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In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement.
Distribution Static Compensator is an important device in correcting power factor, maintaining constant distribution voltage, and mitigating harmonics in a distribution network. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based Distribution Static Compensator, broadly classified as voltage controlled and current controlled. Under the former, phase shift control is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for Static Compensator control at the transmission level for reactive power compensation and voltage support, and are recently being incorporated to control a Distribution Static Compensator employed at the distribution end. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: Phase shift control, Indirect decoupled current control, Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage.
The following indices are considered for comparison–measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion, DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control strategies, in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems . Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. Another compensating system has been proposed by , employing a combination of SVC and active power filter, which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. Thus, a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should e a viable alternative. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state, with reduced foot print and weight [1,3]. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller, sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level. At the transmission level, STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support, while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. The latter, DSTATCOM, can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. Additionally, a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter [4,5], to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage, as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device, the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement, in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating [6-9]. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM, broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. Under the former, phase shift control  is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control [11,12] and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control [13,14]. The first two schemes have
been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level, for reactive power compensation, and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end . The following indices are considered for comparison – measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion (THD), DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique, as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
2. FACTS DEVICES
Flexible AC Transmission Systems, called FACTS, got in the recent years a well known term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice.
In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are: • Power flow control, • Increase of transmission capability, • Voltage control, • Reactive power compensation, • Stability improvement, • Power quality improvement, • Power conditioning, • Flicker mitigation, • Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages. Figure 1.1 shows the basic idea of FACTS for transmission systems. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS devices. It can be seen that with growing line length, the opportunity for FACTS devices gets more and more important. The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work electrically as fast current, voltage or impedance controllers. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second.
For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. 6 . This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices.The development of FACTS-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power electronic components. Therefore most of the FACTSdevices can equally be static and dynamic. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels.2 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. The overall starting points are network elements influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices provided by the power electronics. Figure 1.
Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs. The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT).The left column in Figure 1. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor valves or converters. Configurations of FACTS-Devices: 7 . Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. These valves or converters are well known since several years. the losses are increasing as well. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency. inductance or capacitance together with transformers.2 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance.
2. SVC: Electrical loads both generate and absorb reactive power.1. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. • Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. Almost half of the SVC and more than half of the STATCOMs are used for industrial applications. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted. • Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge demand fluctuations like industrial machines. Since the transmitted load varies considerably from one hour to another. in conventional HVDC lines. To damp power oscillations c. • Compensation of Thyristor converters e. metal melting plants. railway or underground train systems.1. In Transmission Systems a. The main applications in transmission. To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin b. SVCs are also used 1.g.1. Applications of the SVC systems in transmission systems: a. the reactive power balance in a grid varies as well. The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude variations or even a voltage depression.2. at the extreme a voltage collapse. nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to insufficient power quality. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality. Shunt Devices: The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. distribution and industrial networks are: • Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses. To achieve effective voltage control In addition. A rapidly operating Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive power required to control dynamic voltage oscillations under various system conditions and thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution stability. • Improvement of static or transient stability. Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require SVCs or STATCOMs. To reduce temporary over voltages 8 .
9 . In HVDC systems a. SVC installations consist of a number of building blocks. To reduce voltage variations and associated light flicker Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network conditions. In Arc Furnaces a. To provide reactive power to ac–dc converters 4. To improve voltage regulation 3.e. In addition an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude modulation. stack assemblies of series connected anti-parallel Thyristors to provide controllability.b. The step up connection of this equipment to the transmission voltage is achieved through a power transformer. To damp power oscillations in interconnected power systems 2. In Traction Systems a. To damp sub synchronous resonances c. Air core reactors and high voltage AC capacitors are the reactive power elements used together with the Thyristor valves. To improve power factor c. i. To balance loads b. The most important is the Thyristor valve.
SVC Using TCR and FC: In this arrangement. SVC building blocks and voltage / current characteristic In principle the SVC consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC) and Thyristor Switched or Controlled Reactors (TSR / TCR).Fig. the reactive power can be varied over the entire range from maximum lagging vars to leading vars that can be absorbed from the system by this compensator. Since then it is widely used and the most accepted FACTS-device.1. 2.1. The rating of the reactor is chosen larger than the rating of the capacitor by an amount to provide the maximum lagging vars that have to be absorbed from the system. 10 . On transmission level the first SVC was used in 1979. By changing the firing angle of the thyristor controlling the reactor from 90° to 180°.1. The first commercial SVC was installed in 1972 for an electric arc furnace.1. two or more FC (fixed capacitor) banks are connected to a TCR (thyristor controlled reactor) through a step-down transformer. 2. The coordinated control of a combination of these branches varies the reactive power as shown in Figure.
1. SVC of the FC/TCR type: The main disadvantage of this configuration is the significant harmonics that will be generated because of the partial conduction of the large reactor under normal sinusoidal steadystate operating condition when the SVC is absorbing zero MVAr. 2. Fig. The capacitor banks with the help of series reactors are tuned to filter fifth. seventh.Fig. and other higher-order harmonics as a high-pass filter.3 loss characteristics of TSC–TCR.1. Further losses are high due to the circulating current between the reactor and capacitor banks. Triplex harmonics are canceled by arranging the TCR and the secondary windings of the step-down transformer in delta connection. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser 11 . These harmonics are filtered in the following manner. SVC Using TCR and FC 2. 2.2.2.
there is a possibility for large voltage transients because of oscillatory interaction between system and the SVC capacitor bank or the parallel. 2. . SVC Using a TCR and TSC: This compensator overcomes two major shortcomings of the earlier compensators by reducing losses under operating conditions and better performance under large system disturbances.2. In view of the smaller rating of each capacitor bank. In applications requiring overload capability.Comparison of the loss characteristics of TSC–TCR.1. In the 12 .4.1. thus reducing the harmonics generated by the reactor. the rating of the reactor bank will be 1/n times the maximum output of the SVC. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser these SVCs do not have a short-time overload capability because the reactors are usually of the air-core type. or separate thyristor-switched overload reactors must be employed. TCR must be designed for short-time overloading. a small amount of FCs tuned as filters may be connected in parallel with the TCR. SVC of combined TSC and TCR type When large disturbances occur in a power system due to load rejection. The LC circuit of the SVC in the FC compensator.3. Fig. In those situations where harmonics have to be reduced further.
The performance for power quality and balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and reactive power. This can be seen in the diagram for the maximum currents being independent of the voltage in comparison to the SVC. The advantage of a STATCOM is that the reactive power provision is independent from the actual voltage on the connection point.1. 2. 13 . The static line between the current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage. that even during most severe contingencies. a lower investment cost and lower operating and maintenance costs. The capital cost of this SVC is higher than that of the earlier one due to the increased number of capacitor switches and increased control complexity. but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the synchronous condenser in several ways. such as better dynamics. The next step in STATCOM development is the combination with energy storages on the DC-side. STATCOM: In 1999 the first SVC with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM (STATic COMpensator) went into operation.TSC–TCR scheme. A STATCOM is build with Thyristors with turn-off capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTs. the STATCOM keeps its full capability.2. due to the flexibility of rapid switching of capacitor banks without appreciable disturbance to the power system. and hence the transients in the system can also be avoided. oscillations can be avoided. This means. In the distributed energy sector the usage of Voltage Source Converters for grid interconnection is common practice today. The STATCOM has a characteristic similar to the synchronous condenser.
Vs. If the STATCOM voltage. If Vs is smaller then Es then lagging or inductive VARS are produced. STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic STATCOMs are based on Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) topology and utilize either Gate-Turn-off Thyristors (GTO) or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) devices. 2. The reactive power in each phase is supplied by circulating the instantaneous real power between the phases. then leading or capacitive VARS are produced. steady state basis. 6 Pulses STATCOM: The three phases STATCOM makes use of the fact that on a three phase.1. Ideally it is possible to construct a device based on circulating instantaneous power which has no energy storage device (i.2. Es. This is achieved by firing the GTO/diode switches in a manner that maintains the phase difference between the ac bus voltage ES and the STATCOM generated voltage VS. no dc capacitor). The STATCOM is a very fast acting. (which is proportional to the dc bus voltage Vc) is larger than bus voltage. and the instantaneous power entering a purely reactive device must be zero.5. 2.e. fundamental frequency.1.Fig. electronic equivalent of a synchronous condenser. 14 .
STATCOM Equivalent Circuit Several different control techniques can be used for the firing control of the STATCOM. The maximum energy storage required for the STATCOM is much less than for a TCR/TSC type of SVC compensator of comparable rating. 2. 6 Pulses STATCOM A practical STATCOM requires some amount of energy storage to accommodate harmonic power and ac system unbalances. 2. This approach will minimize switching losses. As an alternative.1. but will generally utilize more complex transformer topologies. can be used. This approach allows for simpler transformer topologies at the expense of higher switching losses. These methods include the 15 .6 equivalent circuit of STATCOM The 6 Pulse STATCOM using fundamental switching will of course produce the 6 N 1 harmonics.2. which turn on and off the GTO or IGBT switch more than once per cycle.2.Fig. when the instantaneous real power is non-zero.6. There are a variety of methods to decrease the harmonics. Fig. Fundamental switching of the GTO/diode once per cycle can be used. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) techniques. 2.
Another possible approach for harmonic cancellation is a multi-level configuration which allows for more than one switching element per level and therefore more than one switching in each bridge arm. and allows for rapid readjustment of line power flow in response to various contingencies. The TCSC also can regulate steady-state power flow within its rating limits. • Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power transmissions.2. using control of firing angle to produce a 30 hase shift between the two 6 pulse p bridges. damping of oscillations. thus eliminating harmonics even further. a complete elimination of 5th and 7th harmonic current using series connection of star/star and star/delta transformers and a quasi 12 pulse method with a single star-star transformer. TCSC: Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in transmission systems. Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are interconnected. The TCSC's high speed switching capability provides a mechanism for controlling line power flow. dependent on the number of levels. The main applications are: • Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line. which permits increased loading of existing transmission lines. This staircase voltage can be controlled to eliminate harmonics.basic 12 pulse configuration with parallel star / delta transformer connections. • Avoidance of loop flows resp. 2. • Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations. 2. • Improvement of system damping resp.2. Series Devices: Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices. The ac voltage derived has a staircase effect. power flow adjustments. Secondly it can overcome the problem of Sub Synchronous Resonance (SSR). This method can be extended to produce a 24 pulse and a 48 pulse STATCOM. 16 .1. and two secondary windings. a phenomenon that involves an interaction between large thermal generating units and series compensated transmission systems.
This permits higher levels of compensation in networks where interactions with turbine-generator torsional vibrations or with other control or measuring systems are of concern. Fig.3. including the Thyristor valve that is used to control the behavior of the main capacitor bank. These oscillations are due to the dynamics of inter area power transfer and often exhibit poor damping when the aggregate power transfer over a corridor is high relative to the transmission strength. Advantages • • • • Continuous control of desired compensation level Direct smooth control of power flow within the network Improved capacitor bank protection Local mitigation of sub synchronous resonance (SSR). 2. 17 . the TCSC resembles the conventional series capacitor.3.2. The firing angle and the thermal limits of the Thyristors determine the boundaries of the operational diagram. Figure shows the principle setup of a TCSC and its operational diagram. All the power equipment is located on an isolated steel platform.From a principal technology point of view. Likewise the control and protection is located on ground potential together with other auxiliary systems.7. The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series compensation. • Damping of electromechanical (0.1. 2.5-2 Hz) power oscillations which often arise between areas in a large interconnected power network.2. TCSC circuit and operation diagram 2. Shunt And Series Devices 2. Dynamic Power Flow Controller(DFC) A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC).
Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR. The Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components: • A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) • Series-connected Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors (TSC / TSR) • A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC). • The relieve of overload and work in stressed situations is handled by the TSC / TSR. in general.A functional single line diagram of the Dynamic Flow Controller is shown in Figure 1. 2.19. The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics. However. 18 . a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added. principle configuration of DFC Based on the system requirements. the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous control as well. The operation of a DFC is based on the following rules: • TSC / TSR are switched when a fast response is required. (This is optional depending on the system reactive power requirements) Fig. The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of overload and other conditions. If a higher power flow resolution is needed.8.
The overall control objective in steady state would be to control the distribution of power flow between the branch with the DFC and the parallel path. we assume an inductance in parallel representing parallel transmission paths. • The total reactive power consumption of the device can be optimized by the operation of the MSC. whereas operation in the second and fourth quadrants corresponds to increasing the power 19 . where the x-axis corresponds to the throughput current and the y-axis corresponds to the injected series voltage.9. Assuming that the power flow has a load factor close to one. influence on reactive power balance and effectiveness at high/low loading the two parts of the series voltage has quite different characteristics. The controllable reactance will inject a voltage in quadrature with the throughput current. tap changer and the switched capacities and reactors. However.20. The PST (assuming a quadrature booster) will inject a voltage in quadrature with the node voltage. 2. Operational diagram of a DFC Operation in the first and third quadrants corresponds to reduction of power through the DFC.• The switching of the PST tap-changer should be minimized particularly for the currents higher than normal loading. Fig. the two parts of the series voltage will be close to collinear. In order to visualize the steady state operating range of the DFC. This control is accomplished by control of the injected series voltage. in terms of speed of control. The steady state control range for loadings up to rated current is illustrated in Figure 1.
2.g.flow through the DFC. Consequently. The maximum series voltage in the first quadrant is obtained when all inductive steps are switched in and the tap is at its maximum. If more inductance is switched in and/or the tap is increased. the capacitive step is approximately as large as the short circuit reactance of the PST. The operating point moves along lines parallel to the arrows in the figure. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC): The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation. they will not contribute to the series voltage. Starting at rated current (2 kA) the short circuit reactance by itself provides an injected voltage (approximately 20 kV in this case). Now. if the throughput current decreases (due e. the series voltage increases and the current through the DFC decreases (and the flow on parallel branches increases). assuming maximum tap and inductance. moving into the second quadrant. to changing loading of the system) the series voltage will decrease. it will not matter whether the TSC / TSR steps are in or out. The slope of the line passing through the origin (at which the tap is at zero and TSC / TSR are bypassed) depends on the short circuit reactance of the PST. At zero current. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously. In this case. Next. The slope of these arrows depends on the size of the parallel reactance.3. 2. the operating range will be limited by the line corresponding to maximum tap and the capacitive step being switched in (and the inductive steps by-passed). 20 . giving an almost constant maximum voltage in the second quadrant. the series voltage at zero current corresponds to rated PST series voltage.
OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UPFC The basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSIs) sharing a common dc storage capacitor. One VSI is connected to in shunt to the transmission system via a shunt transformer. provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow.21.1.Fig.11. as shown in Figure 1. and connected to the power system through coupling transformers. A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig. 21 . which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor.3. 2. The DC-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage. while the other one is connected in series through a series transformer. which limits the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.2. an UPFC is getting quite expensive. The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge.10.2. 2. Principle configuration of an UPFC The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer. Due to the high efforts for the Voltage Source Converters and the protection. This setup.
The shunt inverter is operated in such a way as to demand this dc terminal power (positive or negative) from the line keeping the voltage across the storage capacitor Vdc constant. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage. The reactive power is electronically provided by the series inverter. the shunt inverter is operating as a STATCOM that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the voltage magnitude at the connection point. and hence the power low on the transmission line. Ish into the transmission line. the shunt inverter is operating in such a way to inject a controllable current.11. the series inverter is operating as SSSC that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the current flow. 2. So. and the active power is transmitted to the dc terminals. Vdc. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes: VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. is also required. the net real power absorbed from the line by the UPFC is equal only to the losses of the inverters and their transformers. In particular. of controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to control active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. 22 . The UPFC has many possible operating modes. The two VSI’s can work independently of each other by separating the dc side. So in that case.Fig. The remaining capacity of the shunt inverter can be used to exchange reactive power with the line so to provide a voltage regulation at the connection point. So. this inverter will exchange active and reactive power with the line. The shunt inverter control translates the var reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current. UPFC The series inverter is controlled to inject a symmetrical three phase voltage system (Vse). Instead.
Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. Another compensating system has been proposed by . D-STATCOM 3. 3. reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level. a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should be a viable 23 . higher passive element count that increases size and losses. Thus. voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line. and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. INTRODUCTION In power distribution networks. Line Impedance Emulation mode: The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes.1. For this mode of control. Conventionally. which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. their limited bandwidth. Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways. employing a combination of SVC and active power filter.Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value.
DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size. considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state. in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller. as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM. in addition to passive storage elements. Normally. a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter.measurement and signal conditioning requirement. the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement. either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level. Additionally. The latter. 24 . while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor. with their merits and demerits. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated. total harmonic distortion (THD). A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM. for reactive power compensation.alternative. DSTATCOM. At the transmission level. as compared to an inductor for the same rating . broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. The following indices are considered for comparison . sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level. STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support. phase shift control is compared with the latter. and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end. with reduced foot print and weight. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device. Under the former. the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. performance with varying linear/nonlinear load. to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage.
which includes a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and a DC link capacitor connected in shunt. no reactive power is delivered to the system. Basic Principle of DSTATCOM A DSTATCOM is a controlled reactive source. which could be a filter inductance or the leakage inductance of the coupling transformer. If the output voltage of the VSC is equal to the AC terminal voltage. as shown in Fig. capable of generating and/or absorbing reactive power. the DSTATCOM is in the capacitive mode of operation and vice versa. 25 .2.3. This capacitor could be charged by a battery source. Block diagram of D-STATCOM The DC side of the converter is connected to a DC capacitor.1 Fig.3. The quantity of reactive power flow is proportional to the difference in the two voltages. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator.1. 3. The AC terminals of the VSC are connected to the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) through an inductance. or could be precharged by the converter itself. which carries the input ripple current of the converter and is the main reactive energy storage element. If the output voltage is greater than the AC terminal voltage.
3.2 Schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control Fig. transient as well as steady state performance. Since a DSTATCOM shares many concepts with 26 .3.2 shows the schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control. taking into consideration the above steps. The generation of proper pulse width modulation (PWM) firing is the most important part of DSTATCOM control and it has a great impact on its compensation objectives. the compensation should be such that the supply currents should lead the supply voltages.It is to be noted that voltage regulation at PCC and power factor correction cannot be achieved simultaneously. fast response. 3. Control Strategies Satisfactory performance. whereas. For a DSTATCOM used for voltage regulation at the PCC. The control strategies of a DSTATCOM are mainly implemented in the following steps: • • • Measurements of system variables and signal conditioning Extraction of reference compensating signals Generation of firing angles for switching devices Fig. The control strategies studied in this paper are applied with a view to studying the performance of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation. flexible and easy implementation are the main objectives of any compensation strategy. the supply current should be in phase with the supply voltages. for power factor correction. 3.
as given in the Appendix. rather than fundamental frequency switching (FFS) methods. a few control techniques have been directly implemented to a DSTATCOM. Phase Shift Control Fig. 3.3 phase shift control 27 . Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage The performance of DSTATCOM with different control schemes have been studied through digital simulations for common system parameters.that of a STATCOM at the transmission level. A PWM based distribution static compensator offers faster response and capability for harmonic elimination. 3.3. Phase shift control 2. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: 1. incorporating PWM switching.1. Indirect decoupled current control 3.
assumed to be equally spaced at 120 degrees.3. the DC voltage is maintained constant. In this method. 3. In this scheme. This angle is summed with the phase angle of the balanced supply voltages. which generates the angle for deciding the necessary phase shift between the output voltage of the VSC and the AC terminal voltage. whereas no reactive power measurements are required . 28 . to produce the desired synchronizing signal required to operate the PWM generator.The schematic diagram of phase shift control is shown in Fig. The error signal obtained by comparing the measured system rms voltage and the reference voltage is fed to a proportional integral (PI) controller. Sinusoidal PWM technique is used with constant switching frequency. using a separate battery source. the compensation is achieved by the measuring of the rms voltage at the load point.
Balanced source supply as rms voltage is assumed and the supply phase angle are calculated over the fundamental only.4a and Fig 3.4b show the simulation results obtained using phase shift control for reactive power compensation and harmonic mitigation for a balanced varying linear load and for a non linear load respectively. No harmonic suppression and partial compensation is achieved in case of nonlinear loads. whereas. it has the following major disadvantages: • The controller does not use a self supporting DC bus and thus requires a very large DC source to pre charge the capacitor. is shown in Fig 3. Though this strategy is easy to implement.5a and Fig 3. before and after compensation.5b.Fig 3. It is observed that the source current and the source voltage are in phase. • • 29 . is robust and can provide partial reactive power compensation without harmonic suppression.34%). correcting the power factor of the system in case of a linearly varying load. The frequency spectrum of the source current for a nonlinear load. complete compensation is not achieved in case of nonlinear load (source current THD 24.
6 shows the block diagram representation of the control scheme. It requires the measurement of instantaneous values of three phase line voltages and current. Fig 3.3. Indirect Decoupled Current Control This scheme is based on the governing equations of advanced static var compensator. The control scheme is based on the transformation of the three phase system to a synchronously rotating frame. using Park's transformation 31 .2.3.
in order to incorporate simple open loop sine PWM modulators. Indirect Decoupled Current Control Subsequently. when the system voltage remains constant. when the d axis is made to lie on the space vector of the system voltage. The instantaneous three phase line currents measured are transformed by abc to dqO transformation. Using the definition of the instantaneous reactive power theory for a balanced three phase three wire system. its quadrature component (v q) becomes zero. so that fixed switching frequency is achieved. This is an indirect current control method. where current error compensation is achieved indirectly through voltage modulation. the real (p) and the reactive power (q) injected into the system by the DSTATCOM can be expressed under the dqO reference frame as: Since v q = 0. id and iq completely describe the instantaneous value of real and reactive powers produced by the DSTATCOM.Fig 3. The instantaneous id reference and the instantaneous i q reference are obtained by the regulation 32 . The compensation is achieved by the control of id and iq.6.
21%. as shown in Fig 3. The modulating signals Ud and Uq are transformed back to the abc frame.Thus. due to which the converter switches are less stressed. instantaneous current tracking control is achieved using four PI regulators.6. another advantage of 33 .7a and Fig 7b show the DSTATCOM response for a linearly varying and nonlinear load. Though complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved and the THD in case of nonlinear load is reduced to 13. It is observed from the figure that the transient current reaches a very high value before reaching steady state. During unity power factor operation for linear nonlinear loads. the quadrature reference current i q is zero. The modulating signal output of each phase is compared with a triangular carrier. The inner loop of the DSTATCOM controller consists of a rotating frame current controller. as shown in the Fig 3. using PI controllers.8a and Fig 8b. The modulating signals for the rotating frame controller are given by: Where K p i. KQ are the gains of the two current PI controllers respectively. The three line currents are transformed to dqO reference frame and then compared with the references obtained from the outer loop. Also. the main advantage of this scheme is that it incorporates a self supporting DC bus and the value of the reference DC link voltage is less. which is common for all the three phases.of the DC voltage and the measured AC terminal voltage measured. The switching logic for the phase 4 a' is formulated as: Where v c t is the instantaneous value of triangular carrier waveform and vc a is the transformed modulating signal. Fig 3. as compared to phase shift control. S a is the switching logic for the inverter leg corresponding to phase 'a'. This controller operates in conjunction with the open loop sine PWM generator. the switching logic of the other two phases 'b' and 'c' are formulated as S b and S c . A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is used to synchronize the control loop to the AC supply. so as to operate in the abc_to_dqO reference frame. Similarly. Kn. K P 2.
34 .this scheme is that it operates with fixed switching frequency. which provides a definite harmonic spectrum. independent of the load.
7 35 .Fig. 3.
It requires intensive computation.3. Bandwidth is restricted due to the use of sine PWM generator. These reference currents and the sensed line currents are fed to a hysteresis controller. Harmonic suppression is significantly achieved. the quadrature Component of the reference current is made zero. 3. including complex transformations. 3. Quadrature voltage unit vectors yields the respective component of the reference currents. • • • During transient condition. This 36 . Figure 9 shows the block diagram of the implemented scheme.Regulation of AC Bus and DC Link Voltage Three phase AC supply voltages and DC link voltage are sensed and fed to two PI controllers. the supply current shoots to a very high value 3.3.Fig. making the operation complex. the outputs of which decide the amplitude of reactive and active current to be generated by the DSTATCOM .9. but not below the IEEE-519 standards. Multiplication of these amplitudes with the in phase and Fig. When applying the algorithm for power factor correction an harmonic elimination. Block diagram using regulation of AC/DC link voltage scheme.8 The disadvantages of this scheme are: • Phase Locked Loop gives erroneous results in case of distorted mains and is applicable for only three phase systems. which is used for tracking control.
the THD of the source current is 2. well below the IEEE-519 standard for harmonic suppression. Therefore.01%. The advantages of this scheme are: • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller. 37 . The tracking becomes better if the hysteresis band is narrower.hysteresis controller adds a hysteresis band +/−h around the calculated reference current. This method of tracking current control is simple and robust and it exhibits an automatic current limiting characteristic. is shown in Figure 11 a and b. This compensation scheme is multifunctional and can also be effectively used for load unbalancing and harmonic suppression. with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability. in addition to power factor correction and dynamic voltage regulation. which is robust and simple. The frequency spectrum of the load current. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. In case of nonlinear load. but the switching frequency is increased. The transient period is very short and complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved in case of both linear/nonlinear loads. If isa<isa-ref+h). before and after compensation. The switching is obtained as given below: If isa>(isa_ref+h). which results in increased switching losses. The simulated results of the above control scheme are shown in Figure 10a and b. harmonic suppression and load balancing. the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is OFF and the lower switch is ON. the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is ON and the lower switch is OFF. • The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. the choice of hysteresis band should be a compromise between tracking error and inverter losses . • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits.
we must not forget the foundation upon which we are building. Next generation container cranes. colorful diagnostic displays.1. 4. an increase in container crane population. will require average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW – almost double the total average demand three years ago. we shall define power quality problems as: “Any power problem that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment. the power issues which degrade power quality include: • Power Factor • Harmonic Distortion • Voltage Transients • Voltage Sags or Dips • Voltage Swells 38 . or produces negative impacts on the environment.2POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS For the purpose of this article. INTRODUCTION The contemporary container crane industry. container crane performance requirements continue to increase at an astounding rate. The rapid increase in power demand levels. our environment. Although these features and their indirectly related computer based enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation. and initial investment in power distribution systems to support new crane installations. Manifests itself as an economic burden to the user.’ As we are all aware. and levels of automation that can be achieved. reduces emissions from generating plants. like many other industry segments. high speed performance. Power quality also affects terminal operating economics. is often enamored by the bells and whistles. crane reliability. already in the bidding process.4. SCR converter crane drive retrofits and the large AC and DC drives needed to power and control these cranes will increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very near future. To quote the utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my home utility billing: ‘Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and business practice which saves you money. and conserves our natural resources. Power quality is the mortar which bonds the Foundation blocks. POWER QUALITY 4.” When applied to the container crane industry.
The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances varies with the speed of the drive. 4.The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes are significant contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion. container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and land containers.3. it most likely will not be delivered. if power quality is not specified. However. Even today. the power quality issue is intentionally or unintentionally ignored. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods. power demands per crane increased. the power factor essentially remains constant. they do represent a good return on investment. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching. Power factor was reasonable. in most cases. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or engine-alternator power source. Above base speed. Power quality problem solutions are available. AC drive voltage chopping. Unfortunately. and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems with Container cranes. creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3 to 4 times the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of the drives. and harmonic current injection was minimal. and static power conversion became the way of life. line notching occurs when SCR’s commutate. DC SCR drives operate at less than this. crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during competitive bidding for new cranes. In addition. no one was really prepared. increasing to its maximum value when the SCR’s are phased on to produce rated or base speed. Whereas SCR phase control creates the desirable average power factor. either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. did power quality issues begin to emerge. Although the solutions are not free. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC drives will be highest when the drives are operating at slow speeds. Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the potential issues. Not until the crane Population multiplied. Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced. Before the advent of solid-state power supplies. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can ultimately result in detrimental effects on the Life of sensitive electronic equipment or even intermittent malfunction.Power Quality Improvement: 39 .
• Special line notch filtering. 4. Economic Impact 40 . • Harmonic filtering.4THE BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY Power quality in the container terminal environment impacts the economics of the terminal operation. Each of these concerns is explored in the following paragraphs. • Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation. Also. do not pay the utility billings. but consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the terminal 4.Power quality can be improved through: • Power factor correction. the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully aware of the potential power quality issues. In most cases. and affects other consumers served by the same utility service. container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic filtering. or consider it someone else’s concern. In many cases. If this article accomplishes nothing else. • Proper earthing systems. those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes may not be cognizant of such issues.1. affects reliability of the terminal equipment. Early in the process of preparing the crane specification: • Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that must be satisfied. • Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that can be expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific project. we would hope to provide that awareness. many of those specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria. As a result.4. if any. • Transient voltage surge suppression.
The IEEE Std. The Port or terminal operations personnel. Methods of metering and calculating power factor penalties vary from one utility company to the next. Economic impact can be significant and manifest itself in several ways: a. Other utility companies monitor kVAR demands and calculate power factor. however. If the power factor falls below a fixed limit value over a demand period. Power Factor Penalties Many utility companies invoke penalties for low power factor on monthly billings. their service contract with the Port may still require that a minimum power factor over a defined demand period be met. does not reflect power factor penalties in their monthly billings. The customer shall ensure that no excessive harmonics or transients are introduced on to the [utility] system. Utility deregulation will most likely force utilities to enforce requirements such as the example above. a penalty is billed in the form of an adjustment to the peak demand charges. should be aware of these requirements. The utility company may not continuously monitor power factor or kVAR usage and reflect them in the monthly utility billings. Some utility companies actually meter kVAR usage and establish a fixed rate times the number of kVAR-hours consumed. their service contract with the terminal reads as follows: ‘The average power factor under operating conditions of customer’s load at the point where service is metered shall be not less than 85%. There is no industry standard followed by utility companies. or specifying new container crane equipment. 519-1992 is used as a guide in Determining appropriate design requirements. who are responsible for maintaining container cranes. they do reserve the right to monitor the Port service at any time. A number of utility companies servicing container terminal equipment do not yet invoke power factor penalties. install and maintain at its expense corrective apparatus which will increase the Power factor of the entire installation to not less than 85%. One utility company. or required to take corrective actions at the user’s expense. If below 85%. 41 . the customer may be required to furnish.The economic impact of power quality is the foremost incentive to container terminal operators. the user may be penalized. If The power factor criteria set forth in the service contract are not met. which supplies power service to several east coast container terminals in the USA. however. This may require special power conditioning equipment or filters. However.
Transformers. c. correction of power factor alone on a typical state of the art quay crane can result in a reduction of system losses that converts to a 6 to 10% reduction in the monthly utility billing. not only result in possible power factor penalties. kVA demand is inversely proportional to the overall power factor. System Losses Harmonic currents and low power factor created by nonlinear loads. b. but also increase the power losses in the distribution system. SCR drives operate at relatively low power factor. Thus cost of the equipment is directly related to the total kVA demand. i. In the absence of power quality corrective equipment. high and medium voltage equipment. As the relationship above indicates. must be sized based on the kVA demand. etc. involves high cost. Container cranes are significant contributors to harmonic currents and low power factor. collector bars. Since container cranes with DC. feeder cables. Power Service Initial Capital Investments The power distribution system design and installation for new terminals. Based on the typical demands of today’s high speed container cranes. a lower power factor demands higher kVA for the same kW load. the cost of the initial power distribution system equipment for a system which does not address power quality will most likely be higher than the same system which includes power quality equipment. future terminal growth plan should include contingencies for addressing the possible economic impact of utility deregulation.Terminal operators who do not deal with penalty issues today may be faced with some rather severe penalties in the future. A sound. as well as modification of systems for terminal capacity upgrades. 6 pulse.e. this is a significant annual saving in the cost of operation. switchgear current ratings must be higher. These losses are not visible as a separate item on your monthly utility billing. 42 . etc. Consequently. specialized. cable reel trailing cables. Container cranes are one of the most significant users of power in the terminal. collector system and cable reel cables must be larger. feeder cable copper sizes are larger. the total kVA demand is significantly larger than would be the case if power factor correction equipment were supplied on board each crane or at some common bus location in the terminal. transformers are larger. For most of the larger terminals. switchgear. but you pay for them each month.
which would otherwise be inadequate to support additional cranes without high risk of problems. Reduction in system losses and lower demands equate to a reduction in the consumption of our natural nm resources and reduction in power plant emissions. Power quality corrective actions may be dictated due to inadequacy of existing power distribution systems to which new or relocated cranes are to be connected. the same phenomena which create harmonic current injection in DC SCR Variable speed drives are responsible for poor power factor. Equipment Reliability Poor power quality can affect machine or equipment reliability and reduce the life of components. 4.3. Harmonics affect power factor.4. 4. It is our responsibility as occupants of this planet to encourage conservation of our natural resources and support measures which improve our air quality 5. Harmonics. addition of power quality equipment may render a workable scenario on an existing power distribution system. Harmonics 43 .2. a power system analysis should be completed to determine the adequacy of the system to support additional crane loads. and line notch ringing can be mitigated using specially designed filters. Environment No issue might be as important as the effect of power quality on our environment.4. harmonic currents. and voltage system sags and swells are all power quality problems and are all interdependent. In other words.4.4. voltage transients can induce harmonics.4. Power System Adequacy When considering the installation of additional cranes to an existing power distribution system. and dynamically varying power factor of the same drives can create voltage sags and swells. The effects of harmonic distortion. voltage transients.
The rate at which these changes occur is the trigometric function called a sine wave. In European countries and other parts of the world. or the 6th harmonic in a 50 Hz system. Some references refer to “clean” or “pure” power as those without any harmonics. the second harmonic is 2* 50 or 100Hz. or cycles per second. For example. depending on the fundamental frequency. this means that sixty times a second. the voltage waveform increases to a maximum positive value. further decreasing to a maximum negative value.” . Harmonics have been around for a long time and will continue to do so. In fact.1.5. or the way a string on a voilin vibrates when plucked. Sine wave The frequency of the harmonics is different. which some power quality analyzers provide. But such clean waveforms typically only exist in a laboratory. such as the speed of a pendulum as it swings back and forth.1Introduction: The typical definition for a harmonic is “a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or\ quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. and a clarinet like a clarinet. Harmonics (called “overtones” in music) are responsible for what makes a trumpet sound like a trumpet. Figure 2 shows how a signal with two harmonics would appear on an oscilloscope-type display. this frequency is usually 50 Hz. the 2nd harmonic on a 60 Hz system is 2*60 or 120 Hz. Aircraft often uses 400 Hz as the fundamental frequency. the fundamental frequency. 300Hz is the 5th harmonic in a 60 Hz system. In the North America. At 50Hz. Electrical generators try to produce electric power where the voltage waveform has only one frequency associated with it. this frequency is 60 Hz. At 60 Hz. then decreases to zero. as shown in figure 1. musicians have been aware of such since the invention of the first string or woodwind instrument. This function occurs in many natural phenomena. Fig 5. 44 . and then back to zero.
or DFT for Discrete Fourier Transform. the FFT cannot directly see the 200 Hz. 240. So more compatible processes. However. which are often called “bins”. These in-between frequencies are called “inter harmonics”. the process of melting metal in an electric arc furnace can result large currents that are comprised of the fundamental .2. and sub harmonic frequencies being drawn from the electric power grid. Fundamental with two harmonics In order to be able to analyze complex signals that have many different frequencies present. which is onehalf of the sampling frequency). and partially in the 240 Hz bin. For example. which are frequency values less than the fundamental frequency value. when it really should have been 30 V at 200 Hz. duplicating the mathematical steps required in a microprocessor or computer-based instrument is quite difficult. if a voltage waveform is comprised of 60 Hz and 200 Hz signals. The result would be that the energy of the 200 Hz signal would appear partially in the 180Hz bin. There is also a special category of inter harmonics. For example.Fig 5. These methods only work properly if the signal is composed of only the fundamental and harmonic frequencies in a certain frequency range (called the Nyquist frequency. called the FFT for Fast Fourier transform. a number of mathematical methods were developed. 120. One of the more popular is called the Fourier Transform. inter harmonic. An FFT-based processer could show a voltage value of 115V at 60 Hz. 18 V at the 3rd harmonic. and usually effect the voltage waveform.2... The frequency values must not change during the measurement period. and 12 V at the 4th harmonic. called sub-harmonics. These levels can be quite high during the melt-down phase. Failure of these rules to be maintained can result in mis-information.. 180. It only knows 60.. 5. are used.Effects of harmonics: 45 .
Some typical types of equipment susceptible to harmonic pollution include: . there are a number of different types of equipment that can have mis operations or failures due to high harmonic voltage and/or current levels. Fig 5.The presence of harmonics does not mean that the factory or office cannot run properly.Excessive neutral current.Incorrect reading meters.3. Additive Third Harmonics . including induction disc W-hr meters and averaging type current meters. Like other power quality phenomena. 46 . This puts the harmonics from each of the three phase legs “in-phase” with each other in the neutral. it depends on the “stiffness” of the power distribution system and the susceptibility of the equipment. one factory may be the source of high harmonics but able to run properly. resulting in overheated neutrals. As shown below. This harmonic pollution is often carried back onto the electric utility distribution system. This is because the harmonic number multiplied by the 120 degree phase shift between phases is a integer multiple of 360 degrees. The odd triplen harmonics in three phase wye circuits are actually additive in the neutral. and may effect facilities on the same system which are more susceptible. as shown in Figure 3. In addition.
Reduced true PF. Some type of losses goes up as the square of harmonic value (such as skin effect and eddy current losses). especially if controls incorporate zero-crossing sensing circuits. negative (2nd. . There is also heating from increased losses as in a transformer. 5th. 6th.3. the effect on lighting is called flicker. Harmonic Sequencing Values in Balanced Systems .Mis-operation or failure of electronic equipment . Table 1. or neither (just heats up the motor). where PF= Watts/VA.). .If there are voltage sub harmonics in the range of 1-30Hz.Zero.) sequencing values. 7th. including false tripping of relays and failure of a UPS to transfer properly. In a balanced system. backward. . respectively.Bearing failure from shaft currents through un insulated bearings of electric motors.Nuisance operation of protective devices.. . This is also true for solenoid coils and lighting ballasts. especially delta windings where triplen harmonics generated on the load side of a delta-wye transformer will circulate in the primary side. due to high voltage and currents from resonance with line impedance.) or zero (3rd.Blown-fuses on PF correction caps. This is especially true at 8...Overheated transformers. where the human eye is most sensitive.Causes 47 ..  5.. voltage harmonics can either be positive (fundamental. 4th... This means that the voltage at that particular frequency tries to rotate the motor forward. 8th. and just 0.. ..8Hz. negative sequence voltages on motors and generators. 9th.5% variation in the voltage is noticeable with some types of lighting.
Figure shows below how a switching-type power supply works. this is not a pure sinusoidal waveform with only a 60 Hz frequency component. The rectifier consists of semi-conductor devices (such as diodes) that only conduct current in one direction. depending on the type of load and system impedances. These devices feed current into a capacitor. sometimes back to AC power at the same or different frequency. This results in a current waveform as shown in Figure 5. based on the firing scheme. This distortion may consist of predominately harmonics. weight and cost. which is further converted into other voltages that the equipment needs to run.”  These are often called static power converters. A typical such converter is the switching-type power supplies found in most personal computers and peripheral equipment. When the input voltage value is higher than voltage on the capacitor. The AC voltage is converted into a DC voltage. and harmonic spectrum in Figure 6. Obviously. the voltage on the one end must be greater than the other end. These devices take AC power and convert it to another form. “The main sources of harmonic current are at present the phase angle controlled rectifiers and inverters.How this electricity is used by the different type of loads can have an effect on “purity” of the voltage waveform. One major variation is the phase angle at which conduction begins and ends. While they offer many benefits in size. In order to do so. The firing scheme refers to the controlling mechanism that determines how and when current is conducted. the large increase of this type of equipment over the past fifteen years is largely responsible for the increased attention to harmonics. we will concentrate on those types of sources. Some loads cause the voltage and current waveforms to lose this pure sine wave appearance and become distorted. the diode will conduct current through it. where the voltage value on the cap at any time depends on how much energy is being taken out by the rest of the power supply. Since this article is about harmonics. 48 . such as printers.
5. Current Waveform Fig 5. the waveform would only have every other current pulse.4 If the rectifier had only been a half wave rectifier. and the harmonic spectrum would be different.4.5. 49 . as shown in Fig 5. Harmonic Spectrum of Current Waveform Shown in Fig 5.Fig 5.
effectively shorting one phase to the other and resulting in large current transients. Some harmonics have zero value for part of the time. and then increase 50 . and include such equipment as ASDs (adjustable speed drives) and VFDs (variable frequency drives). The third harmonic is the predominate harmonic in this case. Medium power converters are used for motor control in manufacturing and railroad applications. Sample of Harmonic Values for Fluorescent lighting  Low power. This occurs each cycle as the voltage waveform goes through the sine waveform. (See Table 3) As previously mentioned. like electric arc furnaces. AC voltage regulators for light dimmers and small induction motors adjust the phase angle or point on the wave where conduction occurs. it does not do so abruptly. in the 2-20MVA rating. This commutation period is a time when two semiconductor devices are both conducting current at the same time. the third harmonic current from each phase in a four-wire wye or star system will be additive in the neutral. Metal reduction operations. When transformers are first energized.Fluorescent lights can be the source of harmonics. and high voltage DC transmission employ large power converters. This is caused by the inrush of the magnetizing current. Table 2. as the ballasts are non-linear inductors. instead of cancelling out Some of the newer electronic ballasts have very significant harmonic problems. where the semi-conductor device has a “gate”-type control mechanism built in to it. the current drawn is different from the steady state condition. but can result in current harmonic distortion levels over 30%. It also happens under “forced” commutation conditions. This happens under “naturally” commutated conditions. where the voltage that was larger on the anode side compared to the cathode is now the opposite. When the semiconductor device is suppose to turn-off. The harmonics during this period varies over time. This type of 3-phase equipment may also cause other types of power quality problems. as they operate somewhat like a switching power supply.
which includes all of the wiring and transformers back to the source of the electricity. where the utility service meets the building distribution system. the search can begin at the equipment effected by the problem or at the point-of-common-coupling (PCC). The phase voltages and currents. If only one piece of equipment is effected (or suspected). which can record the harmonic values over a period of time. one can suspect that harmonics are present. Like any power quality investigation.How do you find harmonics Hand-held harmonic meters can be useful tools for making spot checks for known harmonic problems. indicating the presence of non-linear loads in the facility. An unbalanced transformer (where either the output current. However. The amount of voltage harmonics will often depend on the amount of harmonic currents being drawn by the load. If the source harmonic impedance is very low (often referred to as a “stiff” system) then the harmonic currents will result in lower harmonic voltages than if the source impedance were high (such as found with some types of isolation transformers). then monitoring usually begins at the PCC. as well as the neutral-to-ground voltage and neutral current should be monitored. Monitoring the neutral will often show a high 3rd harmonic value. or detecting marginal systems. winding impedance or input voltage on each leg are not equal) will cause harmonics. This requires the use of a harmonic monitor or power quality monitor with harmonic capabilities (such as shown in Figure 8). This will aid in pinpointing problems. where possible. Where to look for them Wherever the aforementioned equipment is used. This is true for harmonic values as well.4. harmonic values will often change during the day. as different loads are turned on and off within the facility or in other facilities on the same electric utility distribution system. If the source is suspected to be from the utility service side (such is the case when there is a neighboring factory that is known to generate high harmonics). as will overvoltage saturation of a transformer.for a while before returning to zero. and the source impedance. 5. Ohm’s Law says that Voltage equals Current multiplied by Impedance. 51 . it is often easier to start the monitoring process there.
. as different operations take place on a Monday. then a business cycle would be eight hours. A business cycle is how long it takes for the normal operation of the plant to repeat itself.). monitoring will last for one business cycle. and the magnitude decreases as the ration of 1/h (1/3.1. or paths of conduction. when the plant equipment is restarted after being off over the weekend. Table 3.2. This is related to the number of pulses. 1/7.) and p is the number of pulses in the circuit. Certain types of loads also generate typical harmonic spectrum signatures that can point the investigator towards the source. n is any integer (1. Power Quality Monitor with Harmonic Analysis Typically. 52 .6. 1/5. or a Saturday... if a plant runs three identical shifts.. For example. Table 4 shows examples of such. when only a Skelton crew may be working. 1/9. a business cycle is one week. then on a Wednesday. More typically.. seven days a week. The general equation is h = ( n * p ) +/.Fig 5. Typical Harmonics Found for Different Converters. where h is the harmonic number.3.
5. called K-factor and TDF (transformer dereading factor). To determine what is normal or acceptable levels.5. The presence of these even harmonics should cause the investigator to suspect there is a half-wave rectifier on the circuit. a number of standards have been developed by various organizations. The harmonic limits for current depend on the ratio of Short Circuit Current (SCC) at PCC (or how stiff it is) to average Load Current of maximum demand over 1 year. Early detection of this condition in a UPS system can prevent a complete failure when the load is switched onto back-up power. IEEE 519-1992 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems provides guidelines from determining what acceptable limits are. which mean that the positive half of the waveform looks like a mirror image of the negative half. ANSI/IEEE C57. Effects of harmonics Most electrical loads (except half-wave rectifiers) produce symmetrical current waveforms. Table 4. This also results from a full wave rectifier when one side of the rectifier has blown or damaged components. and increases with larger ratios.110 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Compatibility When Supplying No sinusoidal Load Currents is a useful document for determining how much a transformer should be derated from its nameplate rating when operating in the presence of harmonics. as illustrated in Table 5. Note how the limit decreases at the higher harmonic values. Current Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 53 . Even harmonics will disrupt this half-wave symmetry. Some power quality harmonic monitors will automatically calculate these values. This results in only odd harmonic values being present. There are two parameters typically used.
Loads can be relocated to try to balance the system better. ANSI and NEMA on such. The operating limits of transformers and motors should be derated. 54 .6. Formerly known as the 555-2 standard for appliances of less than 16 A. 5. At the higher voltages. the voltage level of the system is used to determine the limits. PF correcting capacitors and the system impedance. This can be the result of resonance between harmonic filters. MINIMIZATION OF HARMONICS Care should be undertaken to make sure that the corrective action taken to minimize the harmonic problems don’t actually make the system worse. such as 24-pulse rectifiers. can eliminate lower harmonic values. hence.For voltage harmonics. a more encompassing set of standards under IEC 1000-4-7 are now in effect. which can exhibit high impedance values. but at the expense of creating higher harmonic values. This is particularly important with some modular office partition-type walls. it may now be necessary to run a second neutral wire that is the same size as the phase conductors. Table 5. Neutral conductors should be properly sized according to the latest NEC-1996 requirements covering such. in accordance with industry standards from IEEE. Whereas the neutral may have been undersized in the past. as shown in Table 6. Use of higher pulse converters. Voltage Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 The European Community has also developed susceptibility and emission limits for\ harmonics. the lower limits. Isolating harmonic pollution devices on separate circuits with or without the use of harmonic filters are typical ways of mitigating the effects of such. more customers will be effective.
harmonic suppression and load balancing. • The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits. ADVANTAGES • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller. 55 .6. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. which is robust and simple. with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability.
in order to achieve improved power quality levels at the distribution end. It can also be concluded that though conceptually similar to a STATCOM at the transmission level. The control schemes are described with the help of simulation results. A comparison of the three control strategies is shown in Table 1. under linear and nonlinear loads. with their relative merits and demerits. Simulation results show the suitability of AC/DC bus voltage regulation for harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation.7. 56 . a DSTATCOM’s control scheme should be such that in addition to complete reactive power compensation. power factor correction and voltage regulation of the harmonics are also checked. CONCLUSION The paper presents the comparative study of three control strategies used for the control of DSTATCOM.
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