of the notched beam at the connection in the
presence of shear.
For single notched beam
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
=
M0
N el, b y,
¸
W f
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
=


.

\

÷ ÷
2
Rd N, pl,
Ed
M0
N el, b y,
1
2
1
V
V
W f
¸
[Reference 4]
V
pl,N,Rd
= min(V
Rd,g
;V
Rd,b
)
W
el,N
is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
For double notched beam
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
= ( ) ( )
2
e 1 1 1
M0
w b y,
1
6
h p n e
t f
+ ÷ +
¸
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
= ( )  


.

\

÷ ÷ + ÷ +
2
Rd DN, pl,
Ed
2
e 1 1 1
M0
w b y,
1
2
1 1
6 V
V
h p n e
t f
¸
[Reference 4]
V
pl,DN,Rd
= min(V
Rd,g
;V
Rd,b
)
h
e
is the distance between the bottom bolt row and the bottom of the section
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 29
3.2.5.3 Shear and bending interaction for unnotched beam
B B
C C D D
A A
e
e
1
V
Ed
2
V
Ed
p
2,b
2,b p
2
z z
Ed
z ( 1)
1
n ( + ) z p V V
Ed
p
p p
p
z =
z
For short fin plates (i.e. z ≤ t
p
/0,15) the resistance of the web does not need to
be checked
[4]
.
For long fin plates (i.e. z > t
p
/0,15) it is necessary to ensure that the section
labelled as ABCD in the figure can resist a moment V
Ed
z
p
for a single line of
bolts or V
Ed
(z
p
+p
2
) for a double line of bolts (AB and CD are in shear and BC is
in bending).
Basic requirement:
For a single vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 1)
V
Ed
z
p
s M
c,BC,Rd
+ F
pl,AB,Rd
(n
1
– 1) p
1
[Reference 4]
For two vertical lines of bolts (n
2
= 2)
V
Ed
(z
p
+ p
2
/2) s M
c,BC,Rd
+ F
pl,AB,Rd
(n
1
– 1)p
1
[Reference 4]
M
c,BC,Rd
is the moment resistance of the beam web BC
For low shear (i.e. V
BC,Ed
≤ 0,5F
pl,BC,Rd
)
M
c,BC,Rd
= ( )  
2
1 1
M0
w b y,
1
6
p n
t f
÷
¸
For high shear (i.e. V
BC,Ed
> 0,5F
pl,BC,Rd
)
M
c,BC,Rd
= ( )  
2
1 1
M0
w b y,
1
4
p n
t f
÷
¸


.

\

÷ ÷
2
min Rd,
Ed
1
2
1
V
V
F
pl,AB,Rd
is the shear resistance of the beam web AB
F
pl,BC,Rd
is the shear resistance of the beam web BC
where:
For a single vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 1):
F
pl,AB,Rd
=
( )


.

\
 ÷
M2
b u, w 0 b 2,
M0
b y, w b 2,
3
2
;
3
min
¸ ¸
f t d e f t e
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 30
F
pl,BC,Rd
=
( )
\
 ÷
;
3
1
min
M0
b y, w 1 1
¸
f t p n
( ) ( )  


.
 ÷ ÷ ÷
M2
b u, w 0 1 1 1
3
1 1
¸
f t d n p n
For two vertical lines of bolts (n
2
= 2):
F
pl,AB,Rd
=
( )
\
 +
;
3
min
M0
b y, w 2 b 2,
¸
f t p e ( )


.
 ÷ +
M2
b u, w 0 2 b 2,
3
2 3
¸
f t d p e
F
pl,BC,Rd
=
( )
\
 ÷
;
3
1
min
M0
b y, w 1 1
¸
f t p n ( ) ( )  


.
 ÷ ÷ ÷
M2
b u, w 0 1 1 1
3
1 1
¸
f t d n p n
V
BC,Ed
is the shear force on the beam web BC
= V
Ed
– (V
Rd,min
– F
pl,BC,Rd
) but ≥ 0
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
)
z is the transverse distance from face of supporting element to the centre
of bolt group.
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
3.2.6 Bending resistance at the notch
N N
x x
g
h n
h
e
VEd VEd
h
e
g
h n
g
h n
h
e
V
Ed
g
h n
h
e
V
Ed
e e e e
l l l l
1,b 1,b 1,b 1,b
n
1
1
2
2
1 Critical sections
2 To notch or beam flange
3.2.6.1 For single bolt line or for double bolt lines, if x
N
≥ 2d:
V
Ed
(g
h
+ l
n
) s M
v,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
M
v,N,Rd
is the moment resistance of the beam at the notch in the presence of
shear
For single notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=
M0
N el, b y,
¸
W f
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 31
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=


.

\

÷ ÷
2
Rd N, pl,
Ed
M0
N el, b y,
1
2
1
V
V
W f
¸
For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
= ( )
2
e 1 1 b 1,
M0
w b y,
) 1 (
6
h p n e
t f
+ ÷ +
¸
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
= ( ) ( )


.

\

÷ ÷ + ÷ +
2
Rd DN, pl,
Ed
2
e 1 1 b 1,
M0
w b y,
1
2
1 1
4 V
V
h p n e
t f
¸
3.2.6.2 For double bolt lines, if x
N
< 2d:
max (V
Ed
(g
h
+ l
n
); V
Ed
(g
h
+ e
2,b
+ p
2
)) ≤ M
v,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
M
v,N,Rd
= M
c,Rd
from the previous check
where:
W
el,N
is the elastic section modulus of the gross tee section at the notch
V
pl,N,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams
=
M0
b y, N v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,N
= A
Tee
– bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)
2
f
t
V
pl,DN,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams
=
M0
b y, DN v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,DN
= t
w
(e
1,b
+ (n
1
–1) p
1
+ h
e
)
h
e
is the distance between the bottom bolt row and the bottom of the
section
A
Tee
is the area of the Tee section
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 32
3.2.7 Local stability of the notched beam
d
d
n
n
h
n
h
nt
nb
l
l
l
b b
When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling, no account need
be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met:
For one flange notched, basic requirement:
[5],[6]
d
nt
s h
b
/ 2 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
For both flanges notched, basic requirement:
[7]
max (d
nt
, d
nb
) s h
b
/ 5 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
Where the notch length l
n
exceeds these limits, either suitable stiffening should
be provided or the notch should be checked to References
5, 6 and 7.
For S235 and S460 members see References
5, 6 and 7.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 33
3.2.8 Weld resistance
Full strength symmetrical fillet welds are recommended.
For a full strength weld, the size of each throat should comply with the
following requirement
8
:
a ≥ 0,46t
p
for S235 fin plate
a ≥ 0,48t
p
for S275 fin plate
a ≥ 0,55t
p
for S355 fin plate
a ≥ 0,75t
p
for S460 fin plate
where:
a is the weld throat thickness
The leg length is defined as follows: 2 a s =
3.3 Checks for tying
EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks. In
this publication ¸
Mu
has been used. A value of ¸
Mu
= 1,1 is recommended.
3.3.1 Fin plate and bolt group resistance
1
1
e
2 2
e e
e
1
1
1
h
p
2
p
p
p
F
Ed
F
Ed
n
1
p
1 2
1 Single line of bolts
2 Double line of bolts
3.3.1.1 Shear resistance of bolts
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
v,u
[Reference 8]
F
v,u
=
Mu
ub v
¸
o A f
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 34
where:
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
A is the tensile stress area of bolt, A
s
3.3.1.2 Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
[Reference 8]
where:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
3.3.1.3 Tension resistance of the fin plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= min(F
Rd,n
; F
Rd,b
)
Tension resistance of net section
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
p u,
net
9 , 0
¸
f
A [Reference 8]
A
net
= ( )
1 0 p p
n d h t ÷
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 35
Block tearing resistance
Case 1
1 3 2
3 2
Case 2
1 beam without notch
2 notched beam
3 fin plate
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv p y,
Mu
nt p u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+ [Reference 8]
Case 1:
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 p
1 1 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷
For a single vertical line of bolts: A
nv
= ( )
0 2 p
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts: A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 p
2
3
2 d p e t
Case 2:
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 1 p
5 , 0 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= ( )
0 2 p
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 p
2
3
d p e t
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 36
3.3.2 Beam web resistance
e e
e e
e e
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
e
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
2,b
F
Ed
F
Ed
F
Ed
F
Ed
2,b
2,b e
2,b
1,b 1,b
1,b 1,b
n
1
n
1
3.3.2.1 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
where:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
3.3.2.2 Tension resistance of the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= min(F
Rd,n
; F
Rd,b
)
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 37
Tension resistance of net section
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
b u,
wb net,
9 , 0
¸
f
A
A
net
=
w 1 0 wb w
t n d h t ÷
h
wb
may be taken as the depth of the fin plate (it is conservative)
Block tearing resistance
Case 1
1 3 2
3 2
Case 2
1 beam without notch
2 notched beam
3 fin plate
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
Mu
nt b u,
3 /
¸ ¸
A f A f
+
Case 1:
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 w
1 1 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 b , 2 w
2
3
2 d p e t
Case 2 (for notched beam only):
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 b , 1 w
5 , 0 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nv
=

.

\

÷ +
0 2 b , 2 w
2
3
d p e t
3.3.3 Weld resistance
The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance, as it is
full strength.
5 – 38
3.4 Worked Example: Fin Plate 1 of 13
Made by CZT Date 06/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by ENM Date 07/2009
3. Fin plate
Details and data
70
70
70
70
40
40
80
350 kN
350 kN
8
IPE A 550
S275
Beam: IPE A 550 S275
Fin plate: 360 × 160 × 10 S275
Bolts: M20 8.8
Welds: 8 mm fillet (weld throat, a = 5,6 mm)
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 2 of 13
5 – 39
Summary of full design checks
Design forces
V
Ed
= 350 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN (Tie force)
Shear resistances
Bolt group resistance
Shear resistance of bolts 584 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate 605 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web 624 kN
Shear resistance of the fin plate 450 kN
Bending resistance of the fin plate ∞
Buckling resistance of the fin plate 743 kN
Shear resistance of the beam web
Shear and block tearing resistance 545 kN
Shear and bending interaction at the 2
nd
line of bolts N/A
Shear and bending interaction for unnotched beam 66 kNm
Bending resistance at the notch N/A
Local stability of the notched beam N/A
Weld resistance OK
Tying resistances
Fin plate and bolt group resistance
Shear resistance of bolts 1070 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate 1290 kN
Tension resistance of the fin plate 880 kN
Beam web resistance
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web 1070 kN
Tension resistance of the beam web 792 kN
Weld resistance OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 3 of 13
5 – 40
3.1. Recommended details
Fin plate thickness: t
p
= 10mm s 0,5d
Height of fin plate: h
p
= 360 mm > 0,6h
b
Unless noted
otherwise, all
references are to
EN 199318
3.2. Checks for vertical shear
3.2.1. Bolt group resistance
3.2.1.1. Shear resistance of bolts
e
e
1
1 1
1
50 50
2
e
= 40
= 40
60
V
Ed
p
p
2
(n
= 280
 1)
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
b
2
b
Rd v, b
) ( ) (1 n n
F n
 o + +
Ref (3)
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
Table 3.4
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
245 800 6 . 0
÷
×
× ×
= 94 kN
For a double vertical line of bolts (i.e. n
2
= 2 and n
1
= 5),
α =
I
zp
2
2
I = ( )
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
6
1
2
p n n p
n
÷ + = ( )
2 2 2
70 1 5 5
6
1
60
2
5
÷ + = 107000 mm
2
α =
107000 2
60 80
×
×
= 0,022
And β = ( ) 1
2
1
1
÷ n
I
zp
= ( ) 1 5
107000 2
70 80
÷
×
×
= 0,105
Thus V
Rd
=
2 2
) 10 105 , 0 ( ) 10 022 , 0 (1
94 10
× + × +
×
= 584 kN
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 4 of 13
5 – 41
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 584 kN, OK
3.2.1.2. Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\
 +
F
n
F
n
n
 o
Ref [3]
α = 0,022 and β = 0,105, as above
The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt, F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
0
2
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
60
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
50
8 , 2 min = min( 4,67; 2,12; 2,5) = 2,12
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
0
1
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
70
;
22 3
40
min
= min( 0,61; 0,81; 1,86; 1,0) = 0,61
F
b,ver,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 61 , 0 12 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 89 kN
The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt, F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = min( 3,39; 2,75; 2,5) = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ; 25 , 0
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
; 25 , 0
22 3
60
;
22 3
50
min = min( 0,75; 0,66; 1,0) = 0,66
F
b,hor,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 66 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 114 kN
V
Rd
=
2 2
114
10 105 , 0
89
10 022 , 0 1
10

.

\
 ×
+ 
.

\
 × +
= 605 kN
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 5 of 13
5 – 42
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 605 kN, OK
3.2.1.3. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\
 +
F
n
F
n
n
 o
Ref (3]
α = 0,022 and β = 0,105, as above
The vertical bearing resistance for a single bolt, F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
0
2
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
60
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = min( 3,39; 2,12; 2,5) = 2,12
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
min
b u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
=

.

\

÷
×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
70
min
= min( 0,81; 1,86; 1,0) = 0,81
F
b,ver,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
9 20 430 81 , 0 12 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 106 kN
The horizontal bearing resistance for a single bolt, F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
1
d
p
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 min
= min( 2,75; 2,5) = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
60
;
22 3
40
min
= min( 0,61; 0,81; 1,86; 1,0) = 0,61
F
b,hor,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
9 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 94 kN
V
Rd
=
2 2
94
10 105 , 0
106
10 022 , 0 1
10

.

\
 ×
+ 
.

\
 × +
= 624 kN
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 624 kN, OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 6 of 13
5 – 43
3.2.2. Shear resistance of the fin plate
e
e
1
1 1
1
50 50
2
e
= 40
= 40
60
V
Ed
p
p
2
(n
= 280
 1)
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
3.2.2.1. Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
p y, p p
3
27 , 1
¸
f t h
=
3
10
0 , 1 3 27 , 1
275 10 360
÷
×
× ×
× ×
= 450 kN
Ref (8)
3.2.2.2. Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
p u,
net v,
3¸
f
A
Ref [8]
Net area, A
v,net
= ( )
0 p p
nd h t ÷ = ( ) 22 5 360 10 × ÷ = = 2500 mm
2
V
Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
2500
÷
×
×
× = 497 kN
3.2.2.3. Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=
3
M0
nv p y,
M2
nt p u,
10
3
5 , 0
÷
×


.

\

+
¸
¸
A f A f
Ref [8]
Net area subject to tension, A
nt
= ( )
0 2 2 p
5 , 1 d e p t ÷ +
= ( ) 770 22 5 , 1 50 60 10 = × ÷ + mm
2
Net area subject to shear, A
nt
= ( )
0 1 1 p p
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
= ( ) 2210 22 ) 5 , 0 5 ( 40 360 10 = ÷ ÷ ÷ mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
0 , 1 3
2210 275
25 , 1
770 430 5 , 0
×
×
+
× ×
= 483 kN
V
Rd,min
= min(450; 497; 483) = 450 kN
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 450 kN, OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 7 of 13
5 – 44
3.2.3. Bending resistance of the fin plate
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
Ref [8]
2,73 × z = 2,73 × 80 = 218 mm
h
p
= 360 mm > 218 mm
Then · =
Rd
V
Rd Ed
V V s , OK
3.2.4. Buckling resistance of the fin plate
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
t
p
/0,15 =
15 , 0
10
= 67 mm
Ref [8]
z = 80 mm > 67 mm
V
Rd
=


.

\

M0
p y, p el,
M1
LT p, p el,
;
6 , 0
min
¸ ¸
f
z
W f
z
W
f
p,LT
from
BS59501
Table 17
(See Appendix A)
W
el,p
=
6
2
p p
h t
216000
6
360 10
2
=
×
= mm
3
z
p
= 80 mm
λ
LT
=
2 / 1
2
p
p p
5 , 1
8 , 2


.

\

t
h z
=
2 / 1
2
10 5 , 1
360 50
8 , 2


.

\

×
×
= 31
f
p,LT
is obtained by interpolation from Appendix A.
f
p,LT
= 274 N/mm
2
V
Rd
= 
.

\

× ×
×
÷ ÷ 3 3
10
0 , 1
275
80
216000
; 10
0 , 1 6 , 0
274
80
216000
min
= ( ) 743 ; 1233 min = 743 kN
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 743 kN, OK
3.2.5. Shear resistance of the beam web
3.2.5.1. Shear and block tearing resistance
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 8 of 13
5 – 45
t
w
e
h
e
= 177
= 90
= 9
( n
1 1
 1) p
= 280
1,b
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
b y,
wb v,
3¸
f
A
Ref [8]
Shear area of beam web,
A
v,wb
= ( )
f w f
2 2 t r t bt A + + ÷
= ( ) 7 , 15 24 2 9 7 , 15 210 2 11700 × + + × × ÷ = 6001 mm
2
η h
w
t
w
= 9 6 , 515 0 , 1 × × = 4640 mm
2
V
Rd,g
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
275 6001
÷
×
×
×
= 953 kN
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
b u,
net wb, v,
3¸
f
A
Ref [8]
Net area, A
v,wb,net
=
w 0 1
t d n A÷ = 9 22 5 6001 × × ÷ = 5011 mm
2
V
Rd,n
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
5011
÷
×
×
× = 995 kN
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
M2
nt b u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
+
Ref [8]
Net area subject to tension, A
nt
= ( )
0 b , 2 2 p
5 , 1 d e p t ÷ +
( ) 603 22 5 , 1 40 60 9 = × ÷ + = mm
2
Net area subject to shear, A
nv
= ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 b 1, p
) 5 , 0 ( 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
= ( ) ( ) 22 ) 1 5 ( 70 1 5 90 9 ÷ ÷ ÷ +
= 2538 mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
2538 275
25 , 1
603 430 5 , 0
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
× ×
= 507 kN
V
Rd,min
= min(953; 995; 507) = 507 kN
V
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 507 kN, OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 9 of 13
5 – 46
3.2.5.2. Shear and bending interaction at the 2
nd
line of bolts
Not applicable
3.2.5.3. Shear and bending interaction of unnotched beam
Shear and bending interaction at the beam web
15 , 0
p
t
=
15 , 0
10
= 67 mm
Ref [4]
z = 80 mm > 67 mm
Therefore this check is required.
Basic requirement: V
Ed
(z + p
2
/2) s M
cBC,Rd
+ F
pl,AB,Rd
(n
1
– 1) p
1
F
pl,BC,Rd
=
( )
\
 ÷
;
3
1
min
M0
b y, w 1 1
¸
f t p n ( ) ( )  


.
 ÷ ÷ ÷
M2
b u, w 0 1 1 1
3
1 1
¸
f t d n p n
F
pl,BC,Rd
=
( )
\

×
×
× × ÷
÷
; 10
0 , 1 3
275 9 70 1 5
min
3
( ) ( )  


.

×
×
× ÷ ÷ ÷
÷3
10
25 , 1 3
430 9 22 1 5 70 1 5
= min(400;343) = 343 kN
V
BC,Ed
is the shear force on the beam web BC
V
BC,Ed
= V
Ed
– (V
Rd,min
– F
pl,BC,Rd
) but ≥ 0
V
BC,Ed
= 350 – (953 – 343) = 260 kN
Therefore V
BC,Ed
= 0 kN
As V
BC,Ed
≤ 0,5F
pl,BC,Rd
then M
c,BC,Rd
= ( )  
2
1 1
M0
w b y,
1
6
p n
t f
÷
¸
M
c,BC,Rd
= ( ) ( )
6 2
10 70 1 5
0 , 1 6
9 275
÷
× ÷
×
×
= 32 kNm
F
pl,AB,Rd
=
( )
\
 +
;
3
min
M0
b y, w 2 b 2,
¸
f t p e
( )


.
 ÷ +
M2
b u, w 0 2 b 2,
3
2 3
¸
f t d p e
=
( )
\

×
×
× +
÷
; 10
0 , 1 3
275 9 60 40
min
3
( )


.

×
×
× × ÷ +
÷3
10
25 , 1 3
430 9 2 22 3 60 40
= min(143; 120) = 120 kN
M
cBC,Rd
+ F
pl,AB,Rd
(n
1
– 1) p
1
= 32 + 120(5 – 1)70×10
3
= 66 kNm
V
Ed
(z + p
2
/2) = 350(80 + 60/2) ×10
3
= 38 kNm
Therefore V
Ed
(z + p
2
/2) s M
cBC,Rd
+ F
pl,AB,Rd
(n
1
– 1) p
1
OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 10 of 13
5 – 47
3.2.6. Bending resistance at the notch
Not applicable
3.2.7. Local stability of the notched beam
Not applicable
3.2.8. Weld resistance
For a fin plate in S275 steel
Basic requirement: a ≥ 0,48t
p
Ref [8]
0,48t
p
= 10 48 , 0 × = 4,8 mm
a = 5,7 mm ≥ 0,48t
p
OK
3.3. Checks for tying
3.3.1. Fin plate and bolt group resistance
p
p
p
p
e
1
1
2
e
h
= 50
= 40
= 40
= 70
= 70
= 70
= 70
e
p
2
1
1
1
1
p
Ed
F
= 60
= 350 kN
3.3.1.1. Shear resistance of bolts
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
v,u
Ref [8]
F
v,u
=
Mu
ub v
¸
o A f
=
3
10
1 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 107 kN
F
Rd
= 107 10× = 1070 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 1070 kN OK
3.3.1.2. Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
Ref [8]
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 11 of 13
5 – 48
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 75 , 2 ; 39 , 3 min = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
60
;
22 3
50
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 66 , 0 ; 75 , 0 min = 0,66
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
10 20 430 66 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 129 kN
F
Rd
= 129 10× = 1290 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 1290 kN, OK
3.3.1.3. Tension resistance of the fin plate
Basic requirement : F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= ( )
n Rd, b Rd,
; min F F
Tension resistance of net section
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
p u,
net
9 , 0
¸
f
A
Ref [8]
A
net
= ( )
1 0 p p
n d h t ÷ = ( ) 5 22 360 10 × ÷ = 2500 mm
2
F
Rd,n
=
3
10
1 , 1
430
2500 9 , 0
÷
× × = 880 kN
Block tearing resistance
Case 1
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv p y,
Mu
nt p u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+
Ref [8]
A
nt
=
t
p
[(n
1
– 1)p
1
–
(n
1
–
1)d
0
] = 10[(5
–
1)
×
70
–
(5
–
1)22] = 1920 mm
2
1540 22
2
3
60 50 10 2
2
3
2
0 2 2 p nv
=

.

\

× ÷ + × =

.

\

÷ + = d p e t A mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
1540 275
1 , 1
1920 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 995 kN
Case 2
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 1 p
5 , 0 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( ) 22 5 , 0 5 70 1 5 40 10 × ÷ ÷ × ÷ + = 2210 mm
2
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 12 of 13
5 – 49
A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 p
2
3
d p e t = 
.

\

× ÷ + 22
2
3
60 50 10 = 770 mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
770 275
1 , 1
2210 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 986 kN
F
Rd
= ( ) 986 ; 995 ; 880 min = 880 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 880 kN, OK
3.3.2. Beam web resistance
e
2
1
e
=70
=90
=40
=60 p
p
F
Ed
1,b
2,b
3.3.2.1. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
90
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 75 , 2 ; 8 , 9 min = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
60
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 66 , 0 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
9 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 107 kN
F
Rd
= 107 10× = 1070 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 1070 kN OK
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 13 of 13
5 – 50
3.3.2.2. Tension resistance of the beam web
Basic requirement : F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= ( )
n Rd, b Rd,
; min F F
Tension resistance of net section
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
b u,
wb net,
9 , 0
¸
f
A
A
net,wb
=
w 1 0 wb w
t n d h t ÷ = 9 5 22 360 9 × × ÷ × = 2250 mm
2
F
Rd,n
=
3
10
1 , 1
430
2250 9 , 0
÷
× × = 792 kN
Block tearing resistance
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
Mu
nt b u,
3 /
¸ ¸
A f A f
+
( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 w nt
1 1 d n p n t A ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ( ) ( )   1728 22 1 5 70 1 5 9 = ÷ ÷ × ÷ mm
2
1206 22
2
3
60 40 9 2
2
3
2
0 2 b , 2 w nv
=

.

\

× ÷ + × =

.

\

÷ + = d p e t A mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
1206 275
1 , 1
1728 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 867 kN
(Case 2 only applies to notched beams)
F
Rd
= ( ) 867 ; 792 min = 792 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 792 kN, OK
3.3.3. Weld resistance
The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance, as it is
full strength.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 51
4 DOUBLE ANGLE WEB CLEATS
Unless noted otherwise, the design rules below have been developed from
those established for partial depth end plates and fin plates from Reference 8.
4.1 Recommended details
p
p
p
1
1
1
3
t
t
f
f
t
p
ac
ac
h
hb
1 3
5
6
4
2
9
10
7
8
1 Length of cleat h
ac
> 0,6h
b
2 Face of beam or column
3 End projection, g
h
approximately 10 mm
4 Double line of bolts
5 Bolt diameter, d
6 Hold diameters, d
0.
d
0
= d + 2 mm for d s 24 mm; d
0
= d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm
7 10 mm clearance
8 Supported beam (single notched)
9 Supported beam (double notched)
10 Supporting beam
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 52
4.2 Checks for vertical shear
4.2.1 Bolt group resistance
4.2.1.1 Supported beam side
Shear resistance of bolts
p p
p p
p p
z z
1 1
1 1
1 1
Ed Ed Ed
V V V
z
1 1 1
1 Assumed line of shear transfer
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
b
2
b
Rd v, b
) ( ) (1
2
n n
F n
 o + +
×
F
v,Rd
is the shear resistance of one bolt
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
where:
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
¸
M2
is the partial factor for resistance of bolts
For a single vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 1)
α = 0 and β =
( )
1 1 1
1
6
p n n
z
+
For a double vertical line of bolts (n
2
= 2)
α =
I
zp
2
2
and β = ( ) 1
2
1
1
÷ n
I
zp
I = ( )
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
6
1
2
p n n p
n
÷ +
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 53
z is the transverse distance from the face of the supporting element to
the centre of the bolt group
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
e z
Ed Ed
2 2
e e
e
e p
p
2 2
1
1 1
2
1
z
V V
1
Single row Double Row
1 Check the bearing strength of cleat under eccentric load
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1
2


.

\

+


.

\
 +
×
F
n
F
n
n
 o
The bearing resistance of a single bolt is F
b,Rd
=
M2
u b 1
¸
o dt f k
The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt on the angle cleat is as follows:
F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt on the angle cleat is as
follows:
F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
α, β and ¸
M2
are as defined previously.
For F
b,ver,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
0
2
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
1
0
1
f
f
d
p
d
e
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 54
For F
b,hor,Rd
:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ; 4 , 1
3
;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
1,b
Ed
e
2,b h
g
e
1,b
Ed
e
2,b
h
g
e
p
2
z
z
p
1 p
1
V V
1
1 Check bolt group in bearing under eccentric load
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\
 +
F
n
F
n
n
 o
F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
α, β and ¸
M2
are as defined previously
For F
b,ver,Rd,
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
0
b 2,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
1
0
b 1,
f
f
d
p
d
e
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 55
For F
b,hor,Rd
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
4.2.1.2 Supporting beam side
Basic requirement:
V
Ed
s F
Rd
F
Rd
is the resistance of the bolt group [EN 199318, §3.7(1)]
If (F
b,Rd
)
max
s F
v,Rd
then F
Rd
= ¯F
b,Rd
If (F
b,Rd
)
min
s F
v,Rd
s (F
b,Rd
)
max
then F
Rd
= n
s
(F
b,Rd
)
min
If F
v,Rd
≤ (F
b,Rd
)
min
then F
Rd
= 0,8n
s
F
v,Rd
Shear resistance of bolts
F
v,Rd
is the shear resistance of one bolt
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
[EN 199318, Table 3.4]
where:
o
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
F
b,Rd
is the bearing resistance of a single bolt
F
b,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
[EN 199318, Table 3.4]
where:
¸
M2
is the partial factor for plates in bearing
÷ For end bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer)
o
b
= min


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
ac u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
÷ For inner bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer)
o
b
= min


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
ac u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 56
÷ For edge bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer)
k
1
= min


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
2
d
e
4.2.2 Shear resistance of the angle cleats
e z
Ed Ed
2 2
e e
e
e p
p
2 2
1
1 1
2
1
z
V V
Single row Double row
4.2.2.1 Supported beam side
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
ac y,
ac ac
3
27 , 1
2
¸
f
t h
×
Note: The coefficient 1,27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance
due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in
the bolts.
[9]
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
ac u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A ×
A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 ac ac
d n h t ÷
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv ac y,
M2
nt ac u,
3
5 , 0
2
¸
¸
A f A f
A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 ac ac
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
For a single line of bolts:
A
nt
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 d e t ÷
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 57
For a double line of bolts:
A
nt
= ( )
0 2 2 ac
5 , 1 d p e t ÷ +
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
4.2.2.2 Supporting beam side
e
e e
1
1
1 1
1
Ed Ed Ed Ed
2 2 2 2
2 2
e e
V V V V
p p
1
2
1 Critical section in shear and bearing
2 Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
ac y,
ac ac
3
27 , 1
2
¸
f
t h
×
Note: The coefficient 1,27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance
due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in
the bolts
[9]
.
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
ac u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A ×
A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 ac ac
d n h t ÷
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv ac y,
M2
nt ac u,
3
5 , 0
2
¸
¸
A f A f
A
nt
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 d e t ÷
A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 ac ac
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 58
4.2.3 Shear resistance of the beam web
t
f
f f
t t
1,b
1,b
e
e e
Ed Ed Ed
e
h
h
e e e
2,b 2,b 2,b h h h
g g g
e
1,b
e
1,b
e
Ed
h
e2,b
h
g
e
e
Ed
h
e
Ed
h
h
g
1,b 1,b
h
g
e e
h
p2
e2,b
p2
e2,b
p2
p
p
p
p
p
p
1
1
1
1
1
1
V V V
V V V
1
3
2 2
3
4
1
4
2 2
3 3
1 Critical section in plain shear
2 Shear failure
3 Tension failure
4 Block shear failure tearing out of shaded portion
4.2.3.1 Shear and block tearing resistance
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
b y,
wb v,
3¸
f
A
A
v,wb
= A – 2bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
but ≥ η h
w
t
w
for unnotched beam
A
v,wb
= A
Tee
– bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
/2 for single notched beam
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 59
A
v,wb
= t
w
(e
1,b
+ (n
1
–1)p
1
+ h
e
) for double notched beam
η is a factor from EN 199315 (it may be conservatively taken equal
to 1,0)
A
Tee
is the area of the Tee section
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
b u,
net wb, v,
3¸
f
A
A
v,wb,net
= A
v,wb
– n
1
d
0
t
w
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
M2
nt b u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
+
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nt
= ( )
0 b 2, w
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts, A
nt
=

.

\

÷ +
0 2 b 2, w
2
3
d p e t
A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 1 b 1, w
) 5 , 0 ( ) 1 ( d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
4.2.3.2 Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts, if the notch
length l
n
> (e
2,b
+ p
2
)
e
Ed
h
e
Ed
h
h
g
1,b 1,b
h
g
e e
e2,b
p
2
n
e2,b
p
2
n
p
1
p
1
V V
l l
1
1 Critical section in plain shear
Basic requirement: V
Ed
(g
h
+e
2,b
+ p
2
) s M
c,Rd
[Reference 4]
M
c,Rd
is the moment resistance of the notched beam at the connection in the
presence of shear.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 60
For single notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
=
M0
N el, b y,
¸
W f
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
=


.

\

÷ ÷
2
Rd N, pl,
Ed
M0
N el, b y,
1
2
1
V
V
W f
¸
V
pl,N,Rd
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,b
)
W
el,N
is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
= ( ) ( )
2
e 1 1 1
M0
w b y,
1
6
h p n e
t f
+ ÷ +
¸
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
c,Rd
= ( ) ( )


.

\

÷ ÷ + ÷ +
2
Rd DN, pl,
Ed
2
e 1 1 1
M0
w b y,
1
2
1 1
6 V
V
h p n e
t f
¸
V
pl,DN,Rd
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,b
)
4.2.4 Bending resistance at the notch
e
e
Ed Ed
e
h
h h
g g
1,b
e
e
Ed
e
Ed
h
h
g
1,b 1,b
h
e e
n n
h
n
n
1 1 1 1
1,b
p p p p
g
V V V V
2,b 2,b
l
l
l
l
e e
1
h
2
2
1 Critical sections
2 To notch or beam flange
Shear and bending interaction at the notch.
4.2.4.1 For single bolt line or for double bolt lines, if x
N
≥ 2d:
V
Ed
(g
h
+ l
n
) s M
v,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
M
v,N,Rd
is the moment resistant of the beam at the notch in the presence of
shear
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 61
For single notched beam
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=
M0
N el, b y,
¸
W f
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,N,Rd
)
M
v,N,Rd
=


.

\

÷ ÷
2
Rd N, pl,
Ed
M0
N el, b y,
1
2
1
V
V
W f
¸
For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. V
Ed
≤ 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
= ( )
2
e 1 1 b 1,
M0
w b y,
) 1 (
6
h p n e
t f
+ ÷ +
¸
For high shear (i.e. V
Ed
> 0,5V
pl,DN,Rd
)
M
v,DN,Rd
= ( ) ( )


.

\

÷ ÷ + ÷ +
2
Rd DN, pl,
Ed
2
e 1 1 b 1,
M0
w b y,
1
2
1 1
4 V
V
h p n e
t f
¸
4.2.4.2 For double bolt lines, if x
N
< 2d:
max (V
Ed
(g
h
+ l
n
); V
Ed
(g
h
+ e
2,b
+ p
2
)) ≤ M
v,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
M
v,N,Rd
= M
c,Rd
from the previous check
where:
W
el,N
is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
V
pl,N,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams
=
M0
b y, N v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,N
= A
Tee
– bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)
2
f
t
V
pl,DN,Rd
is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams
=
M0
b y, DN v,
3 ¸
f A
A
v,DN
= t
w
(e
1,b
+ (n
1
– 1) p
1
+ h
e
)
where:
A
Tee
is the area of the Tee section
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 62
4.2.5 Local stability of the notched beam
n
h h
n
n
d d
d
nt nt
nb
l l
l
b b
When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling, no account need
be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met:
For one flange notched, basic requirement:
[5],[6]
d
nt
s h
b
/ 2 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
/
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
For both flanges notched, basic requirement:
[7]
max (d
nt
; d
nb
) s h
b
/ 5 and:
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
160000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
l
n
s h
b
for h
b
/ t
w
s 48,0 (S355 steel)
l
n
s
( )
3
w b
b
110000
t h
h
for h
b
/ t
w
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
Where the notch length l
n
exceeds these limits, either suitable stiffening should
be provided or the notch should be checked to References 5, 6 and 7.
For S235 and S460 members see References 5, 6 and 7.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 63
4.3 Checks for tying
EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks. In
this publication ¸
Mu
has been used. A value of ¸
Mu
= 1,1 is recommended.
4.3.1 Angle cleats and bolt group resistance
4.3.1.1 Resistance of the angle cleats in bending
e
e
1
1
1
1
1
2
e p
p
p
p
3
F
Ed
1
1 Critical sections
There are three modes of failure for angle cleats in bending:
Mode 1: complete yielding of the plate
Mode 2: bolt failure with yielding of the plate
Mode 3: bolt failure
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= min(F
Rd,u,1
, F
Rd,u,2
, F
Rd,u,3
)
Mode 1 (the complete yielding of the angle cleats)
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) n m e mn
M e n
+ ÷
÷
w
u Rd, pl,1, w
2
2 8
[EN 199318 Table 6.2]
Mode 2 (bolt failure with yielding of the angle cleats)
F
Rd,u,2
=
n m
F n M
+
+
u Rd, t, u Rd, pl,2,
Σ 2
[EN 199318 Table 6.2]
Mode 3 (bolt failure)
F
Rd,u,3
=
u Rd, t,
ΣF [EN 199318 Table 6.2]
F
t,Rd,u
=
Mu
ub 2
¸
A f k
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 64
where:
M
pl,1,Rd,u
=
Mu
ac u,
2
ac eff
Σ 25 , 0
¸
f t l
M
pl,2,Rd,u
= M
pl,1,Rd,u
m =
2
8 , 0 2 2
ac w 3
r t t p × × ÷ ÷ ÷
n = e
min
but n ≤ 1,25m where e
min
= e
2
e
w
=
4
w
d
d
w
is the diameter of the washer
k
2
= 0,63 for countersunk bolts
= 0,9 otherwise
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
Σl
eff
is the effective length of a plastic hinge
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ +
e
1A
= e
1
but ≤
2
) 2 ( 5 , 0
0
w 3
d
r t p + ÷ ÷
p
1A
= p
1
but ≤
0 w 3
2 d r t p + ÷ ÷
4.3.1.2 Shear resistance of bolts
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= 2n
b
F
v,u
F
v,u
=
Mu
ub v
¸
o A f
where:
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
4.3.1.3 Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= 2n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 65
where:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
2
0
2
f
f
d
p
d
e
4.3.1.4 Block tearing resistance
Case 1
1 2 4
2 4
Case 2
1 Beam without notch
2 Notched beam
4 Double angle cleat
Basic requirement : F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,b
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv ac y,
Mu
nt ac u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+
Case 1:
A
nt
= ( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 ac
1 1 2 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷
For a single vertical line of bolts: A
nv
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 4 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts: A
nv
=

.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 ac
2
3
4 d p e t
Case 2:
A
nt
= ( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 1 ac
5 , 0 1 2 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
For a single vertical line of bolts: A
nv
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷
For a double vertical line of bolts: A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 2 ac
2
3
2 d p e t
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 66
4.3.2 Beam web resistance
1,b
1,b
1,b
1,b
e
e
e
e
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
2,b
2,b
2,b
2,b
p
p
2
2
e
e
e
e
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Ed Ed
Ed Ed
F F
F F
4.3.2.1 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
b w, b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
where:
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
b u,
ub
0
2
0
b 2,
f
f
d
p
d
e
α
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts
= 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
4.3.2.2 Tension resistance of the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,n
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
b u,
wb net,
9 , 0
¸
f
A
where:
A
net,wb
=
w 1 0 ac w
t n d h t ÷
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 67
4.3.2.3 Block tearing resistance
Case 1
1 2 4
2 4
Case 2
1 Beam without notch
2 Notched beam
4 Double angle cleat
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,b
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
Mu
nt b u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+
Case 1:
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 w
1 1 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷
For double vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 b , 2 w
2
3
2 d p e t
Case 2 (for notched beams only):
A
nt
= ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 b , 1 w
5 , 0 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
For a single vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 d e t ÷
For double vertical line of bolts, A
nv
= 
.

\

÷ +
0 2 b , 2 w
2
3
d p e t
5 – 68
4.4 Worked Example: Angle Web Cleats 1 of 15
Made by CZT Date 06/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by ENM Date 07/2009
4. Angle Web Cleats
Details and data
40
40
70
70
70
70
70
50
450 kN
370 kN
IPE A 550
S275
50 40
10
Beam: IPE A 550 S275
Angle cleats: 2/90 × 90 × 10, S275
Bolts: M20 8.8
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 2 of 15
5  69
Summary of full design checks
Design forces
V
Ed
= 450 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN (Tie force)
Shear resistances
Bolt group resistance
Supported beam side
Shear resistance of bolts 962 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats 1075 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web 583 kN
Supporting beam side
Resistance 902 kN
Shear resistance of the angle cleats
Supported beam side
Shear resistance 954 kN
Supporting beam side
Shear resistance 954 kN
Shear resistance of the beam web
Shear and block tearing resistance
Shear resistance 501 kN
Shear and bending interaction
at the 2
nd
line of bolts N/A
Bending resistance at the notch N/A
Local stability of the notched beam N/A
Tying resistances
Angle cleats and bolt group resistance
Resistance of the angle cleats in bending 696 kN
Shear resistance of bolts 1284 kN
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats 1428 kN
Block tearing resistance 2060 kN
Beam web resistance
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web 642 kN
Tension resistance of the beam web 944 kN
Block tearing resistance 927 kN
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 3 of 15
5  70
4.1. Recommended details
Cleats 10 mm thick
Length, h
ac
= 430mm > 0,6h
b
, OK
Unless noted
otherwise, all
references are to
EN 199318
4.2. Checks for vertical shear
4.2.1. Bolt group resistance
4.2.1.1. Supported beam side
Shear resistance of bolts
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
b
2
b
Rd v, b
) ( ) (1
2
n n
F n
 o + +
×
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 94 kN
For a single vertical line of bolts (i.e. n
2
= 1 and n
1
= 6), α = 0
β =
1 1 1
) 1 (
6
p n n
z
+
=
( )70 1 6 6
50 6
+
×
= 0,102
Thus V
Rd
=
2 2
) 6 102 , 0 ( ) 6 0 (1
94 6
2
× + × +
×
× = 962 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 962 kN, OK
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
b,Rd
V
b,Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1
2


.

\

+


.

\
 +
×
F
n
F
n
n
 o
α = 0 and β = 0,102, as above
The vertical bearing resistance for a single bolt, F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
d
e
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 39 , 3 min
= 2,5
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 4 of 15
5  71
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
1
0
1
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
; 25 , 0
22 3
70
;
22 3
40
min = ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 81 , 0 ; 61 , 0 min
α
b
= 0,61
F
b,ver,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 105 kN
The horizontal bearing resistance for a single bolt, F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 75 , 2 ; 39 , 3 min = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
2
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
F
b,hor,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 105 kN
V
Rd
=
2 2
105
6 102 , 0
105
6 0 1
6
2

.

\
 ×
+

.

\
 × +
× = 1075 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 1075 kN, OK
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 5 of 15
5  72
Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
h
e
= 350
1 1
e
1,b
t
w
= 90
(n 1)p
e
2,b
= 9
= 40
= 107
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd
V
Rd
=
2
Rd hor, b,
b
2
Rd ver, b,
b
b
1


.

\

+


.

\
 +
F
n
F
n
n
 o
α = 0 and β = 0,102, as above
The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt, F
b,ver,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
b 2,
d
e
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 4 , 3 min
= 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
1
0
b 1,
f
f
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷
× ×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
70
;
22 3
90
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 81 , 0 ; 36 , 1 min = 0,81
F
b,ver,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
9 20 430 81 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 125 kN
The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt,
F
b,hor,Rd
=
M2
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
b 1,
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
90
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 75 , 2 ; 75 , 9 min = 2,5
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 6 of 15
5  73
α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
b 2,
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
F
b,hor,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
9 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 94 kN
V
Rd
=
2 2
94
6 102 , 0
125
6 0 1
6

.

\
 ×
+

.

\
 × +
= 583 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 583 kN, OK
4.2.1.2. Supporting beam side
e
1
= 40
= 40
e
1
= 40
Ed Ed
2 2
Ed
= 350
(n 1)p
1 1
V V
V = 450 kN
e
2
Basic requirement:
Rd Ed
F V s
The design resistance of the bolt group,
Rd
F :
If ( )
Rd v,
max
Rd b,
F F s then
Rd b, Rd
ΣF F =
If
max Rd b, Rd v, min Rd b,
) ( ) ( F F F < s then
min Rd b, s Rd
) ( F n F =
If ( )
min
Rd b, Rd v,
F F < then
Rd v, s Rd
8 , 0 F n F =
Shear resistance of bolts
The shear resistance of a single bolt, F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 94 kN
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 7 of 15
5  74
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
V
b,Rd
=
M2
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
For edge bolts, k
1
= ) 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min(
0
2
÷
d
e
= ) 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min( ÷ ×
= ) 5 , 2 ; 39 , 3 min( = 2,5
For end bolts, α
b
= ) 0 , 1 ; ;
3
min(
ac u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
= ) 0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min(
×
= ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min( = 0,61
For inner bolts, α
b
= ) 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
min(
ac u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
÷
= ) 0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
4
1
22 3
70
min( ÷
×
= ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 81 , 0 min(
= 0,81
End bolts, ( )
min
Rd b, end Rd, b,
F F =
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
=
105 = kN
Inner bolts, ( )
max
Rd b, inner Rd, b,
F F =
3
10
25 , 1
10 20 430 81 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
=
139 = kN
94 kN < 105 kN thus F
v,Rd
< (F
b,Rd
)
min
902 94 12 8 , 0 8 , 0
Rd v, s Rd
= × × = = F n F kN
Ed
V = 550 kN ≤ 902 kN, OK
4.2.2. Shear resistance of the angle cleats
4.2.2.1. Supported beam side
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
ac y,
ac ac
3
27 , 1
2
¸
f
t h
× =
3
10
0 , 1 3 27 , 1
275 10 430
2
÷
×
× ×
× ×
× = 1076 kN
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
ac u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A ×
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 8 of 15
5  75
Net area, A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 ac ac
d n h t ÷ = ( ) 22 6 430 10 × ÷ = 2980 mm
2
V
Rd,n
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
2980 2
÷
×
×
× × = 1184 kN
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv ac y,
M2
nt ac u,
3
5 , 0
2
¸
¸
A f A f
Net area subject to tension, A
nt
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 d e t ÷
= ( ) 22 5 , 0 40 10 × ÷ = 290 mm
2
Net area subject to shear, A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 ac ac
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
= ( ) 22 ) 5 , 0 6 ( 40 430 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ = 2690 mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
2690 275
25 , 1
290 430 5 , 0
2
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
× ×
= 954 kN
V
Rd,min
= 954 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 954 kN, OK
4.2.2.2. Supporting beam side
e
1
= 40
= 40
e
1
= 40
Ed Ed
2 2
Ed
= 350
(n 1)p
1 1
V V
V = 450 kN
e
2
1
1 Block shear failure
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
ac y,
ac ac
3
27 , 1
2
¸
f
t h
× =
3
10
0 , 1 3 27 , 1
275 10 430
2
÷
×
× ×
× ×
× = 1076 kN
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 9 of 15
5  76
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
ac u,
net v,
3
2
¸
f
A ×
Net area, A
v,net
= ( )
0 1 ac ac
d n h t ÷ = ( ) 22 6 430 10 × ÷ = 2980 mm
2
V
Rd,n
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
2980 2
÷
×
×
× × = 1184 kN
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv ac y,
M2
nt ac u,
3
5 , 0
2
¸
¸
A f A f
Net area subject to tension, A
nt
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 d e t ÷
= ( ) 22 5 , 0 40 10 × ÷ = 290 mm
2
Net area subject to shear, A
nv
= ( )
0 1 1 ac ac
) 5 , 0 ( d n e h t ÷ ÷ ÷
= ( ) 22 ) 5 , 0 6 ( 40 430 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ = 2690 mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
2690 275
25 , 1
290 430 5 , 0
2
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
× ×
= 954 kN
V
Rd,min
= 954 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 954 kN, OK
4.2.3. Shear resistance of the beam web
4.2.3.1. Shear and block tearing resistance
Ed
V = 450 kN
h
ac
= 430
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,min
V
Rd,min
= min(V
Rd,g
; V
Rd,n
; V
Rd,b
)
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 10 of 15
5  77
Shear resistance of gross section
V
Rd,g
=
M0
b y,
wb v,
3¸
f
A
Shear area of beam web,
A
v,wb
= A – 2bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
= ( ) 7 , 15 24 2 9 7 , 15 210 2 11700 × + + × × ÷
A
v,wb
= 6001 mm
2
η h
w
t
w
= 9 6 , 515 0 , 1 × × = 4640 mm
2
V
Rd,g
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
275 6001
÷
×
×
×
= 953 kN
Shear resistance of net section
V
Rd,n
=
M2
b u,
net wb, v,
3¸
f
A
Net area, A
v,wb,net
=
w 0 1 wb v,
t d n A ÷ = 9 22 6 6001 × × ÷ = 4813 mm
2
V
Rd,n
=
3
10
25 , 1 3
430
4813
÷
×
×
× = 956 kN
Block tearing resistance
V
Rd,b
=


.

\

+
M0
nv b y,
M2
nt b u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
Net area subject to tension,
nt
A ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 d e t ÷ =
( ) 261 22 5 , 0 40 9 = × ÷ = mm
2
Net area subject to shear,
nv
A ( ) ( )
0 1 1 1 b 1, w
) 5 , 0 ( 1 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
( ) ( ) 22 ) 5 , 0 6 ( 70 1 6 90 9 ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2871 = mm
2
V
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
2871 275
25 , 1
261 430 5 , 0
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
× ×
= 501 kN
V
Rd,min
= min(953; 956; 501) = 501 kN
V
Ed
= 450 kN ≤ 501 kN, OK
4.2.3.2. Shear and bending interaction at the 2
nd
line of bolts
Not applicable because it is unnotched
4.2.4. Bending resistance at the notch
Not applicable because it is unnotched
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 11 of 15
5  78
4.2.5. Local stability of the notched beam
Not applicable because it is unnotched
4.3. Checks for tying
4.3.1. Angle cleats and bolt group resistance
4.3.1.1. Resistance of the angle cleats in bending
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
Tension bolt group
F
Ed
( )
u,3 Rd, u,2 Rd, u,1 Rd, Rd
, , min F F F F =
The tying resistance for Mode 1, F
Rd,u,1
is given by:
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) n m e mn
M e n
+ ÷
÷
w
u Rd, pl,1, w
2
2 8
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ +
e
1A
= e
1
but ≤
2
) 2 ( 5 , 0
0
w 3
d
r t p + ÷ ÷
2
22
) 11 2 9 109 ( 5 , 0 + × ÷ ÷ = 50 mm
e
1A
= 40 mm
p
1A
= p
1
but ≤
0 w 3
2 d r t p + ÷ ÷
0 w 3
2 d r t p + ÷ ÷ = 22 11 2 9 109 + × ÷ ÷ = 100 mm
p
1A
= 70 mm
Σl
eff
=
A 1 1 A 1
) 1 ( 2 p n e ÷ + = 70 ) 1 6 ( 40 2 ÷ + × = 430 mm
M
pl,1,Rd,u
=
Mu
ac u,
2
f eff,1
Σ 25 , 0
¸
f t l
=
6
2
10
1 , 1
430 10 430 25 , 0
÷
×
× × ×
= 4,2kNm
m =
2
8 , 0 2 2
ac w 3
r t t p × × ÷ ÷ ÷
=
2
11 8 , 0 2 10 2 9 109 × × ÷ × ÷ ÷
= 31 mm
25 , 9
4
37
4
w
w
= = =
d
e mm
n = ( ) m e 25 , 1 ; min
2
= ( ) 39 ; 40 min = 39 mm
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 12 of 15
5  79
F
Rd,u,1
=
( )
( ) 39 31 25 , 9 39 31 2
10 2 , 4 25 , 9 2 39 8
3
+ ÷ × ×
× × ÷ ×
= 696 kN
The tying resistance for mode 2, F
Rd,u,2
is given by:
F
Rd,u,2
=
n m
F n M
+
+
u Rd, t, u Rd, pl,2,
Σ 2
M
pl,2,Rd,u
= M
pl,1,Rd,u
=4,20 kNm
F
t,Rd,u
=
Mu
ub 2
¸
A f k
=
3
10
1 , 1
245 800 9 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 160 kN
F
Rd,u,2
=
39 31
160 12 39 10 2 , 4 2
3
+
× × + × ×
= 1190 kN
The tying resistance for mode 3, F
Rd,u,3
is given by
F
Rd,u,3
=
u Rd, t,
ΣF = 160 12× = 1920 kN
F
Rd
( )
u,3 Rd, u,2 Rd, u,1 Rd,
, , min F F F =
F
Rd
( ) 1920 , 1190 , 696 min = = 696 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN ≤ 696 kN, OK
4.3.1.2. Shear resistance of bolts
IPE A 550
S275
Ed
= 370 kN F
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= 2n
b
F
v,u
F
v,u
=
Mu
ub v
¸
o A f
=
3
10
1 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 107 kN
F
Rd
= 107 6 2 × × = 1284 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN ≤ 1284 kN, OK
4.3.1.3. Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= 2n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 13 of 15
5  80
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
ac ac u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 . 1 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
1
0
1
d
p
d
e
=

.

\

÷ ÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 ; 7 , 1
22
40
8 , 2 min = ( ) 5 , 2 ; 75 , 2 ; 39 , 3 min = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
ac u,
ub
0
2
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
10 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 119 kN
F
Rd
= 119 6 2 × × = 1428 kN
F
Ed
= 350 kN ≤ 1428 kN, OK
4.3.1.4. Block tearing resistance
e
e
1
1
= 40
= 40
= 40
70
70
70
70
70
e
2
h
ac
Ed
= 370 kN F
Basic requirement : F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,b
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv y,ac
Mu
nt u,ac
3¸ ¸
A f A f
+
Case 1
A
nt
= ( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 ac
1 1 2 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷ = ( ) ( )   22 1 6 70 1 6 10 2 × ÷ ÷ × ÷ × ×
= 4800 mm
2
A
nv
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 . 0 4 d e t ÷ = ( ) 22 5 , 0 40 10 4 × ÷ × = 1160 mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
1160 275
1 , 1
4800 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 2060 kN
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 14 of 15
5  81
Case 2
A
nt
= ( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 1 ac
5 , 0 1 2 d n p n e t ÷ ÷ ÷ +
A
nt
= ( ) ( )   22 5 , 0 6 70 1 6 40 10 2 × ÷ ÷ × ÷ + × × = 5380 mm
2
A
nv
= ( )
0 2 ac
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷ = ( ) 22 5 , 0 40 10 2 × ÷ × × = 580 mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
580 275
1 , 1
5380 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 2195 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN ≤ 2060 and 2195 kN, OK
4.3.2. Beam web resistance
4.3.2.1. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web
= 90
70
70
70
70
70
e
1,b
e
2,b
= 40
Ed
= 370 kN F
1
n
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd
= n
b
F
b,hor,u,Rd
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
Mu
w b u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
1
d
p
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
70
4 , 1 min = 2,5
α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
b u,
ub
0
b 2,
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min = 0,61
F
b,hor,u,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
9 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 107 kN
F
Rd
= 107 6× = 642 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN ≤ 642 kN, OK
4.3.2.2. Tension resistance of the beam web
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,n
F
Rd,n
=
Mu
b u,
wb net,
9 , 0
¸
f
A
A
net,wb
=
w 1 0 ac w
t n d h t ÷ = 9 6 22 430 9 × × ÷ × = 2682 mm
2
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 15 of 15
5  82
F
Rd,n
=
3
10
1 , 1
430
2682 9 , 0
÷
× × = 944 kN
F
Ed
= 370 kN ≤ 944 kN, OK
4.3.2.3. Block tearing resistance
Basic requirement : F
Ed
≤ F
Rd,b
F
Rd,b
=
M0
nv b y,
Mu
nt b u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+
Case 1
A
nt
= ( ) ( )  
0 1 1 1 w
1 1 d n p n t ÷ ÷ ÷ = ( ) ( )   22 1 6 70 1 6 9 ÷ ÷ × ÷
= 2160 mm
2
A
nv
= ( )
0 b , 2 w
5 , 0 2 d e t ÷ = ( ) 22 5 , 0 40 9 2 × ÷ × = 522 mm
2
F
Rd,b
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
522 275
1 , 1
2160 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 927 kN
F
Ed
= 370 ≤ 927 kN, OK
(Case 2 only applies to notched beams)
Part 5: Joint Design
5  83
5 COLUMN SPLICES (BEARING TYPE)
Column splices are designed assuming they must resist both the axial
compression and, where appropriate, a nominal moment from the connection to
the beams.
In bearing type splices, the axial load is transferred directly between the ends
of the column sections (with a division plate if necessary due to the change of
serial size) and not via the splices plates. The plates provide the splice with
adequate stiffness and tying resistance.
5.1 Recommended details
h
h b
b
t
lc
lc
f,uc
w,lc
b
p
uc uc
t
h
2
p
p
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 Web cover plate width > 0,5h
uc
2 Multiple packs thickness t
pa
3 Web cover plate at least 4 no. M20, 8.8 bolts – See notes
For doublesided web cover plates, thickness > t
w,uc
/2
For singlesided web cover plates, thickness > t
w,uc
4 Flange cover plate. Height: h
p
> 2b
uc
and 225 mm; Width: b
p
> b
uc
;
Thickness: t
p
> t
f,uc
/2 and 10 mm
5 Bolts (normally untorqued in clearance holes) – See notes
6 Packs arranged as necessary
7 Wide bolt spacing for joint rigidity
Ends of column sections in direct bearing
Part 5: Joint Design
5  84
>45°
f,uc
t
1
3
4
5
2
1 Cleat length > 0,5h
uc
2 Web angle cleats at least 2 no. M20, 8.8 bolts each side
3 Multiple packs thickness t
pa
4 Flange cover plate as above
5 Division plate thickness should be at least, [(h
lc
– 2t
f,lc
) – (h
uc
– 2t
f,lc
)]/
Direct bearing onto a division plate
h
uc
h
lc
t
buc
blc
b
p
t
w,lc
L
Lj
j
f,uc
h
2
p
p
2
1
3
4
5
6
1 Web cover plate width > 0,5h
uc
2 Web cover plate at least 4 no. M20, 8.8 bolts
3 Flange cover plate. Height: h
p
> 2b
uc
and 450 mm; Width: b
p
> (b
uc
– t
w,lc
– 2r
lc
)/2;
Thickness: t
p
> t
f,uc
/2 and 10 mm, (r
lc
= root radius)
4 Bolts (normally untorqued in clearance holes) – See notes
5 Packs arranged as necessary
6 Wide bolt spacing for joint rigidity
Internal flange cover plates
Part 5: Joint Design
5  85
Notes:
1. Bolt spacing and edge distances should comply with the recommendations
of EN 199318:2005
2. The thickness of the flange cover plate should be at least the minimum of
10, t
f,uc
/2 and p
1
/14.
3. The thickness mentioned in Note 2 is in most cases sufficient to transmit at
least 25% of the maximum compressive force in the column, as required by
EN 199318 [§6.2.7.1(14)].
4. The column splices should be located at approximately 600 mm above floor
beam level. It is also recommended to use a minimum of four bolts. In a
braced frame, columns containing such splices will behave satisfactorily
even if the joint effectively behaves as a pin. In practice, typical bearing
column splices as given in this guide will provide significant stiffness about
both axes, although less than full stiffness.
5. In common practice the width of the flange cover plate would not be greater
than the width of the lower column flange. However if the width of the
flange cover plate is narrower than the upper column flange then edge and
end distances should be checked against the Eurocode (EN 199318
Table 3.3).
If there is significant net tension then the following notes should be adhered to:
6. Bolt diameters must be at least 75% of packing thickness t
pa
[11]
.
7. The number of plies in multiple packs should not exceed four
[11]
.
8. There should not be more than one jump in serial size of column at the
splice.
9. If external and internal flange covers are to be provided, the size should be
similar to those shown in the figures and the combined thickness of the
external and internal cover plates must be at least t
f,uc
/ 2. All cover plates
should be at least 10 mm thick.
Part 5: Joint Design
5  86
5.2 Checks for tension
5.2.1 Net tension
5.2.1.1 Net tension effects
N
Ed, G
M
Ed
V
Ed
V
Ed
) ) ( (
2 2
N N
Ed, G Ed, G
M M
h h
Ed Ed
+ 
The following checks the presence of net tension due to axial load and bending
moment
[4]
:
If M
Ed
≤
2
G Ed,
h N
then net tension does not occur and so the splice need only be
detailed to transmit axial compression by direct bearing.
If M
Ed
>
2
G Ed,
h N
then net tension does occur and the flange cover plates and
their fasteners should be checked for tensile force, F
Ed
.
F
Ed
=
2
Ed,G
Ed
N
h
M
÷
M
Ed
is the nominal moment due to factored permanent and variable loads
(i.e. column design moment) at the floor level immediately below the
splice.
N
Ed,G
is the axial compressive force due to factored permanent loads only.
h is conservatively the overall depth of the smaller column (for external
flange cover plates) or the centreline to centreline distance between
the flange cover plates (for internal flange cover plates).
Preloaded bolts should be used when net tension induces stress in the upper
column flange > 10% of the design strength of that column.
Part 5: Joint Design
5  87
5.2.1.2 Tension resistance of the flange cover plate
Ed
F
Ed
F
1
2
3
1 Column flange
2 Flange cover plate
3 Critical section
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ N
t,Rd
N
t,Rd
= min(N
pl,Rd
; N
u,Rd
; N
bt,Rd
)
Tension resistance of gross section
N
pl,Rd
is the tension plastic resistance of the gross section
N
pl,Rd
=
M0
p y, fp
¸
f A
[EN 199311 §6.2.3(2)]
where:
A
fp
is the gross area of the flange cover plate(s) attached to one flange
Tension resistance of net section
N
u,Rd
is the tension ultimate resistance of the net area
N
u,Rd
=
M2
p u, net fp,
9 , 0
¸
f A
[EN 199311 §6.2.3(2)]
where:
A
fp,net
is the net area of the flange cover plate(s) attached to one flange
A
fp,net
= A
fp
− n
2
d
0
t
p
Part 5: Joint Design
5  88
Block tearing resistance
N
bt,Rd
is the block tearing resistance
2 2 2
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
Figure A
e p e
e
p
e p e
p
e
Figure B
For a concentrically loaded bolt group: N
bt,Rd
= V
eff,1,Rd
V
eff,1,Rd
=
M0
nv fp, p y,
M2
nt fp, p u,
3¸
¸
A f A f
+ [EN 199318 §3.10.2(2)]
For eccentrically loaded bolt group: N
bt,Rd
= V
eff,2,Rd
V
eff,2,Rd
=
M0
nv fp, p y,
M2
nt fp, p u,
3
5 , 0
¸
¸
A f A f
+ [EN 199318 §3.10.2(3)]
where:
f
y,uc
is the yield strength of the upper column
f
u,uc
is the ultimate tensile strength of the the upper column
A
fp,nv
is the net area of the flange cover plate subjected to shear
A
fp,nv
= 2t
p
( e
1
+(n
1
– 1)p
1
– (n
1
– 0,5)d
0
)
A
fp,nt
is the net area of the flange cover plate subjected to tension
If p
2
≤ 2e
2
A
fp,nt
= t
p
( p
2
– d
0
) (Figure A)
If p
2
> 2e
2
A
fp,nt
= t
p
( 2e
2
– d
0
) (Figure B)
¸
M2
is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections
Check for significant net tension:
If
uc y, uc f, uc f,
Ed
f b t
F
> 0,1 then preloaded bolts should be used
[4]
.
where:
t
f,uc
is the flange thickness of the upper column
Part 5: Joint Design
5  89
b
f,uc
is the flange width of the upper column
5.2.1.3 Bolt group resistance
Ed
F
2
p
2
Ed
F
e
p
p
1
1
1
e
1
2
1 Column flange
2 Flange cover plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
F
Rd,fp
is the design resistance of bolt group [EN 199318, §3.7(1)]
F
Rd
= ΣF
b,Rd
if (F
b,Rd
)
max
≤ F
v,Rd
F
Rd
= n
fp
(F
b,Rd
)
min
if (F
b.Rd
)
min
≤ F
v,Rd
≤ (F
b,Rd
)
max
F
Rd
= n
fp
F
v,Rd
if F
v,Rd
≤ (F
b,Rd
)
min
n
fp
is the number of bolts between one flange cover plate and upper column
Shear resistance of bolts
F
v,Rd
is the shear resistance of a single bolt
F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
p
¸
o

A f
[EN 199318, Table 3.4]
where:
o
v
= 0,6 for 4.6 and 8.8 bolts = 0,5 for 10.9 bolts
A is the tensile stress area of the bolt, A
s
β
p
= 1,0 if t
pa
≤ d/3 [EN 199318 §3.6.1(12)]
=
pa
3 8
9
t d
d
+
if t
pa
> d/3
t
pa
is the total thickness of the packing
¸
M2
is the partial factor for resistance of bolts
Part 5: Joint Design
5  90
Check for long joint:
L
j
is the joint length from EN199318
[1]
, § 3.8
If L
j
> 15d the design shear resistance F
v,Rd
should be reduced by multiplying it
by a reduction factor β
Lf
.
d
d L
200
15
1
j
Lf
÷
÷ = 
Bearing resistance
F
b,Rd
is the bearing resistance of a single bolt
F
b,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
[EN 199318 Table 3.4]
Note: If the thickness of the column flange is less than the thickness of the
flange cover plates, then the bearing resistance of the column flange should
also be checked.
For end bolts:
o
b
= min


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
For inner bolts:
o
b
= min


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
For edge bolts:
k
1
= min


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2
0
2
d
e
For inner bolts:
k
1
= min


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1
0
2
d
p
¸
M2
is the partial factor for plate in bearing
Resistance of preloaded bolts:
F
Ed
≤ F
s,Rd
For joints designed to be nonslip under factored loads.
F
s,Rd
is the design slip resistance
=
C p,
M3
fs s
F
n k
¸
u
[EN 199318 §3.9.1(1)]
Part 5: Joint Design
5  91
where:
k
s
= 1.0 for fasteners in standard clearance holes
(Table 3.6 of EN199318)
[1]
n
fs
is the number of friction surfaces
μ is the slip factor (Table 18 of EN10902
[12]
)
F
p,C
=
s ub
7 , 0 A f [EN 199318 §3.6.1(2)]
A
s
is the tensile stress area of the bolt
¸
M3
is the partial factor for slip resistance at ultimate limit state
5.3 Check for horizontal shear
For a bearing type splice, any horizontal shear V
Ed
is assumed to be resisted by
friction across the splice interface
[4]
.
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ shear resistance of splice interface
The coefficient of friction μ
f
for a steel interface depends upon the surface
condition of the steel and on any coatings provided.
Conservatively, for steel with no surface treatment, with mill scale, the
coefficient of friction, μ
f
may be taken as 0,2.
Shear resistance of splice interface = Vertical load × Coefficient of friction
5.4 Checks for vertical tying
tie
tie
F
F
If it is necessary to comply with structural integrity requirements, then checks
4.2.1.2 and 4.2.1.3 should be carried out
[4]
with:
F
Ed
=
2
tie
F
Part 5: Joint Design
5  92
The yield strength should be replaced with the ultimate strength.
The partial safety factors (¸
M0
, ¸
M2
) should also be replaced with the partial
factor for tying resistance. (¸
Mu
= 1,1).
Note:
1. The structural integrity checks are based on the conservative assumption
that the tie force is resisted by the two flange cover plates.
5. F
tie
is the tensile force from EN199117, § A.6.
5 – 93
5.5 Worked Example – Column Splice 1 of 8
Made by CZT Date 06/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by ENM Date 07/2009
5. Column Splice
Details and data
50
50
25
80 35
35
150
150 55 55
260
525
40
160
50
25
50
160
40
HEB 320 x 127
(S355 steel)
HEB 260 x 93
(S355 steel)
Flange cover plates: 2/260 × 12 × 525
Flange packs: 2/260 × 30 × 240
Cleats: 4/90 × 90 × 8 Angles × 150 long
Web Packs: 2/85 × 2 × 150
Division plate: 265 × 25 × 310
Bolts: M20 8.8
Fittings material: S275 steel
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 2 of 8
5 – 94
Summary of full design checks
Design forces
N
Ed,G
= 760 kN
N
Ed,Q
= 870 kN
M
Ed
= 110 kNm (about yy axis of column)
V
Ed
= 60 kN
Unless noted
otherwise, all
references are to
EN 199318
Tension resistances
Net tension
Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate 802 kN
Bolt group resistance 272 kN
Horizontal shear resistance 161 kN
Tying resistances
Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate 912 kN
Bolt group resistance 308 kN
5.1. Recommended details
External flange cover plates
Height, h
p
> 2b
uc
and 450 mm
Width, b
p
> b
uc
= 260 mm Say 260 mm, OK
Maximum vertical bolt spacing, p
1
= 14t
p
, i.e. minimum thickness is p
1
/14
Thickness, t
p
>
2
uc f,
t
and 10 mm and
14
1
p
=
2
5 , 17
and 10 mm and
14
160
= 8,75 mm and 10 mm and 11,4 mm
Say 12 mm, OK
Packs, t
pa
=
2
uc lc
h h ÷
=
2
260 320 ÷
= 30 mm
Say 30 mm, OK
Division plate
Thickness >
( ) ( )  
2
2 2
uc f, uc lc f, lc
t h t h ÷ ÷ ÷
=
( ) ( )  
2
5 , 17 2 260 5 , 20 2 320 × ÷ ÷ × ÷
= 27 mm
Say 25mm, OK
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 3 of 8
5 – 95
Web cleats
Use 90×90×8 angles to accommodate M20 bolts in opposite positions on
adjoining legs.
Length > 0,5h
uc
= 0,5 × 260 = 130 mm Say 150 mm, OK
Packs, t
pa
=
2
uc w, lc w,
t t ÷
=
2
10 5 , 11 ÷
= 0,8 mm Say 2 mm, OK
5.2. Checks for vertical shear
5.2.1. Net tension
5.2.1.1. Net tension effects
Basic requirement for no net tension: M
Ed
≤
2
G Ed,
h N ×
2
G Ed,
h N ×
=
3
10
2
260 760
÷
×
×
= 99 kNm
M
Ed
= 110 kNm > 99 kNm
Net tension does occur and the flange cover plates and their fastenings must
be checked for a tensile force F
Ed
.
F
Ed
=
2
Ed,G
Ed
N
h
M
÷ =
2
760
10 260
110
3
÷
×
÷
= 43 kN
5.2.1.2. Tension resistance of the flange cover plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ N
t,Rd
Where N
t,Rd
= ( )
Rd bt, Rd u, Rd pl,
; ; min N N N
Tension resistance of gross section
N
pl,Rd
=
M0
p y, fp
¸
f A
EN 199311
§ 6.2.3(2)
Gross area, A
fp
= 260×12 = 3120 mm
2
N
pl,Rd
=
3
10
0 , 1
275 3120
÷
×
×
= 858 kN
Tension resistance of net section
N
u,Rd
=
M2
p u, net fp,
9 , 0
¸
f A
EN 199311
§ 6.2.3(2)
Net area, A
fp,net
= 260×12 – 2×22×12 = 2592 mm
2
N
u,Rd
=
3
10
25 , 1
430 2592 9 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 802 kN
Thus N
u,Rd
= 802 kN
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 4 of 8
5 – 96
Block tearing resistance
For concentrically loaded bolt group: N
bt,Rd
= V
eff,1,Rd
§ 3.10.2(3)
2e
2
= 2×55 = 110 mm
p
2
= 150 ≤ 2e
2
Hence
A
fp,nt
= t
p
( 2e
2
– d
0
) = 12 (2×55 – 22) = 1056 mm
2
A
fp,nv
= 2t
p
( e
1
+(n
1
– 1)p
1
– (n
1
– 0,5)d
0
)
= 2×12 (40 + (2 – 1)×160 – (2 – 0,5)×22) = 4008 mm
2
V
eff,1,Rd
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
4008 275
25 , 1
1056 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 1000 kN
N
bt,Rd
= 1000 kN
N
t,Rd
= min(858; 802; 1000) = 802 kN
F
Ed
= 43 kN ≤ 802 kN, OK
Check for the suitability of ordinary bolts.
(It is sufficiently accurate to base this calculation on the gross area of the
flange)
Ref [4]
uc y, uc f, uc f,
Ed
f b t
F
=
355 260 5 , 12
10 43
3
× ×
×
= 0,04 < 0,1
There is no significant net tension in the column flange and the use of
ordinary bolts in clearance holes is satisfactory.
5.2.1.3. Bolt group resistance
= 40
1
1
2
e
= 160
p
2
p e
=150 = 55
1
1 Flange cover plate
Shear and bearing resistance of the flange cover plate
Basic requirement: F
Ed
≤ F
Rd
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 5 of 8
5 – 97
The design resistance of the bolt group, F
Rd,fp
:
Rd b, Rd
ΣF F = if ( )
Rd v,
max
Rd b,
F F s
min Rd b, fp Rd
) (F n F = if
max Rd b, Rd v, min Rd b,
) ( ) ( F F F < s
Rd v, fp Rd
F n F = if ( )
min
Rd b, Rd v,
F F <
§ 3.7
Shear resistance of bolts
The shear resistance of a single bolt, F
v,Rd
=
M2
ub v
¸
o A f
Table 3.4
A factor to account for the long joint effect must be introduced if L
j
> 15d § 3.8
15d = 15×20 = 300 mm
L
j
= 160 mm, < 15d
Therefore there is no long joint effect.
Total thickness of flange pack, t
pa
= 30mm > 7 , 6
3
=
d
mm
Therefore F
v,Rd
must be multiplied by a reduction factor β
p
.
β
p
=
pa
3 8
9
t d
d
+
=
30 3 20 8
20 9
× + ×
×
= 0,72
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
25 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
72 , 0
× ×
× ×10
3
= 68 kN
Bearing resistance
Bearing resistance, F
b,Rd
=
M2
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
For edge bolts, k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
d
e
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
55
8 , 2 min
= ( ) 5 , 2 ; 3 , 5 min = 2,5
For end bolts α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
For inner bolts, α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ; 25 , 0
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
=

.

\

÷
×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
; 25 , 0
22 3
160
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 17 , 2 min = 1,0
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 6 of 8
5 – 98
End bolts, F
b,Rd,end
= ( )
min
Rd b,
F =
3
10
25 , 1
12 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 126 kN
Inner bolts, F
b,Rd,inner
= ( )
max
Rd b,
F =
3
10
25 , 1
12 20 430 0 , 1 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 206 kN
Thus F
v,Rd
< ( )
min
Rd b,
F
F
Rd
= n
fp
× F
v,Rd
= 4×68 = 272 kN
F
Ed
= 43 kN ≤ 272 kN, OK
5.2.2. Check for horizontal shear
For a bearing type splice, any horizontal shear V
Ed
is assumed to be resisted
by friction across the splice interface.
Ref [4]
Basic requirement: V
Ed
≤ shear resistance of splice interface
Vertical load with coexistent shear
2
G Ed,
Ed
N
h
M
+ =
2
760
260
10 110
3
+
×
= 803 kN
Shear resistance of splice interface: 803×0,2 = 161kN
V
Ed
= 60 kN ≤ 161 kN, OK
5.3. Structural integrity
5.3.1. Tying force
Check 4.2.1.2 and 4.2.1.3 should be carried out with:
F
Ed
=
2
tie
F
F
tie
= 43 2 2
Ed
× = × F = 86 kN
5.3.2. Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate
Basic requirement: F
tie
≤ N
t,Rd
Where N
t,Rd
= ( )
Rd bt, Rd u, Rd pl,
; ; min N N N
5.3.2.1. Tension resistance of the gross area
N
pl,Rd
=
Mu
p u, fp
¸
f A
EN 199311
§ 6.2.3(2)
Gross area, A
fp
= 260×12 = 3120 mm
2
N
pl,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
430 3120
÷
×
×
= 1220 kN
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 7 of 8
5 – 99
5.3.2.2. Tension resistance of the net area
N
u,Rd
=
Mu
p u, net fp,
9 , 0
¸
f A
EN 199311
§ 6.2.3(2)
Net area, A
fp,net
= 260×12 – 2×22×12 = 2592 mm
2
N
u,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
430 2592 9 , 0
÷
×
× ×
= 912 kN
Thus N
u,Rd
= 912 kN
5.3.2.3. Block tearing resistance
For concentrically loaded bolt group: N
bt,Rd
= V
eff,1,Rd
Table 3.4
2e
2
= 2×55 = 110 mm
p
2
= 150 ≤ 2e
2
Hence
A
fp,nt
= t
p
( 2e
2
– d
0
) = 12 (2×55 – 22) = 1056 mm
2
A
fp,nv
= 2t
p
( e
1
+(n
1
– 1)p
1
– (n
1
– 0,5)d
0
)
= 2×12 [40 + (2 – 1)×160 – (2 – 0,5)×22] = 4008 mm
2
V
eff,1,Rd
=
3
10
0 , 1 3
4008 275
1 , 1
1056 430
÷
×


.

\

×
×
+
×
= 1049 kN
N
bt,Rd
= 1049 kN
N
t,Rd
= min(1220; 912; 1049) = 802 kN
F
tie
= 86 kN ≤ 912 kN, OK
5.3.2.4. Bolt group resistance
Shear and bearing resistance of the flange cover plate
Basic requirement: F
tie
≤ F
Rd
The design resistance of the bolt group, F
Rd,fp
:
Rd b, Rd
ΣF F = if ( )
Rd v,
max
Rd b,
F F s
min Rd b, fp Rd
) ( F n F = if
max Rd b, Rd v, min Rd b,
) ( ) ( F F F < s
Rd v, fp Rd
F n F = if ( )
min
Rd b, Rd v,
F F <
§ 3.7
Shear resistance of bolts
The shear resistance of a single bolt, F
v,Rd
=
Mu
ub v
¸
o A f
Table 3.4
A factor to account for the long joint effect must be introduced if L
j
> 15d
15d = 15×20 = 300 mm
L
j
= 160 mm, < 15d
Title 5.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 8 of 8
5 – 100
Therefore there is no long joint effect.
Total thickness of flange pack, t
pa
= 30mm > 7 , 6
3
=
d
mm
Therefore F
v,Rd
must be multiplied by a reduction factor β
p
.
β
p
=
pa
3 8
9
t d
d
+
=
30 3 20 8
20 9
× + ×
×
= 0,72
For M20 8.8 bolts, F
v,Rd
=
3
10
1 , 1
245 800 6 , 0
72 , 0
÷
×
× ×
× = 77 kN
Bearing resistance
Bearing resistance, F
b,Rd
=
Mu
p p u, b 1
¸
o dt f k
Table 3.4
For edge bolts, k
1
=


.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 min
0
2
d
e
=

.

\

÷ 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1
22
55
8 , 2 min
= ( ) 5 , 2 ; 3 , 5 min = 2,5
For end bolts α
b
=


.

\

0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
e
=

.

\

×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
;
22 3
40
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 61 , 0 min = 0,61
For inner bolts, α
b
=


.

\

÷ 0 , 1 ; ; 25 , 0
3
min
p u,
ub
0
1
f
f
d
p
=

.

\

÷
×
0 , 1 ;
430
800
; 25 , 0
22 3
160
min
= ( ) 0 , 1 ; 86 , 1 ; 17 , 2 min = 1,0
End bolts, F
b,Rd,end
= ( )
min
Rd b,
F =
3
10
1 , 1
12 20 430 61 , 0 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 143kN
Inner bolts, F
b,Rd,inner
= ( )
max
Rd b,
F =
3
10
1 , 1
12 20 430 0 , 1 5 , 2
÷
×
× × × ×
= 235 kN
Thus F
v,Rd
< ( )
min
Rd b,
F
F
Rd
= n
fp
× F
v,Rd
= 4×77 = 308 kN
F
tie
= 86 kN ≤ 308 kN, OK
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 101
6 COLUMN BASES
This design method applied to fixed bases of I section columns transmitting an
axial compressive force, and a shear force (i.e. a nominally pinned column
base). The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a
symmetrically position so that it has projections beyond the column flange
outer edges on all sides.
6.1 Base plate size
p
f
b b
p f
b
h
h
h
Basic requirement: A
p
> A
req
[Reference 4]
A
p
= area of base plate
= h
p
b
p
for rectangular plates
A
req
= required area of base plate
=
jd
Ed
f
F
f
jd
=
3
2
of
cd
where:
o =
( )
,
, max
1 min
p p
f


.

\

+
b h
d


.

\

+


.

\

+ 3 , 2 1 , 2 1
p
b
p
h
b
e
h
e
[Reference 3]
If some dimensions are unknown, a value of o = 1,5 is generally appropriate.
h
p
is the length of the base plate
b
p
is the width of the base plate
d
f
is the depth of the concrete foundation
h
f
is the length of the concrete foundation
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 102
b
f
is the width of the concrete foundation
t
f
is the flange thickness of the column
e
b
is the additional width outside of the base plate
= ( ) 2 / 2
f f
t b b ÷ ÷
e
h
is the additional depth outside of the base plate
= ( ) 2 / 2
f f
t h h ÷ ÷
f
cd
=
c
ck
cc
¸
o
f
[EN 199211, §3.1.6(1)]
α
cc
is a coefficient that takes into account long term effects on the
compressive strength and of unfavorable effects resulting from the
way the load is applied.
[13]
¸
c
is the material factor for concrete from EN 199211, §2.4.2.4
[13]
Concrete class C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45
Cylinder strength, fck (N/mm2) 20 25 30 35
Cube strength, fck,cube (N/mm2) 25 30 37 45
6.2 Calculation of c
eff
p
p
h
b
2 + c t
f
A
c
1
Projection, c
t
f
= flange thickness
t
w
= web thickness
Basic requirement: A
req
= A
eff
 If 2c ≤
f
2t h ÷ , then there is no overlap.
Thus c may be calculated from the following equations for I and H sections:
A
eff
≈ 4c
2
+ Per
col
c + A
col
where:
A
col
is the cross sectional area of the column
Per
col
is the column perimeter
 If 2c >
f
2t h ÷ , then there is an overlap.
Thus c may be calculated from the following equations for I and H sections:
A
eff
≈ 4c
2
+ 2(h + b)c + h × b
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 103
To ensure that the effective area fits on the base plate:
h + 2c < h
p
b + 2c < b
p
6.3 Base plate thickness
eff
p
2 + c t
f
A
c
t
Basic requirement: t
p
≥ t
p,min
t
p,min
=
yp
M0 jd
3
f
f
c
¸
[Reference 3]
where:
f
yp
is the yield strength of the base plate
f
jd
=
3
2
of
cd
f
cd
=
c
ck
cc
¸
o
f
o, α
cc
, ¸
c
, f
ck
, and c are as defined previously.
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 104
6.4 Base plate welds
N
Ed
V
Ed
t
p
Basic requirement:
For shear: V
Ed
s F
w,Rd
× ℓ
weld,shear
[Reference 4]
For axial load:
This check is only necessary when the contact faces of the column and base
plate are not in tight bearing. See Reference
[4]
for more details.
F
Ed
s F
w,Rd
× ℓ
weld,axial
where:
F
w,Rd
is the resistance of the fillet weld per unit length = f
vw,d
× a
f
vw,d
=
M2 w
u
3
¸ 
f
[EN 199318 §4.5.3.3(3)]
f
u
is ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined

w
= 0,8 for S235 steel
= 0,85 for S275 steel
= 0,9 for S355 steel
= 1,0 for S460 steel
a is the weld throat
ℓ
weld,shear
is total effective length of the welds in the direction of shear
ℓ
weld,shear
= ( ) s l 2 2 ÷ (for IPE, HE, HD sections)
l is the weld length in the direction of shear
ℓ
weld,axial
is the total effective length of the welds to the column flange for
rolled sections
¸
M2
is the partial factor for welds from EN 199318
The leg length is defined as follows: 2 a s =
5 – 105
6.5 Worked Example – Column base 1 of 3
Made by CZT Date 06/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by ENM Date 07/2009
6. Column base
Details and data
600
100
2
50
f = 30N/mm
600
Ed
N
= 4300kN
= 100kN Ed V
ck
1
2
3
4
HD 320 x 127
S355
1 600 × 600 × 50 Base plate S275
2 8 mm fillet welds
3 M24 grade 4.6 holding down bolts
4 Contact faces of the column and the base plate are in direct bearing
Unless noted
otherwise, all
references are to
EN 199318
Title 6.5 Worked Example – Column base 2 of 3
5 – 106
6.1. Base plate size
Basic requirement: A
p
> A
req
Area of base plate: A
p
= h
p
× b
p
= 600 × 600 = 360000 mm
2
Design strength of the concrete: f
cd
=
c
ck
cc
¸
o
f
=
5 , 1
30
0 , 1 × = 20 N/mm
2
Area required: A
req
=
jd
Ed
f
N
=
20 5 , 1
3
2
10 4300
3
× ×
×
= 215000 mm
2
Ref [3]
f
cd
from
EN 199211
§3.1.6(1)
α
cc
from
EN 199211
§3.1.6(1)
¸
C
from
EN 199211
Table 2.1N
A
p
= 360000 mm
2
> 215000 mm
2
OK
6.2. Calculation of c
A
eff
p
f
+ 2 t c
b +2 b
p
h
+2
h
t
f
t
w
t
w
+2c
h c
b c
Basic requirement: A
eff
= A
req
To calculate the effective area, assume first that there is no overlap.
A
eff
≈ 4c
2
+ Per
col
c + A
col
Column perimeter Per
col
= 1771 mm
Area of column A
col
= 16130 mm
2
A
eff
≈ 4c
2
+ 1771c + 16130 = 215000 = A
req
c = 93 mm
To ensure that there is no overlap, c has to be less than half the depth between
flanges:
2
2
f
t h ÷
=
2
5 , 20 2 320 × ÷
= 139,5 mm > 93 mm
Therefore the assumption that there is no overlap is correct.
Title 6.5 Worked Example – Column base 3 of 3
5 – 107
To check that the effective area fits on the base plate:
h + 2c = 93 2 320 × + = 506 mm < 600 mm
b + 2c = 93 2 300 × + = 486 mm < 600 mm
Therefore the calculated value of c is valid (otherwise recalculate c).
6.3. Base plate thickness
t
p,min
=
p y,
M0 jd
3
f
f
c
¸
Ref (3)
f
jd
= 20 5 , 1
3
2
3
2
cd
× × = f o = 20 N/mm
2
Yield strength of the 50 mm plate, f
y,p
= 255 N/mm
2
t
p,min
=
255
0 , 1 20 3
93
× ×
= 45 mm
t
p
= 50 mm > 45 mm OK
6.4. Base plate welds (Shear resistance of columnto
base weld)
Basic requirement: V
Ed
s
eff,shear Rd w,
l F ×
Ref [4]
Ultimate tensile strength of the 50 mm plate, f
u,p
= 410 N/mm
2
F
w,Rd
= a f ×
d vw,
= a
f
×
M2 w
u
3
¸ 
= 8 7 , 0
25 , 1 85 , 0
3 410
× ×
×
= 1248 N/mm
ℓ
eff,shear
= 2 (l – 2s) = ( ) 8 2 100 2 × ÷ = 168 mm
F
w,Rd
×ℓ
eff,shear
=
3
10 168 1248
÷
× × = 210 kN
F
w,Rd
from
§ 4.5.3.3(3)
V
Ed
= 100 kN ≤ 210 kN OK
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 108
APPENDIX A Lateral torsional buckling strength
Lateral torsional buckling strength taken from BS 59501 Table 17
[10]
Lateral torsional buckling strength (N/mm
2
)
Steel grade
ì
LT
S275 S355
235 245 255 265 275 315 325 335 345 355
25 235 245 255 265 275 315 325 335 345 355
30 235 245 255 265 275 315 325 335 345 355
35 235 245 255 265 272 300 307 314 321 328
40 224 231 237 244 250 276 282 288 295 301
45 206 212 218 224 230 253 259 265 270 276
50 190 196 201 207 212 233 238 243 248 253
55 175 180 185 190 195 214 219 223 227 232
60 162 167 171 176 180 197 201 205 209 212
65 150 154 158 162 166 183 188 194 199 204
70 139 142 146 150 155 177 182 187 192 196
75 130 135 140 145 151 170 175 179 184 188
80 126 131 136 141 146 163 168 172 176 179
85 122 127 131 136 140 156 160 164 167 171
90 118 123 127 131 135 149 152 156 159 162
95 114 118 122 125 129 142 144 146 148 150
100 110 113 117 120 123 132 134 136 137 139
105 106 109 112 115 117 123 125 126 128 129
110 101 104 106 107 109 115 116 117 119 120
115 96 97 99 101 102 107 108 109 110 111
120 90 91 93 94 96 100 101 102 103 104
125 85 86 87 89 90 94 95 96 96 97
130 80 81 82 83 84 88 89 90 90 91
135 75 76 77 78 79 83 83 84 85 85
140 71 72 73 74 75 78 78 79 80 80
145 67 68 69 70 71 73 74 74 75 75
150 64 64 65 66 67 69 70 70 71 71
155 60 61 62 62 63 65 66 66 67 67
160 57 58 59 59 60 62 62 63 63 63
165 54 55 56 56 57 59 59 59 60 60
170 52 52 53 53 54 56 56 56 57 57
175 49 50 50 51 51 53 53 53 54 54
180 47 47 48 48 49 50 51 51 51 51
185 45 45 46 46 46 48 48 48 49 49
190 43 43 44 44 44 46 46 46 46 47
195 41 41 42 42 42 43 44 44 44 44
200 39 39 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 42
210 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39
220 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36
230 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 33 33 33
240 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30
250 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28
Part 5: Joint Design
5 – 109
REFERENCES
1 EN 199318:2005: Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures. Design of joints
2 EN 199117: 2006: Eurocode 1 Actions on structures. General actions.
Accidental actions
3 Detailed European design guides to the Eurocode. (http://www.accesssteel.com)
4 Joints in steel construction: Simple connections
Steel Construction Institute, 2002
5 CHENG, J. J. R. and YURA, J. A.
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, October 1986
Local web buckling of coped beams
6 CHENG, J. J. R, YURA, J. A. and JOHNSON. C. P.
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Austin
Design and behaviour of coped beams
PMFSEL Report No. 841, July 1984
7 JARRETT, N. D.
Tests on beam/column web side plate connections
BRE Client Report CR 54/90
Building Research Establishment, Watford, September 1990.
8 JASPART, J.P., DEMONCEAU, J.F.,.RENKIN, S., and GUILLAUME, M. L.
European recommendation for the design of simple joints in steel structures
Publication n°126, First edition,
ECCS, 2009
9 RENKIN, S.
Development of a European process for the design of simple structural joint in
steel frames (in French): Diploma work,
University of Liege, June 2003.
10 BS 59501:2000 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for
design. Rolled and welded sections
BSI, 2000
11 YURA, J. A., HANSEN, M. A. and FRANK, K. H.
Bolted splice connections with undeveloped fillers
Journal of the Structural Division
ASCE, December 1982
12 EN 10902:2008: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures.
Technical requirements for the execution of steel structures
13 EN 199211:2004: Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures. General rules and
rules for buildings
Flow charts
Flow charts for End plate, Fin plate and Column bases are available on the
Access Steel web site (http://www.accesssteel.com)
The document references for these joint types are as follows:
Partial depth end plate SF008a
Fin plate SF009a
Column bases SF010a
MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 5: Joint Design
5 .ii .
MultiStorey Steel Buildings. The two design guides have been produced in the framework of the European project “Facilitating the market development for sections in industrial halls and low rise buildings (SECHALO) RFS2CT20080030”. The second design guide is Single Storey Steel Buildings. The 10 parts in the MultiStorey Steel Buildings guide are: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Part 5: Part 6: Part 7: Part 8: Part 9: Part 10: Architect’s guide Concept design Actions Detailed design Joint design Fire Engineering Model construction specification Description of member resistance calculator Description of simple connection resistance calculator Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams MultiStorey Steel Buildings is one of two design guides.Part 5: Joint Design FOREWORD This publication is part five of a design guide. collaborating as the Steel Alliance. 5 . Peiner Träger and Corus.iii . The technical content has been prepared by CTICM and SCI. The design guides have been prepared under the direction of Arcelor Mittal.
Part 5: Joint Design 5 .iv .
5 Worked Example – Column Splice COLUMN BASES 6.2 Checks for vertical shear 4.6 Symbols PARTIAL DEPTH END PLATE 2.Part 5: Joint Design Contents Page No FOREWORD SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.3 Standardised joints 1.5 Worked Example – Column base LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING STRENGTH III VII 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 12 14 21 21 22 33 38 51 51 52 63 68 83 83 86 91 91 93 101 101 102 103 104 105 108 109 2 3 4 5 6 APPENDIX A REFERENCES 5v .2 Checks for vertical shear 3.1 About this design guide 1.3 Checks for tying 3.4 Tying resistance 1.4 Base plate welds 6.3 Checks for tying 4.4 Checks for vertical tying 5.1 Recommended details 2.4 Worked Example: Fin Plate DOUBLE ANGLE WEB CLEATS 4.3 Check for horizontal shear 5.2 Checks for vertical shear 2.4 Worked Example: Angle Web Cleats COLUMN SPLICES (BEARING TYPE) 5.1 Recommended details 3.2 Joint behaviour 1.1 Base plate size 6.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate FIN PLATE 3.3 Checks for tying 2.5 Design guidance in this publication 1.2 Calculation of c 6.1 Recommended details 5.1 Recommended details 4.2 Checks for tension 5.3 Base plate thickness 6.
vi .Part 5: Joint Design 5 .
The guide covers different types of joints: Beamtobeam and beamtocolumn joints Partial depth flexible end plate Fin plate Double angle web cleats Column splices Column bases Each design procedure is illustrated by a worked example. 5 .vii . using the recommended values given in the Eurocodes.Part 5: Joint Design SUMMARY This design guide gives the design procedure for simple joints in multistorey buildings according to the Eurocodes.
viii .Part 5: Joint Design 5 .
Whilst the Eurocodes establish a common framework for structural calculations across Europe. This publication is complemented by a spreadsheet design tool which allows for NDP for a range of countries. 5–1 . The spreadsheet covers all the joint types included in this publication and can be used in various languages. structural safety remains each country’s responsibility. These are given in the National Annex (NA) documents. designed according to the Eurocodes. Design procedures are provided for: Beamtobeam and beamtocolumn joints Partial depth flexible end plates (also known as header plates) Fin plates Double angle web cleats Column splices Column bases The design procedures start with recommended detailing rules (joint geometry) required to ensure ductile behaviour. followed by the checks for each stage of the load transition through the complete joint including welds. § 5.1. In other words.1[1]. plates. In this publication the recommended values given in the Eurocode have been adopted in the worked examples. in which the joint may be assumed not to transfer bending moments. called National Determined Parameters (NDP).Part 5: Joint Design 1 1.2 Joint behaviour Normal practice in simple construction is for beams to be designed as simply supported and for columns to be designed for both the axial compression and. For this reason there are some parameters. In order to ensure that the structure behaves appropriately it is necessary to provide ‘simple’ connections (‘nominally pinned’ joints) as defined in EN 199318. However the Eurocode gives some recommendations as to what value each NDP should take. a nominal moment from the beam end connections.1 INTRODUCTION About this design guide This technical guide is for designing simple joints (nominally pinned) for use in braced multistorey buildings. 1. In designing the structure the NDP should be taken from the NA from the country where the structure is to be built. bolts and the section webs or flanges as appropriate. where appropriate. the joints possess sufficient rotation capacity and sufficient ductility. which complement the core Eurocodes. which each country can decide upon.
Generally.2 of the same document. the requirements for nominally pinned behaviour are met by the use of relatively thin plates. calculated in accordance with Section 6.8 bolts leads to connections which behave as nominal pins. bolts. Alternatively. experience of previous satisfactory performance in similar cases or by calculations based on test evidence. they are assumed to transfer only the design shear reaction between members 2. fabrication and erection labour content – they will not necessarily be the lightest. 1. storage. Use of standardised joints where the fittings.Part 5: Joint Design Nominally pinned joints have the following characteristics: 1. joints may also be classified based on experimental evidence. and handling time Improves availability and leads to a reduction in material costs Saves fabrication time and leads to faster erection Leads to a better understanding of their performance by all sides of the industry 5–2 . Classification by strength: the following two requirements must be satisfied in order to classify a joint as pinned: the moment resistance of the joint does not exceed 25% of the moment resistance required for a fullstrength joint the joint is capable of accepting the rotation resulting from the design loads. with M20 8. they provide the directional restraint to members which has been assumed in the member design 4. but 30% or more of the total cost. Experience and testing have demonstrated that the use of 8 mm or 10 mm end plates. welds and geometry are fully defined offers the following benefits: Reduces buying.3. Classification by stiffness: the initial rotational stiffness of the joint.1 of EN 199318 is compared with the classification boundaries given in Section 5. the joints may account for less than 5% of the frame weight.3 Standardised joints In a typical braced multistorey frame. fin plates and angles in S275. the connection should be classified in accordance with EN 199318. If details are chosen outside these recommended parameters. EN 199318[1] provides two methods to classify joints: stiffness and strength. combined with full strength welds. Efficient joints will therefore have the lowest detailing. they are capable of accepting the resulting rotation 3. they have sufficient robustness to satisfy the structural integrity requirements.
The guidance covers: partial depth flexible end plates fin plates double angle web cleats column splices column bases. A summary of the typical components adopted in this guide is as follows: Material of grade S275 for components such as end plates and cleats M20 8. 5–3 . cleat or fin plate is 50 mm below the top of the beam flange. Other authoritative sources[3] recommend that the ultimate tensile strength (fu) should be used for calculating the tying resistance and the partial factor for tying Mu should be taken as 1. EN 199318 does not give any guidance on how to calculate the tying resistance of joints. 60 mm long 22 mm holes. plate and beam. This value applies to the design resistance of all components of the joint: welds. 1.10.4 Tying resistance The requirement for sufficient tying resistance is to safeguard the structure against disproportionate collapse. To take advantage of these benefits. design checks are presented followed in each case by a numerical worked example. the section headings correspond to the headings in the design procedure preceeding each workded example. standardised joints are recommended in this publication.5 Design guidance in this publication In this publication. punched or drilled Fillet welds of 6 mm or 8 mm leg length Distance from the top of the beam to the first bolt row of 90 mm Vertical bolt spacing (pitch) of 70 mm Horizontal bolt spacing (gauge) of 90 or 140 mm Top of partial depth end plate.Part 5: Joint Design Leads to fewer errors.8 fully threaded bolts. Guidance on the design tying force that a connection must carry is given in EN 199117 Annex A[2]. bolts. In all worked examples. 1.
fin plate. fin plate. Flange cover plate.0 is recommended in EN 199311) is the partial factor for the resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks (M1 = 1.b fy.b fu. flange cover plate) is the height of the angle cleats is the total number of bolts on supported beam side is the total number of bolts on supporting beam side is the number of horizontal bolt rows is the number of vertical bolt rows is the flange thickness of the supported beam is the thickness of the supported beam web is the thickness of the plate (End plate. Base plate) is the thickness of the angle cleats is the leg length of the fillet weld is the partial factor for the resistance of cross section (M0 = 1.p fy.ac fub hb hp hac nb ns n1 n2 tf tw tp tac s is the throat of the fillet weld is the breadth of the supported beam is the diameter of the bolt is the diameter of the hole is the yield strength of the supported beam is the ultimate tensile strength of the supported beam is the yield strength of the plate (end plate. flange cover plate.0 is recommended in EN 199311) M0 M1 5–4 .p fu. base plate) is the yield strength of the angle cleats is the ultimate tensile strength of the angle cleats is the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is the height of the supported beam is the height of the plate (end plate.ac fu.Part 5: Joint Design 1.6 Symbols a b d d0 fy. Fin plate. fin plate. base plate) is the ultimate tensile strength of the plate (end plate. flange cover plate.
Part 5: Joint Design 2 2.s tf tf. p3. tp tp = 10 mm or 12 mm (see note 2) Bolt diameter. d Hole diameter.1 PARTIAL DEPTH END PLATE Recommended details 1 4 hp hb 5 2 3 8 7 p3 6 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 Length of end plate hp 0. 5–5 . The end plate is generally positioned close to the top flange of the beam to provide adequate positional restraint. A plate length of at least 0. it is not recommended in practice because of the likelihood of distortion during fabrication and damage during transportation. Although it may be possible to satisfy the design requirements with tp < 8 mm. d0 d0 = d + 2 mm for d 24 mm d0 = d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gauge. 2. 90 mm p3 140 mm 10 mm clearance 50 mm but (tf.6hb (see Note 1) Face of beam or column Plate thickness.s – 50 mm) but (hb – tf – r) Supported beam (double notched) Supporting beam hb hb.s + rs) and (tf + r) Supported beam (single notched) (hb.6hb is usually adopted to give nominal torsional restraint.s r rs Notes: is the height of the supported beam is the height of the supporting beam (if applicable) is the thickness of the flange of the supported beam is the thickness of the flange of the supporting beam (if applicable) is the root radius of the supported beam is the root radius of the supporting beam (if applicable) 1.
Rd Mv.DN.N.Part 5: Joint Design 2.2.Rd = A v f y.2 is the shear area. Mv.Rd is the moment resistance of a double notched supported beam at the notch in the presence of shear.DN.2 2. 5–6 .Rd isthe moment resistance of a single notched supported beam at the notch in the presence of shear.1 Checks for vertical shear Shear resistance of the beam web 1 hp hp hp VEd VEd VEd 1 Critical length of web for shear Shear resistance of the beam web at the end plate Basic requirement: V Ed V c. Vc. Av = hptw tp l n d nt d nt tp l n = Vpl.Rd Vc.Rd where: Av 2.b / 3 M0 [EN 199311.6(1)] [Reference 8] Bending resistance at the notch hb dnb 1 VEd VEd 1 1 Critical section VEd (tp + ln) Mv.2.Rd is the design shear resistance of the supported beam connected to the end plate.N. §6.2.Rd or Mv.
Part 5: Joint Design 2.Rd) Mv. DN.Rd Mv.2.Rd = hb d nt d nb 2 2 2V Ed 1 1 Vpl.Rd = Av. VEd > 0.e.N.Rd) 2 f y.y dnt dnb is the elastic modulus of the section at the notch is the depth of the top notch is the depth of the bottom notch = tw (hb – dnt – dnb) 5–7 .2 For double notched beam: For low shear (i.N. Rd [Reference 4] Vpl.N.bt w 6 M0 Mv.DN.5Vpl.N ATee = ATee – btf + (tw + 2r) tf 2 is the area of the Tee section A v.Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams Vpl.Rd = A v.Rd = f y. y M0 [Reference 4] For high shear (i.5Vpl. VEd ≤ 0.e.N.b 3 M0 Av. N f y.e.DN.DN f y.1 For a single notched beam: For low shear (i. y 2VEd 1 1 = M0 Vpl.DN.DN. VEd > 0.DN.5Vpl.N.N.Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams Vpl.b W el.b 3 M0 Vpl.Rd [Reference 4] 2. N.5Vpl. N.DN.b t w 6 M0 ( h b d nt d nb ) 2 [Reference 4] For high shear (i.2.Rd = f y.e.b W el.Rd) Mv.2.DN where: Wel. N.N.2.Rd) f y. VEd ≤ 0.
0 (S355 steel) ln ln hb 110000 h b h b / t w 3 > 48. either suitable stiffening should be provided or the notch should be checked to References 5. 6 and 7.0 (S355 steel) For both flanges notched.3 Local stability of notched beam ln ln d nt dnt hb hb dnb ln When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling.2. 6 and 7. basic requirement:[7] max (dnt. no account needs be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met: For one flange notched.0 (S355 steel) hb 110000 h b hb tw 3 for > 48.3 (S275 steel) 160000 h b h b / t w 3 for for for hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw > 54. basic requirement:[5][6] dnt ln ln hb / 2 hb and: for hb / tw 54.3 (S275 steel) 160000 h b hb 3 for for > 54. For S235 and S460 members see References 5. 5–8 .3 (S275 steel) 48.0 (S355 steel) Where the notch length ln exceeds these limits.3 (S275 steel) 48.Part 5: Joint Design 2. dnb) hb / 5 and: ln ln ln ln hb for tw hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw 54.
As [EN 199318.6 and 8.8 bolts = 0.2.Rd < (Fb.1 Shear resistance of bolts Fv.Rd is the shear resistance of one bolt Fv.4 Bolt group resistance 1 1 e1 e1 2 2 1 2 3 Check these bolts in shear under concentric load Supporting beam Supporting column Basic requirement: VEd FRd FRd is the resistance of the bolt group then then then [EN 199318 . Table 3.Rd)min FRd = 0. ub .0 3d 0 f u.2 Bearing resistance Fb.4.2.2.Part 5: Joint Design 2. 1.Rd)max Fv.4.p dt p M2 [EN 199318 Table 3.Rd If (Fb.Rd FRd = ns(Fb.Rd where: = v f ub A M2 = 0.8nsFv.4] M2 is the partial factor for plate in bearing For end bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer) e f b = min 1 .7(1)] FRd = Fb.Rd where: = k 1 b f u.Rd)min Fv.9 bolts is the tensile stress area of the bolt.Rd)min 2.p 5–9 .Rd)max If Fv.6 for 4.Rd If (Fb.4] v A M2 is the partial factor for resistance of bolts 2.5 for 10.Rd (Fb.§3.
4 2 1. ub . 5 – 10 .5 d 0 2.g is the shear resistance of the gross section VRd.5.b is the block tearing resistance 2.p For edge bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer) e k1 = min 2. 27 f y.n.n is the shear resistance of the net section VRd. 1.g.Part 5: Joint Design For inner bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer) p 1 f b = min 1 .min VRd.27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in the bolts[9].5 Shear resistance of the end plate 1 2 e1 n1 e1 e2 VEd 2 1 2 e1 e2 VEd 2 VEd 2 VEd 2 Critical section in shear and bearing Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion Basic requirement: VEd VRd. VRd.p 3 M0 [Reference 8] Note: The coefficient 1.min = min(VRd. 2.1 Shear resistance of gross section VRd.b) where: VRd. 2.2.8 2 1.0 3d 0 4 f u.2.7.g = 2 hp t p 1. VRd.5 d0 For inner bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer) p k1 = min 1.7.
5.b 0 .2.p Anv = 2 M2 3 M0 = t p e2 0.55 tw for S355 supported beam a ≥ 0. 5 ) d 0 p3 2.48 tw for S275 supported beam a ≥ 0.n = 2 A v.36p3 and n1 > 1 then: VRd. 5 f u.Part 5: Joint Design 2.net = t p h p n1 d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections 2.b f y.p Ant f y.net f u.p Anv f u.74 tw for S460 supported beam where: a is the effective weld throat thickness The leg length is defined as follows: s a 2 5 – 11 .p 3 M2 [Reference 8] Av. the size of each throat should comply with the following requirement[8]: a ≥ 0.p Ant = 2 M2 3 M0 [Reference 8] But if hp < 1.3 Block tearing resistance VRd.5.5 d 0 Ant Anv where: = t p h p e1 ( n 1 0 .2.6 is the gauge (cross centres) Weld resistance Full strength symmetrical fillet welds are recommended.2 Shear resistance of net section VRd.46 tw for S235 supported beam a ≥ 0.2. For a full strength weld.
2.Rd.1. FRd.u.3 = ΣF t.25Σleff t p f u. Table 6.Rd. 2.u.u.u.2. In this publication Mu has been used. FRd.1.2] Mode 2 (bolt failure with yielding of the end plate) FRd. Table 6.1.8 a 2 2 = emin but n ≤ 1.Rd.u = where: [EN 199318.u 2 mn e w m n 2 M pl.Rd.3 Checks for tying EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks.1 = 8 n 2 e w M pl.u [EN 199318.25m where emin = e2 5 – 12 .Rd.2] Mode 3 (bolt failure) FRd.2] k 2 f ub A γ Mu 0.2 = mn [EN 199318.Rd.3) Mode 1 (complete yielding of the end plate) FRd.1 is recommended.2. p γMu 2 Mpl.3.u.1.u m n = p3 t w 2 0. A value of Mu = 1.u = Mpl.Rd.u nΣF t.u = Mpl.Rd.Part 5: Joint Design 2.u Ft. Table 6.1 Resistance of the end plate in bending e1 p1 n1 p1 p1 e1 m FEd p3 There are three modes of failure for end plates in bending: Mode 1: Mode 2: Mode 3: complete yielding of the flange bolt failure with yielding of the flange bolt failure Basic requirement: FEd ≤ min(FRd.u.
b Mu [Reference 8] Weld resistance The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance.3.3.3 = t w h p f u. As is the effective length of one plastic hinge = 2 e1 A ( n 1 1 ) p 1 A = e1 but ≤ 0.63 for countersunk bolts = 0.5 p3 t w 2a 2 e1A p1A d0 2 = p1 but ≤ p 3 t w 2 a 2 d 0 The leg length is defined as follows: s a 2 2.2 Beam web resistance hp F Ed Basic requirement: FEd FRd FRd 2.9 otherwise is the tensile stress area of the bolts. 5 – 13 .Part 5: Joint Design ew dw k2 A Σleff Σleff = dw 4 is the diameter of the washer = 0. as it is full strength.
Partial depth end plate Details and data 40 70 70 70 70 70 40 IPE A 550 S275 275 kN 550 kN 8 140 Beam: IPE A 550 S275 Partial depth flexible end plate: 430 200 12. a = 5.8 Welds: 8 mm fillet (weld throat. S275 Bolts: M20 8.4 Calculation sheet Worked Example – Partial depth end plate Made by CZT Date Date 1 of 7 06/2009 07/2009 Checked by ENM 2.2.6 mm) 5 – 14 .
6(1) 5 – 15 .6hb. 8.Rd The shear resistance of the beam web. OK M20.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 2 of 7 Summary of full design checks Design forces VEd = 550 kN FEd = 275 kN (Tie force) Shear resistances Shear resistance of the beam web 614 kN N/A N/A 902 kN 1182 kN OK Bending resistance at the notch Local stability of notched beam Bolt group resistance Resistance of the end plate Weld resistance Tying resistances Resistance of the end plate in bending 493 kN 1513 kN OK Tension resistance of the beam web Weld resistance 2. 2.1.Rd = A v f y.Title 2. Checks for vertical shear Shear resistance of the beam web Unless noted otherwise.b / 3 M0 EN 199311 § 6. all references are to EN 199318 hp = 430 550 kN Basic requirement: V Ed V c.2.8 at 140 mm gauge End plate: Bolts: Height of plate: hp = 430 mm 2. Recommended details 20012 mm > 0.2.2.1. Vc.
7 2. Rd ) min Fv. = 3870 275 / 3 10 3 = 614 kN 1. 6 800 245 10 3 = 94 kN 1.4.Rd then FRd n s ( Fb.Title 2. Shear resistance of bolts The shear resistance of a single bolt. Local stability of notched beam Not applicable (No notch) 2. Rd min then FRd ΣFb.2. Fv.1.4 0 .4.Rd = For M20 8.Rd = v f ub A M2 Table 3. 0 = 550 kN 614 kN.2.Rd ) min then FRd 0 .4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 3 of 7 Shear area of beam web. Rd ) max if Fv.2.Rd § 3. 8 n s F v. Rd if ( Fb.Rd VEd 2.8 bolts. OK Bending resistance at the notch Not applicable (No notch) 2. Rd ( Fb.2. Fv.Rd Fb. FRd : if Fb. IPE A 550 Bolt group resistance e 2 = 30 e1 = 40 p1 = 70 550 kN Basic requirement: V Ed F Rd The design resistance of the bolt group.3. Vpl.2. 25 5 – 16 . Av = 430 9 = 3870 mm2 Shear resistance of beam web. Rd max Fv.
0) = 0.b) e2 = 30 e1 = 40 hp ( n 1 .8 12 94 902 kN V Ed = 550 kN ≤ 902 kN.Title 2.5.5 min 2.end Fb.0 = min 1 .1) p 1 = 350 e1 = 40 VEd VEd 2 2 VEd = 550 kN 5 – 17 .Rd. VRd.12. αb e f 800 40 . Fb. VRd.86. 1. 1.2.2.25 Inner bolts.8 1.8 2 1. 2.p dtp Table 3. 2.12 0 .p = min(0. αb = min 1 . Shear resistance of the end plate Basic requirement: V Ed V Rd.86.Rd < (Fb.0 3d 3 22 4 430 0 4 f u. 25 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 4 of 7 2.8ns ( Fv.5 2.81. 2. ub .Rd.81 430 20 12 10 3 142 kN 1. min VRd.Rd min 2 .Rd ) min 0. 1.Rd)min FRd 0.n.inner Fb. k1 = min 2. 1.61.7. 1. OK 2. 1. 1.61 p 1 f 1 800 70 . Fb.4 M2 e For edge bolts.Rd max 94 kN < 107 kN thus Fv. Bearing resistance Bearing resistance.81 End bolts. 61 430 20 12 10 3 107 kN 1.7. Fb.p = min(0. ub .0) = 0.min = (VRd.2.12 0.12 22 For end bolts. .4.0 = min 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.g. 5 d0 30 min 2.Rd k 1 b f u.0 = min . For inner bolts. 1.
n = 2 Av.Title 2. net f u. 5 ) d 0 12 430 40 ( 6 0 .36p3 then Ref (8) VRd.27 3 1.3. Ant t p e 2 0 .p A nv f u.7 mm ≥ 0.b 430 228 275 3228 3 = 2 1.27 f y. 48 9 = 4.p A nt = 2 M2 3 M0 Net area subject to tension.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 5 of 7 2.25 2. 1182) = 1182 kN VEd 2. Block tearing resistance hp = 430 and 1.n = 2 3576 430 10 3 = 1420 kN 3 1. 5 d 0 12 30 0 .0 Ref (8) 2.48tp = 0 .1.2. 5 ) 22 3228 mm2 VRd. Shear resistance of gross section VRd.6.net = 12430 6 22 = 3576 mm2 VRd.b f y.48 tw 0.2. OK For a beam in S275 steel Basic requirement: a ≥ 0.2. 0 10 = 1182 kN = 550 kN ≤ 1182 kN.32 mm a = 5. 5 22 228 mm2 Net area subject to shear.5.48 tw OK 5 – 18 . Shear resistance of net section VRd.2. 1420. Weld resistance Ref (8) VRd.min = min(1290. p 3 M2 Ref (8) Net area. Av.5. 36 p 3 1. 25 3 1.2. 36 140 190 mm Since hp > 1. Anv t p h p e1 ( n1 0 .5.p 3 M0 = 2 430 12 275 10 3 = 1290 kN 1.g = 2hptp 1.
25 430 12 2 430 = 10 6 = 6. FRd.Rd. 5 (140 9 2 5 . 6 2 ) e1A = 40 p1A = p1 but ≤ p 3 t w 2 a 2 d 0 p 3 t w 2 a 2 d 0 = 140 9 2 5 . 6 2 22 = 137 mm p1A = 70 Σleff = 2 e1 A ( n1 1) p 1 A = 2 40 ( 6 1) 70 = 430 mm 0 .1 Σleff = 8n 2ew M pl. 1 m ew n = p3 t w 2 0.p 2 Mpl. 25 Σl eff.25m = min 30.1 t p f u.3.3 e 2 = 30 275 kN m n1 p3 = 140 Mode 1: FRd. Checks for tying Resistance of the end plate in bending Basic requirement: FEd min FRd.3.u. 76 = 30 mm 5 – 19 .1 .2 = 2 e1 A ( n 1 1 ) p 1 A = e1 but ≤ 0 . 2.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 6 of 7 2. 5 ( p 3 t w 2 a 2 ) 22 = 69 mm 2 e1A 0 .8 a 2 140 9 2 0 . 6 2 = = 59 mm 2 2 d w 37 9.1.u.Title 2.u.1.u.2 .1. 8 5 .05 kNm 1. u 2mn ew m n d0 2 Table 6.Rd.u = Mu 0 . 1. FRd.25 mm 4 4 = min e2 .
3 = ΣF t.4 Worked Example – Partial depth end plate 7 of 7 FRd.1 .1.u.2. 1 FRd. 5 – 20 . Rd. 05 10 3 30 12 160 = 793 kN 59 30 FRd.u.u.3. 05 10 3 2 59 30 9 . Table 6.2 = 275 kN ≤ 493 kN. Beam web resistance OK Basic requirement: F Ed FRd 275 kN hp n1 FRd FEd 2.Rd.u = k 2 f ub A Mu = 0 .u.2 M pl. u 6.u mn = 493 kN Table 6. 1 OK Ref (8) = 275 kN ≤ 1513 kN.2.3. Rd.1 = Mode 2: FRd. as it is full strength.2 . 25 59 30 2 M pl.Rd.u nΣF t.Rd. u M pl.3 = min( 493.05 kNm Ft. = t w h p f u.3.2 = 8 30 2 9 . FRd.Rd.u.u. Weld resistance The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance.u. FRd.2 = Mode 3: 2 6 . 793. 1920) = 493 kN FEd 2.b Mu = 9 430 430 10 3 = 1513 kN 1. 9 800 245 10 3 = 160 kN 1. 25 6 .Title 2.u = 12 160 = 1920 kN min FRd.2.
d0 = d + 2 mm for d 24 mm.5d Double line of bolts All end and edge distances 2d Supported beam (Single notched) Supporting beam 50 mm but (tf + r) and (tf.15 tp = fin plate thickness Fin plate thickness tp 0.1 FIN PLATE Recommended details 1 2 7 1 4 hp 3 hb 5 z 8 Min. Only 8.Part 5: Joint Design 3 3.5 d o 6 zp 9 1 10 16 14 3 hp 15 11 12 13 13 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 End projection gh All end and edge distances 2d Length of fin plate hp 0. d0 = d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm Supporting column Face of web Long fin plate if z tp 0.6 hb Bolt diameter.s + rs) (hb.s – rs) Supported beam (Double notched) hb hb.s tf tf.s – 50 mm) but (hs – tf. untorqued in clearance holes Hole diameter. d0. d. 2.8 bolts to be used.s r rs is the height of the supported beam is the height of the supporting beam (if applicable) is the thickness of the flange of the supported beam is the thickness of the flange of the supporting beam (if applicable) is the root radius of the supported beam is the root radius of the supporting beam (if applicable) 5 – 21 .
8 bolts = 0.1 Shear resistance of bolts p 1 p1 p1 p1 1 n1 p 1 p1 z 2 VEd z 2 VEd VEd z 2 1 2 Centre of bolt group Assumed line of shear transfer Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd Fv.1 Checks for vertical shear Bolt group resistance p2 3.Rd (1 n b ) ( n b ) 2 2 [Reference 3] is the shear resistance of one bolt = v f ub A M2 M2 is the partial factor for resistance of bolts For a single vertical line of bolts (n2 = 1) α = 0 and β = 6z n1 n 1 1 p 1 For a double vertical line of bolts (n2 = 2) α = zp zp 2 and β = 1 n1 1 2I 2I n1 1 2 2 2 p 2 n1 n 1 1 p 1 2 6 I z = is the transverse distance from the face of the supporting element to the centre of the bolt group 5 – 22 .6 for 4.Rd Fv.1.2.6 and 8.Part 5: Joint Design 3.2.5 for 10.Rd where: A αv is the tensile stress area of the bolt.2 3. As = 0.9 bolts = n b F v.
3 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 1 n b F b.8 2 1.hor.Rd Fb.Rd Fb.hor. ub .ver.5 d0 d0 αb e 1 f p = min 1 . p dtp M2 The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt on the fin plate is as follows: Fb.7.1.Rd = M2 α and β are as defined previously For Fb.p dt p The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt on the fin plate is as follows: Fb.Rd = k 1 b f u.b dt w = M2 5 – 23 . 1.p 0 0 e p = min 2.Rd: k1 e p = min 2. hor.4 1 1.Part 5: Joint Design 3.Rd nb n b F b.0 3d 3d 4 f u. 2.7.1. ub .0 3d 3d 4 f u.5 d0 d0 For Fb. 1.b dt w M2 k 1 b f u.8 1 1.hor.Rd = k 1 b f u.p dt p M2 k 1 b f u.ver.7. 2 .ver.7.1.Rd 2 [Reference 3] 2 Fb. 1.2 Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = nb 1 nb nb F b.2. ver.2.hor.p 0 0 3.ver. 1 . 2. Rd 2 2 [Reference 3] The bearing resistance of a single bolt is Fb.Rd = k1 b f u.Rd: k1 αb e 1 f p = min 2 .4 2 1.
VRd.p 3 M0 [Reference 8] Note: The coefficient 1.Rd : k1 αb e 1 f p = min 1. ub .ver.27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in the bolts9. 1.min = min(VRd. 2. 5 – 24 .n.2.1 Shear resistance of gross section VRd.2.b) 3.0 3d 3d 4 f u.b 1.g = hp t p 1.2 e 1 f p = min 2.4 1 1. 27 f y. 1.5 d0 d0 For Fb.hor.min VRd.7.b 1.b 0 0 e p = min 2. 2.5 d0 d0 For Fb.Rd : k1 αb 3.7. 1 . VRd.g.b 0 0 Shear resistance of the fin plate 1 2 e1 e1 hp e1 e1 e2 VEd VEd p2 e2 hp 1 2 Critical section in shear and bending Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.4 2 1.2.b .8 2.7.b .7. ub .0 3d 3d 4 f u.Part 5: Joint Design α and β are as defined previously M2 is the partial factor for beam web in bearing e p = min 2. 1. 1.8 1. 2 .
5 f u.n = A v.p = t p hp 2 6 W el.p f y.2.b where: = 0 .3 Bending resistance of the fin plate hp V Ed z V Ed z V Ed z zp Basic requirement: VEd VRd If hp ≥ 2. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts.net f u.2.net = t p hp n1d 0 3. Ant = t p e 2 p 2 d 0 2 Anv = t p h p e1 ( n1 0 .3 Block tearing resistance VRd. 5 ) d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections 3.2. Ant = t p e 2 0 .73 z then VRd = Otherwise VRd = where: Wel.Part 5: Joint Design 3.p Anv 3 M0 [Reference 8] For a single vertical line of bolts.p Ant M2 f y.2.p 3 M2 [Reference 8] Av.2.p z [Reference 8] M0 5 – 25 .2 Shear resistance of net section VRd.
b 3.LT is the lateral torsional buckling strength of the plate obtained from BS 59501 Table 17[10] (See Appendix A) and based on λLT as follows: λLT z zp 3.5.4 Buckling resistance of the fin plate Lateraltorsional buckling of the fin plate8.p y.LT .2. Basic requirement: VEd VRd If z > f W f W then VRd = min el.n.b gh e 1.p = t p hp 2 6 Wel.min = min(VRd.15 z M0 M1 tp Otherwise VRd = where: Wel.p M0 fp.b) 5 – 26 .p z f y. VRd.6 0 .g.Part 5: Joint Design 3.p z 0.b 2 e 2.b gh e 2.min VRd.p p.5 z p hp = 2. VRd. el.b e1.2.1 Shear and block tearing resistance VEd 4 VEd VEd 1 2 3 4 Critical section in plain shear Shear failure Tension failure Block shear failure tearing out of shaded portion Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.8 1.b 2 n1 3 he he he 3 gh e1. 5 t 2 p 1/ 2 is the lever arm is the horizontal distance from the supporting web or flange to the first vertical boltrow Shear resistance of the beam web 1 e 2.2.
Ant = t w e 2. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts.g where: Av. 5 – 27 .net f u.net = Av.0.b where: = 0 .b p 2 d 0 2 For a notched beam Anv = t w e1.Part 5: Joint Design Shear resistance of gross section VRd.b + (n1 –1)p1 + he) for unnotched beam for single notched beam for double notched beam is a factor from EN 199315 (it may be conservatively taken as 1.wb Av.wb.wb η = A v.b (n1 1) p1 (n1 1)d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.wb.b Ant M2 f y. Ant = t w e 2.b ( n1 1) p 1 ( n1 0 .wb Av. 5 ) d 0 For an unnotched beam Anv = t w e1.b 0 .b 3 M0 [Reference 8] = A – 2btf + (tw + 2r)tf but ≥ η hwtw = ATee – btf + (tw + 2r)tf /2 = tw (e1.n where: = A v.b 3 M2 [Reference 8] Av.wb – n1d0tw Block tearing resistance VRd.wb f y. National Annex may give an alternative value) is the depth of the top notch is the depth of the bottom notch ATee is the area of the Tee section dnt dnb Shear resistance of net section VRd. 5 f u.b Anv 3 M0 [Reference 8] For a single vertical line of bolts.
Part 5: Joint Design
3.2.5.2 Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts, if the notch length ln > (e2,b + p2)
1 gh e 1,b p1 n1 p1 p1 he e2,b
ln
e2,b p2 e 1,b p1 p1 p1 he gh
ln
p2
VEd
VEd
1
Critical section in plain shear
Basic requirement: VEd (gh + e2,b + p2) Mc,Rd Mc,Rd is the moment resistance of the notched beam at the connection in the presence of shear.
For single notched beam
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mc,Rd =
f y,b W el,N
M0
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mc,Rd
2 f y,bWel,N 2VEd 1 = 1 M0 Vpl,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
Vpl,N,Rd = min(VRd,g;VRd,b) Wel,N is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
For double notched beam
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) Mc,Rd =
f y,b t w 6 M0
e1 n 1 1 p 1 h e 2
2 2V Ed 1 1 Vpl,DN,Rd
[Reference 4]
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) Mc,Rd = f y,b t w 6 M0
e1 n1 1 p1 he
2
[Reference 4]
Vpl,DN,Rd = min(VRd,g;VRd,b) he is the distance between the bottom bolt row and the bottom of the section
5 – 28
Part 5: Joint Design
3.2.5.3 Shear and bending interaction for unnotched beam
e2,b e2,b p2
A (n1 1) p1 VEdzp
B VEd (zp+ p 2 )
A
B
V Ed
D z = zp
C V Ed
D zp z
C
For short fin plates (i.e. z ≤ tp/0,15) the resistance of the web does not need to be checked [4]. For long fin plates (i.e. z > tp/0,15) it is necessary to ensure that the section labelled as ABCD in the figure can resist a moment VEdzp for a single line of bolts or VEd(zp+p2) for a double line of bolts (AB and CD are in shear and BC is in bending). Basic requirement:
For a single vertical line of bolts (n2 = 1)
VEd zp Mc,BC,Rd + Fpl,AB,Rd (n1 – 1) p1
For two vertical lines of bolts (n2 = 2)
[Reference 4] [Reference 4]
VEd (zp + p2/2) Mc,BC,Rd + Fpl,AB,Rd (n1 – 1)p1 Mc,BC,Rd is the moment resistance of the beam web BC
For low shear (i.e. VBC,Ed ≤ 0,5Fpl,BC,Rd) Mc,BC,Rd = f y,b t w 6 M0
n1 1 p1 2
For high shear (i.e. VBC,Ed > 0,5Fpl,BC,Rd) Mc,BC,Rd = f y,b t w 4 M0
n1 1 p1
2
2 2V Ed 1 1 VRd,min
Fpl,AB,Rd Fpl,BC,Rd where:
is the shear resistance of the beam web AB is the shear resistance of the beam web BC
For a single vertical line of bolts (n2 = 1): Fpl,AB,Rd e t f e d0 2tw f u, b = min 2, b w y,b ; 2, b 3 3 M2 M0
5 – 29
Part 5: Joint Design
Fpl,BC,Rd
n1 1 p1 t w f y,b n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 t w f u, b ; = min 3 M2 3 M0 e p2 t w f y,b e2, b p2 3d 0 2 t w f u, b ; = min 2, b 3 M2 3 M0 n1 1 p1t w f y,b n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 t w f u, b ; = min 3 M2 3 M0 is the shear force on the beam web BC = VEd – (VRd,min – Fpl,BC,Rd) but ≥ 0 = min(VRd,g; VRd,n) is the transverse distance from face of supporting element to the centre of bolt group.
For two vertical lines of bolts (n2 = 2): Fpl,AB,Rd Fpl,BC,Rd VBC,Ed VRd,min z
M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.
3.2.6 Bending resistance at the notch
1 gh l n gh l n gh
ln
gh l n
e 1,b n1
e 1,b
e 1,b
e 1,b
he
he
he
he xN VEd xN VEd
2 VEd VEd
2
1 2
Critical sections To notch or beam flange
3.2.6.1 For single bolt line or for double bolt lines, if xN ≥ 2d:
VEd (gh + ln) Mv,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
Mv,N,Rd is the moment resistance of the beam at the notch in the presence of shear
For single notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mv,N,Rd =
f y,b W el,N
M0
5 – 30
DN.b t w 4 M0 e 1.b = 3 M0 Av.2 For double bolt lines.DN f y.5Vpl.Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams A v.Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams A v.6.Rd = f y.Rd 3. VEd > 0.N.e. VEd ≤ 0.DN.N.Rd) Mv. if xN < 2d: max (VEd (gh + ln).Rd = Mc.Rd where: Wel.Rd = f y.N. VEd > 0.N.Part 5: Joint Design For high shear (i.b + p2)) ≤ Mv.DN he ATee = tw (e1.N 2VEd 1 = 1 M0 Vpl.N.N = ATee – btf + (tw + 2r) tf 2 Vpl.b = 3 M0 Av.bWel. VEd (gh + e2.b t w 6 M0 ( e1.Rd) Mv.DN.5Vpl.DN.e.Rd) Mv.b n1 1 p1 he 2 2 2V Ed 1 1 Vpl. N f y.Rd Mv.2.5Vpl.DN.DN.e.Rd 2 f y.Rd For double notched beam: For low shear (i.N from the previous check [Reference 4] is the elastic section modulus of the gross tee section at the notch Vpl.N.b + (n1 –1) p1 + he) is the distance between the bottom bolt row and the bottom of the section is the area of the Tee section 5 – 31 .b n1 1 p 1 h e ) 2 For high shear (i.
2.3 (S275 steel) > 54.3 (S275 steel) 48.Part 5: Joint Design 3.3 (S275 steel) > 54.3 (S275 steel) 48. 5 – 32 . For S235 and S460 members see References 5. 6 and 7. either suitable stiffening should be provided or the notch should be checked to References 5.0 (S355 steel) > 48.7 Local stability of the notched beam ln ln d nt hb hb d nb ln When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling.[6] dnt ln ln ln ln hb / 2 hb 160000 h b and: for for for for hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw 54. no account need be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met: For one flange notched.0 (S355 steel) > 48. dnb) hb / 5 and: ln ln ln ln hb 160000 h b for tw hb / tw hb / t w hb / tw hb / t w 54. basic requirement:[5]. 6 and 7.0 (S355 steel) hb 3 for for hb 110000 h b hb tw 3 for Where the notch length ln exceeds these limits. basic requirement:[7] max (dnt.0 (S355 steel) hb / t w 3 hb 110000 h b h b / t w 3 For both flanges notched.
46tp for S235 fin plate a ≥ 0. 3. the size of each throat should comply with the following requirement8: a ≥ 0.55tp for S355 fin plate a ≥ 0. For a full strength weld.3 Checks for tying EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks.2.1 Fin plate and bolt group resistance FEd FEd e2 p2 e2 e1 p n1 p p e1 1 hp 1 1 1 1 2 Single line of bolts Double line of bolts 2 3.1.Part 5: Joint Design 3.3.u [Reference 8] v f ub A Mu 5 – 33 .u = = nbFv.1 is recommended. A value of Mu = 1.8 Weld resistance Full strength symmetrical fillet welds are recommended. In this publication Mu has been used.75tp for S460 fin plate where: a is the weld throat thickness The leg length is defined as follows: s a 2 3.3.1 Shear resistance of bolts Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd Fv.48tp for S275 fin plate a ≥ 0.
6 and 8.u.n = 0 .Part 5: Joint Design where: αv = 0.Rd = where: k1 e p = min 2.hor.p Mu [Reference 8] Anet = t p h p d 0 n1 5 – 34 .n.5 for 10.7.4 1 1.p dt p Mu [Reference 8] αb e 1 f p = min 2 .6 for 4.2 Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb.1. FRd. 1.b) Tension resistance of net section FRd.8 bolts = 0.Rd Fb.u. 1.p 0 0 3.0 3d 3d 4 f u.3 Tension resistance of the fin plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = min(FRd.3. 2.7.9 bolts A is the tensile stress area of bolt.3. ub .hor.8 1 1. 9 Anet f u.1. 2 .5 d0 d0 k 1 b f u. As 3.
5d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts.5d 0 For a double vertical line of bolts. Anv = t p e 2 0. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts: Anv = 2 t p e 2 p 2 d 0 2 Case 2: Ant = t p e1 n1 1 p1 n1 0.b = f u.p Anv 3 M0 [Reference 8] Case 1: Ant = tp n1 1 p 1 n1 1 d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts: Anv = 2 t p e 2 0 .Part 5: Joint Design Block tearing resistance Case 1 1 2 3 Case 2 2 1 2 3 beam without notch notched beam fin plate 3 FRd.p Ant Mu f y. Anv = t p e 2 p 2 3 d0 2 5 – 35 .
b F Ed 3.b p1 n1 p1 p1 F Ed e 1.2 Tension resistance of the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = min(FRd.b p1 n1 p1 p1 F Ed F Ed e 2.6 and 8.n.b dt w Mu αb αv e 1 f p = 2.b e 2. 2 .2. FRd.b e2.b e 1.u.hor.b 0 0 = 0.6 for 4.7.2 Beam web resistance e 2.4 1 1.b p 2 e 1.0 3d 3d 4 f u.Rd = where: k1 e p = 2.b 1.Part 5: Joint Design 3.u.5 d0 d0 k 1 b f u.Rd Fb.b .3.b) 5 – 36 .1 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb.2.3. 2. 1.b p 2 e 1. ub .5 for 10.8 1. 1.3.8 bolts = 0.hor.9 bolts 3.7.
b p 2 d 0 2 3. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts.Part 5: Joint Design Tension resistance of net section FRd.b Anv / 3 M0 = tw n1 1 p 1 n1 1 d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts.b p 2 d 0 2 Case 2 (for notched beam only): Ant = t w e1 . 5 d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts.3.b 0 .3 Weld resistance The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance. Anv = 2 t w e 2 . Anv = 2 t w e 2 .b Ant Mu f y. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts. 9 Anet.b Mu Anet = t w h wb d 0 n1 t w hwb may be taken as the depth of the fin plate (it is conservative) Block tearing resistance Case 1 1 2 3 Case 2 2 1 2 3 beam without notch notched beam fin plate 3 FRd. 5 – 37 . b n 1 1 p 1 n 1 0 .b 0 .wb f u.b = Case 1: Ant f u. as it is full strength. Anv = t w e 2 . Anv = t w e 2 .n = 0 .
8 Welds: 8 mm fillet (weld throat. Fin plate Details and data 40 70 70 350 kN 70 70 40 80 IPE A 550 S275 350 kN 8 Beam: IPE A 550 S275 Fin plate: 360 160 10 S275 Bolts: M20 8.6 mm) 5 – 38 .3.4 Worked Example: Fin Plate Made by CZT Date Date 1 of 13 06/2009 07/2009 Calculation sheet Checked by ENM 3. a = 5.
Title 3.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 2 of 13 Summary of full design checks Design forces VEd = 350 kN FEd = 350 kN (Tie force) Shear resistances Bolt group resistance Shear resistance of bolts Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Shear resistance of the fin plate Bending resistance of the fin plate Buckling resistance of the fin plate Shear resistance of the beam web Shear and block tearing resistance Shear and bending interaction at the 2 line of bolts Shear and bending interaction for unnotched beam Bending resistance at the notch Local stability of the notched beam Weld resistance Tying resistances Fin plate and bolt group resistance Shear resistance of bolts Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Tension resistance of the fin plate nd 584 kN 605 kN 624 kN 450 kN ∞ 743 kN 545 kN N/A 66 kNm N/A N/A OK 1070 kN 1290 kN 880 kN 1070 kN 792 kN OK Beam web resistance Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Tension resistance of the beam web Weld resistance 5 – 39 .
25 Table 3.022 2 107000 zp 1 n1 1 = 80 70 5 1 = 0.2. 022 10 ) 2 ( 0 . α= I= α= zp 2 2I n1 2 1 5 1 2 2 p2 n1 n1 1 p1 = 60 2 5 52 1 70 2 = 107000 mm2 2 6 2 6 80 60 = 0.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 3 of 13 3.2. n2 = 2 and n1 = 5).105 2 107000 2I And β = Thus VRd = 10 94 (1 0 . Recommended details tp hp = 10mm 0.Rd = v f ub A M2 0.5d = 360 mm > 0.Rd = For a double vertical line of bolts (i.e.1)p1 = 280 e 1 = 40 p2 VEd Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = n b F v.105 10 ) 2 = 584 kN 5 – 40 .6hb Unless noted otherwise.4 For M20 8.1.Rd (1 n b ) 2 ( n b ) 2 Ref (3) Fv. 3.1. Fv.1.1.2. all references are to Fin plate thickness: Height of fin plate: EN 199318 3. Checks for vertical shear Bolt group resistance 3.8 bolts.6 800 245 103 = 94 kN 1.Title 3. Shear resistance of bolts 50 60 50 e2 e1 = 40 (n1.
25.5 = min( 3. 2.12 0.12.61 430 20 10 10 3 = 89 kN 1.2. 1.25 k1 b f u. 1. 1.81. 1.7.75.5) = 2.0 = min( 0. 2.Rd 2 Ref [3] 2 α = 0.1.Title 3.8 1 1.7. Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 1 n b F b. 2.7. 0. 1.7.7.ver. as above k 1 b f u.p 3 22 3 22 4 430 0 0 = min( 0. ub .hor. Fb.4 1 1. .5 d d0 0 M2 Table 3.5 0.66. 2. OK 3.0 3d 3d 4 f u. 1.61 Fb.4 The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt.105 10 89 114 2 2 = 605 kN 5 – 41 . 1.25. 2.Rd = 2. 2. 2 0.hor.86.0 = min .7.105. 1.5 = min( 4.022 and β = 0.5) = 2. ub .4 k1 70 40 = min 2.ver. 0. .p dt p Table 3.61. .4 2 1.8 1.75.ver.Rd = e p = min 2. Fb.4 1.7.Rd = VRd = 2.66 430 20 10 10 3 = 114 kN 1.66 430 3 22 3 22 Fb.0) = 0. 2.p 0 0 60 800 50 = min .Rd nb n b F b.2. 2.0) = 0.67.25 10 1 0 . 022 10 0 .0 3d 3d f u.39.8 2 1. 1.8 1.12 22 22 αb e p 1 f 70 1 800 40 = min 1 .7.p dt p The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt. 1 .Rd = e p = min 2.5 d0 d0 M2 k1 60 50 = min 2.4 1.5 22 22 αb e f p = min 2 . 0. 1.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 4 of 13 VEd = 350 kN ≤ 584 kN. 1.hor.
Rd = 2 .5 = min1. 1. .12.b dt w Table 3.ver.0 = min 3d 3 22 4 430 0 4 f u. as above k 1 b f u.Rd nb n b F b.Rd = p 70 = min1. 2.5 = min( 3. 1.0) = 0. OK 2 2 = 624 kN VEd 5 – 42 .Title 3.Rd = e p = min 2.ver. OK 3. 2 .5) = 2. 61 430 20 9 10 3 = 94 kN 1. Fb.81.4 1. 1. 2. 0.5) = 2. 2.022 and β = 0. 1. 1.86. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 1 n b F b.12 0 . 2.75.61.b .81 Fb. b dt w Table 3.61 Fb. 2.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 5 of 13 VEd = 350 kN ≤ 605 kN. 2. 81 430 20 9 10 3 = 106 kN 1. 1.4 1.4 2 1.ver. 1.105 10 106 94 = 350 kN ≤ 624 kN.7.Rd 2 Ref (3] 2 α = 0. 1.0) = 0.b 3 22 3 22 4 430 0 0 = min( 0.1. 1.0 = min 1 . 2.81. 25 10 1 0 . 5 0 . .7. ub .hor.b = min( 0. 1.8 2 1.86.hor.7. 022 10 0 .5 d 22 0 M2 k1 = min( 2.0 = min .hor.4 The vertical bearing resistance for a single bolt.7.2.7. ub .Rd = VRd = 2 . 25 k1 b f u.3. Fb.4 The horizontal bearing resistance for a single bolt.7.5 d d0 0 M2 k1 60 40 = min 2.8 1.12 22 22 αb p 1 f 1 800 70 .39. .105.0 3d 3d 4 f u.4 1 1.5 αb e p 1 f 40 60 1 800 = min 2.
p 3 M2 Ref [8] Net area.g. Ant = t p p2 e2 1.min VRd.2.1.b 0 . Block tearing resistance VRd. Shear resistance of the fin plate e2 e1 = 40 50 60 50 (n1.2. 497. 25 3 1.min = min(VRd. VRd.2.n. 5 f u.b) 3.5d 0 Net area subject to shear.g = hp t p 1. 0 VRd.2.n = A v. 25 = 10 360 5 22 = 2500 mm2 10 3 = 497 kN 3.net f u.p Ant f y.2. 5 430 770 275 2210 = 483 kN 1.1)p1 = 280 e 1 = 40 p2 VEd Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd. = 1060 50 1. 27 3 1.5)22 2210 mm2 VRd.5 22 770 mm2 Ant = t p hp e1 (n1 0. VRd. Av. 0 10 3 = 450 kN Ref (8) 3. 483) = 450 kN VEd = 350 kN ≤ 450 kN. Shear resistance of gross section VRd.2.p 3 M0 = 360 10 275 1.3.min = min(450. 27 f y.2. Shear resistance of net section VRd.b = 0 .net = t p h p nd 0 VRd = 2500 430 3 1.Title 3. OK 5 – 43 .5)d 0 = 10360 40 (5 0.2.p Anv = M2 3 M0 10 3 Ref [8] Net area subject to tension.2.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 6 of 13 3.
2.LT is obtained by interpolation from Appendix A.LT from BS59501 Table 17 (See Appendix A) Wel.73 z = 2.2. 5 t 2 p 50 360 = 2.g.p zp λLT = t p hp 6 2 10 360 2 216000 mm3 6 1/ 2 = 80 mm z p hp = 2. Buckling resistance of the fin plate Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd tp/0.73 80 = 218 mm hp = 360 mm > 218 mm Then V Rd V Ed V Rd .p f p. VRd.n.1.p = min z 0. 3.8 1. Shear and block tearing resistance Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd. OK Shear resistance of the beam web 3. 5 10 2 1/ 2 = 31 fp.2. z M1 M0 fp.3.6 .2. VRd.Title 3.15 = z VRd 10 = 67 mm 0 .LT VRd = 274 N/mm2 216000 275 216000 274 10 3 .p f y.4.8 1. 6 1. fp.b) 5 – 44 .15 Ref [8] = 80 mm > 67 mm Wel.min = min(VRd.min VRd.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 7 of 13 3.LT Wel. 743 = 743 kN VEd = 350 kN ≤ 743 kN. OK 3.5. 0 80 0 .5. 0 = min 1233. Bending resistance of the fin plate Ref [8] Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd 2. 10 3 = min 80 1.
Title 3.wb f y.0 VRd.b 3 M0 Ref [8] Shear area of beam web. Anv = t p e1. Av. 0 10 3 = 953 kN Shear resistance of net section VRd.wb = A 2 bt f t w 2 r t f = 11700 2 210 15 .5 430 603 275 2538 10 3 = 507 kN = 1. Av. 995.n = A v. 25 10 3 = 995 kN Block tearing resistance VRd.b 3 M2 Ref [8] Net area.net = A n1 d 0 t w = 6001 5 22 9 = 5011 mm2 VRd.1) p1 = 280 h e = 177 Shear resistance of gross section VRd.n = 5011 430 3 1.b Ant M2 f y.5 22 603 mm2 Ref [8] Net area subject to tension. 5 f u.min = min(953. 0 515 .net f u. 507) = 507 kN VEd = 350 kN ≤ 507 kN.b = 0 . 7 = 6001 mm2 η hwtw = 1.b 0.b 1.b = 90 ( n 1 .5d 0 960 40 1.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 8 of 13 tw = 9 e 1. 7 9 2 24 15 .wb. Ant Net area subject to shear.b n1 1 p1 (n1 0.g = 6001 275 3 1.g = A v.25 3 1. 6 9 = 4640 mm2 VRd.b Anv 3 M0 = t p p 2 e2. OK 5 – 45 .5)d 0 = 990 5 170 (5 1)22 = 2538 mm2 VRd.wb.
b t w 6 M0 n1 1 p1 2 275 9 5 1702 10 6 = 32 kNm 6 1. b .15 = 10 = 67 mm 0 .25 = min(143.15 Ref [4] z = 80 mm > 67 mm Therefore this check is required.Ed = 350 – (953 – 343) = 260 kN Therefore VBC. 3 1.BC. 3 M2 3 M0 5 170 9 275 Fpl.Rd = f y.BC. b 3 M0 3 M2 40 609 275 = min 10 3 .BC. Shear and bending interaction of unnotched beam Shear and bending interaction at the beam web tp 0 .AB.b e2.Ed ≤ 0.BC.Ed = 0 kN As VBC.2.0 Fpl.BC.3.Rd = min .Rd e p2 t w f y.0 5 170 5 1229 430 10 3 3 1.Rd) but ≥ 0 VBC.2.Rd = Mc.Rd (n1 – 1) p1 n1 1 p1t w f y. Basic requirement: VEd (z + p2/2) McBC.AB.Rd (n1 – 1) p1 = 32 + 120(5 – 1)70103 = 66 kNm VEd (z + p2/2) = 350(80 + 60/2) 103 = 38 kNm Therefore VEd (z + p2/2) McBC.Rd then Mc.b Fpl.343) = 343 kN VBC.min – Fpl. Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts Not applicable 3.BC. 3 1.Rd + Fpl.5Fpl.Ed is the shear force on the beam web BC VBC.25 = min(400.2.Rd + Fpl.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 9 of 13 3.5. 120) = 120 kN McBC.AB.5.b n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 t w f u. b p2 3d 0 2 t w f u.AB.Title 3.Ed = VEd – (VRd.Rd + Fpl.0 40 60 3 22 29 430 103 3 1.Rd = min 10 3 . = min 2.Rd (n1 – 1) p1 OK 5 – 46 .
3. Bending resistance at the notch Not applicable 3.u. Weld resistance Ref [8] For a fin plate in S275 steel Basic requirement: a ≥ 0.u = Ref [8] v f ub A 0.1 Mu OK = 10 107 = 1070 kN = 350 kN ≤ 1070 kN 3.2.7.6.p dt p Ref [8] Fb.48tp = 0 .6 800 245 10 3 = 107 kN = 1.u FRd FEd = nbFv.Rd = Mu 5 – 47 .1.8.1. Checks for tying Fin plate and bolt group resistance p2 = 60 e 1 = 40 p1= 70 p1= 70 p1= 70 p1= 70 e 1 = 40 hp e2 = 50 FEd = 350 kN 3.2.48tp OK 3.Title 3.3.3.1. Shear resistance of bolts Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd Fv.48tp 0.7 mm ≥ 0. 3.3.1. Bearing resistance of bolts on the fin plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb. 48 10 = 4.2.hor.hor.Rd k 1 b f u.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 10 of 13 3. Local stability of the notched beam Not applicable 3.u.2.8 mm a = 5.
b Ant Anv = f u. 2 . 2.5 22 22 αb e 50 60 1 800 p 1 f = min 2 .0 = 0. ub .5 = min 3 . 66 430 20 10 10 3 = 129 kN 1. .7.75.5 d d0 0 70 40 = min 2.1 Block tearing resistance Case 1 FRd. 0 = t p e1 n1 1 p1 n1 0.1. 1.hor.p 0 0 = min 0.n = 0 . 2 .66. 0. .8 1 1. 5 0 . 1. 5 = 2. 39 .86. 1.0 = min .3.p Ant Ref [8] Mu f y.b . 2. 9 A net f u.p Mu = t p h p d 0 n1 = 10 360 22 5 = 2500 mm2 = 0 .4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 11 of 13 k1 e p = min 2. Tension resistance of the fin plate Basic requirement : FEd ≤ FRd FRd = min FRd.u.Title 3.n Anet FRd. 2 . 1.1 = 10 129 = 1290 kN = 350 kN ≤ 1290 kN.4 1.7. FRd.1 3 1.8 1.0 3d 3d 3 22 3 22 4 430 4 f u. 1.5 d 0 = 1040 5 1 70 5 0.b Case 2 Ant Ant 430 1920 275 1540 10 3 = 995 kN = 1.66 Fb.p Anv 3 M0 = tp[(n1 – 1)p1 – (n1 – 1)d0] = 10[(5 – 1) 70 – (5 – 1)22] = 1920 mm2 3 3 2t p e2 p2 d 0 2 10 50 60 22 1540 mm2 2 2 FRd.7.7.Rd = FRd FEd 2 .3. OK 3.4 1 1.5 22 = 2210 mm2 5 – 48 . 75 . 9 2500 430 10 3 = 880 kN 1. 1.n Ref [8] Tension resistance of net section FRd.
hor.3.0 = 0. ub . 2 . = t p e 2 p2 = 3 3 2 d 0 = 10 50 60 22 = 770 mm 2 2 430 2210 275 770 10 3 = 986 kN 1. 1.7.66.Rd = Mu k1 e p = min 2.5 d0 d0 70 90 = min 2.0 = min 880. 2.1 3 1. 2. 986 = 880 kN = 350 kN ≤ 880 kN.b dt w Fb.b=90 p 1 =70 FEd 3.Title 3. . Beam web resistance e2.61 2 .1. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb. 5 0 .0 = min . 1.7.b 3 22 3 22 4 430 0 0 = min 0. 995. 1.0 3d 3d 4 f u.3.b FRd FEd 3. 1.8 1.1.2.8.7. 2.Rd k 1 b f u.1 Fb.Rd = FRd FEd = 10 107 = 1070 kN = 350 kN ≤ 1070 kN OK 5 – 49 .u.hor. = min 2.b 1.4 1 1. 1.u.2.hor.7. 0.5 = 2.b=40 p 2 =60 OK e 1.b .61.75.86. 61 430 20 9 10 3 = 107 kN 1.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 12 of 13 Anv FRd.5 22 22 αb e p 1 f 60 1 800 40 .4 1.5 = min 9.8 1. 2.u.
b 430 1728 275 1206 10 3 = 867 kN = 1 .3.3.n Tension resistance of net section FRd.4 Worked Example – Fin Plate 13 of 13 3. 9 Anet.b .b Ant = f u. 867 = 792 kN = 350 kN ≤ 792 kN. as it is full strength.wb f u.n = 0 . Weld resistance (Case 2 only applies to notched beams) FRd FEd 3. 0 = min 792.3. Tension resistance of the beam web Basic requirement : FEd ≤ FRd FRd = min FRd.2.1 Block tearing resistance FRd.b Mu Anet.b Ant Mu f y.b p2 d 0 2 9 40 60 22 1206 mm2 2 2 FRd.wb = t w h wb d 0 n1 t w = 9 360 22 5 9 = 2250 mm2 FRd.n = 0 . FRd.2. 5 – 50 . OK The weld size specified for shear will be adequate for tying resistance. 9 2250 430 10 3 = 792 kN 1 .1 3 1.b Anv / 3 M0 t w n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 = 95 1 70 5 122 1728 mm2 Anv 3 3 2t w e2.Title 3.
d0 = d + 3 mm for d > 24 mm 10 mm clearance Supported beam (single notched) Supported beam (double notched) Supporting beam 5 – 51 . the design rules below have been developed from those established for partial depth end plates and fin plates from Reference 8. d Hold diameters. gh approximately 10 mm Double line of bolts Bolt diameter. d0 = d + 2 mm for d 24 mm. d0.Part 5: Joint Design 4 DOUBLE ANGLE WEB CLEATS Unless noted otherwise.6hb Face of beam or column End projection.1 Recommended details 1 tf 3 5 p1 hac p1 p1 hb 6 2 t ac tf 4 p3 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Length of cleat hac 0. 4.
Rd (1 n b ) 2 ( n b ) 2 is the shear resistance of one bolt = v f ub A M2 M2 is the partial factor for resistance of bolts For a single vertical line of bolts (n2 = 1) α = 0 and β = 6z n1 n1 1 p1 For a double vertical line of bolts (n2 = 2) α I zp zp 2 and β = 1 n1 1 2I 2I n1 1 2 2 2 = p 2 n1 n1 1 p 1 2 6 = 5 – 52 .1.5 for 10.2.9 bolts = 2 n b F v.1 Checks for vertical shear Bolt group resistance Shear resistance of bolts 4.6 and 8.Part 5: Joint Design 4.2 4.2.6 for 4. As = 0.1 Supported beam side p1 p1 p1 p1 p1 p1 1 z VEd 1 z VEd 1 z VEd 1 Assumed line of shear transfer Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd Fv.8 bolts = 0.Rd Fv.Rd where: A αv is the tensile stress area of the bolt.
Rd nb n b F b.hor.ac dt ac M2 The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt on the angle cleat is as follows: Fb. ac dtac M2 α.5 d d0 0 αb e p 1 f = min 1 .0 3d 3d 4 f u.7.Rd 2 2 The bearing resistance of a single bolt is Fb.hor.Rd: k1 e p = min 2.Rd = k 1 b f u dt M2 The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt on the angle cleat is as follows: Fb.7.ver. 1. 1. β and M2 are as defined previously.Rd = k 1 b f u.ver.8 2 1. For Fb. ub .ver. 2.ac 0 0 5 – 53 .Part 5: Joint Design z is the transverse distance from the face of the supporting element to the centre of the bolt group p2 e2 e1 p1 Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats e1 1 VEd 2 z e2 VEd 2 z e1 Single row 1 Double Row Check the bearing strength of cleat under eccentric load Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 2 1 n b F b.Rd = k1 b f u.4 2 1. 1 .
7.0 3d 3d f u.Rd = M2 α.ac 0 0 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web gh e1.5 d0 d0 αb e p 1 f = min 1.b dt w Fb. 2.0 3d 3d 4 f u.b p1 e 2.b p2 z z VEd 1 1 VEd Check bolt group in bearing under eccentric load Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 1 n b F b. 1.Part 5: Joint Design For Fb.ver.5 d d0 0 αb e f p = min 2 . 1.4.4 1 1.7.b 1.Rd = k 1 b f u. 1.b .7. ub .b p1 e 2.b 0 0 5 – 54 .b dt w M2 k 1 b f u.Rd: k1 e p = min 2.hor. 1 . 2 1. β and M2 are as defined previously For Fb.ver.ver.7.hor. k1 e p = min 2.Rd.8 2.Rd nb n b F b. 1. 2.8 1 1.hor. ub .b gh e1.Rd 2 2 Fb.4 2 1.
Rd)max Fv.Rd where: = v f ub A M2 = 0.9 bolts is the tensile stress area of the bolt. §3.2.7.Rd is the shear resistance of one bolt Fv.Rd FRd = ns(Fb.7(1)] FRd = Fb.ac 0 4 5 – 55 .Rd)min FRd = 0.6 and 8.Rd If (Fb.b .8 bolts = 0.Rd)min Shear resistance of bolts Fv.8 1. 2.Rd If (Fb.4] M2 is the partial factor for plates in bearing For end bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer) e f ub . ub . 1. Table 3.hor.Rd is the bearing resistance of a single bolt Fb.7.2 Supporting beam side Basic requirement: VEd FRd FRd is the resistance of the bolt group then then then [EN 199318. 1. Table 3.4 1 1. 1. As [EN 199318.1. 3d f u.0 3d 3d 4 f u.ac dt ac M2 [EN 199318.6 for 4.Rd)min Fv.Rd)max If Fv.Rd ≤ (Fb.Rd where: = k 1 b f u.Rd k1 e p = min 2. 2 . 0 b = min 1 . .b 0 0 4.8nsFv. 0 3d f u. 1.Rd (Fb.ac 0 For inner bolts (parallel to the direction of load transfer) p f ub 1 b = min 1 .4] v A Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Fb.b 1.Part 5: Joint Design For Fb.5 d0 d0 αb e p 1 f = min 2.5 for 10.
5 d0 4.g = 2 h ac t ac 1.b = 2 M2 3 M0 Anv = t ac h ac e1 ( n1 0 .net = t ac h ac n1 d 0 Block tearing resistance f y.27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in the bolts. 5 f u. 2 .2 Shear resistance of the angle cleats p2 e2 e1 p1 e1 z e2 e1 VEd 2 VEd 2 z Single row Double row 4.2. 5 ) d 0 = t ac e 2 0 . 7 .ac 3 M0 Note: The coefficient 1.2.n = 2 A v.[9] Shear resistance of net section VRd.Part 5: Joint Design For edge bolts (perpendicular to the direction of load transfer) e k1 = min 2 . VRd.1 Supported beam side Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.min = min(VRd.g.2.ac Ant VRd. 8 2 1.ac Anv 0 . VRd.ac 3 M2 Av.min VRd.n.net f u. 27 f y. 5 d 0 For a single line of bolts: Ant 5 – 56 .b) Shear resistance of gross section VRd.
g. 5 ) d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.net = t ac h ac n1 d 0 Block tearing resistance f y.2.Part 5: Joint Design For a double line of bolts: Ant = t ac e 2 p 2 1.ac Anv 0 . 5 d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections.2 Supporting beam side 1 2 e1 p1 e1 e2 VEd 2 VEd 2 VEd 2 e2 VEd 2 p1 e1 1 2 Critical section in shear and bearing Block shear – check failure by tearing out of shaded portion Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd. Shear resistance of net section VRd. 27 f y.ac 3 M2 Av.min = min(VRd.net f u.g = 2 h ac t ac 1. 5 f u.b = 2 M2 3 M0 Ant Anv = t ac e 2 0 . 4.n. 5 – 57 .ac 3 M0 Note: The coefficient 1.b) Shear resistance of gross section VRd. VRd.2.27 takes into account the reduction in shear resistance due to the presence of the nominal inplane bending which produces tension in the bolts[9]. 5 d 0 = t ac h ac e1 ( n1 0 .ac Ant VRd.min VRd.n = 2 A v. VRd.
wb f y.wb = A – 2btf + (tw + 2r)tf but ≥ η hwtw Av.n. VRd.b) Shear resistance of gross section VRd.b p1 2 e 2.b tf he he 3 he 3 VEd VEd 4 tf VEd tf 1 gh e1. VRd.b p1 e 2.min VRd.2.b p1 2 e 2.b p2 3 he he he 3 VEd VEd 4 VEd 1 2 3 4 Critical section in plain shear Shear failure Tension failure Block shear failure tearing out of shaded portion 4.b p1 e 2.b p1 2 e 2.b p2 gh e 1.b gh e1.b 3 M0 for unnotched beam for single notched beam Av.wb = ATee – btf + (tw + 2r)tf /2 5 – 58 .b p1 2 e 2.1 Shear and block tearing resistance Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.g = A v.3.b p2 gh e 1.3 Shear resistance of the beam web 1 gh e1.g.Part 5: Joint Design 4.2.min = min(VRd.b gh e1.
2.b + p2) 1 ln ln gh e 1.b p 2 he he VEd VEd 1 Critical section in plain shear Basic requirement: VEd (gh+e2.n = A v. 5 f u.wb.b p 2 gh e 1.net f u.b p1 e 2.net = Av. Ant = t w e 2.Part 5: Joint Design Av.b Anv 3 M0 For a single vertical line of bolts.wb = tw (e1. 4.2 Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts.b + p2) Mc.Rd [Reference 4] Mc. b (n1 1) p1 (n1 0.5)d 0 M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts.b = 0 .b + (n1 –1)p1 + he) η for double notched beam is a factor from EN 199315 (it may be conservatively taken equal to 1.b p2 d 0 2 Anv = t w e1. Ant = t w e2.b 3 M2 Av.b 0 . if the notch length ln > (e2.b p1 e 2.0) ATee is the area of the Tee section Shear resistance of net section VRd. 5 – 59 .b Ant M2 f y.wb.3.Rd is the moment resistance of the notched beam at the connection in the presence of shear.wb – n1d0tw Block tearing resistance VRd.
Part 5: Joint Design
For single notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mc,Rd =
f y,b W el,N
M0
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mc,Rd
2 f y,bWel,N 2VEd 1 = 1 M0 Vpl,N,Rd
Vpl,N,Rd = min(VRd,g; VRd,b) Wel,N is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) Mc,Rd =
f y,b t w
6 M0
e1 n 1 1 p 1 h e 2
2 2V Ed 1 1 Vpl,DN,Rd
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) Mc,Rd = f y,b t w 6 M0
e1 n1 1 p1 he
2
Vpl,DN,Rd = min(VRd,g; VRd,b)
4.2.4 Bending resistance at the notch
1 gh e1,b p1
ln
gh e1,b p1
ln
gh e 2,b e 1,b p1
ln
gh e2,b e 1,b p1
ln
he
he
he
he
VEd
VEd
2
VEd
2
VEd
1 2
Critical sections To notch or beam flange
Shear and bending interaction at the notch.
4.2.4.1 For single bolt line or for double bolt lines, if xN ≥ 2d:
VEd (gh + ln) Mv,N,Rd
[Reference 4]
Mv,N,Rd is the moment resistant of the beam at the notch in the presence of shear
5 – 60
Part 5: Joint Design
For single notched beam
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,N,Rd) Mv,N,Rd =
f y,b W el,N
M0
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,N,Rd)
2 f y,bWel,N 2VEd 1 1 Mv,N,Rd = M0 Vpl,N,Rd
For double notched beam:
For low shear (i.e. VEd ≤ 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) Mv,DN,Rd =
f y,b t w
6 M0
( e1,b n1 1 p 1 h e ) 2
For high shear (i.e. VEd > 0,5Vpl,DN,Rd) f y,b t w 4 M0
Mv,DN,Rd =
e
1,b
n1 1 p1 he
2
2 2V Ed 1 1 Vpl,DN,Rd
4.2.4.2 For double bolt lines, if xN < 2d:
max (VEd (gh + ln); VEd (gh + e2,b + p2)) ≤ Mv,N,Rd Mv,N,Rd = Mc,Rd where: Wel,N from the previous check
[Reference 4]
is the elastic section modulus of the gross Tee section at the notch
Vpl,N,Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for single notched beams A v, N f y,b = 3 M0 Av,N = ATee – btf + (tw + 2r)
tf 2
Vpl,DN,Rd is the shear resistance at the notch for double notched beams A v,DN f y,b = 3 M0 Av,DN where: ATee is the area of the Tee section = tw (e1,b + (n1 – 1) p1 + he)
5 – 61
Part 5: Joint Design
4.2.5
Local stability of the notched beam
ln ln
d nt
d nt
hb
hb
d nb
ln
When the beam is restrained against lateral torsional buckling, no account need be taken of notch stability provided the following conditions are met:
For one flange notched, basic requirement:
[5],[6]
dnt ln ln ln ln
hb / 2 hb
and: for for for for hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw hb / tw
54,3 (S275 steel)
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
160000 h b
h b / t w 3
hb
110000 h b
48,0 (S355 steel)
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
[7]
h b / t w 3
For both flanges notched, basic requirement:
max (dnt; dnb) ln ln ln ln
hb / 5
for tw
and: hb / tw hb / t w hb / tw hb / t w
hb
160000 h b
54,3 (S275 steel)
> 54,3 (S275 steel)
hb
3
for for
hb
110000 h b
48,0 (S355 steel)
> 48,0 (S355 steel)
hb
tw
3
for
Where the notch length ln exceeds these limits, either suitable stiffening should be provided or the notch should be checked to References 5, 6 and 7. For S235 and S460 members see References 5, 6 and 7.
5 – 62
2.2] Mode 3 (bolt failure) FRd.u.u.1.2] Mode 2 (bolt failure with yielding of the angle cleats) FRd.2 = [EN 199318 Table 6.2] Mu 5 – 63 .Rd.u nΣF t. FRd.2. FRd.u 2 mn e w m n 2 M pl.1 Angle cleats and bolt group resistance e2 p3 e1 p1 p 1 4.3 = ΣF t.u Ft.u.1 is recommended.Rd. In this publication Mu has been used.u mn [EN 199318 Table 6.3) Mode 1 (the complete yielding of the angle cleats) FRd.Rd.3.Rd. A value of Mu = 1.u.1.3.u.1.Rd.1 Resistance of the angle cleats in bending p1 e1 1 FEd 1 Critical sections There are three modes of failure for angle cleats in bending: Mode 1: complete yielding of the plate Mode 2: bolt failure with yielding of the plate Mode 3: bolt failure Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = min(FRd. 4.3 Checks for tying EN 199318 does not have a partial factor for structural integrity checks.u = k 2 f ub A [EN 199318 Table 6.u.Part 5: Joint Design 4.1 = 8 n 2 e w M pl.
1. 5 ( p 3 t w 2 r ) = p1 but ≤ p 3 t w 2 r d 0 d0 2 4.hor.3.1.Rd.1.Rd.8 bolts = 0.1.hor.3 Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd Fb.3.25m where emin = e2 = is the diameter of the washer = 0.Rd.u Fv.2 Shear resistance of bolts Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = 2nbFv.Rd = k 1 b f u.Rd = 2nbFb.63 for countersunk bolts = 0. 25 Σl eff t ac f u.u Mpl.5 for 10.6 and 8.9 otherwise is the tensile stress area of the bolt.2.u p 3 t w 2 t ac 2 0 .u.Part 5: Joint Design where: Mpl.6 for 4. 8 r 2 dw 4 = emin but n ≤ 1.ac Mu = Mpl.u = where: αv A = 0. As Σleff is the effective length of a plastic hinge Σleff = 2 e1 A ( n1 1) p 1 A e1A p1A = e1 but ≤ 0 .u. As v f ub A Mu 4.ac dt ac Mu 5 – 64 .u m n ew dw k2 A = = 2 0 .9 bolts is the tensile stress area of the bolt.
ac Ant Mu f y. 5 d0 d0 αb e p 1 f = min 2 . 7 . 7 .1.1.ac 0 0 4. 0 3d 3d 4 f u.Part 5: Joint Design where: k1 p e = min 2 . ub .5d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts: Anv = 2 tac e 2 0. 4 1 1. 5 d 0 3 For a double vertical line of bolts: Anv = 4tac e2 p2 d 0 2 Case 2: Ant = 2tac e1 n1 1 p1 n1 0.1.b = Case 1: Ant = 2tac n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 f u.ac Anv 3 M0 For a single vertical line of bolts: Anv = 4 t ac e 2 0 .3.b FRd.5d 0 For a double vertical line of bolts: Anv = 2 tac e2 p2 3 d0 2 5 – 65 . 2 .4 Block tearing resistance Case 1 1 2 4 Case 2 2 1 2 4 Beam without notch Notched beam Double angle cleat 4 Basic requirement : FEd ≤ FRd. 2 . 8 1 1.
u.b p1 p p 1 1 e 2.b e1.b e1. 1. ub .n = 0 .2 Beam web resistance e 2.wb = t w h ac d 0 n1 t w f u.0 3d 3d 4 f u.b p 1 p FEd p 1 1 p2 FEd e 2. b 0 0 = 0.6 and 8.7.4 1 1.2 Tension resistance of the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd.2.Part 5: Joint Design 4. 9 Anet. b .1 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb.5 for 10.b p 1 FEd p 1 p 1 p2 FEd 4.b e1.u.b dt w.b e1. 1.b Mu 5 – 66 .b p1 p1 p 1 e 2.2.6 for 4.9 bolts 4.Rd = where: k1 e p = 2.Rd Fb.5 d0 d0 k 1 b f u.hor.3. 2.8 bolts = 0.hor.n FRd.wb where: Anet.3. 2 .b Mu αb αv e 1 f p = 2. b 1.3.7.8 1.
b FRd.b p 2 d 0 2 5 – 67 .b = Case 1: Ant = tw f u.b 0 .Part 5: Joint Design 4.3.3 Block tearing resistance Case 1 1 2 4 Case 2 2 1 2 4 Beam without notch Notched beam Double angle cleat 4 Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd.b Anv 3 M0 n1 1 p 1 n1 1 d 0 For a single vertical line of bolts. 5 d 0 For double vertical line of bolts. Anv = 2 t w e 2 . b n 1 1 p 1 n 1 0 .b p 2 d 0 2 For a single vertical line of bolts.b 0 . 3 Anv = t w e 2 .2. Anv = t w e 2 .b Ant Mu f y. 5 d 0 3 Anv = 2 t w e 2 . 5 d 0 For double vertical line of bolts. Case 2 (for notched beams only): Ant = t w e1 .
4.4 Calculation sheet Worked Example: Angle Web Cleats Made by CZT Date Date 1 of 15 06/2009 07/2009 Checked by ENM 4. S275 Bolts: M20 8.8 5 – 68 . Angle Web Cleats Details and data 40 70 70 70 70 70 40 IPE A 550 S275 370 kN 10 450 kN 50 40 50 Beam: IPE A 550 S275 Angle cleats: 2/90 90 10.
Title 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 2 of 15 Summary of full design checks Design forces VEd = 450 kN FEd = 370 kN (Tie force) Shear resistances Bolt group resistance Supported beam side Shear resistance of bolts Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Supporting beam side Resistance Shear resistance of the angle cleats Supported beam side Shear resistance Supporting beam side Shear resistance Shear resistance of the beam web Shear and block tearing resistance Shear resistance Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts Bending resistance at the notch Local stability of the notched beam Tying resistances Angle cleats and bolt group resistance 962 kN 1075 kN 583 kN 902 kN 954 kN 954 kN 501 kN N/A N/A N/A Resistance of the angle cleats in bending Shear resistance of bolts Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Block tearing resistance Beam web resistance Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web Tension resistance of the beam web Block tearing resistance 696 kN 1284 kN 1428 kN 2060 kN 642 kN 944 kN 927 kN 5 .69 .
8 2 1.39.70 .1.e.102 n1 ( n 1 1 ) p 1 6 6 1 70 6 94 (1 0 6 ) ( 0 .102 6 ) 2 2 Thus VRd = 2 VEd = 962 kN = 450 kN ≤ 962 kN.Rd = 2 1 n b F b.ver.ac dt ac The vertical bearing resistance for a single bolt. EN 199318 4. 25 For M20 8. all references are to Cleats 10 mm thick Length. 2.hor.8 bolts.5 5 . n2 = 1 and n1 = 6).Rd (1 n b ) 2 ( n b ) 2 Fv.Rd = v f ub A M2 0 . α = 0 β = 6z 6 50 = = 0. 6 800 245 10 3 = 94 kN 1.Rd = M2 k1 e 40 = min 2.5 = min 2.Rd nb n b F b.6hb.2.5 = min 3. Checks for vertical shear Bolt group resistance 4.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 3 of 15 4.1.Rd Vb. ver.5 d 22 0 = 2.Rd = For a single vertical line of bolts (i.2. OK Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Basic requirement: VEd ≤ Vb.2. Fv. 2. 4. 2.1. hac = 430mm > 0. as above k 1 b f u.7. Fb.7.102.Title 4. Recommended details OK Unless noted otherwise.Rd 2 2 α = 0 and β = 0.8 1. Supported beam side Shear resistance of bolts Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 2 n b F v.1.
102 6 1 0 6 105 105 = 450 kN ≤ 1075 kN.5 22 22 αb e f 800 40 = min 2 .7.Rd = The horizontal bearing resistance for a single bolt.5 0.ac 0 0 70 800 40 0. 1.4 1.ver. 1. 1.Rd = e p = min 2.75.61 2 .hor.71 . 1. 1.8 1.25 k 1 b f u. 2.Title 4.81.86.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 4 of 15 αb e p 1 f = min 1 . ub . 2.5 = 2.Rd = VRd = 2 2 6 = 1075 kN 2 0 .39. 1.5 d d0 0 M2 k1 70 40 = min 2.ac = min 0. ub .25.0 = min .8 1 1. 1.ac dt ac Fb.7. 0.0 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.0 3d 3d 4 f u.0 = min 430 3 22 3 22 αb = 0. 61 430 20 10 10 3 = 105 kN 1. 1.7. Fb.5 = min 3. 2. .7.61 430 20 10 10 3 = 105 kN 1.hor. OK VEd 5 . 1.61. 1 .0 = 0.86. . 25 Fb. . 5 0 . 2.4 1 1. 1.0 = min 0.61 2.61.
hor. 81 430 20 9 10 3 = 125 kN 1. 1 .81 Fb.ver.81.7.0 = 0.8 2. 2.5 αb e p 1 f 90 70 1 800 = min 1.b dt w The horizontal bearing resistance of a single bolt. 1.b = 40 Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd VRd = 1 n b F b.72 .hor. . 5 0 . ub .4.b = 90 (n1 1)p1 = 350 h e = 107 e2.b 1.Rd = 2 . 1. 25 k 1 b f u.5 d0 22 = 2. Fb. .ver.Rd = M2 k1 e 40 = min 2.Rd nb n b F b. as above k 1 b f u.36.Rd = M2 k1 e p = min 2.5 d0 d0 70 90 = min 2. 2.b 1.Title 4. 2.b .7.b dt w The vertical bearing resistance of a single bolt.5 = min 3.102. 1. 1.5 22 22 5 .0 3d 3d 4 f u. 1. 2. 2. 0.8 1.7.5 = min 9.8 1.b 3 22 3 22 4 430 0 0 = min 1.75.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 5 of 15 Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web tw = 9 e1.7.0 = min .Rd 2 2 α = 0 and β = 0. Fb.5 = min 2. 2.8 1.7.86. 1.ver. 2.4 1 1.4 1.5 = 2.7.75.
Rd then FRd ΣFb.b = min 0. 61 430 20 9 10 3 = 94 kN 1. 25 6 = 583 kN 2 2 Fb.Rd ) min F v.Rd ) max If F v. 5 0 .2. Fv. FRd : If F b.Rd ( F b. .8 bolts.2. 1.hor. 1.Rd = VRd = 0 .61. Fv. 1.Rd ) min then FRd 0 .Rd If ( F b. OK e2 = 40 e 1 = 40 VEd 4.86.73 .1.0 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 6 of 15 αb e f 800 40 = min 2. 1. 25 5 .Rd min Shear resistance of bolts The shear resistance of a single bolt.b .61 2 .Rd then FRd n s ( Fb.Rd = v f ub A M2 0 .Rd F b.102 6 1 0 6 94 125 = 450 kN ≤ 583 kN. 8 n s F v.Rd max F v.Rd = For M20 8.Title 4. 6 800 245 10 3 = 94 kN 1. Supporting beam side (n11)p1 = 350 e 1 = 40 VEd 2 VEd 2 VEd = 450 kN Basic requirement: V Ed F Rd The design resistance of the bolt group.0 = min .0 = 0. ub .
1.g. 8 12 94 902 kN V Ed = 550 kN ≤ 902 kN. 1.61 For inner bolts.ac 70 1 800 .Rd min p1 1 f ub .5) 22 d0 For edge bolts.8 1. Fb.5 0.net 5 . 1. 1.0) = 0.min = min(VRd.g = 2 h ac t ac 1.0) = min( 3 22 430 3d 0 f u. ub . αb = min( f e1 40 800 .b) Shear resistance of gross section VRd.0) = min(0.5) = min(2.Rd = k 1 b f u.7.ac = min(0.8 = min(3. 1.2.Rd 0 .ac 3 M0 f u. . 27 3 1.ac 3 M2 = 2 430 10 275 1.61 430 20 10 10 3 1.n = 2 A v.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 7 of 15 Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Vb.5 For end bolts.inner Fb.74 .81.Rd < (Fb. 0 10 3 = 1076 kN Shear resistance of net section VRd. 1.Rd max 139 kN 94 kN < 105 kN thus Fv.81 End bolts. k1 = min(2. . 8 n s F v.min VRd.Rd.0) 3 22 4 430 2. 27 f y.25 105 kN Inner bolts. 1.2.n. VRd. Fb.Rd.end Fb. 2.Rd)min FRd 0 .1.5 0.81 430 20 10 10 3 1.0) 3d 0 4 f u.39.7.61. .0) . Shear resistance of the angle cleats 4. 2. 1.2. OK 4. Supported beam side Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd. VRd.25 2. αb = min( = min( = 0.86. 2.Title 4.ac dt ac M2 e2 40 1.86.2.5) = 2.
2. 27 3 1. Ant = t ac e 2 0 . OK VRd.27 f y.min = 954 kN VEd 4.net VRd. 5 22 = 290 mm2 = t ac h ac e1 ( n1 0 . 0 10 3 = 1076 kN 5 .n = t ac h ac n1 d 0 = 10 430 6 22 = 2980 mm2 430 3 1.ac 3 M0 = 2 430 10 275 1. VRd.b) Shear resistance of gross section VRd. 25 3 1. Anv = 10 40 0 .75 .2. Supporting beam side e2 = 40 e 1 = 40 1 (n11)p1 = 350 e 1 = 40 VEd 2 VEd 2 VEd = 450 kN 1 Block shear failure Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.Title 4.b 0 .ac Ant = 2 M2 3 M0 Net area subject to tension.n.2.ac Anv 0 . 5 ) d 0 = 10 430 40 ( 6 0 .g = 2 hac t ac 1.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 8 of 15 Net area. VRd. 5 f u.min VRd. 25 10 3 = 1184 kN = 2 2980 Block tearing resistance VRd. Av. 5 d 0 Net area subject to shear.g.b f y. 5 ) 22 = 2690 mm2 VRd. 5 430 290 275 2690 10 3 = 954 kN = 2 1.min = min(VRd. 0 = 450 kN ≤ 954 kN.
OK VRd. 0 = 450 kN ≤ 954 kN. Shear and block tearing resistance h ac = 430 VEd = 450 kN Basic requirement: VEd ≤ VRd.net = t ac h ac n1 d 0 = 10 430 6 22 = 2980 mm2 VRd.b f y. 5 ) 22 = 2690 mm2 VRd.76 . VRd. 5 f u.ac 3 M2 Net area.net f u. Anv = t ac h ac e1 ( n1 0 .min = 954 kN VEd 4. VRd.min VRd. Av.ac Ant = 2 M2 3 M0 Net area subject to tension.1.b) 5 . Shear resistance of the beam web 4.2.ac Anv 0 . 5 430 290 275 2690 10 3 = 954 kN = 2 1.n = 2 2980 430 3 1. 5 d 0 = 10 40 0 . 25 3 1.3.min = min(VRd.n = 2 A v. Ant = t ac e 2 0 . 5 22 = 290 mm2 Net area subject to shear.3.n.2.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 9 of 15 Shear resistance of net section VRd.Title 4. 5 ) d 0 = 10 430 40 ( 6 0 . 25 10 3 = 1184 kN Block tearing resistance VRd.g.b 0 .
b f y. 6 9 = 4640 mm2 VRd. 5 22 261 mm2 Net area subject to shear.b 0.2. 0 η hwtw = 1.wb Av.min = min(953.wb.2. Av.4. 5 f u.wb n1 d 0 t w = 6001 6 22 9 = 4813 mm2 VRd.5d 0 9 40 0 .n = A v.3. 25 10 3 = 956 kN Block tearing resistance VRd.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 10 of 15 Shear resistance of gross section VRd.Title 4.77 .net f u.wb = A – 2btf + (tw + 2r)tf = 11700 2 210 15 .b 3 M2 Net area. Anv t w e1.b 0 . OK VRd. 0 515 .g = 10 3 = 953 kN Shear resistance of net section VRd. Shear and bending interaction at the 2nd line of bolts Not applicable because it is unnotched 4.n = 4813 430 3 1. 5 ) 22 2871 mm2 VRd. 25 3 1.b n1 1 p1 (n1 0.b 3 M0 Shear area of beam web.5)d 0 9 90 6 1 70 ( 6 0 . Bending resistance at the notch Not applicable because it is unnotched 5 . 956. 5 430 261 275 2871 10 3 = 501 kN = 1.net = A v.wb. 501) = 501 kN VEd 4.wb f y.g = A v. 0 = 450 kN ≤ 501 kN. Av.b Ant = M2 3 M0 Net area subject to tension. Ant t w e2. 7 9 2 24 15 .2.b Anv 0 . 7 = 6001 mm2 6001 275 3 1.
1 t f f u.78 .25 mm 4 4 = min e 2 .2 .u 2mn ew m n = 2 e1 A ( n 1 1 ) p 1 A = e1 but ≤ 0 . 39 = 39 mm 5 .3.3. 5 ( p 3 t w 2 r ) 22 = 50 mm 2 d0 2 0 . 4. Checks for tying Angle cleats and bolt group resistance 4.1. Local stability of the notched beam Not applicable because it is unnotched 4.1. FRd.1 p3 t w 2t ac 2 0.ac 2 Mpl.u = m ew n = Mu = 0 . u.Title 4.u.1. u. FRd.1.1. 5 (109 9 2 11) e1A = 40 mm p1A = p1 but ≤ p 3 t w 2 r d 0 p 3 t w 2 r d 0 = 109 9 2 11 22 = 100 mm p1A = 70 mm Σleff = 2 e1 A ( n1 1) p 1 A = 2 40 ( 6 1) 70 = 430 mm 0 .8 r 109 9 2 10 2 0.5.3. 25 Σl eff.2kNm 1.1 = Σleff e1A 8n 2ew M pl.2.1 is given by: FRd.1 .4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 11 of 15 4.u.1. 25 430 10 2 430 10 6 = 4.3 The tying resistance for Mode 1.Rd.Rd.u. Resistance of the angle cleats in bending Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd Tension bolt group FEd FRd min FRd.8 11 = = 31 mm 2 2 d w 37 9. FRd. 25 m = min 40 .
Bearing resistance of bolts on the angle cleats Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = 2nbFb.u.2 is given by: FRd. 2 10 3 39 12 160 = 1190 kN 31 39 = 1920 kN The tying resistance for mode 3.1 .u.u.Rd.2 = Mpl.3 min 696.u = Mpl.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 12 of 15 FRd.2 = Mu = 0 . 2 10 3 2 31 39 9 .3 FRd FRd FEd = ΣF t.20 kNm Ft. 1 = 2 4 .u nΣF t.Rd. FRd.u = v f ub A 0 .hor.Rd.3.u.u.2.u FRd.u.Rd 5 . FRd.u.3. 4. OK 4.2 .u =4. 1920 = 696 kN = 370 kN ≤ 696 kN. Shear resistance of bolts FEd = 370 kN IPE A 550 S275 Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd Fv. 25 4 .Rd.u. 1190.Rd.1. 6 800 245 10 3 = 107 kN = 1. FRd. 25 31 39 2 M pl. 9 800 245 10 3 = 160 kN 1.u mn k 2 f ub A = 696 kN The tying resistance for mode 2.u.Title 4.Rd.2. FRd.u FRd FEd = 2nbFv.u.3.1 = 8 39 2 9 .79 .1 Mu OK = 2 6 107 = 1284 kN = 370 kN ≤ 1284 kN.1.u = 12 160 min FRd.1.3 is given by FRd.2.
61 430 20 10 10 3 = 119 kN 1.5 = min 3.61.hor. 2. 1.0 = 0.1.39.1 3 1.7. 5 0 .4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 13 of 15 Fb.3.5 22 = 1160 mm2 = 430 4800 275 1160 10 3 = 2060 kN 1.5d 0 = 4 1040 0. 1 Fb.u. .ac dt ac Mu k1 e p = min 2.4. Block tearing resistance e2 = 40 e 1 = 40 70 70 70 70 70 e 1 = 40 hac FEd = 370 kN Basic requirement : FEd ≤ FRd. 1.75.5 d d0 0 70 40 = min 2. 1.7.8 1 1.80 . 2.5 22 22 αb e f 800 40 .7.b FRd. 1.86. ub . OK 4.b Case 1 = f u.61 2 .b 5 .Rd = FRd FEd = 2 6 119 = 1428 kN = 350 kN ≤ 1428 kN.4 1 1.0 = min 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.8 1.u. 1. 2.ac Ant Mu f y. 1.5 = 2.hor.7.ac Anv 3 M0 Ant = 2t ac n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 = 2 10 6 1 70 6 1 22 = 4800 mm2 = 4 tac e 2 0.Title 4.4 1.Rd = k 1 b f u. 2.0 Anv FRd.ac = min 0.0 = min 2 .
2.0 = min .b FEd 4. 61 430 20 9 10 3 = 107 kN 1.5d 0 = 2 10 40 6 1 70 6 0.81 .5 22 = 5380 mm2 = 2 tac e 2 0. 9 Anet.hor.b = 40 OK 4.5 22 = 580 mm2 = 430 5380 275 580 10 3 = 2195 kN 1.wb f u. 2.n = 0 . Tension resistance of the beam web Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 14 of 15 Case 2 Ant Ant Anv FRd.Rd = FRd FEd = 6 107 = 642 kN = 370 kN ≤ 642 kN.1.7.3. 5 0 .3.b = 90 70 70 70 70 70 FEd = 370 kN n1 Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd FRd = nbFb.u.7. 2. Beam web resistance e 2.b dt w Fb.5 d 22 0 αb e f 800 40 = min 2.b 2 .n FRd. Bearing resistance of bolts on the beam web e1.5 = min1.u.0 = 370 kN ≤ 2060 and 2195 kN.5d 0 = 2 10 40 0.Title 4.wb = t w h ac d 0 n1 t w = 9 430 22 6 9 = 2682 mm2 5 .2.Rd Mu k1 p 70 = min1. OK 4.b Mu Anet.hor. 1.hor.2. 1.1 3 1.1 Fb.Rd = k 1 b f u.u. ub . = 2t ac e1 n1 1 p1 n1 0.61 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.0 = 0.5 = 2.b .2.3. .4 1.4 1 1.
b Anv 3 M0 430 2160 275 522 10 3 = 927 kN = 1 .3.b FEd = 2t w e2.2.1 OK = 370 kN ≤ 944 kN.4 Worked Example – Angle Web Cleats 15 of 15 FRd.5d 0 = 2 9 40 0 .n FEd = 0 . 0 = 370 ≤ 927 kN.b Case 1 Ant = t w n1 1 p1 n1 1d 0 = 96 1 70 6 122 = 2160 mm2 Anv FRd.b 0. Block tearing resistance Basic requirement : FEd ≤ FRd. OK (Case 2 only applies to notched beams) 5 . 9 2682 430 10 3 = 944 kN 1 .b Ant Mu f y.b FRd.Title 4. 5 22 = 522 mm2 = f u. 4.1 3 1.3.82 .
5. Width: bp buc.83 .uc Flange cover plate. where appropriate.8 bolts – See notes For doublesided web cover plates. In bearing type splices. The plates provide the splice with adequate stiffness and tying resistance. Height: hp 2buc and 225 mm. a nominal moment from the connection to the beams.lc h lc p2 bp b lc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Web cover plate width 0. M20. the axial load is transferred directly between the ends of the column sections (with a division plate if necessary due to the change of serial size) and not via the splices plates. Thickness: tp tf.uc/2 and 10 mm Bolts (normally untorqued in clearance holes) – See notes Packs arranged as necessary Wide bolt spacing for joint rigidity Ends of column sections in direct bearing 5 .Part 5: Joint Design 5 COLUMN SPLICES (BEARING TYPE) Column splices are designed assuming they must resist both the axial compression and.uc/2 For singlesided web cover plates. thickness tw.uc 5 hp 6 4 7 t w.1 Recommended details 1 2 huc buc 3 t f.5huc Multiple packs thickness tpa Web cover plate at least 4 no. thickness tw. 8.
Part 5: Joint Design 2 1 t f. 8.8 bolts Flange cover plate.lc – 2rlc)/2.uc/2 and 10 mm. Width: bp (buc – tw.uc 4 buc Lj 3 hp 5 Lj 6 t w.lc)]/ Direct bearing onto a division plate 1 huc 2 t f.5huc Web angle cleats at least 2 no. Thickness: tp tf. M20.8 bolts each side Multiple packs thickness tpa Flange cover plate as above Division plate thickness should be at least.uc 3 > 45° 5 4 1 2 3 4 5 Cleat length > 0. 8.84 . (rlc = root radius) Bolts (normally untorqued in clearance holes) – See notes Packs arranged as necessary Wide bolt spacing for joint rigidity Internal flange cover plates 5 .lc h lc p2 bp blc 1 2 3 4 5 6 Web cover plate width 0.5huc Web cover plate at least 4 no. Height: hp 2buc and 450 mm. [(hlc – 2tf. M20.lc) – (huc – 2tf.
There should not be more than one jump in serial size of column at the splice. The thickness of the flange cover plate should be at least the minimum of 10. although less than full stiffness. Bolt diameters must be at least 75% of packing thickness tpa[11]. Bolt spacing and edge distances should comply with the recommendations of EN 199318:2005 2.85 . 3. If there is significant net tension then the following notes should be adhered to: 6. It is also recommended to use a minimum of four bolts. 4. 8. However if the width of the flange cover plate is narrower than the upper column flange then edge and end distances should be checked against the Eurocode (EN 199318 Table 3. columns containing such splices will behave satisfactorily even if the joint effectively behaves as a pin. If external and internal flange covers are to be provided. the size should be similar to those shown in the figures and the combined thickness of the external and internal cover plates must be at least tf. 9. 5 . In common practice the width of the flange cover plate would not be greater than the width of the lower column flange. 5. as required by EN 199318 [§6.uc / 2. The column splices should be located at approximately 600 mm above floor beam level. In a braced frame.uc/2 and p1/14.1(14)]. All cover plates should be at least 10 mm thick. tf. The thickness mentioned in Note 2 is in most cases sufficient to transmit at least 25% of the maximum compressive force in the column. 7.3). The number of plies in multiple packs should not exceed four[11].7.Part 5: Joint Design Notes: 1. typical bearing column splices as given in this guide will provide significant stiffness about both axes.2. In practice.
NEd. FEd. G ) 2 M NEd.Part 5: Joint Design 5. h is conservatively the overall depth of the smaller column (for external flange cover plates) or the centreline to centreline distance between the flange cover plates (for internal flange cover plates). If MEd > N Ed. 5 .2.G h then net tension does occur and the flange cover plates and 2 their fasteners should be checked for tensile force.G is the axial compressive force due to factored permanent loads only.2 5.G h N Ed. G ) 2 ( hEd + ( hEd  The following checks the presence of net tension due to axial load and bending moment[4]: If MEd ≤ then net tension does not occur and so the splice need only be 2 detailed to transmit axial compression by direct bearing.1 Checks for tension Net tension N Ed.1. column design moment) at the floor level immediately below the splice. Preloaded bolts should be used when net tension induces stress in the upper column flange > 10% of the design strength of that column.G 2 h MEd is the nominal moment due to factored permanent and variable loads (i.86 . G M Ed VEd 5. FEd = M Ed N Ed.1 Net tension effects VEd M NEd.2.e.
9 Afp.Rd.2.net is the net area of the flange cover plate(s) attached to one flange Afp.87 .Part 5: Joint Design 5.net f u.Rd = min(Npl.p M2 [EN 199311 §6. Nu. Nbt.net = Afp − n2d0tp = 0 .Rd Nt.p M0 [EN 199311 §6.Rd.1.3(2)] 5 .2.Rd) Tension resistance of gross section Npl.2.Rd where: Afp.2 Tension resistance of the flange cover plate FEd 1 3 2 FEd 1 2 3 Column flange Flange cover plate Critical section Basic requirement: FEd ≤ Nt.3(2)] Nu.Rd is the tension plastic resistance of the gross section Npl.Rd = where: Afp is the gross area of the flange cover plate(s) attached to one flange Tension resistance of net section Afp f y.Rd is the tension ultimate resistance of the net area Nu.
Rd = Veff.2.2(3)] For eccentrically loaded bolt group: Veff.Rd is the block tearing resistance e2 p2 e2 e2 p2 e2 e1 e1 p1 p1 Figure A Figure B For a concentrically loaded bolt group: Nbt.Rd = f u.Rd Veff.1.nv is the net area of the flange cover plate subjected to shear Afp.2(2)] Nbt. uc b f.nv 3 M0 [EN 199318 §3.nv = 2tp ( e1+(n1 – 1)p1 – (n1 – 0.Part 5: Joint Design Block tearing resistance Nbt.nt = tp( p2 – d0 ) Afp.88 . uc f y.p Afp.uc is the yield strength of the upper column fu. where: tf.p Afp.nt is the net area of the flange cover plate subjected to tension If p2 ≤ 2e2 If p2 > 2e2 Afp.nt = tp( 2e2 – d0 ) (Figure A) (Figure B) M2 is the partial factor for the resistance of net sections Check for significant net tension: If F Ed t f.Rd = where: 0 .uc is the flange thickness of the upper column 5 .p Afp.p Afp.uc > 0.2.5)d0 ) Afp. 5 f u.nv 3 M0 fy.Rd = Veff.uc is the ultimate tensile strength of the the upper column Afp.10.nt M2 f y.Rd [EN 199318 §3.nt M2 f y.10.1.1 then preloaded bolts should be used[4].
Rd if (Fb.1.uc is the flange width of the upper column 5.Rd ≤ (Fb.Rd)min nfp is the number of bolts between one flange cover plate and upper column Shear resistance of bolts Fv.3 Bolt group resistance FEd 1 e1 p1 p1 2 e2 p2 FEd 1 2 Column flange Flange cover plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd [EN 199318. §3. As = 1.89 .7(1)] FRd.Rd is the shear resistance of a single bolt Fv. Table 3.Rd)min ≤ Fv.4] v A βp = 0.5 for 10.6 for 4.1(12)] tpa is the total thickness of the packing M2 is the partial factor for resistance of bolts 5 .Rd)min FRd = nfpFv.Rd)max ≤ Fv.6 and 8.fp is the design resistance of bolt group FRd = ΣFb.Rd where: = p v f ub A M2 [EN 199318.Rd)max if Fv.Rd if (Fb.Rd ≤ (Fb.0 = 9d 8d 3tpa if tpa ≤ d/3 if tpa > d/3 [EN 199318 §3.6.9 bolts is the tensile stress area of the bolt.2.8 bolts = 0.Part 5: Joint Design bf.Rd FRd = nfp(Fb.
7 .1(1)] 5 .C [EN 199318 §3. § 3. 0 f u. For end bolts: b e = min 1 .p dt p M2 [EN 199318 Table 3.Part 5: Joint Design Check for long joint: Lj is the joint length from EN199318[1].Rd is the design slip resistance = k s n fs M3 Fp.90 . 2 . Fs. 1.9.Rd = k 1 b f u. 5 d0 M2 is the partial factor for plate in bearing Resistance of preloaded bolts: FEd ≤ Fs.Rd should be reduced by multiplying it by a reduction factor βLf.Rd is the bearing resistance of a single bolt Fb. 7 .p For edge bolts: k1 e = min 2 .Rd For joints designed to be nonslip under factored loads. 4 2 1. 1. 8 2 1. 5 d0 For inner bolts: k1 p = min 1.8 If Lj > 15d the design shear resistance Fv. Lf 1 L j 15 d 200 d Bearing resistance Fb. 2 .p For inner bolts: b p 1 = min 1 .4] Note: If the thickness of the column flange is less than the thickness of the flange cover plates. 0 f u. 3d 0 f ub . then the bearing resistance of the column flange should also be checked. 3d 0 4 f ub .
1.3 Check for horizontal shear For a bearing type splice. Basic requirement: VEd ≤ shear resistance of splice interface The coefficient of friction μf for a steel interface depends upon the surface condition of the steel and on any coatings provided.91 . μf may be taken as 0.Part 5: Joint Design where: ks nfs μ = 1. any horizontal shear VEd is assumed to be resisted by friction across the splice interface[4]. with mill scale.6 of EN199318)[1] is the number of friction surfaces is the slip factor (Table 18 of EN10902 [12]) [EN 199318 §3. for steel with no surface treatment. 7 f ub As As is the tensile stress area of the bolt M3 is the partial factor for slip resistance at ultimate limit state 5.1(2)] Fp.C = 0 .1.2. then checks 4.2 and 4. Conservatively. Shear resistance of splice interface = Vertical load Coefficient of friction 5.2.6.0 for fasteners in standard clearance holes (Table 3. the coefficient of friction.3 should be carried out[4] with: FEd = F tie 2 5 .4 Checks for vertical tying Ftie Ftie If it is necessary to comply with structural integrity requirements.2.
The partial safety factors (M0.6. Note: 1. The structural integrity checks are based on the conservative assumption that the tie force is resisted by the two flange cover plates. Ftie is the tensile force from EN199117. 5. M2) should also be replaced with the partial factor for tying resistance. § A.Part 5: Joint Design The yield strength should be replaced with the ultimate strength. (Mu = 1.1). 5 .92 .
8 S275 steel 5 – 93 .5. Column Splice Details and data HEB 260 x 93 (S355 steel) 40 160 525 50 25 50 50 25 50 160 40 HEB 320 x 127 (S355 steel) 55 150 260 55 35 80 150 35 Flange cover plates: Flange packs: Cleats: Web Packs: Division plate: Bolts: Fittings material: 2/260 12 525 2/260 30 240 4/90 90 8 Angles 150 long 2/85 2 150 265 25 310 M20 8.5 Calculation sheet Worked Example – Column Splice Made by CZT Date Date 1 of 8 06/2009 07/2009 Checked by ENM 5.
bp buc = 260 mm t f.75 mm and 10 mm and 11.G = 760 kN Unless noted otherwise. all references are to EN 199318 NEd.uc 2 320 2 20 . OK 5 – 94 . 5 = 27 mm = 2 Say 25mm.lc h uc 2 t f.uc 2 Say 260 mm.4 mm Say 12 mm. Recommended details External flange cover plates Height. tp = and 10 mm and 14 17 . 5 260 2 17 .4 Worked Example – Column Splice 2 of 8 Summary of full design checks Design forces NEd.e. minimum thickness is p1 /14 Thickness.Title 5. Packs. tpa Say 30 mm. hp 2buc and 450 mm Width. i. p1 OK Maximum vertical bolt spacing. p1 = 14tp.1. Division plate Thickness OK = OK h lc h uc 320 260 = = 30 mm 2 2 h lc 2 t f. 5 160 and 10 mm and 2 14 = 8.Q = 870 kN MEd = 110 kNm (about yy axis of column) VEd = 60 kN Tension resistances Net tension Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate 802 kN 272 kN 161 kN Bolt group resistance Horizontal shear resistance Tying resistances Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate 912 kN 308 kN Bolt group resistance 5.
G h 2 = 110 kNm > 99 kNm Net tension does occur and the flange cover plates and their fastenings must be checked for a tensile force FEd. Checks for vertical shear Net tension 5. FEd = M Ed N Ed. 9 Afp.Rd .Rd Tension resistance of gross section EN 199311 § 6.1. Npl. Net tension effects Basic requirement for no net tension: MEd ≤ N Ed.8 mm 2 Say 150 mm. 5 10 = 0.1.5huc 2 = 0.2. Tension resistance of the flange cover plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ Nt.Rd .net = 26012 – 22212 = 2592 mm2 0 .2. 9 2592 430 10 3 = 802 kN 1.2. 25 EN 199311 § 6. 5.3(2) Npl. Nu.5 260 = 130 mm = 11.0 Gross area.2.G h 2 MEd = 760 260 10 3 = 99 kNm 2 N Ed. N u.2.Rd Where Nt.p M2 Afp. N bt. Say 2 mm.2.3(2) Net area.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 3 of 8 Web cleats Use 90908 angles to accommodate M20 bolts in opposite positions on adjoining legs.lc t w.Rd = min N pl.net f u.1.2.G 110 760 = = 43 kN 3 2 h 2 260 10 5.1. OK OK Packs. Length 0. tpa = t w.Rd = Tension resistance of net section Nu.Rd = 802 kN 5 – 95 . uc 5.Rd = 0 .Rd = Afp f y.Rd = Thus Nu.p M0 Afp = 26012 = 3120 mm2 3120 275 10 3 = 858 kN 1.Title 5.
Rd 2e2 p2 Hence Afp. Bolt group resistance 1 e1 = 40 p1 = 160 e 2 = 55 p2 =150 1 Flange cover plate Shear and bearing resistance of the flange cover plate Basic requirement: FEd ≤ FRd 5 – 96 .nt Afp. 5 260 355 t f. 802. (It is sufficiently accurate to base this calculation on the gross area of the flange) Ref [4] FEd 43 10 3 = 0.Rd FEd = 1000 kN = min(858.uc f y. 0 Nbt.3.nv = tp( 2e2 – d0 ) = 12 (255 – 22) = 1056 mm2 = 2tp ( e1+(n1 – 1)p1 – (n1 – 0.10.1 = 12 . OK Check for the suitability of ordinary bolts. 1000) = 802 kN = 43 kN ≤ 802 kN.2.2(3) 430 1056 275 4008 10 3 = 1000 kN Veff.1.1.Rd Nt.uc b f.Rd = Veff. 25 3 1.04 < 0. 5.uc There is no significant net tension in the column flange and the use of ordinary bolts in clearance holes is satisfactory.1.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 4 of 8 Block tearing resistance For concentrically loaded bolt group: Nbt.Title 5.Rd = 1.5)22) = 4008 mm2 = 255 = 110 mm = 150 ≤ 2e2 § 3.5)d0 ) = 212 (40 + (2 – 1)160 – (2 – 0.
8 Therefore there is no long joint effect.p 0 800 160 0. Rd min Table 3. 1.Rd = v f ub A M2 A factor to account for the long joint effect must be introduced if Lj > 15d 15d Lj = 1520 = 300 mm = 160 mm. 6 800 245 ×103 = 68 kN 1.Title 5. Rd ) max if F v.Rd F b.86.Rd Shear resistance of bolts § 3.86. 25 Table 3.8 2 1. . . Rd ) min FRd nfp Fv.p dt p M2 For edge bolts.8 1.Rd ( F b. 7 mm 3 § 3.Rd if ( F b.25.72 8 20 3 30 8 d 3 t pa For M20 8.0 3d 3 22 430 0 f u. 1. 2. αb p f = min 1 0. 1.25. FRd. Fv.0 = 0. 2.5 22 d0 = min 5. Fv.0 = min . k1 55 e = min 2. < 15d d 6 . ub .Rd FRd nfp (Fb.0 3d f u. 1.7 if F b. tpa = 30mm > Therefore Fv.5 = min 2. βp = 9 20 9d = = 0.5 For end bolts αb e f 800 40 = min 1 .fp: FRd ΣFb.7. 1.5 = 2.Rd must be multiplied by a reduction factor βp.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 5 of 8 The design resistance of the bolt group.61 For inner bolts.0 5 – 97 . 1. ub . Total thickness of flange pack.Rd = k 1 b f u. Rd ) min F v. 1. 2. Rd max F v.0 = 1.17.Rd = 0 .8 bolts.0 = min 430 3 22 = min 2.p = min 0.3.61.4 Bearing resistance.4 The shear resistance of a single bolt. 72 Bearing resistance 0 .7. Fb. 1.
4 Worked Example – Column Splice 6 of 8 End bolts.end = Fb.Rd < Fb.Rd = 468 = 272 kN = 43 kN ≤ 272 kN.2. Basic requirement: VEd ≤ shear resistance of splice interface Vertical load with coexistent shear M Ed N Ed.2.Rd.3. 25 2 .2.2 and 4.3(2) 5. Fb. OK 5.Rd = Afp f u.2 = 161kN VEd = 60 kN ≤ 161 kN.Title 5.3 should be carried out with: FEd Ftie 5.1. 5 1.Rd .Rd. = Ftie 2 = 2 FEd 2 43 = 86 kN Tensile resistance of the flange cover plate Basic requirement: Ftie ≤ Nt.3. any horizontal shear VEd is assumed to be resisted by friction across the splice interface.1. OK Check for horizontal shear Ref [4] For a bearing type splice.2.Rd = 5 – 98 .Rd = = 206 kN Thus Fv.1. Fb.Rd EN 199311 § 6. 0 430 20 12 10 3 1. Structural integrity Tying force Check 4.Rd min max = 2 . Tension resistance of the gross area Npl.Rd .3.2. Afp = 26012 = 3120 mm2 Npl.Rd = min N pl.3.p Mu 3120 430 10 3 = 1220 kN 1. 25 = 126 kN Inner bolts. N u. min = nfp Fv. 5.inner = Fb.2. N bt. 61 430 20 12 10 3 1.Rd FRd FEd 5.G 110 10 3 760 = = 803 kN 2 h 260 2 Shear resistance of splice interface: 8030. 1 Gross area. 5 0 .1.2.Rd Where Nt.
2.5)d0 ) = 212 [40 + (2 – 1)160 – (2 – 0.Rd Ftie = 1049 kN = min(1220.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 7 of 8 5.Title 5. Afp.1. 1049) = 802 kN = 86 kN ≤ 912 kN. Fv.Rd Shear resistance of bolts § 3.1 3 1.3(2) Net area.Rd = 1 . 912. 1 EN 199311 § 6.Rd ) max if F v.Rd min Table 3.Rd Nt. FRd.nt Afp.Rd = Thus Nu.7 if Fb.Rd Fb.Rd ) min FRd n fp F v.Rd = 0 .nv = tp( 2e2 – d0 ) = 12 (255 – 22) = 1056 mm2 = 2tp ( e1+(n1 – 1)p1 – (n1 – 0.Rd max Fv.Rd The shear resistance of a single bolt.Rd 2e2 p2 Hence Afp.net f u. Block tearing resistance For concentrically loaded bolt group: Nbt.3.Rd ) min F v.4 430 1056 275 4008 10 3 = 1049 kN Veff.4 if ( Fb.Rd ( Fb.2. 0 Nbt.2.3.1.Rd FRd n fp ( Fb.2.5)22] = 4008 mm2 = 255 = 110 mm = 150 ≤ 2e2 Table 3.3. 9 Afp.net = 26012 – 22212 = 2592 mm2 Nu.fp: FRd ΣFb.Rd = Veff. < 15d 5 – 99 .4.Rd = v f ub A Mu A factor to account for the long joint effect must be introduced if Lj > 15d 15d Lj = 1520 = 300 mm = 160 mm. Bolt group resistance Shear and bearing resistance of the flange cover plate Basic requirement: Ftie ≤ FRd The design resistance of the bolt group. 9 2592 430 10 3 = 912 kN 1.3.2.Rd = 912 kN 5. OK 5.p Mu 0 . Tension resistance of the net area Nu.
7.5 = min 2. k1 55 e = min 2. ub .Rd FRd Ftie min OK = nfp Fv. Total thickness of flange pack.86.Rd < Fb.Rd = 477 = 308 kN = 86 kN ≤ 308 kN. 5 0 .0 = min .5 22 d0 = min 5. Fb.7.Rd max = = 235 kN Thus Fv.0 3d 3 22 430 0 f u.5 For end bolts αb e f 800 40 = min 1 . 61 430 20 12 10 3 1 . βp = 9 20 9d = = 0.0 = min 430 3 22 = min 2.1 2 .0 = 0. 1.61. 1 End bolts.4 Bearing resistance. Fv. 1.inner = Fb. 5 1. 2.4 Worked Example – Column Splice 8 of 8 Therefore there is no long joint effect.Rd.17.8 1.61 For inner bolts.Rd. 2. 1.0 2 .1 Table 3.86. ub . .Title 5.end = Fb.72 8 d 3 t pa 8 20 3 30 For M20 8. 1. 0 430 20 12 10 3 1.5 = 2.8 bolts. 7 mm 3 Therefore Fv. 1.p dt p Mu For edge bolts.p 0 800 160 0.Rd must be multiplied by a reduction factor βp. αb p f = min 1 0.Rd = k 1 b f u.3.0 = 1.25. 1.25. 72 Bearing resistance 0 . 1. 5 – 100 .p = min 0. 6 800 245 10 3 = 77 kN 1. 1. Fb. 2.0 3d f u. Rd min = = 143kN Inner bolts. Fb.8 2 1. .Rd = 0 . tpa = 30mm > d 6 .
b p . and a shear force (i. a value of = 1. a nominally pinned column base).Part 5: Joint Design 6 COLUMN BASES This design method applied to fixed bases of I section columns transmitting an axial compressive force. 6. The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a symmetrically position so that it has projections beyond the column flange outer edges on all sides. hp bp df hf is the length of the base plate is the width of the base plate is the depth of the concrete foundation is the length of the concrete foundation 5 – 101 .1 Base plate size b bp bf h hp hf Basic requirement: Ap Areq Ap = area of base plate = hpbp for rectangular plates Areq = required area of base plate = F Ed f jd 2 fcd 3 [Reference 4] fjd = where: df = min 1 max h p . 3 [Reference 3] If some dimensions are unknown.1 2 b bp .5 is generally appropriate. 1 2 eh hp e .e.
2 Calculation of c hp c bp A eff 1 2c + tf Projection. Thus c may be calculated from the following equations for I and H sections: Aeff ≈ 4c2 + 2(h + b)c + h b 5 – 102 .1.4[13] C20/25 20 25 C25/30 25 30 C30/37 30 37 C35/45 35 45 c Concrete class Cylinder strength. then there is an overlap.4. fck.2. c tf = flange thickness tw = web thickness Basic requirement: Areq = Aeff If 2c ≤ h 2 t f . fck (N/mm2) Cube strength. [13] is the material factor for concrete from EN 199211. §3. then there is no overlap. §2.6(1)] is a coefficient that takes into account long term effects on the compressive strength and of unfavorable effects resulting from the way the load is applied.cube (N/mm2) 6.Part 5: Joint Design bf tf eb eh is the width of the concrete foundation is the flange thickness of the column is the additional width outside of the base plate = bf b 2 t f / 2 is the additional depth outside of the base plate = hf h 2 t f / 2 = cc f ck fcd αcc c [EN 199211. Thus c may be calculated from the following equations for I and H sections: Aeff ≈ 4c2 + Percolc + Acol where: Acol is the cross sectional area of the column Percol is the column perimeter If 2c > h 2 t f .
c. fck. and c are as defined previously.Part 5: Joint Design To ensure that the effective area fits on the base plate: h + 2c < hp b + 2c < bp 6. αcc.min tp.min where: fyp fjd fcd is the yield strength of the base plate = 2 fcd 3 f ck =c 3 f jd M0 f yp [Reference 3] = cc c . 5 – 103 .3 Base plate thickness tp c A eff 2c + tf Basic requirement: tp ≥ tp.
FEd [Reference 4] Fw.3. HD sections) ℓweld.4 Base plate welds NEd tp VEd Basic requirement: For shear: VEd Fw.85 for S275 steel = 0.shear For axial load: This check is only necessary when the contact faces of the column and base plate are not in tight bearing.5.3(3)] is ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined = 0. HE. See Reference [4] for more details.8 for S235 steel = 0.0 for S460 steel w a is the weld throat (for IPE.d a fvw.Part 5: Joint Design 6.Rd ℓweld.Rd ℓweld.axial where: Fw.shear is total effective length of the welds in the direction of shear ℓweld.axial is the total effective length of the welds to the column flange for rolled sections M2 is the partial factor for welds from EN 199318 The leg length is defined as follows: s a 2 5 – 104 .shear = 2 l 2 s l is the weld length in the direction of shear ℓweld.Rd is the resistance of the fillet weld per unit length = fvw.d fu = fu 3 w M2 [EN 199318 §4.9 for S355 steel = 1.
5 Calculation sheet Worked Example – Column base Made by CZT Date Date 1 of 3 06/2009 07/2009 Checked by ENM 6. all references are to EN 199318 N Ed = 4300kN 1 50 V Ed = 100kN 2 3 600 f ck= 30N/mm 2 100 4 600 1 2 3 4 600 600 50 Base plate S275 8 mm fillet welds M24 grade 4. Column base HD 320 x 127 S355 Details and data Unless noted otherwise.6.6 holding down bolts Contact faces of the column and the base plate are in direct bearing 5 – 105 .
2.6(1) Area required: Areq N Ed 4300 10 3 = = 2 f jd 1. 5 EN 199211 §3.5 Worked Example – Column base 2 of 3 6.1. Base plate size Ap Areq Ap = hp bp = 600 600 f ck Ref [3] Basic requirement: Area of base plate: = 360000 mm2 fcd from = 20 N/mm 2 Design strength of the concrete: fcd = cc c 30 = 1. 0 1.1.5 mm > 93 mm 2 Therefore the assumption that there is no overlap is correct.6(1) αcc from EN 199211 §3.Title 6. ≈ 4c2 + Percolc + Acol Column perimeter Area of column Aeff Percol = 1771 mm Acol = 16130 mm2 = 215000 = Areq ≈ 4c2 + 1771c + 16130 c = 93 mm To ensure that there is no overlap. 5 = 139.1. 5 – 106 . 5 20 3 = 215000 mm 2 C from EN 199211 Table 2. c has to be less than half the depth between flanges: h 2t f 2 = 320 2 20 .1N Ap = 360000 mm2 > 215000 mm2 OK 6. assume first that there is no overlap. Calculation of c t f + 2c tf tw t w +2c b b+2 c bp h h+2 c hp Aeff Basic requirement: Aeff Aeff = Areq To calculate the effective area.
Rd l eff. 25 Fw.shear Ref [4] Ultimate tensile strength of the 50 mm plate. 6. tp.min fjd Base plate thickness =c 3 f jd M0 f y.4.Rd from § 4.d a = fu 3 w M2 a = 410 3 0 .p = 410 N/mm2 Fw. fu.min tp = 93 3 20 1.5 20 = 20 N/mm2 3 3 Yield strength of the 50 mm plate.p = 255 N/mm2 tp.3. 7 8 = 1248 N/mm 0 . Base plate welds (Shear resistance of columntobase weld) VEd Basic requirement: F w.Rdℓeff.Title 6.Rd = f vw. 85 1.3(3) ℓeff.shear = 2 (l – 2s) = 2 100 2 8 = 168 mm Fw.p Ref (3) = 2 2 f cd 1.3. 0 = 45 mm 255 = 50 mm > 45 mm OK 6.shear = 1248 168 10 3 = 210 kN VEd = 100 kN ≤ 210 kN OK 5 – 107 . fy.5 Worked Example – Column base 3 of 3 To check that the effective area fits on the base plate: h + 2c = 320 2 93 b + 2c = 300 2 93 = 506 mm < 600 mm = 486 mm < 600 mm Therefore the calculated value of c is valid (otherwise recalculate c).5.
Part 5: Joint Design APPENDIX A Lateral torsional buckling strength Lateral torsional buckling strength taken from BS 59501 Table 17[10] Lateral torsional buckling strength (N/mm2) Steel grade LT 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 210 220 230 240 250 235 235 235 235 224 206 190 175 162 150 139 130 126 122 118 114 110 106 101 96 90 85 80 75 71 67 64 60 57 54 52 49 47 45 43 41 39 36 33 31 28 26 245 245 245 245 231 212 196 180 167 154 142 135 131 127 123 118 113 109 104 97 91 86 81 76 72 68 64 61 58 55 52 50 47 45 43 41 39 36 33 31 29 27 S275 255 255 255 255 237 218 201 185 171 158 146 140 136 131 127 122 117 112 106 99 93 87 82 77 73 69 65 62 59 56 53 50 48 46 44 42 40 37 34 31 29 27 265 265 265 265 244 224 207 190 176 162 150 145 141 136 131 125 120 115 107 101 94 89 83 78 74 70 66 62 59 56 53 51 48 46 44 42 40 37 34 31 29 27 275 275 275 272 250 230 212 195 180 166 155 151 146 140 135 129 123 117 109 102 96 90 84 79 75 71 67 63 60 57 54 51 49 46 44 42 40 37 34 31 29 27 315 315 315 300 276 253 233 214 197 183 177 170 163 156 149 142 132 123 115 107 100 94 88 83 78 73 69 65 62 59 56 53 50 48 46 43 42 38 35 32 30 28 325 325 325 307 282 259 238 219 201 188 182 175 168 160 152 144 134 125 116 108 101 95 89 83 78 74 70 66 62 59 56 53 51 48 46 44 42 38 35 32 30 28 S355 335 335 335 314 288 265 243 223 205 194 187 179 172 164 156 146 136 126 117 109 102 96 90 84 79 74 70 66 63 59 56 53 51 48 46 44 42 38 35 33 30 28 345 345 345 321 295 270 248 227 209 199 192 184 176 167 159 148 137 128 119 110 103 96 90 85 80 75 71 67 63 60 57 54 51 49 46 44 42 39 35 33 30 28 355 355 355 328 301 276 253 232 212 204 196 188 179 171 162 150 139 129 120 111 104 97 91 85 80 75 71 67 63 60 57 54 51 49 47 44 42 39 36 33 30 28 5 – 108 .
D. J. (http://www. R. October 1986 Local web buckling of coped beams CHENG.P. A. HANSEN. University of Texas at Austin Design and behaviour of coped beams PMFSEL Report No. J. L. Technical requirements for the execution of steel structures 13 EN 199211:2004: Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures.com) The document references for these joint types are as follows: Partial depth end plate SF008a Fin plate SF009a Column bases SF010a 5 – 109 . S. J. Department of Civil Engineering. September 1990. K. YURA. C. J. 6 7 8 JASPART. Development of a European process for the design of simple structural joint in steel frames (in French): Diploma work.. H. General actions. Rolled and welded sections BSI. Code of practice for design. and JOHNSON. ASCE. M. P. J. Watford. M. and YURA. July 1984 JARRETT. J. J. ECCS. J. and FRANK. N..accesssteel.com) Joints in steel construction: Simple connections Steel Construction Institute. Tests on beam/column web side plate connections BRE Client Report CR 54/90 Building Research Establishment.accesssteel. University of Liege. European recommendation for the design of simple joints in steel structures Publication n°126. Bolted splice connections with undeveloped fillers Journal of the Structural Division ASCE. 841. Design of joints EN 199117: 2006: Eurocode 1 Actions on structures. 10 BS 59501:2000 Structural use of steelwork in building. A. 2000 11 YURA. 2009 9 RENKIN. J.. Accidental actions Detailed European design guides to the Eurocode... Fin plate and Column bases are available on the Access Steel web site (http://www. General rules and rules for buildings Flow charts Flow charts for End plate. R.RENKIN. Journal of the Structural Division. DEMONCEAU.Part 5: Joint Design REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 EN 199318:2005: Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures. and GUILLAUME. June 2003. A. S.F. First edition. 2002 CHENG. A. December 1982 12 EN 10902:2008: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures.
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