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In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement.
Distribution Static Compensator is an important device in correcting power factor, maintaining constant distribution voltage, and mitigating harmonics in a distribution network. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based Distribution Static Compensator, broadly classified as voltage controlled and current controlled. Under the former, phase shift control is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for Static Compensator control at the transmission level for reactive power compensation and voltage support, and are recently being incorporated to control a Distribution Static Compensator employed at the distribution end. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: Phase shift control, Indirect decoupled current control, Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage.
The following indices are considered for comparison–measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion, DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control strategies, in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
In power distribution networks, reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Conventionally, Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems . Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level, their limited bandwidth, higher passive element count that increases size and losses, and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. Another compensating system has been proposed by , employing a combination of SVC and active power filter, which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. Thus, a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should e a viable alternative. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state, with reduced foot print and weight [1,3]. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller, sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level. At the transmission level, STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support, while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. The latter, DSTATCOM, can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. Additionally, a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter [4,5], to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage, as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device, the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement, in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated, the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter, in addition to passive storage elements, either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. Normally, voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size, less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor, as compared to an inductor for the same rating [6-9]. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM, broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. Under the former, phase shift control  is compared with the latter, considering indirect decoupled current control [11,12] and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control [13,14]. The first two schemes have
been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level, for reactive power compensation, and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end . The following indices are considered for comparison – measurement and signal conditioning requirement, performance with varying linear/nonlinear load, total harmonic distortion (THD), DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy, with their merits and demerits. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique, as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment.
2. FACTS DEVICES
Flexible AC Transmission Systems, called FACTS, got in the recent years a well known term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice.
In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are: • Power flow control, • Increase of transmission capability, • Voltage control, • Reactive power compensation, • Stability improvement, • Power quality improvement, • Power conditioning, • Flicker mitigation, • Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages. Figure 1.1 shows the basic idea of FACTS for transmission systems. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS devices. It can be seen that with growing line length, the opportunity for FACTS devices gets more and more important. The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work electrically as fast current, voltage or impedance controllers. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second.
Figure 1. 6 . The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Therefore most of the FACTSdevices can equally be static and dynamic. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices provided by the power electronics.The development of FACTS-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power electronic components. For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation.2 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices. The overall starting points are network elements influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels.
inductance or capacitance together with transformers. Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency. The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). These valves or converters are well known since several years. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor valves or converters. the losses are increasing as well. Configurations of FACTS-Devices: 7 . Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs.2 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance.The left column in Figure 1. They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network.
• Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge demand fluctuations like industrial machines. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators.g. at the extreme a voltage collapse. The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude variations or even a voltage depression. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted. A rapidly operating Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive power required to control dynamic voltage oscillations under various system conditions and thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution stability. SVCs are also used 1. • Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. distribution and industrial networks are: • Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses. To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin b.1. SVC: Electrical loads both generate and absorb reactive power.2. To damp power oscillations c. nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to insufficient power quality. Almost half of the SVC and more than half of the STATCOMs are used for industrial applications.1. railway or underground train systems. metal melting plants.1. To reduce temporary over voltages 8 . The main applications in transmission. the reactive power balance in a grid varies as well. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality. Shunt Devices: The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. • Improvement of static or transient stability. In Transmission Systems a. 2. Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require SVCs or STATCOMs. Since the transmitted load varies considerably from one hour to another. To achieve effective voltage control In addition. • Compensation of Thyristor converters e. in conventional HVDC lines. Applications of the SVC systems in transmission systems: a.
In Traction Systems a. Air core reactors and high voltage AC capacitors are the reactive power elements used together with the Thyristor valves.b. The most important is the Thyristor valve. To reduce voltage variations and associated light flicker Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network conditions. To damp power oscillations in interconnected power systems 2. stack assemblies of series connected anti-parallel Thyristors to provide controllability. To improve power factor c. In HVDC systems a. To balance loads b. In addition an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude modulation. To improve voltage regulation 3.e. The step up connection of this equipment to the transmission voltage is achieved through a power transformer. i. In Arc Furnaces a. SVC installations consist of a number of building blocks. 9 . To damp sub synchronous resonances c. To provide reactive power to ac–dc converters 4.
1.1. By changing the firing angle of the thyristor controlling the reactor from 90° to 180°. the reactive power can be varied over the entire range from maximum lagging vars to leading vars that can be absorbed from the system by this compensator. The rating of the reactor is chosen larger than the rating of the capacitor by an amount to provide the maximum lagging vars that have to be absorbed from the system. The first commercial SVC was installed in 1972 for an electric arc furnace. Since then it is widely used and the most accepted FACTS-device. two or more FC (fixed capacitor) banks are connected to a TCR (thyristor controlled reactor) through a step-down transformer. On transmission level the first SVC was used in 1979. 2. 10 .1. SVC building blocks and voltage / current characteristic In principle the SVC consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC) and Thyristor Switched or Controlled Reactors (TSR / TCR). SVC Using TCR and FC: In this arrangement. The coordinated control of a combination of these branches varies the reactive power as shown in Figure. 2.Fig.1.
Fig. and other higher-order harmonics as a high-pass filter. Further losses are high due to the circulating current between the reactor and capacitor banks. SVC of the FC/TCR type: The main disadvantage of this configuration is the significant harmonics that will be generated because of the partial conduction of the large reactor under normal sinusoidal steadystate operating condition when the SVC is absorbing zero MVAr. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser 11 . Fig. seventh.3 loss characteristics of TSC–TCR.1.2. SVC Using TCR and FC 2. 2.2. The capacitor banks with the help of series reactors are tuned to filter fifth. These harmonics are filtered in the following manner. 2. Triplex harmonics are canceled by arranging the TCR and the secondary windings of the step-down transformer in delta connection.1.
2. Fig. or separate thyristor-switched overload reactors must be employed. SVC Using a TCR and TSC: This compensator overcomes two major shortcomings of the earlier compensators by reducing losses under operating conditions and better performance under large system disturbances. TCR must be designed for short-time overloading. In the 12 . In those situations where harmonics have to be reduced further. In view of the smaller rating of each capacitor bank. . SVC of combined TSC and TCR type When large disturbances occur in a power system due to load rejection.1. there is a possibility for large voltage transients because of oscillatory interaction between system and the SVC capacitor bank or the parallel.Comparison of the loss characteristics of TSC–TCR. a small amount of FCs tuned as filters may be connected in parallel with the TCR.4.3.1. the rating of the reactor bank will be 1/n times the maximum output of the SVC. The LC circuit of the SVC in the FC compensator. In applications requiring overload capability. TCR–FC compensators and synchronous condenser these SVCs do not have a short-time overload capability because the reactors are usually of the air-core type. thus reducing the harmonics generated by the reactor.2.
The advantage of a STATCOM is that the reactive power provision is independent from the actual voltage on the connection point. 2. This means. The next step in STATCOM development is the combination with energy storages on the DC-side. and hence the transients in the system can also be avoided. In the distributed energy sector the usage of Voltage Source Converters for grid interconnection is common practice today. oscillations can be avoided. A STATCOM is build with Thyristors with turn-off capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTs. but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the synchronous condenser in several ways. The capital cost of this SVC is higher than that of the earlier one due to the increased number of capacitor switches and increased control complexity. a lower investment cost and lower operating and maintenance costs. This can be seen in the diagram for the maximum currents being independent of the voltage in comparison to the SVC. that even during most severe contingencies.1. The STATCOM has a characteristic similar to the synchronous condenser.TSC–TCR scheme. The static line between the current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage. such as better dynamics. 13 .2. The performance for power quality and balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and reactive power. STATCOM: In 1999 the first SVC with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM (STATic COMpensator) went into operation. the STATCOM keeps its full capability. due to the flexibility of rapid switching of capacitor banks without appreciable disturbance to the power system.
2.1. and the instantaneous power entering a purely reactive device must be zero.e. no dc capacitor). Vs. STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic STATCOMs are based on Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) topology and utilize either Gate-Turn-off Thyristors (GTO) or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) devices. Ideally it is possible to construct a device based on circulating instantaneous power which has no energy storage device (i.Fig.1. then leading or capacitive VARS are produced. The reactive power in each phase is supplied by circulating the instantaneous real power between the phases. The STATCOM is a very fast acting. If the STATCOM voltage. If Vs is smaller then Es then lagging or inductive VARS are produced. 2.5. 14 . Es. (which is proportional to the dc bus voltage Vc) is larger than bus voltage. electronic equivalent of a synchronous condenser. 6 Pulses STATCOM: The three phases STATCOM makes use of the fact that on a three phase. steady state basis. 2. This is achieved by firing the GTO/diode switches in a manner that maintains the phase difference between the ac bus voltage ES and the STATCOM generated voltage VS. fundamental frequency.
These methods include the 15 . 6 Pulses STATCOM A practical STATCOM requires some amount of energy storage to accommodate harmonic power and ac system unbalances.2.6 equivalent circuit of STATCOM The 6 Pulse STATCOM using fundamental switching will of course produce the 6 N 1 harmonics. As an alternative. This approach allows for simpler transformer topologies at the expense of higher switching losses. Fig. STATCOM Equivalent Circuit Several different control techniques can be used for the firing control of the STATCOM.Fig. which turn on and off the GTO or IGBT switch more than once per cycle. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) techniques. when the instantaneous real power is non-zero.6. There are a variety of methods to decrease the harmonics. The maximum energy storage required for the STATCOM is much less than for a TCR/TSC type of SVC compensator of comparable rating. This approach will minimize switching losses.1. but will generally utilize more complex transformer topologies. Fundamental switching of the GTO/diode once per cycle can be used. 2. can be used. 2. 2.2.
Another possible approach for harmonic cancellation is a multi-level configuration which allows for more than one switching element per level and therefore more than one switching in each bridge arm. and allows for rapid readjustment of line power flow in response to various contingencies. 2. 2.2. and two secondary windings. a complete elimination of 5th and 7th harmonic current using series connection of star/star and star/delta transformers and a quasi 12 pulse method with a single star-star transformer. • Improvement of system damping resp. This staircase voltage can be controlled to eliminate harmonics. a phenomenon that involves an interaction between large thermal generating units and series compensated transmission systems. TCSC: Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in transmission systems. using control of firing angle to produce a 30 hase shift between the two 6 pulse p bridges. • Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations. Secondly it can overcome the problem of Sub Synchronous Resonance (SSR).basic 12 pulse configuration with parallel star / delta transformer connections. The TCSC's high speed switching capability provides a mechanism for controlling line power flow. Series Devices: Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices. This method can be extended to produce a 24 pulse and a 48 pulse STATCOM.2. The ac voltage derived has a staircase effect. • Avoidance of loop flows resp.1. thus eliminating harmonics even further. damping of oscillations. • Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power transmissions. which permits increased loading of existing transmission lines. power flow adjustments. dependent on the number of levels. The main applications are: • Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line. Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are interconnected. 16 . The TCSC also can regulate steady-state power flow within its rating limits.
The firing angle and the thermal limits of the Thyristors determine the boundaries of the operational diagram. including the Thyristor valve that is used to control the behavior of the main capacitor bank. Likewise the control and protection is located on ground potential together with other auxiliary systems. Figure shows the principle setup of a TCSC and its operational diagram.2. the TCSC resembles the conventional series capacitor.3.5-2 Hz) power oscillations which often arise between areas in a large interconnected power network.1. Advantages • • • • Continuous control of desired compensation level Direct smooth control of power flow within the network Improved capacitor bank protection Local mitigation of sub synchronous resonance (SSR). All the power equipment is located on an isolated steel platform. 2. Dynamic Power Flow Controller(DFC) A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC).From a principal technology point of view. 2.7.2. Fig. TCSC circuit and operation diagram 2. These oscillations are due to the dynamics of inter area power transfer and often exhibit poor damping when the aggregate power transfer over a corridor is high relative to the transmission strength. 17 .3. The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series compensation. This permits higher levels of compensation in networks where interactions with turbine-generator torsional vibrations or with other control or measuring systems are of concern. Shunt And Series Devices 2. • Damping of electromechanical (0.
8. The Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components: • A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) • Series-connected Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors (TSC / TSR) • A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC). (This is optional depending on the system reactive power requirements) Fig. in general. a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added. The operation of a DFC is based on the following rules: • TSC / TSR are switched when a fast response is required. the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous control as well. 2. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of overload and other conditions. • The relieve of overload and work in stressed situations is handled by the TSC / TSR. If a higher power flow resolution is needed.19. The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics. a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR. principle configuration of DFC Based on the system requirements. However. 18 .A functional single line diagram of the Dynamic Flow Controller is shown in Figure 1.
20. The controllable reactance will inject a voltage in quadrature with the throughput current. Operational diagram of a DFC Operation in the first and third quadrants corresponds to reduction of power through the DFC. influence on reactive power balance and effectiveness at high/low loading the two parts of the series voltage has quite different characteristics. Assuming that the power flow has a load factor close to one.• The switching of the PST tap-changer should be minimized particularly for the currents higher than normal loading. • The total reactive power consumption of the device can be optimized by the operation of the MSC.9. In order to visualize the steady state operating range of the DFC. The PST (assuming a quadrature booster) will inject a voltage in quadrature with the node voltage. tap changer and the switched capacities and reactors. The overall control objective in steady state would be to control the distribution of power flow between the branch with the DFC and the parallel path. whereas operation in the second and fourth quadrants corresponds to increasing the power 19 . the two parts of the series voltage will be close to collinear. in terms of speed of control. Fig. This control is accomplished by control of the injected series voltage. However. 2. we assume an inductance in parallel representing parallel transmission paths. The steady state control range for loadings up to rated current is illustrated in Figure 1. where the x-axis corresponds to the throughput current and the y-axis corresponds to the injected series voltage.
they will not contribute to the series voltage.flow through the DFC. 20 . the capacitive step is approximately as large as the short circuit reactance of the PST. If more inductance is switched in and/or the tap is increased. Next. The slope of these arrows depends on the size of the parallel reactance. the operating range will be limited by the line corresponding to maximum tap and the capacitive step being switched in (and the inductive steps by-passed). it will not matter whether the TSC / TSR steps are in or out.2. moving into the second quadrant. Starting at rated current (2 kA) the short circuit reactance by itself provides an injected voltage (approximately 20 kV in this case). 2. assuming maximum tap and inductance. The operating point moves along lines parallel to the arrows in the figure. the series voltage at zero current corresponds to rated PST series voltage.3. Consequently. to changing loading of the system) the series voltage will decrease. Now. if the throughput current decreases (due e. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously. The slope of the line passing through the origin (at which the tap is at zero and TSC / TSR are bypassed) depends on the short circuit reactance of the PST. the series voltage increases and the current through the DFC decreases (and the flow on parallel branches increases). Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC): The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation. giving an almost constant maximum voltage in the second quadrant. At zero current. In this case. The maximum series voltage in the first quadrant is obtained when all inductive steps are switched in and the tap is at its maximum.g.
2. The DC-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage. provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow. and connected to the power system through coupling transformers. Principle configuration of an UPFC The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer. 2. A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig. The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge. One VSI is connected to in shunt to the transmission system via a shunt transformer. as shown in Figure 1. 21 .2.Fig. which limits the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.11. Due to the high efforts for the Voltage Source Converters and the protection. This setup.3. an UPFC is getting quite expensive. which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor.10. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UPFC The basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSIs) sharing a common dc storage capacitor. 2. while the other one is connected in series through a series transformer.21.1.
and hence the power low on the transmission line. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage. So in that case.11. this inverter will exchange active and reactive power with the line. the net real power absorbed from the line by the UPFC is equal only to the losses of the inverters and their transformers. the series inverter is operating as SSSC that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the current flow. of controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to control active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. the shunt inverter is operating in such a way to inject a controllable current. The shunt inverter is operated in such a way as to demand this dc terminal power (positive or negative) from the line keeping the voltage across the storage capacitor Vdc constant. and the active power is transmitted to the dc terminals. So. UPFC The series inverter is controlled to inject a symmetrical three phase voltage system (Vse). Ish into the transmission line. the shunt inverter is operating as a STATCOM that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the voltage magnitude at the connection point. The UPFC has many possible operating modes. So. The reactive power is electronically provided by the series inverter. Instead. 2. is also required.Fig. 22 . In particular. The shunt inverter control translates the var reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current. The remaining capacity of the shunt inverter can be used to exchange reactive power with the line so to provide a voltage regulation at the connection point. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes: VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. The two VSI’s can work independently of each other by separating the dc side. Vdc.
For this mode of control. Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. 3.Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value. Conventionally. Static Var Compensators (SVCs) have been used in conjunction with passive filters at the distribution level for reactive power compensation and mitigation of power quality problems. higher passive element count that increases size and losses. Line Impedance Emulation mode: The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes. D-STATCOM 3. and slower response make them inapt for the modern day distribution requirement. a controller which continuously monitors the load voltages and currents to determine the right amount of compensation required by the system and the less response time should be a viable 23 .1. their limited bandwidth. which can compensate three phase loads in a minimum of two cycles. voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. reactive power is the main cause of increasing distribution system losses and various power quality problems. Though SVCs are very effective system controllers used to provide reactive power compensation at the transmission level. Another compensating system has been proposed by . employing a combination of SVC and active power filter. Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways. INTRODUCTION In power distribution networks. Thus.
Prior to the type of control algorithm incorporated. STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support. 24 . Normally. in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. for reactive power compensation. less heat dissipation and less cost of the capacitor. with reduced foot print and weight. considering indirect decoupled current control and regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage with hysteresis current control. either a capacitor or an inductor respectively. A dynamic simulation model of the DSTATCOM has been developed for various control algorithms in Matlab/SimPower System environment. to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage. the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement. Under the former. with their merits and demerits. sharing many similar concepts with that of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) used at the transmission level. in addition to passive storage elements. Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has the capacity to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks by providing precise control and fast response during transient and steady state. performance with varying linear/nonlinear load. DC link voltage variation and switching frequency. a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the control techniques for voltage source converter based DSTATCOM. At the transmission level.measurement and signal conditioning requirement. and voltage support and are recently being incorporated to control a DSTATCOM employed at the distribution end. The first two schemes have been successfully implemented for STATCOM control at the transmission level. voltage source converters are preferred due to their smaller size. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device. The two converter configurations are voltage source converter or current source converter. A DSTATCOM is basically a converter based distribution flexible AC transmission controller. total harmonic distortion (THD). phase shift control is compared with the latter. The paper briefly describes the salient features of each strategy. The latter. as it significantly affects the performance of a DSTATCOM. can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network. DSTATCOM. The following indices are considered for comparison . the choice of converter configuration is an important criterion. Additionally. broadly classified into voltage control DSTATCOM and current control DSTATCOM. while a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for dynamic compensation. The paper also emphasizes the choice of current control technique. as compared to an inductor for the same rating .alternative. as per the IEEE-519 standard limits.
1 Fig. which could be a filter inductance or the leakage inductance of the coupling transformer. 25 .3. or could be precharged by the converter itself.2. which carries the input ripple current of the converter and is the main reactive energy storage element. Basic Principle of DSTATCOM A DSTATCOM is a controlled reactive source. This capacitor could be charged by a battery source. The quantity of reactive power flow is proportional to the difference in the two voltages. the DSTATCOM is in the capacitive mode of operation and vice versa.3. as shown in Fig.1. The operating principles of a DSTATCOM are based on the exact equivalence of the conventional rotating synchronous compensator. no reactive power is delivered to the system. The AC terminals of the VSC are connected to the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) through an inductance. which includes a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and a DC link capacitor connected in shunt. capable of generating and/or absorbing reactive power. If the output voltage is greater than the AC terminal voltage. Block diagram of D-STATCOM The DC side of the converter is connected to a DC capacitor. If the output voltage of the VSC is equal to the AC terminal voltage. 3.
flexible and easy implementation are the main objectives of any compensation strategy. Control Strategies Satisfactory performance. 3. The generation of proper pulse width modulation (PWM) firing is the most important part of DSTATCOM control and it has a great impact on its compensation objectives. whereas. 3. for power factor correction. For a DSTATCOM used for voltage regulation at the PCC.2 shows the schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control. the supply current should be in phase with the supply voltages. the compensation should be such that the supply currents should lead the supply voltages. The control strategies studied in this paper are applied with a view to studying the performance of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation. Since a DSTATCOM shares many concepts with 26 . transient as well as steady state performance. 3. The control strategies of a DSTATCOM are mainly implemented in the following steps: • • • Measurements of system variables and signal conditioning Extraction of reference compensating signals Generation of firing angles for switching devices Fig. fast response. taking into consideration the above steps.It is to be noted that voltage regulation at PCC and power factor correction cannot be achieved simultaneously.3.2 Schematic diagram of DSTATCOM control Fig.
3 phase shift control 27 . Indirect decoupled current control 3. rather than fundamental frequency switching (FFS) methods.3. incorporating PWM switching. This paper is an attempt to compare the following schemes of a DSTATCOM for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation based on: 1. 3. Phase shift control 2. a few control techniques have been directly implemented to a DSTATCOM. Phase Shift Control Fig. Regulation of AC bus and DC link voltage The performance of DSTATCOM with different control schemes have been studied through digital simulations for common system parameters. 3. as given in the Appendix.1.that of a STATCOM at the transmission level. A PWM based distribution static compensator offers faster response and capability for harmonic elimination.
28 .3. In this method. to produce the desired synchronizing signal required to operate the PWM generator. This angle is summed with the phase angle of the balanced supply voltages. the DC voltage is maintained constant. using a separate battery source. Sinusoidal PWM technique is used with constant switching frequency. 3. which generates the angle for deciding the necessary phase shift between the output voltage of the VSC and the AC terminal voltage.The schematic diagram of phase shift control is shown in Fig. assumed to be equally spaced at 120 degrees. The error signal obtained by comparing the measured system rms voltage and the reference voltage is fed to a proportional integral (PI) controller. whereas no reactive power measurements are required . In this scheme. the compensation is achieved by the measuring of the rms voltage at the load point.
No harmonic suppression and partial compensation is achieved in case of nonlinear loads.5a and Fig 3. Though this strategy is easy to implement. is shown in Fig 3. • • 29 . before and after compensation. is robust and can provide partial reactive power compensation without harmonic suppression.Fig 3.34%).5b. It is observed that the source current and the source voltage are in phase. complete compensation is not achieved in case of nonlinear load (source current THD 24. correcting the power factor of the system in case of a linearly varying load.4a and Fig 3. it has the following major disadvantages: • The controller does not use a self supporting DC bus and thus requires a very large DC source to pre charge the capacitor. The frequency spectrum of the source current for a nonlinear load. whereas.4b show the simulation results obtained using phase shift control for reactive power compensation and harmonic mitigation for a balanced varying linear load and for a non linear load respectively. Balanced source supply as rms voltage is assumed and the supply phase angle are calculated over the fundamental only.
Indirect Decoupled Current Control This scheme is based on the governing equations of advanced static var compensator.2. The control scheme is based on the transformation of the three phase system to a synchronously rotating frame. Fig 3. using Park's transformation 31 . It requires the measurement of instantaneous values of three phase line voltages and current.3.3.6 shows the block diagram representation of the control scheme.
when the d axis is made to lie on the space vector of the system voltage. where current error compensation is achieved indirectly through voltage modulation. Using the definition of the instantaneous reactive power theory for a balanced three phase three wire system. the real (p) and the reactive power (q) injected into the system by the DSTATCOM can be expressed under the dqO reference frame as: Since v q = 0. The compensation is achieved by the control of id and iq. The instantaneous three phase line currents measured are transformed by abc to dqO transformation. so that fixed switching frequency is achieved.6. Indirect Decoupled Current Control Subsequently. The instantaneous id reference and the instantaneous i q reference are obtained by the regulation 32 . This is an indirect current control method. its quadrature component (v q) becomes zero.Fig 3. id and iq completely describe the instantaneous value of real and reactive powers produced by the DSTATCOM. when the system voltage remains constant. in order to incorporate simple open loop sine PWM modulators.
It is observed from the figure that the transient current reaches a very high value before reaching steady state. Also. The three line currents are transformed to dqO reference frame and then compared with the references obtained from the outer loop. due to which the converter switches are less stressed. the switching logic of the other two phases 'b' and 'c' are formulated as S b and S c .Thus.8a and Fig 8b. another advantage of 33 . S a is the switching logic for the inverter leg corresponding to phase 'a'. The modulating signals Ud and Uq are transformed back to the abc frame. the main advantage of this scheme is that it incorporates a self supporting DC bus and the value of the reference DC link voltage is less.21%. which is common for all the three phases.of the DC voltage and the measured AC terminal voltage measured. The switching logic for the phase 4 a' is formulated as: Where v c t is the instantaneous value of triangular carrier waveform and vc a is the transformed modulating signal. The modulating signals for the rotating frame controller are given by: Where K p i. KQ are the gains of the two current PI controllers respectively.7a and Fig 7b show the DSTATCOM response for a linearly varying and nonlinear load. using PI controllers.6. the quadrature reference current i q is zero. as compared to phase shift control. Similarly. as shown in Fig 3. K P 2. instantaneous current tracking control is achieved using four PI regulators. so as to operate in the abc_to_dqO reference frame. Fig 3. This controller operates in conjunction with the open loop sine PWM generator. as shown in the Fig 3. Kn. During unity power factor operation for linear nonlinear loads. The inner loop of the DSTATCOM controller consists of a rotating frame current controller. Though complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved and the THD in case of nonlinear load is reduced to 13. A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is used to synchronize the control loop to the AC supply. The modulating signal output of each phase is compared with a triangular carrier.
34 .this scheme is that it operates with fixed switching frequency. independent of the load. which provides a definite harmonic spectrum.
7 35 . 3.Fig.
Regulation of AC Bus and DC Link Voltage Three phase AC supply voltages and DC link voltage are sensed and fed to two PI controllers. making the operation complex. Quadrature voltage unit vectors yields the respective component of the reference currents.9. Multiplication of these amplitudes with the in phase and Fig. but not below the IEEE-519 standards. Harmonic suppression is significantly achieved. 3. the supply current shoots to a very high value 3. including complex transformations.3. 3. These reference currents and the sensed line currents are fed to a hysteresis controller. which is used for tracking control. the quadrature Component of the reference current is made zero. Block diagram using regulation of AC/DC link voltage scheme.Fig.8 The disadvantages of this scheme are: • Phase Locked Loop gives erroneous results in case of distorted mains and is applicable for only three phase systems. • • • During transient condition. the outputs of which decide the amplitude of reactive and active current to be generated by the DSTATCOM . When applying the algorithm for power factor correction an harmonic elimination. Bandwidth is restricted due to the use of sine PWM generator. It requires intensive computation. Figure 9 shows the block diagram of the implemented scheme.3. This 36 .
in addition to power factor correction and dynamic voltage regulation. 37 . well below the IEEE-519 standard for harmonic suppression. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. • The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits. which is robust and simple. In case of nonlinear load. the THD of the source current is 2. which results in increased switching losses. the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is ON and the lower switch is OFF.hysteresis controller adds a hysteresis band +/−h around the calculated reference current. The tracking becomes better if the hysteresis band is narrower. with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability. The frequency spectrum of the load current. the choice of hysteresis band should be a compromise between tracking error and inverter losses . If isa<isa-ref+h). before and after compensation. The switching is obtained as given below: If isa>(isa_ref+h). is shown in Figure 11 a and b. This compensation scheme is multifunctional and can also be effectively used for load unbalancing and harmonic suppression. harmonic suppression and load balancing. This method of tracking current control is simple and robust and it exhibits an automatic current limiting characteristic.01%. the upper switch of inverter leg corresponding to phase ‘a’ is OFF and the lower switch is ON. Therefore. The advantages of this scheme are: • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller. The simulated results of the above control scheme are shown in Figure 10a and b. but the switching frequency is increased. The transient period is very short and complete reactive power compensation and power factor correction is achieved in case of both linear/nonlinear loads.
will require average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW – almost double the total average demand three years ago. container crane performance requirements continue to increase at an astounding rate. Although these features and their indirectly related computer based enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation. and initial investment in power distribution systems to support new crane installations. To quote the utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my home utility billing: ‘Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and business practice which saves you money. 4. POWER QUALITY 4. like many other industry segments. SCR converter crane drive retrofits and the large AC and DC drives needed to power and control these cranes will increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very near future. and levels of automation that can be achieved. is often enamored by the bells and whistles. the power issues which degrade power quality include: • Power Factor • Harmonic Distortion • Voltage Transients • Voltage Sags or Dips • Voltage Swells 38 .’ As we are all aware. and conserves our natural resources. reduces emissions from generating plants. high speed performance.4. Manifests itself as an economic burden to the user. or produces negative impacts on the environment.” When applied to the container crane industry. Next generation container cranes. crane reliability. The rapid increase in power demand levels. colorful diagnostic displays. we shall define power quality problems as: “Any power problem that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment. Power quality is the mortar which bonds the Foundation blocks. already in the bidding process. INTRODUCTION The contemporary container crane industry. Power quality also affects terminal operating economics. we must not forget the foundation upon which we are building.2POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS For the purpose of this article. an increase in container crane population.1. our environment.
and static power conversion became the way of life. crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during competitive bidding for new cranes. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC drives will be highest when the drives are operating at slow speeds. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods. The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances varies with the speed of the drive. it most likely will not be delivered. power demands per crane increased. they do represent a good return on investment.Power Quality Improvement: 39 . Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or engine-alternator power source. Power factor was reasonable. Whereas SCR phase control creates the desirable average power factor. did power quality issues begin to emerge. and harmonic current injection was minimal. Above base speed. Even today. Although the solutions are not free. container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and land containers. 4. the power factor essentially remains constant. Unfortunately. Before the advent of solid-state power supplies. However. Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the potential issues. increasing to its maximum value when the SCR’s are phased on to produce rated or base speed. Not until the crane Population multiplied.3. no one was really prepared. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can ultimately result in detrimental effects on the Life of sensitive electronic equipment or even intermittent malfunction. if power quality is not specified. In addition. in most cases.The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes are significant contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion. the power quality issue is intentionally or unintentionally ignored. AC drive voltage chopping. and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems with Container cranes. either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. DC SCR drives operate at less than this. creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3 to 4 times the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of the drives. Power quality problem solutions are available. line notching occurs when SCR’s commutate.
• Harmonic filtering.Power quality can be improved through: • Power factor correction. do not pay the utility billings. Economic Impact 40 . Each of these concerns is explored in the following paragraphs. Also. and affects other consumers served by the same utility service. or consider it someone else’s concern. If this article accomplishes nothing else. the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully aware of the potential power quality issues. • Transient voltage surge suppression. 4. but consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the terminal 4. • Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation. • Special line notch filtering. In most cases.4THE BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY Power quality in the container terminal environment impacts the economics of the terminal operation. • Proper earthing systems.1. container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic filtering.4. we would hope to provide that awareness. As a result. affects reliability of the terminal equipment. Early in the process of preparing the crane specification: • Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that must be satisfied. if any. In many cases. those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes may not be cognizant of such issues. many of those specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria. • Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that can be expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific project.
however. If the power factor falls below a fixed limit value over a demand period. If The power factor criteria set forth in the service contract are not met. or specifying new container crane equipment. the user may be penalized. the customer may be required to furnish. their service contract with the terminal reads as follows: ‘The average power factor under operating conditions of customer’s load at the point where service is metered shall be not less than 85%. does not reflect power factor penalties in their monthly billings. One utility company. If below 85%. The customer shall ensure that no excessive harmonics or transients are introduced on to the [utility] system.The economic impact of power quality is the foremost incentive to container terminal operators. This may require special power conditioning equipment or filters. their service contract with the Port may still require that a minimum power factor over a defined demand period be met. however. Power Factor Penalties Many utility companies invoke penalties for low power factor on monthly billings. Economic impact can be significant and manifest itself in several ways: a. A number of utility companies servicing container terminal equipment do not yet invoke power factor penalties. Other utility companies monitor kVAR demands and calculate power factor. should be aware of these requirements. a penalty is billed in the form of an adjustment to the peak demand charges. The Port or terminal operations personnel. Methods of metering and calculating power factor penalties vary from one utility company to the next. The IEEE Std. they do reserve the right to monitor the Port service at any time. 519-1992 is used as a guide in Determining appropriate design requirements. or required to take corrective actions at the user’s expense. 41 . There is no industry standard followed by utility companies. Some utility companies actually meter kVAR usage and establish a fixed rate times the number of kVAR-hours consumed. install and maintain at its expense corrective apparatus which will increase the Power factor of the entire installation to not less than 85%. Utility deregulation will most likely force utilities to enforce requirements such as the example above. who are responsible for maintaining container cranes. The utility company may not continuously monitor power factor or kVAR usage and reflect them in the monthly utility billings. which supplies power service to several east coast container terminals in the USA. However.
These losses are not visible as a separate item on your monthly utility billing.Terminal operators who do not deal with penalty issues today may be faced with some rather severe penalties in the future. Based on the typical demands of today’s high speed container cranes. Container cranes are one of the most significant users of power in the terminal. not only result in possible power factor penalties. Thus cost of the equipment is directly related to the total kVA demand. specialized. correction of power factor alone on a typical state of the art quay crane can result in a reduction of system losses that converts to a 6 to 10% reduction in the monthly utility billing. In the absence of power quality corrective equipment. this is a significant annual saving in the cost of operation. feeder cable copper sizes are larger. but also increase the power losses in the distribution system. as well as modification of systems for terminal capacity upgrades. A sound. 42 . cable reel trailing cables. switchgear current ratings must be higher. feeder cables. Since container cranes with DC. high and medium voltage equipment. Consequently. As the relationship above indicates. Transformers. transformers are larger. Power Service Initial Capital Investments The power distribution system design and installation for new terminals. Container cranes are significant contributors to harmonic currents and low power factor. the total kVA demand is significantly larger than would be the case if power factor correction equipment were supplied on board each crane or at some common bus location in the terminal. SCR drives operate at relatively low power factor. b. For most of the larger terminals. future terminal growth plan should include contingencies for addressing the possible economic impact of utility deregulation. but you pay for them each month. collector bars. etc. c. the cost of the initial power distribution system equipment for a system which does not address power quality will most likely be higher than the same system which includes power quality equipment. etc. a lower power factor demands higher kVA for the same kW load. collector system and cable reel cables must be larger. involves high cost. 6 pulse. i. must be sized based on the kVA demand.e. switchgear. kVA demand is inversely proportional to the overall power factor. System Losses Harmonic currents and low power factor created by nonlinear loads.
Equipment Reliability Poor power quality can affect machine or equipment reliability and reduce the life of components. and line notch ringing can be mitigated using specially designed filters. The effects of harmonic distortion. Harmonics affect power factor. Harmonics. voltage transients can induce harmonics. harmonic currents. 4. 4. Power quality corrective actions may be dictated due to inadequacy of existing power distribution systems to which new or relocated cranes are to be connected. In other words.4. the same phenomena which create harmonic current injection in DC SCR Variable speed drives are responsible for poor power factor.4. and voltage system sags and swells are all power quality problems and are all interdependent. Power System Adequacy When considering the installation of additional cranes to an existing power distribution system. addition of power quality equipment may render a workable scenario on an existing power distribution system. Reduction in system losses and lower demands equate to a reduction in the consumption of our natural nm resources and reduction in power plant emissions.2.3. Environment No issue might be as important as the effect of power quality on our environment. which would otherwise be inadequate to support additional cranes without high risk of problems. Harmonics 43 . voltage transients. and dynamically varying power factor of the same drives can create voltage sags and swells.4. It is our responsibility as occupants of this planet to encourage conservation of our natural resources and support measures which improve our air quality 5.4.4. a power system analysis should be completed to determine the adequacy of the system to support additional crane loads.
5. This function occurs in many natural phenomena. or cycles per second. the fundamental frequency. the second harmonic is 2* 50 or 100Hz. musicians have been aware of such since the invention of the first string or woodwind instrument. In the North America. Some references refer to “clean” or “pure” power as those without any harmonics. Harmonics have been around for a long time and will continue to do so. the 2nd harmonic on a 60 Hz system is 2*60 or 120 Hz. which some power quality analyzers provide. and then back to zero. Electrical generators try to produce electric power where the voltage waveform has only one frequency associated with it. In fact. The rate at which these changes occur is the trigometric function called a sine wave. 300Hz is the 5th harmonic in a 60 Hz system. Harmonics (called “overtones” in music) are responsible for what makes a trumpet sound like a trumpet. or the way a string on a voilin vibrates when plucked. 44 . At 50Hz.1. At 60 Hz.1Introduction: The typical definition for a harmonic is “a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or\ quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. such as the speed of a pendulum as it swings back and forth. Aircraft often uses 400 Hz as the fundamental frequency. depending on the fundamental frequency. But such clean waveforms typically only exist in a laboratory. as shown in figure 1. then decreases to zero. this means that sixty times a second. Fig 5. For example. this frequency is 60 Hz. or the 6th harmonic in a 50 Hz system.” . and a clarinet like a clarinet. In European countries and other parts of the world. the voltage waveform increases to a maximum positive value. further decreasing to a maximum negative value. this frequency is usually 50 Hz. Figure 2 shows how a signal with two harmonics would appear on an oscilloscope-type display. Sine wave The frequency of the harmonics is different.
180. For example. which are frequency values less than the fundamental frequency value. However. the FFT cannot directly see the 200 Hz. The frequency values must not change during the measurement period. So more compatible processes. the process of melting metal in an electric arc furnace can result large currents that are comprised of the fundamental . if a voltage waveform is comprised of 60 Hz and 200 Hz signals. inter harmonic. 18 V at the 3rd harmonic. or DFT for Discrete Fourier Transform. 5. It only knows 60. which are often called “bins”. and sub harmonic frequencies being drawn from the electric power grid. a number of mathematical methods were developed. and usually effect the voltage waveform. These in-between frequencies are called “inter harmonics”. 120. These methods only work properly if the signal is composed of only the fundamental and harmonic frequencies in a certain frequency range (called the Nyquist frequency. called the FFT for Fast Fourier transform. Failure of these rules to be maintained can result in mis-information. Fundamental with two harmonics In order to be able to analyze complex signals that have many different frequencies present. and 12 V at the 4th harmonic. when it really should have been 30 V at 200 Hz. These levels can be quite high during the melt-down phase. and partially in the 240 Hz bin. duplicating the mathematical steps required in a microprocessor or computer-based instrument is quite difficult.. The result would be that the energy of the 200 Hz signal would appear partially in the 180Hz bin. which is onehalf of the sampling frequency).Effects of harmonics: 45 . 240..2.2. For example.. An FFT-based processer could show a voltage value of 115V at 60 Hz. There is also a special category of inter harmonics.Fig 5.. One of the more popular is called the Fourier Transform. called sub-harmonics. are used.
3. including induction disc W-hr meters and averaging type current meters. and may effect facilities on the same system which are more susceptible. Like other power quality phenomena. it depends on the “stiffness” of the power distribution system and the susceptibility of the equipment. This harmonic pollution is often carried back onto the electric utility distribution system.Incorrect reading meters. Additive Third Harmonics . as shown in Figure 3. As shown below.The presence of harmonics does not mean that the factory or office cannot run properly. one factory may be the source of high harmonics but able to run properly. Some typical types of equipment susceptible to harmonic pollution include: . In addition. Fig 5. there are a number of different types of equipment that can have mis operations or failures due to high harmonic voltage and/or current levels. resulting in overheated neutrals. 46 . This puts the harmonics from each of the three phase legs “in-phase” with each other in the neutral. This is because the harmonic number multiplied by the 120 degree phase shift between phases is a integer multiple of 360 degrees.Excessive neutral current. The odd triplen harmonics in three phase wye circuits are actually additive in the neutral.
. 9th. negative sequence voltages on motors and generators..). . This means that the voltage at that particular frequency tries to rotate the motor forward.) or zero (3rd. This is also true for solenoid coils and lighting ballasts.Nuisance operation of protective devices.Zero.3..Reduced true PF. and just 0. backward. ... .5% variation in the voltage is noticeable with some types of lighting. Some type of losses goes up as the square of harmonic value (such as skin effect and eddy current losses).. 8th.Causes 47 . 4th.If there are voltage sub harmonics in the range of 1-30Hz. especially if controls incorporate zero-crossing sensing circuits.Overheated transformers. This is especially true at 8... including false tripping of relays and failure of a UPS to transfer properly.Blown-fuses on PF correction caps.) sequencing values. or neither (just heats up the motor). respectively. . due to high voltage and currents from resonance with line impedance. 7th.8Hz. especially delta windings where triplen harmonics generated on the load side of a delta-wye transformer will circulate in the primary side. the effect on lighting is called flicker. In a balanced system...Bearing failure from shaft currents through un insulated bearings of electric motors. where PF= Watts/VA. 6th.Mis-operation or failure of electronic equipment . 5th. There is also heating from increased losses as in a transformer.  5. voltage harmonics can either be positive (fundamental. negative (2nd. Harmonic Sequencing Values in Balanced Systems . where the human eye is most sensitive. Table 1.
we will concentrate on those types of sources. this is not a pure sinusoidal waveform with only a 60 Hz frequency component. weight and cost. based on the firing scheme. A typical such converter is the switching-type power supplies found in most personal computers and peripheral equipment. Some loads cause the voltage and current waveforms to lose this pure sine wave appearance and become distorted. These devices take AC power and convert it to another form. where the voltage value on the cap at any time depends on how much energy is being taken out by the rest of the power supply. the large increase of this type of equipment over the past fifteen years is largely responsible for the increased attention to harmonics. such as printers. The firing scheme refers to the controlling mechanism that determines how and when current is conducted. This results in a current waveform as shown in Figure 5. Obviously. 48 . When the input voltage value is higher than voltage on the capacitor. One major variation is the phase angle at which conduction begins and ends. The rectifier consists of semi-conductor devices (such as diodes) that only conduct current in one direction. the diode will conduct current through it. While they offer many benefits in size. Since this article is about harmonics. In order to do so. The AC voltage is converted into a DC voltage. Figure shows below how a switching-type power supply works. These devices feed current into a capacitor. and harmonic spectrum in Figure 6.”  These are often called static power converters. sometimes back to AC power at the same or different frequency.How this electricity is used by the different type of loads can have an effect on “purity” of the voltage waveform. depending on the type of load and system impedances. This distortion may consist of predominately harmonics. the voltage on the one end must be greater than the other end. which is further converted into other voltages that the equipment needs to run. “The main sources of harmonic current are at present the phase angle controlled rectifiers and inverters.
Harmonic Spectrum of Current Waveform Shown in Fig 5. the waveform would only have every other current pulse.5.5.4. 49 . and the harmonic spectrum would be different.Fig 5. Current Waveform Fig 5. as shown in Fig 5.4 If the rectifier had only been a half wave rectifier.
The harmonics during this period varies over time. and high voltage DC transmission employ large power converters. like electric arc furnaces. This occurs each cycle as the voltage waveform goes through the sine waveform. When the semiconductor device is suppose to turn-off. When transformers are first energized.Fluorescent lights can be the source of harmonics. effectively shorting one phase to the other and resulting in large current transients. It also happens under “forced” commutation conditions. as they operate somewhat like a switching power supply. Table 2. the current drawn is different from the steady state condition. where the voltage that was larger on the anode side compared to the cathode is now the opposite. Medium power converters are used for motor control in manufacturing and railroad applications. where the semi-conductor device has a “gate”-type control mechanism built in to it. and then increase 50 . and include such equipment as ASDs (adjustable speed drives) and VFDs (variable frequency drives). Some harmonics have zero value for part of the time. This commutation period is a time when two semiconductor devices are both conducting current at the same time. it does not do so abruptly. but can result in current harmonic distortion levels over 30%. This is caused by the inrush of the magnetizing current. in the 2-20MVA rating. (See Table 3) As previously mentioned. the third harmonic current from each phase in a four-wire wye or star system will be additive in the neutral. Metal reduction operations. AC voltage regulators for light dimmers and small induction motors adjust the phase angle or point on the wave where conduction occurs. Sample of Harmonic Values for Fluorescent lighting  Low power. This happens under “naturally” commutated conditions. instead of cancelling out Some of the newer electronic ballasts have very significant harmonic problems. This type of 3-phase equipment may also cause other types of power quality problems. as the ballasts are non-linear inductors. The third harmonic is the predominate harmonic in this case.
The phase voltages and currents. as will overvoltage saturation of a transformer. as different loads are turned on and off within the facility or in other facilities on the same electric utility distribution system. as well as the neutral-to-ground voltage and neutral current should be monitored.4. harmonic values will often change during the day. This is true for harmonic values as well. the search can begin at the equipment effected by the problem or at the point-of-common-coupling (PCC). indicating the presence of non-linear loads in the facility. winding impedance or input voltage on each leg are not equal) will cause harmonics. where possible. where the utility service meets the building distribution system.for a while before returning to zero. If the source harmonic impedance is very low (often referred to as a “stiff” system) then the harmonic currents will result in lower harmonic voltages than if the source impedance were high (such as found with some types of isolation transformers). An unbalanced transformer (where either the output current. However. If only one piece of equipment is effected (or suspected). Where to look for them Wherever the aforementioned equipment is used. which can record the harmonic values over a period of time. which includes all of the wiring and transformers back to the source of the electricity. 51 . 5. If the source is suspected to be from the utility service side (such is the case when there is a neighboring factory that is known to generate high harmonics).How do you find harmonics Hand-held harmonic meters can be useful tools for making spot checks for known harmonic problems. and the source impedance. The amount of voltage harmonics will often depend on the amount of harmonic currents being drawn by the load. This requires the use of a harmonic monitor or power quality monitor with harmonic capabilities (such as shown in Figure 8). or detecting marginal systems. one can suspect that harmonics are present. it is often easier to start the monitoring process there. Monitoring the neutral will often show a high 3rd harmonic value. Ohm’s Law says that Voltage equals Current multiplied by Impedance. Like any power quality investigation. This will aid in pinpointing problems. then monitoring usually begins at the PCC.
3. 1/9.). 1/5.) and p is the number of pulses in the circuit. Table 3. when the plant equipment is restarted after being off over the weekend. then a business cycle would be eight hours. or a Saturday.. 1/7. as different operations take place on a Monday. seven days a week. Certain types of loads also generate typical harmonic spectrum signatures that can point the investigator towards the source.Fig 5. n is any integer (1. Typical Harmonics Found for Different Converters..2.6. then on a Wednesday. For example. a business cycle is one week. More typically. The general equation is h = ( n * p ) +/.1. Table 4 shows examples of such... and the magnitude decreases as the ration of 1/h (1/3. 52 . where h is the harmonic number. if a plant runs three identical shifts. monitoring will last for one business cycle. A business cycle is how long it takes for the normal operation of the plant to repeat itself.. when only a Skelton crew may be working. This is related to the number of pulses. Power Quality Monitor with Harmonic Analysis Typically. or paths of conduction.
The harmonic limits for current depend on the ratio of Short Circuit Current (SCC) at PCC (or how stiff it is) to average Load Current of maximum demand over 1 year. and increases with larger ratios. This results in only odd harmonic values being present. Current Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 53 . which mean that the positive half of the waveform looks like a mirror image of the negative half. Some power quality harmonic monitors will automatically calculate these values. ANSI/IEEE C57. Early detection of this condition in a UPS system can prevent a complete failure when the load is switched onto back-up power.110 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Compatibility When Supplying No sinusoidal Load Currents is a useful document for determining how much a transformer should be derated from its nameplate rating when operating in the presence of harmonics. To determine what is normal or acceptable levels.5. Note how the limit decreases at the higher harmonic values. Even harmonics will disrupt this half-wave symmetry. as illustrated in Table 5. The presence of these even harmonics should cause the investigator to suspect there is a half-wave rectifier on the circuit. IEEE 519-1992 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems provides guidelines from determining what acceptable limits are. Table 4. Effects of harmonics Most electrical loads (except half-wave rectifiers) produce symmetrical current waveforms.5. called K-factor and TDF (transformer dereading factor). There are two parameters typically used. This also results from a full wave rectifier when one side of the rectifier has blown or damaged components. a number of standards have been developed by various organizations.
in accordance with industry standards from IEEE. as shown in Table 6. 54 . the voltage level of the system is used to determine the limits. more customers will be effective. Table 5. it may now be necessary to run a second neutral wire that is the same size as the phase conductors. which can exhibit high impedance values. Neutral conductors should be properly sized according to the latest NEC-1996 requirements covering such. Formerly known as the 555-2 standard for appliances of less than 16 A. Isolating harmonic pollution devices on separate circuits with or without the use of harmonic filters are typical ways of mitigating the effects of such. This is particularly important with some modular office partition-type walls. can eliminate lower harmonic values. PF correcting capacitors and the system impedance.For voltage harmonics. Voltage Harmonic Limits as per IEEE 519-1992 The European Community has also developed susceptibility and emission limits for\ harmonics. Loads can be relocated to try to balance the system better. hence. the lower limits. MINIMIZATION OF HARMONICS Care should be undertaken to make sure that the corrective action taken to minimize the harmonic problems don’t actually make the system worse. Whereas the neutral may have been undersized in the past. ANSI and NEMA on such. This can be the result of resonance between harmonic filters. Use of higher pulse converters. but at the expense of creating higher harmonic values. At the higher voltages. a more encompassing set of standards under IEC 1000-4-7 are now in effect.6. 5. The operating limits of transformers and motors should be derated. such as 24-pulse rectifiers.
• The algorithm is flexible and can be easily modified for improved voltage regulation. • The inherent property to provide self supporting dc bus does not require complex abc_dqO transformations. 55 . • The THD in case of nonlinear loads is well below the IEEE-519 standard limits.6. ADVANTAGES • The derivation of switching signals uses a hysteresis controller. with fast dynamic response and automatic current limiting capability. which is robust and simple. harmonic suppression and load balancing.
in order to achieve improved power quality levels at the distribution end. A comparison of the three control strategies is shown in Table 1. under linear and nonlinear loads. with their relative merits and demerits. 56 . Simulation results show the suitability of AC/DC bus voltage regulation for harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation. CONCLUSION The paper presents the comparative study of three control strategies used for the control of DSTATCOM.7. a DSTATCOM’s control scheme should be such that in addition to complete reactive power compensation. It can also be concluded that though conceptually similar to a STATCOM at the transmission level. power factor correction and voltage regulation of the harmonics are also checked. The control schemes are described with the help of simulation results.
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