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In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement.
Distribution Static Compensator is an important device in correcting power factor, maintaining constant distribution voltage, and mitigating harmonics in a distribution network. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based Distribution Static Compensator, broadly classified as voltage controlled and current controlled. Under the former, phase shift control is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for Static Compensator control at the transmission level for reactive power compensation and voltage support, and are recently being incorporated to control a Distribution Static Compensator employed at the distribution end. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: Phase shift control, Indirect decoupled current control, Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage.
The following indices are considered for comparison–measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion, DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control strategies, in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems . Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. Another compensating system has been proposed by , employing a combination of SVC and active power filter, which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. Thus, a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should e a viable alternative. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state, with reduced foot print and weight [1,3]. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller, sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level. At the transmission level, STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support, while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. The latter, DSTATCOM, can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. Additionally, a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter [4,5], to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage, as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device, the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement, in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating [6-9]. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM, broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. Under the former, phase shift control  is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control [11,12] and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control [13,14]. The first two schemes have
been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level, for reactive power compensation, and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end . The following indices are considered for comparison – measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion (THD), DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique, as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
2. FACTS DEVICES
Flexible AC Transmission Systems, called FACTS, got in the recent years a well known term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice.
In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are: • Power flow control, • Increase of transmission capability, • Voltage control, • Reactive power compensation, • Stability improvement, • Power quality improvement, • Power conditioning, • Flicker mitigation, • Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages. Figure 1.1 shows the basic idea of FACTS for transmission systems. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS devices. It can be seen that with growing line length, the opportunity for FACTS devices gets more and more important. The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work electrically as fast current, voltage or impedance controllers. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second.
6 . This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices. Therefore most of the FACTSdevices can equally be static and dynamic.2 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices. The overall starting points are network elements influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Figure 1.The development of FACTS-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power electronic components. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices provided by the power electronics. For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels.
They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor valves or converters. Configurations of FACTS-Devices: 7 .The left column in Figure 1. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency. The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network.2 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. These valves or converters are well known since several years. the losses are increasing as well. inductance or capacitance together with transformers.
metal melting plants.1. • Improvement of static or transient stability. Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require SVCs or STATCOMs. SVCs are also used 1. To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin b. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. • Compensation of Thyristor converters e. A rapidly operating Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive power required to control dynamic voltage oscillations under various system conditions and thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution stability. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality. Applications of the SVC systems in transmission systems: a. SVC: Electrical loads both generate and absorb reactive power. at the extreme a voltage collapse. railway or underground train systems. Almost half of the SVC and more than half of the STATCOMs are used for industrial applications. distribution and industrial networks are: • Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses. To achieve effective voltage control In addition. • Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. • Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge demand fluctuations like industrial machines.g. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted. 2. To damp power oscillations c.1. in conventional HVDC lines. nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to insufficient power quality.2. the reactive power balance in a grid varies as well. In Transmission Systems a. Shunt Devices: The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. To reduce temporary over voltages 8 . Since the transmitted load varies considerably from one hour to another. The main applications in transmission. The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude variations or even a voltage depression.1.
In addition an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude modulation. The most important is the Thyristor valve. Air core reactors and high voltage AC capacitors are the reactive power elements used together with the Thyristor valves. To damp power oscillations in interconnected power systems 2. SVC installations consist of a number of building blocks. To improve voltage regulation 3. To balance loads b. The step up connection of this equipment to the transmission voltage is achieved through a power transformer. i. To provide reactive power to ac–dc converters 4. stack assemblies of series connected anti-parallel Thyristors to provide controllability.e. In Traction Systems a. To damp sub synchronous resonances c.b. 9 . In HVDC systems a. To reduce voltage variations and associated light flicker Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network conditions. To improve power factor c. In Arc Furnaces a.
10 . Since then it is widely used and the most accepted FACTS-device. 2. The first commercial SVC was installed in 1972 for an electric arc furnace. SVC Using TCR and FC: In this arrangement. SVC building blocks and voltage / current characteristic In principle the SVC consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC) and Thyristor Switched or Controlled Reactors (TSR / TCR).Fig. By changing the firing angle of the thyristor controlling the reactor from 90° to 180°. The coordinated control of a combination of these branches varies the reactive power as shown in Figure. the reactive power can be varied over the entire range from maximum lagging vars to leading vars that can be absorbed from the system by this compensator. two or more FC (fixed capacitor) banks are connected to a TCR (thyristor controlled reactor) through a step-down transformer.1. 22.214.171.124. On transmission level the first SVC was used in 1979. The rating of the reactor is chosen larger than the rating of the capacitor by an amount to provide the maximum lagging vars that have to be absorbed from the system.
Triplex harmonics are canceled by arranging the TCR and the secondary windings of the step-down transformer in delta connection.2.3 loss characteristics of TSC–TCR. SVC Using TCR and FC 2. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser 11 . SVC of the FC/TCR type: The main disadvantage of this configuration is the significant harmonics that will be generated because of the partial conduction of the large reactor under normal sinusoidal steadystate operating condition when the SVC is absorbing zero MVAr. These harmonics are filtered in the following manner.2.1. The capacitor banks with the help of series reactors are tuned to filter fifth. Fig. seventh. 2. 2. and other higher-order harmonics as a high-pass filter.Fig.1. Further losses are high due to the circulating current between the reactor and capacitor banks.
SVC of combined TSC and TCR type When large disturbances occur in a power system due to load rejection. the rating of the reactor bank will be 1/n times the maximum output of the SVC. Fig. In applications requiring overload capability.3. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser these SVCs do not have a short-time overload capability because the reactors are usually of the air-core type. there is a possibility for large voltage transients because of oscillatory interaction between system and the SVC capacitor bank or the parallel.2. In those situations where harmonics have to be reduced further.1. TCR must be designed for short-time overloading. or separate thyristor-switched overload reactors must be employed. SVC Using a TCR and TSC: This compensator overcomes two major shortcomings of the earlier compensators by reducing losses under operating conditions and better performance under large system disturbances. In view of the smaller rating of each capacitor bank. The LC circuit of the SVC in the FC compensator.Comparison of the loss characteristics of TSC–TCR.4. a small amount of FCs tuned as filters may be connected in parallel with the TCR.1. . In the 12 . thus reducing the harmonics generated by the reactor. 2.
and hence the transients in the system can also be avoided. due to the flexibility of rapid switching of capacitor banks without appreciable disturbance to the power system. STATCOM: In 1999 the first SVC with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM (STATic COMpensator) went into operation.2. The next step in STATCOM development is the combination with energy storages on the DC-side. oscillations can be avoided. such as better dynamics. This can be seen in the diagram for the maximum currents being independent of the voltage in comparison to the SVC. the STATCOM keeps its full capability.1. The STATCOM has a characteristic similar to the synchronous condenser. This means. 13 . In the distributed energy sector the usage of Voltage Source Converters for grid interconnection is common practice today. The static line between the current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage. a lower investment cost and lower operating and maintenance costs. The capital cost of this SVC is higher than that of the earlier one due to the increased number of capacitor switches and increased control complexity. A STATCOM is build with Thyristors with turn-off capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTs.TSC–TCR scheme. The performance for power quality and balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and reactive power. The advantage of a STATCOM is that the reactive power provision is independent from the actual voltage on the connection point. but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the synchronous condenser in several ways. that even during most severe contingencies. 2.
1.1. 2. steady state basis. electronic equivalent of a synchronous condenser. no dc capacitor). 2.5. Ideally it is possible to construct a device based on circulating instantaneous power which has no energy storage device (i. If the STATCOM voltage. STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic STATCOMs are based on Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) topology and utilize either Gate-Turn-off Thyristors (GTO) or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) devices.Fig. then leading or capacitive VARS are produced. The reactive power in each phase is supplied by circulating the instantaneous real power between the phases. Vs. 6 Pulses STATCOM: The three phases STATCOM makes use of the fact that on a three phase. This is achieved by firing the GTO/diode switches in a manner that maintains the phase difference between the ac bus voltage ES and the STATCOM generated voltage VS. and the instantaneous power entering a purely reactive device must be zero. fundamental frequency. The STATCOM is a very fast acting. If Vs is smaller then Es then lagging or inductive VARS are produced. Es.e. 14 .2. (which is proportional to the dc bus voltage Vc) is larger than bus voltage.
2. STATCOM Equivalent Circuit Several different control techniques can be used for the firing control of the STATCOM. As an alternative. This approach will minimize switching losses.2. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) techniques. when the instantaneous real power is non-zero. This approach allows for simpler transformer topologies at the expense of higher switching losses. but will generally utilize more complex transformer topologies.6 equivalent circuit of STATCOM The 6 Pulse STATCOM using fundamental switching will of course produce the 6 N 1 harmonics. can be used. The maximum energy storage required for the STATCOM is much less than for a TCR/TSC type of SVC compensator of comparable rating. 2.1. There are a variety of methods to decrease the harmonics. Fundamental switching of the GTO/diode once per cycle can be used. which turn on and off the GTO or IGBT switch more than once per cycle. Fig. 6 Pulses STATCOM A practical STATCOM requires some amount of energy storage to accommodate harmonic power and ac system unbalances. 2.6. 2. These methods include the 15 .Fig.
power flow adjustments. Another possible approach for harmonic cancellation is a multi-level configuration which allows for more than one switching element per level and therefore more than one switching in each bridge arm. and two secondary windings. Secondly it can overcome the problem of Sub Synchronous Resonance (SSR). which permits increased loading of existing transmission lines. This staircase voltage can be controlled to eliminate harmonics.1. dependent on the number of levels.2. thus eliminating harmonics even further. TCSC: Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in transmission systems. • Avoidance of loop flows resp. The TCSC also can regulate steady-state power flow within its rating limits. Series Devices: Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices.basic 12 pulse configuration with parallel star / delta transformer connections. 2. damping of oscillations. The main applications are: • Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line. Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are interconnected. • Improvement of system damping resp. • Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations. This method can be extended to produce a 24 pulse and a 48 pulse STATCOM.2. 2. and allows for rapid readjustment of line power flow in response to various contingencies. The ac voltage derived has a staircase effect. • Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power transmissions. 16 . using control of firing angle to produce a 30 hase shift between the two 6 pulse p bridges. The TCSC's high speed switching capability provides a mechanism for controlling line power flow. a complete elimination of 5th and 7th harmonic current using series connection of star/star and star/delta transformers and a quasi 12 pulse method with a single star-star transformer. a phenomenon that involves an interaction between large thermal generating units and series compensated transmission systems.
2.2. Dynamic Power Flow Controller(DFC) A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC). 2. Advantages • • • • Continuous control of desired compensation level Direct smooth control of power flow within the network Improved capacitor bank protection Local mitigation of sub synchronous resonance (SSR).3.1.3. including the Thyristor valve that is used to control the behavior of the main capacitor bank.From a principal technology point of view. the TCSC resembles the conventional series capacitor. Figure shows the principle setup of a TCSC and its operational diagram. All the power equipment is located on an isolated steel platform. Shunt And Series Devices 2. The firing angle and the thermal limits of the Thyristors determine the boundaries of the operational diagram. Likewise the control and protection is located on ground potential together with other auxiliary systems. This permits higher levels of compensation in networks where interactions with turbine-generator torsional vibrations or with other control or measuring systems are of concern.5-2 Hz) power oscillations which often arise between areas in a large interconnected power network. • Damping of electromechanical (0.7. These oscillations are due to the dynamics of inter area power transfer and often exhibit poor damping when the aggregate power transfer over a corridor is high relative to the transmission strength. Fig.2. 17 . TCSC circuit and operation diagram 2. The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series compensation.
If a higher power flow resolution is needed. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. The Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components: • A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) • Series-connected Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors (TSC / TSR) • A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC). (This is optional depending on the system reactive power requirements) Fig. 18 . a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added. in general. However. 2. The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of overload and other conditions. the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous control as well.8.A functional single line diagram of the Dynamic Flow Controller is shown in Figure 1. principle configuration of DFC Based on the system requirements. a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR. • The relieve of overload and work in stressed situations is handled by the TSC / TSR. The operation of a DFC is based on the following rules: • TSC / TSR are switched when a fast response is required. The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics.19.
This control is accomplished by control of the injected series voltage. 2. we assume an inductance in parallel representing parallel transmission paths. The steady state control range for loadings up to rated current is illustrated in Figure 1. the two parts of the series voltage will be close to collinear.9. The overall control objective in steady state would be to control the distribution of power flow between the branch with the DFC and the parallel path. • The total reactive power consumption of the device can be optimized by the operation of the MSC. tap changer and the switched capacities and reactors. Operational diagram of a DFC Operation in the first and third quadrants corresponds to reduction of power through the DFC. Fig. whereas operation in the second and fourth quadrants corresponds to increasing the power 19 . In order to visualize the steady state operating range of the DFC. influence on reactive power balance and effectiveness at high/low loading the two parts of the series voltage has quite different characteristics. The controllable reactance will inject a voltage in quadrature with the throughput current. The PST (assuming a quadrature booster) will inject a voltage in quadrature with the node voltage. However.20. Assuming that the power flow has a load factor close to one.• The switching of the PST tap-changer should be minimized particularly for the currents higher than normal loading. in terms of speed of control. where the x-axis corresponds to the throughput current and the y-axis corresponds to the injected series voltage.
The maximum series voltage in the first quadrant is obtained when all inductive steps are switched in and the tap is at its maximum. The slope of these arrows depends on the size of the parallel reactance. Now. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC): The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation. The operating point moves along lines parallel to the arrows in the figure.3. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously. the capacitive step is approximately as large as the short circuit reactance of the PST. the series voltage at zero current corresponds to rated PST series voltage.2. The slope of the line passing through the origin (at which the tap is at zero and TSC / TSR are bypassed) depends on the short circuit reactance of the PST. to changing loading of the system) the series voltage will decrease. 20 . At zero current. assuming maximum tap and inductance. the series voltage increases and the current through the DFC decreases (and the flow on parallel branches increases). giving an almost constant maximum voltage in the second quadrant. 2. If more inductance is switched in and/or the tap is increased. it will not matter whether the TSC / TSR steps are in or out. they will not contribute to the series voltage. Starting at rated current (2 kA) the short circuit reactance by itself provides an injected voltage (approximately 20 kV in this case). moving into the second quadrant.flow through the DFC. In this case. if the throughput current decreases (due e. the operating range will be limited by the line corresponding to maximum tap and the capacitive step being switched in (and the inductive steps by-passed).g. Next. Consequently.
Principle configuration of an UPFC The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer.21.2. 2. and connected to the power system through coupling transformers.10. while the other one is connected in series through a series transformer. which limits the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.11. 2. The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge.2. This setup. 21 . A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig.1. an UPFC is getting quite expensive. as shown in Figure 1. which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor. provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow. Due to the high efforts for the Voltage Source Converters and the protection.Fig.3. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UPFC The basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSIs) sharing a common dc storage capacitor. The DC-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage. One VSI is connected to in shunt to the transmission system via a shunt transformer.
Ish into the transmission line. 22 . The UPFC has many possible operating modes. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes: VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. of controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to control active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. The shunt inverter is operated in such a way as to demand this dc terminal power (positive or negative) from the line keeping the voltage across the storage capacitor Vdc constant. In particular. the shunt inverter is operating in such a way to inject a controllable current. The shunt inverter control translates the var reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current. So in that case. So.Fig. is also required. The two VSI’s can work independently of each other by separating the dc side. the net real power absorbed from the line by the UPFC is equal only to the losses of the inverters and their transformers. this inverter will exchange active and reactive power with the line. The remaining capacity of the shunt inverter can be used to exchange reactive power with the line so to provide a voltage regulation at the connection point. and the active power is transmitted to the dc terminals.11. the shunt inverter is operating as a STATCOM that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the voltage magnitude at the connection point. the series inverter is operating as SSSC that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the current flow. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage. So. 2. Instead. The reactive power is electronically provided by the series inverter. UPFC The series inverter is controlled to inject a symmetrical three phase voltage system (Vse). and hence the power low on the transmission line. Vdc.
Conventionally.Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value. INTRODUCTION In power distribution networks.1. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways. their limited bandwidth. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level. higher passive element count that increases size and losses. Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line. employing a combination of SVC and active power filter. reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. Line Impedance Emulation mode: The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes. and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. Thus. Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should be a viable 23 . Another compensating system has been proposed by . 3. For this mode of control. D-STATCOM 3.
At the transmission level. less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique. as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller. Normally. for reactive power compensation. with their merits and demerits. Under the former. the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement. sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level.alternative. can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support. performance with varying linear/nonlinear load. voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size. The following indices are considered for comparison . The latter. either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. as compared to an inductor for the same rating . total harmonic distortion (THD). A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment. considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM.measurement and signal conditioning requirement. phase shift control is compared with the latter. Additionally. to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage. broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated. DSTATCOM. DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter. 24 . and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state. in addition to passive storage elements. with reduced foot print and weight. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level. the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion.
which includes a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and a DC link capacitor connected in shunt. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator. The AC terminals of the VSC are connected to the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) through an inductance. Block diagram of D-STATCOM The DC side of the converter is connected to a DC capacitor. If the output voltage of the VSC is equal to the AC terminal voltage. as shown in Fig. the DSTATCOM is in the capacitive mode of operation and vice versa.1. which could be a filter inductance or the leakage inductance of the coupling transformer. This capacitor could be charged by a battery source. 3. Basic Principle of DSTATCOM A DSTATCOM is a controlled reactive source. capable of generating and/or absorbing reactive power. or could be precharged by the converter itself.3. 25 . which carries the input ripple current of the converter and is the main reactive energy storage element. no reactive power is delivered to the system.1 Fig. If the output voltage is greater than the AC terminal voltage.3.2. The quantity of reactive power flow is proportional to the difference in the two voltages.
2 Schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control Fig.It is to be noted that voltage regulation at PCC and power factor correction cannot be achieved simultaneously. For a DSTATCOM used for voltage regulation at the PCC. the supply current should be in phase with the supply voltages. the compensation should be such that the supply currents should lead the supply voltages. flexible and easy implementation are the main objectives of any compensation strategy. The control strategies of a DSTATCOM are mainly implemented in the following steps: • • • Measurements of system variables and signal conditioning Extraction of reference compensating signals Generation of firing angles for switching devices Fig. transient as well as steady state performance. Control Strategies Satisfactory performance. 3. 3. The generation of proper pulse width modulation (PWM) firing is the most important part of DSTATCOM control and it has a great impact on its compensation objectives. 3. The control strategies studied in this paper are applied with a view to studying the performance of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation. taking into consideration the above steps. for power factor correction.2 shows the schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control. Since a DSTATCOM shares many concepts with 26 . whereas. fast response.3.
3. incorporating PWM switching. Phase shift control 2. 3. rather than fundamental frequency switching (FFS) methods. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: 1. Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage The performance of DSTATCOM with different control schemes have been studied through digital simulations for common system parameters.3 phase shift control 27 . Phase Shift Control Fig. a few control techniques have been directly implemented to a DSTATCOM. Indirect decoupled current control 3. A PWM based distribution static compensator offers faster response and capability for harmonic elimination.that of a STATCOM at the transmission level.3.1. as given in the Appendix.
The error signal obtained by comparing the measured system rms voltage and the reference voltage is fed to a proportional integral (PI) controller. the compensation is achieved by the measuring of the rms voltage at the load point. 28 . This angle is summed with the phase angle of the balanced supply voltages. 3. whereas no reactive power measurements are required .3. Sinusoidal PWM technique is used with constant switching frequency.The schematic diagram of phase shift control is shown in Fig. the DC voltage is maintained constant. using a separate battery source. to produce the desired synchronizing signal required to operate the PWM generator. In this method. which generates the angle for deciding the necessary phase shift between the output voltage of the VSC and the AC terminal voltage. In this scheme. assumed to be equally spaced at 120 degrees.
• • 29 . it has the following major disadvantages: • The controller does not use a self supporting DC bus and thus requires a very large DC source to pre charge the capacitor. The frequency spectrum of the source current for a nonlinear load. It is observed that the source current and the source voltage are in phase. is robust and can provide partial reactive power compensation without harmonic suppression. No harmonic suppression and partial compensation is achieved in case of nonlinear loads.34%).5a and Fig 3. is shown in Fig 3. complete compensation is not achieved in case of nonlinear load (source current THD 24. correcting the power factor of the system in case of a linearly varying load. Though this strategy is easy to implement.Fig 3.4b show the simulation results obtained using phase shift control for reactive power compensation and harmonic mitigation for a balanced varying linear load and for a non linear load respectively. whereas.4a and Fig 3. before and after compensation.5b. Balanced source supply as rms voltage is assumed and the supply phase angle are calculated over the fundamental only.
Indirect Decoupled Current Control This scheme is based on the governing equations of advanced static var compensator.2. Fig 3.3. The control scheme is based on the transformation of the three phase system to a synchronously rotating frame.6 shows the block diagram representation of the control scheme.3. using Park's transformation 31 . It requires the measurement of instantaneous values of three phase line voltages and current.
This is an indirect current control method. when the d axis is made to lie on the space vector of the system voltage. Indirect Decoupled Current Control Subsequently. its quadrature component (v q) becomes zero. when the system voltage remains constant. Using the definition of the instantaneous reactive power theory for a balanced three phase three wire system.6. so that fixed switching frequency is achieved. the real (p) and the reactive power (q) injected into the system by the DSTATCOM can be expressed under the dqO reference frame as: Since v q = 0. in order to incorporate simple open loop sine PWM modulators. The instantaneous id reference and the instantaneous i q reference are obtained by the regulation 32 . where current error compensation is achieved indirectly through voltage modulation.Fig 3. id and iq completely describe the instantaneous value of real and reactive powers produced by the DSTATCOM. The instantaneous three phase line currents measured are transformed by abc to dqO transformation. The compensation is achieved by the control of id and iq.
the switching logic of the other two phases 'b' and 'c' are formulated as S b and S c . Similarly. The modulating signals Ud and Uq are transformed back to the abc frame. as compared to phase shift control.7a and Fig 7b show the DSTATCOM response for a linearly varying and nonlinear load. the quadrature reference current i q is zero.21%. The three line currents are transformed to dqO reference frame and then compared with the references obtained from the outer loop. The modulating signal output of each phase is compared with a triangular carrier. KQ are the gains of the two current PI controllers respectively. Also. as shown in Fig 3. During unity power factor operation for linear nonlinear loads. instantaneous current tracking control is achieved using four PI regulators. Kn.8a and Fig 8b.of the DC voltage and the measured AC terminal voltage measured. The switching logic for the phase 4 a' is formulated as: Where v c t is the instantaneous value of triangular carrier waveform and vc a is the transformed modulating signal. K P 2. The modulating signals for the rotating frame controller are given by: Where K p i. so as to operate in the abc_to_dqO reference frame. S a is the switching logic for the inverter leg corresponding to phase 'a'. A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is used to synchronize the control loop to the AC supply. using PI controllers. This controller operates in conjunction with the open loop sine PWM generator. which is common for all the three phases.6. The inner loop of the DSTATCOM controller consists of a rotating frame current controller. Though complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved and the THD in case of nonlinear load is reduced to 13.Thus. Fig 3. as shown in the Fig 3. due to which the converter switches are less stressed. It is observed from the figure that the transient current reaches a very high value before reaching steady state. another advantage of 33 . the main advantage of this scheme is that it incorporates a self supporting DC bus and the value of the reference DC link voltage is less.
independent of the load. which provides a definite harmonic spectrum.this scheme is that it operates with fixed switching frequency. 34 .
3.7 35 .Fig.
which is used for tracking control. making the operation complex. the supply current shoots to a very high value 3. but not below the IEEE-519 standards.Regulation of AC Bus and DC Link Voltage Three phase AC supply voltages and DC link voltage are sensed and fed to two PI controllers.9. • • • During transient condition. Block diagram using regulation of AC/DC link voltage scheme.8 The disadvantages of this scheme are: • Phase Locked Loop gives erroneous results in case of distorted mains and is applicable for only three phase systems. This 36 . the outputs of which decide the amplitude of reactive and active current to be generated by the DSTATCOM . 3. Quadrature voltage unit vectors yields the respective component of the reference currents. Figure 9 shows the block diagram of the implemented scheme.Fig.3. the quadrature Component of the reference current is made zero. Multiplication of these amplitudes with the in phase and Fig. 3. It requires intensive computation. including complex transformations.3. Bandwidth is restricted due to the use of sine PWM generator. Harmonic suppression is significantly achieved. These reference currents and the sensed line currents are fed to a hysteresis controller. When applying the algorithm for power factor correction an harmonic elimination.
37 . Therefore. In case of nonlinear load. The switching is obtained as given below: If isa>(isa_ref+h).hysteresis controller adds a hysteresis band +/−h around the calculated reference current. This compensation scheme is multifunctional and can also be effectively used for load unbalancing and harmonic suppression. This method of tracking current control is simple and robust and it exhibits an automatic current limiting characteristic. is shown in Figure 11 a and b. with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability. • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits. well below the IEEE-519 standard for harmonic suppression. The advantages of this scheme are: • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller. which is robust and simple. in addition to power factor correction and dynamic voltage regulation. but the switching frequency is increased. The tracking becomes better if the hysteresis band is narrower. • The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. the THD of the source current is 2. The transient period is very short and complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved in case of both linear/nonlinear loads. the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is OFF and the lower switch is ON. The frequency spectrum of the load current. which results in increased switching losses. The simulated results of the above control scheme are shown in Figure 10a and b. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. harmonic suppression and load balancing. the choice of hysteresis band should be a compromise between tracking error and inverter losses . the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is ON and the lower switch is OFF.01%. before and after compensation. If isa<isa-ref+h).
’ As we are all aware. 4. SCR converter crane drive retrofits and the large AC and DC drives needed to power and control these cranes will increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very near future. POWER QUALITY 4. we must not forget the foundation upon which we are building. crane reliability. our environment. and levels of automation that can be achieved. container crane performance requirements continue to increase at an astounding rate. Manifests itself as an economic burden to the user. The rapid increase in power demand levels. and initial investment in power distribution systems to support new crane installations. To quote the utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my home utility billing: ‘Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and business practice which saves you money.2POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS For the purpose of this article. colorful diagnostic displays. Power quality is the mortar which bonds the Foundation blocks. already in the bidding process. reduces emissions from generating plants.4. and conserves our natural resources. the power issues which degrade power quality include: • Power Factor • Harmonic Distortion • Voltage Transients • Voltage Sags or Dips • Voltage Swells 38 . Power quality also affects terminal operating economics. is often enamored by the bells and whistles. will require average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW – almost double the total average demand three years ago. Next generation container cranes. INTRODUCTION The contemporary container crane industry. or produces negative impacts on the environment. we shall define power quality problems as: “Any power problem that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment. high speed performance.1. an increase in container crane population.” When applied to the container crane industry. Although these features and their indirectly related computer based enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation. like many other industry segments.
Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the potential issues. AC drive voltage chopping. In addition. and harmonic current injection was minimal. container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and land containers. Even today. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods. crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during competitive bidding for new cranes. Whereas SCR phase control creates the desirable average power factor. Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced. Power quality problem solutions are available. The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances varies with the speed of the drive.3. did power quality issues begin to emerge. increasing to its maximum value when the SCR’s are phased on to produce rated or base speed. Not until the crane Population multiplied. creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3 to 4 times the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of the drives. DC SCR drives operate at less than this. and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems with Container cranes. 4. power demands per crane increased. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching. Unfortunately. the power quality issue is intentionally or unintentionally ignored. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC drives will be highest when the drives are operating at slow speeds. line notching occurs when SCR’s commutate.Power Quality Improvement: 39 . in most cases. However. no one was really prepared. it most likely will not be delivered. if power quality is not specified.The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes are significant contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion. Before the advent of solid-state power supplies. Above base speed. either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. and static power conversion became the way of life. the power factor essentially remains constant. Although the solutions are not free. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or engine-alternator power source. Power factor was reasonable. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can ultimately result in detrimental effects on the Life of sensitive electronic equipment or even intermittent malfunction. they do represent a good return on investment.
In many cases.4THE BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY Power quality in the container terminal environment impacts the economics of the terminal operation.Power quality can be improved through: • Power factor correction. In most cases. the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully aware of the potential power quality issues. do not pay the utility billings. • Proper earthing systems. • Harmonic filtering.1. or consider it someone else’s concern.4. many of those specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria. Economic Impact 40 . if any. and affects other consumers served by the same utility service. • Transient voltage surge suppression. As a result. Each of these concerns is explored in the following paragraphs. but consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the terminal 4. those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes may not be cognizant of such issues. 4. affects reliability of the terminal equipment. Also. • Special line notch filtering. • Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation. container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic filtering. If this article accomplishes nothing else. • Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that can be expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific project. Early in the process of preparing the crane specification: • Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that must be satisfied. we would hope to provide that awareness.
however. their service contract with the terminal reads as follows: ‘The average power factor under operating conditions of customer’s load at the point where service is metered shall be not less than 85%. Power Factor Penalties Many utility companies invoke penalties for low power factor on monthly billings. 519-1992 is used as a guide in Determining appropriate design requirements. If the power factor falls below a fixed limit value over a demand period. their service contract with the Port may still require that a minimum power factor over a defined demand period be met. which supplies power service to several east coast container terminals in the USA. However. install and maintain at its expense corrective apparatus which will increase the Power factor of the entire installation to not less than 85%. Other utility companies monitor kVAR demands and calculate power factor. does not reflect power factor penalties in their monthly billings. If below 85%. the user may be penalized. they do reserve the right to monitor the Port service at any time.The economic impact of power quality is the foremost incentive to container terminal operators. Methods of metering and calculating power factor penalties vary from one utility company to the next. One utility company. The Port or terminal operations personnel. Some utility companies actually meter kVAR usage and establish a fixed rate times the number of kVAR-hours consumed. If The power factor criteria set forth in the service contract are not met. The utility company may not continuously monitor power factor or kVAR usage and reflect them in the monthly utility billings. a penalty is billed in the form of an adjustment to the peak demand charges. Utility deregulation will most likely force utilities to enforce requirements such as the example above. or specifying new container crane equipment. The customer shall ensure that no excessive harmonics or transients are introduced on to the [utility] system. A number of utility companies servicing container terminal equipment do not yet invoke power factor penalties. however. Economic impact can be significant and manifest itself in several ways: a. should be aware of these requirements. The IEEE Std. who are responsible for maintaining container cranes. This may require special power conditioning equipment or filters. 41 . the customer may be required to furnish. or required to take corrective actions at the user’s expense. There is no industry standard followed by utility companies.
but you pay for them each month. future terminal growth plan should include contingencies for addressing the possible economic impact of utility deregulation. specialized. but also increase the power losses in the distribution system. this is a significant annual saving in the cost of operation. Thus cost of the equipment is directly related to the total kVA demand. c. SCR drives operate at relatively low power factor. etc.e. b. involves high cost. Transformers. Consequently. transformers are larger. as well as modification of systems for terminal capacity upgrades. In the absence of power quality corrective equipment. These losses are not visible as a separate item on your monthly utility billing. must be sized based on the kVA demand. feeder cables. A sound. Container cranes are one of the most significant users of power in the terminal. Container cranes are significant contributors to harmonic currents and low power factor. etc. Based on the typical demands of today’s high speed container cranes. Power Service Initial Capital Investments The power distribution system design and installation for new terminals. a lower power factor demands higher kVA for the same kW load. collector system and cable reel cables must be larger. kVA demand is inversely proportional to the overall power factor. switchgear.Terminal operators who do not deal with penalty issues today may be faced with some rather severe penalties in the future. i. high and medium voltage equipment. the cost of the initial power distribution system equipment for a system which does not address power quality will most likely be higher than the same system which includes power quality equipment. feeder cable copper sizes are larger. not only result in possible power factor penalties. cable reel trailing cables. As the relationship above indicates. collector bars. switchgear current ratings must be higher. 42 . correction of power factor alone on a typical state of the art quay crane can result in a reduction of system losses that converts to a 6 to 10% reduction in the monthly utility billing. the total kVA demand is significantly larger than would be the case if power factor correction equipment were supplied on board each crane or at some common bus location in the terminal. System Losses Harmonic currents and low power factor created by nonlinear loads. 6 pulse. For most of the larger terminals. Since container cranes with DC.
voltage transients.4. voltage transients can induce harmonics.4. Environment No issue might be as important as the effect of power quality on our environment. Harmonics.4. addition of power quality equipment may render a workable scenario on an existing power distribution system. and voltage system sags and swells are all power quality problems and are all interdependent. Reduction in system losses and lower demands equate to a reduction in the consumption of our natural nm resources and reduction in power plant emissions.4. The effects of harmonic distortion. 4. Power System Adequacy When considering the installation of additional cranes to an existing power distribution system. It is our responsibility as occupants of this planet to encourage conservation of our natural resources and support measures which improve our air quality 5. Harmonics 43 . a power system analysis should be completed to determine the adequacy of the system to support additional crane loads.2. Equipment Reliability Poor power quality can affect machine or equipment reliability and reduce the life of components.3. the same phenomena which create harmonic current injection in DC SCR Variable speed drives are responsible for poor power factor. Harmonics affect power factor.4. which would otherwise be inadequate to support additional cranes without high risk of problems. 4. Power quality corrective actions may be dictated due to inadequacy of existing power distribution systems to which new or relocated cranes are to be connected. In other words. and line notch ringing can be mitigated using specially designed filters. and dynamically varying power factor of the same drives can create voltage sags and swells. harmonic currents.
this frequency is usually 50 Hz. the second harmonic is 2* 50 or 100Hz. Harmonics (called “overtones” in music) are responsible for what makes a trumpet sound like a trumpet. further decreasing to a maximum negative value. Figure 2 shows how a signal with two harmonics would appear on an oscilloscope-type display. depending on the fundamental frequency. the 2nd harmonic on a 60 Hz system is 2*60 or 120 Hz. the voltage waveform increases to a maximum positive value.5. The rate at which these changes occur is the trigometric function called a sine wave.1. At 50Hz. Aircraft often uses 400 Hz as the fundamental frequency. as shown in figure 1. 44 . But such clean waveforms typically only exist in a laboratory. Electrical generators try to produce electric power where the voltage waveform has only one frequency associated with it. the fundamental frequency. musicians have been aware of such since the invention of the first string or woodwind instrument. For example. Harmonics have been around for a long time and will continue to do so. Fig 5. or the way a string on a voilin vibrates when plucked. In European countries and other parts of the world. In fact. This function occurs in many natural phenomena. Sine wave The frequency of the harmonics is different. At 60 Hz. and a clarinet like a clarinet.” . which some power quality analyzers provide.1Introduction: The typical definition for a harmonic is “a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or\ quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. In the North America. then decreases to zero. Some references refer to “clean” or “pure” power as those without any harmonics. or the 6th harmonic in a 50 Hz system. this means that sixty times a second. or cycles per second. this frequency is 60 Hz. and then back to zero. such as the speed of a pendulum as it swings back and forth. 300Hz is the 5th harmonic in a 60 Hz system.
. and partially in the 240 Hz bin. The result would be that the energy of the 200 Hz signal would appear partially in the 180Hz bin. These in-between frequencies are called “inter harmonics”.. The frequency values must not change during the measurement period. However.. and 12 V at the 4th harmonic. An FFT-based processer could show a voltage value of 115V at 60 Hz. and usually effect the voltage waveform. inter harmonic. called the FFT for Fast Fourier transform. which are often called “bins”. the FFT cannot directly see the 200 Hz. It only knows 60.Fig 5. a number of mathematical methods were developed. the process of melting metal in an electric arc furnace can result large currents that are comprised of the fundamental . if a voltage waveform is comprised of 60 Hz and 200 Hz signals. There is also a special category of inter harmonics. 5.2. 18 V at the 3rd harmonic. and sub harmonic frequencies being drawn from the electric power grid. One of the more popular is called the Fourier Transform. 120. These methods only work properly if the signal is composed of only the fundamental and harmonic frequencies in a certain frequency range (called the Nyquist frequency.2. Failure of these rules to be maintained can result in mis-information. For example. 180. which are frequency values less than the fundamental frequency value. So more compatible processes.. duplicating the mathematical steps required in a microprocessor or computer-based instrument is quite difficult. which is onehalf of the sampling frequency).Effects of harmonics: 45 . 240. are used. Fundamental with two harmonics In order to be able to analyze complex signals that have many different frequencies present. These levels can be quite high during the melt-down phase. when it really should have been 30 V at 200 Hz. called sub-harmonics. For example. or DFT for Discrete Fourier Transform.
one factory may be the source of high harmonics but able to run properly. Fig 5.Excessive neutral current. This puts the harmonics from each of the three phase legs “in-phase” with each other in the neutral. and may effect facilities on the same system which are more susceptible. In addition. there are a number of different types of equipment that can have mis operations or failures due to high harmonic voltage and/or current levels.Incorrect reading meters.3. including induction disc W-hr meters and averaging type current meters.The presence of harmonics does not mean that the factory or office cannot run properly. Additive Third Harmonics . This harmonic pollution is often carried back onto the electric utility distribution system. As shown below. Like other power quality phenomena. resulting in overheated neutrals. 46 . Some typical types of equipment susceptible to harmonic pollution include: . as shown in Figure 3. This is because the harmonic number multiplied by the 120 degree phase shift between phases is a integer multiple of 360 degrees. The odd triplen harmonics in three phase wye circuits are actually additive in the neutral. it depends on the “stiffness” of the power distribution system and the susceptibility of the equipment.
) or zero (3rd. 4th. especially delta windings where triplen harmonics generated on the load side of a delta-wye transformer will circulate in the primary side. In a balanced system.  5. Table 1. .Mis-operation or failure of electronic equipment . due to high voltage and currents from resonance with line impedance. This means that the voltage at that particular frequency tries to rotate the motor forward. where PF= Watts/VA.) sequencing values.. where the human eye is most sensitive. . respectively.3. negative (2nd. Some type of losses goes up as the square of harmonic value (such as skin effect and eddy current losses). and just 0.Reduced true PF.Bearing failure from shaft currents through un insulated bearings of electric motors.Blown-fuses on PF correction caps. the effect on lighting is called flicker...Overheated transformers.. voltage harmonics can either be positive (fundamental..8Hz. 5th. negative sequence voltages on motors and generators. . or neither (just heats up the motor)... . especially if controls incorporate zero-crossing sensing circuits. Harmonic Sequencing Values in Balanced Systems . 9th. 8th..Causes 47 . There is also heating from increased losses as in a transformer.. . backward.Zero. This is also true for solenoid coils and lighting ballasts.). 6th.If there are voltage sub harmonics in the range of 1-30Hz. 7th.5% variation in the voltage is noticeable with some types of lighting. This is especially true at 8.Nuisance operation of protective devices. including false tripping of relays and failure of a UPS to transfer properly.
When the input voltage value is higher than voltage on the capacitor. Obviously.”  These are often called static power converters. which is further converted into other voltages that the equipment needs to run. based on the firing scheme. This results in a current waveform as shown in Figure 5. such as printers. These devices feed current into a capacitor. While they offer many benefits in size. the large increase of this type of equipment over the past fifteen years is largely responsible for the increased attention to harmonics. The firing scheme refers to the controlling mechanism that determines how and when current is conducted. One major variation is the phase angle at which conduction begins and ends. Since this article is about harmonics. The AC voltage is converted into a DC voltage. where the voltage value on the cap at any time depends on how much energy is being taken out by the rest of the power supply. This distortion may consist of predominately harmonics. this is not a pure sinusoidal waveform with only a 60 Hz frequency component. In order to do so. Some loads cause the voltage and current waveforms to lose this pure sine wave appearance and become distorted. “The main sources of harmonic current are at present the phase angle controlled rectifiers and inverters. A typical such converter is the switching-type power supplies found in most personal computers and peripheral equipment. the diode will conduct current through it. These devices take AC power and convert it to another form. depending on the type of load and system impedances. sometimes back to AC power at the same or different frequency. the voltage on the one end must be greater than the other end. and harmonic spectrum in Figure 6. 48 . Figure shows below how a switching-type power supply works.How this electricity is used by the different type of loads can have an effect on “purity” of the voltage waveform. The rectifier consists of semi-conductor devices (such as diodes) that only conduct current in one direction. we will concentrate on those types of sources. weight and cost.
the waveform would only have every other current pulse.4 If the rectifier had only been a half wave rectifier.5. and the harmonic spectrum would be different.5. as shown in Fig 5.4. 49 .Fig 5. Current Waveform Fig 5. Harmonic Spectrum of Current Waveform Shown in Fig 5.
This type of 3-phase equipment may also cause other types of power quality problems. instead of cancelling out Some of the newer electronic ballasts have very significant harmonic problems. The harmonics during this period varies over time. When transformers are first energized. in the 2-20MVA rating. When the semiconductor device is suppose to turn-off. Metal reduction operations. This occurs each cycle as the voltage waveform goes through the sine waveform. This commutation period is a time when two semiconductor devices are both conducting current at the same time. the third harmonic current from each phase in a four-wire wye or star system will be additive in the neutral. where the semi-conductor device has a “gate”-type control mechanism built in to it.Fluorescent lights can be the source of harmonics. AC voltage regulators for light dimmers and small induction motors adjust the phase angle or point on the wave where conduction occurs. as they operate somewhat like a switching power supply. and then increase 50 . and high voltage DC transmission employ large power converters. Table 2. It also happens under “forced” commutation conditions. and include such equipment as ASDs (adjustable speed drives) and VFDs (variable frequency drives). like electric arc furnaces. but can result in current harmonic distortion levels over 30%. the current drawn is different from the steady state condition. Medium power converters are used for motor control in manufacturing and railroad applications. as the ballasts are non-linear inductors. it does not do so abruptly. (See Table 3) As previously mentioned. where the voltage that was larger on the anode side compared to the cathode is now the opposite. This happens under “naturally” commutated conditions. effectively shorting one phase to the other and resulting in large current transients. Some harmonics have zero value for part of the time. This is caused by the inrush of the magnetizing current. Sample of Harmonic Values for Fluorescent lighting  Low power. The third harmonic is the predominate harmonic in this case.
where possible. This is true for harmonic values as well. the search can begin at the equipment effected by the problem or at the point-of-common-coupling (PCC). An unbalanced transformer (where either the output current. If only one piece of equipment is effected (or suspected). winding impedance or input voltage on each leg are not equal) will cause harmonics. where the utility service meets the building distribution system. If the source is suspected to be from the utility service side (such is the case when there is a neighboring factory that is known to generate high harmonics). as will overvoltage saturation of a transformer. which can record the harmonic values over a period of time. which includes all of the wiring and transformers back to the source of the electricity. then monitoring usually begins at the PCC. This requires the use of a harmonic monitor or power quality monitor with harmonic capabilities (such as shown in Figure 8). The phase voltages and currents. one can suspect that harmonics are present. Like any power quality investigation.How do you find harmonics Hand-held harmonic meters can be useful tools for making spot checks for known harmonic problems. 51 . as well as the neutral-to-ground voltage and neutral current should be monitored. Monitoring the neutral will often show a high 3rd harmonic value. However. indicating the presence of non-linear loads in the facility.4. and the source impedance. as different loads are turned on and off within the facility or in other facilities on the same electric utility distribution system. The amount of voltage harmonics will often depend on the amount of harmonic currents being drawn by the load. Where to look for them Wherever the aforementioned equipment is used. Ohm’s Law says that Voltage equals Current multiplied by Impedance. harmonic values will often change during the day. 5. If the source harmonic impedance is very low (often referred to as a “stiff” system) then the harmonic currents will result in lower harmonic voltages than if the source impedance were high (such as found with some types of isolation transformers). it is often easier to start the monitoring process there.for a while before returning to zero. This will aid in pinpointing problems. or detecting marginal systems.
and the magnitude decreases as the ration of 1/h (1/3. Certain types of loads also generate typical harmonic spectrum signatures that can point the investigator towards the source. as different operations take place on a Monday.6.. or paths of conduction.2. Table 4 shows examples of such. For example. when only a Skelton crew may be working. Typical Harmonics Found for Different Converters. n is any integer (1.. monitoring will last for one business cycle.. Table 3. if a plant runs three identical shifts. This is related to the number of pulses.).. then a business cycle would be eight hours. then on a Wednesday.3. A business cycle is how long it takes for the normal operation of the plant to repeat itself. More typically.) and p is the number of pulses in the circuit.1. 1/7. or a Saturday. 1/5.Fig 5. where h is the harmonic number. The general equation is h = ( n * p ) +/. 1/9. Power Quality Monitor with Harmonic Analysis Typically. seven days a week. 52 . when the plant equipment is restarted after being off over the weekend.. a business cycle is one week.
Note how the limit decreases at the higher harmonic values. Early detection of this condition in a UPS system can prevent a complete failure when the load is switched onto back-up power. as illustrated in Table 5. To determine what is normal or acceptable levels. Some power quality harmonic monitors will automatically calculate these values. This also results from a full wave rectifier when one side of the rectifier has blown or damaged components.5. Table 4. ANSI/IEEE C57. The harmonic limits for current depend on the ratio of Short Circuit Current (SCC) at PCC (or how stiff it is) to average Load Current of maximum demand over 1 year. Even harmonics will disrupt this half-wave symmetry. There are two parameters typically used. Effects of harmonics Most electrical loads (except half-wave rectifiers) produce symmetrical current waveforms.5. called K-factor and TDF (transformer dereading factor). a number of standards have been developed by various organizations. The presence of these even harmonics should cause the investigator to suspect there is a half-wave rectifier on the circuit. which mean that the positive half of the waveform looks like a mirror image of the negative half. This results in only odd harmonic values being present. IEEE 519-1992 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems provides guidelines from determining what acceptable limits are. and increases with larger ratios.110 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Compatibility When Supplying No sinusoidal Load Currents is a useful document for determining how much a transformer should be derated from its nameplate rating when operating in the presence of harmonics. Current Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 53 .
hence. This is particularly important with some modular office partition-type walls. Neutral conductors should be properly sized according to the latest NEC-1996 requirements covering such. which can exhibit high impedance values. Table 5.For voltage harmonics. Whereas the neutral may have been undersized in the past. can eliminate lower harmonic values. a more encompassing set of standards under IEC 1000-4-7 are now in effect. such as 24-pulse rectifiers. Voltage Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 The European Community has also developed susceptibility and emission limits for\ harmonics. MINIMIZATION OF HARMONICS Care should be undertaken to make sure that the corrective action taken to minimize the harmonic problems don’t actually make the system worse. as shown in Table 6. At the higher voltages. the lower limits. more customers will be effective. Formerly known as the 555-2 standard for appliances of less than 16 A. This can be the result of resonance between harmonic filters. 5. 54 . Loads can be relocated to try to balance the system better. the voltage level of the system is used to determine the limits. Use of higher pulse converters. it may now be necessary to run a second neutral wire that is the same size as the phase conductors. ANSI and NEMA on such. in accordance with industry standards from IEEE. Isolating harmonic pollution devices on separate circuits with or without the use of harmonic filters are typical ways of mitigating the effects of such. The operating limits of transformers and motors should be derated. but at the expense of creating higher harmonic values. PF correcting capacitors and the system impedance.6.
with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability. • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits. • The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. which is robust and simple. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. harmonic suppression and load balancing. 55 .6. ADVANTAGES • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller.
Simulation results show the suitability of AC/DC bus voltage regulation for harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation.7. a DSTATCOM’s control scheme should be such that in addition to complete reactive power compensation. The control schemes are described with the help of simulation results. in order to achieve improved power quality levels at the distribution end. It can also be concluded that though conceptually similar to a STATCOM at the transmission level. with their relative merits and demerits. power factor correction and voltage regulation of the harmonics are also checked. under linear and nonlinear loads. 56 . A comparison of the three control strategies is shown in Table 1. CONCLUSION The paper presents the comparative study of three control strategies used for the control of DSTATCOM.
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