(551-479 BC)


The Chun-Tzu 2
1. Confucius said: "Isn't it a pleasure to study and then to practice what you have learned? Isn't it also wonderful when friends visit from far away places? If people do not recognize me and it doesn't bother me, am I not a Chun-Tzu?" [1.1] 3 Yu Tzu said: "Those who have cultivated the virtues of filial piety 4 and submission to elders do not show disrespect for their superiors, and they are never troublemakers. The Chun-Tzu devotes himself to the fundamentals. When the fundamentals are established, the proper way to live (Dao) reveals itself. Are not filial piety and submission to elders the foundation of all virtue?" [1.2] Confucius said: "If [someone seeking to be a] Chun-Tzu is not serious, then he will not be taken seriously, and his learning will appear to lack a firm foundation. He should regard loyalty and faithfulness as fundamental, and he should have no friends who are not as morally good as he is. When he makes a mistake, he should not hesitate to correct it." [1.8] Confucius said: "When the Chun-Tzu eats, he does not stuff himself; he does not seek perfect comfort in his dwelling place; he works with diligence and is careful in his speech. He associates only with good people and thereby receives moral direction. This sort of person is a true lover of learning." [1.14] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu enjoys pleasure without being immoral and expresses grief without excess." [3.20] Confucius said: "All men desire wealth and high status, but if these cannot be achieved in accordance with the moral law, then they should not be accepted. All men hate poverty and low status, but if these cannot be avoided in accordance with the moral law, then they should be accepted. How can anyone who departs from virtue be considered a Chun-Tzu? A Chun-Tzu never departs from virtue, not even for the time of a single meal. When he acts in haste, he acts according to virtue. In times of trouble, he acts according to virtue." [4.5]




5. 6.

and editing by George Cronk. © 1998. The Analects is a major classic of Chinese thought. It is a rather unsystematic collection of sayings by Confucius and his disciples concerning the central doctrines of Confucianism. The collection was probably compiled, not by Confucius himself, but by some of his students. Whether the compilation was done during his lifetime or thereafter is not known. The Analects is considered to be the most reliable record of Confucius's teachings.


self-actualized, virtuous, perfected person.

Analects is traditionally laid out in twenty "books," and each "book" contains a series of "chapters." The books and chapters in the traditional text are not organized on a topic-by-topic basis, whereas the version contained in this anthology is set forth topically. The bracketed notations following each of the stanzas in this chapter are book-and-chapter references to the traditional version of the Analects.


to and reverence for parents and family.


The inferior man is divisive and not all-embracing.36] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu guards against three things: (1) When he is young and his physical energy is unruly. he guards against holding desperately on to things. close up." [15.5] Tzu Hsia said: "The Chun-Tzu appears in three ways. he looks severe. expresses it through propriety. and he was just in his official functions. Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is all-embracing and not divisive. Confucius said: "If you have wisdom.18] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu's primary interest is in following the Dao. he guards against being aggressive." Niu said: "Free from anxiety and fear? Is this all it takes to be a Chun-Tzu?" Confucius said: "If you examine yourself and find nothing to be ashamed of. The Chun-Tzu versus the Inferior Man 23. but not rigid. then you might be a ChunTzu . From a distance. 8." [4.13] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is ashamed when his actions do not match his words. 15. face it courageously. 22. 19.9] 14. and his physical energy has declined. 12." [16. .15] Ssu Ma Niu asked about the qualities of the Chun-Tzu. 21.7] Confucius said: "Someone who does not recognize the mandate of Heaven cannot be a Chun-Tzu. This is the Chun-Tzu!" [15. 11.14] 202 .4] Tzu Lu asked about the qualities of the Chun-Tzu. but neither does the Chun-Tzu disregard fine words just because they may be uttered by a bad man. think of justice. not by the fact that others do not recognize him. he was respectful to his superiors. how could you experience anxiety or fear?" [12. [5. Someone who does not understand the force of words cannot understand human affairs. (2) When he is mature and his physical energy is vigorous.10] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu speaks little. exhibits it in humility. he is gentle.31] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is strong.7. and ability.24] Tzu Kung asked about the character of the Chun-Tzu. you might be considered a Chun-Tzu.29] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu does not place a man in office just because of his fine words. but acts with integrity.13] Tseng Tzu said: "The Chun-Tzu does not worry about things that are beyond his control. Instead of self-interest. Then. and then he speaks in accordance with his actions. he is clear. 16." [14. When facing danger. Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is free from anxiety and fear. 9." [14." [4." [15. (3) When he is old. Someone who does not honor the rules of propriety cannot achieve virtue. and brings it to fulfillment in truthfulness. 20. Keep your promises without hesitation. not in avoiding poverty. 13.28] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu takes justice as his primary value." [14." [20. . Confucius said: "When the Chun-Tzu approaches the world he is at first neither for nor against anything." [15." [15.17] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is bothered by his own limitations. no desire. he was kind to the people." [19. 18. when he speaks. courage. and if you also observe the rules of propriety and refine yourself through music. he guards against lust. He judges all things in accordance with the standard of justice." [2. indeed. .22] Confucius said that Tzu Chan had four characteristics of the Chun-Tzu: He was polite to all. Confucius said: "He acts before he speaks. 17. 10." [2.

won't he lack propriety? If a man has no virtue." [1. 26." [13." [16. (2) takes great men lightly. 28.3] Confucius said: "It is virtue that makes a neighborhood beautiful. One who really loves virtue will never place anything above it. and the wise desire it. the inferior man seeks personal favors." [13. pronounced "ren. The inferior man is both arrogant and lacking in selfconfidence. but he does not follow the crowd. Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu loves virtue.23] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is sure of himself but not arrogant. 32. The Chun-Tzu seeks justice. 39. 38." 203 .36] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu sees the strengths of others. The inferior man is a conformist.8] Virtue 1 33." [7. not their weaknesses.24." [15. Is there anyone who has devoted his strength to virtue for as long as a single day?" [4. One who really hates evil will never allow it to come near him. won't he make bad music?" [3. The inferior man does the opposite. and yet he is at odds with everyone." [14.8] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu stands in awe of three things: (1) the mandate (law) of Heaven.26] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu understands principle. 36. you can neither endure adversity nor enjoy prosperity.22] Confucius said: "If a man has no virtue. 35. which just stays in its place while all the other stars revolve around it. 25.3] Confucius said: "If you govern with the power of virtue.1] Tzu Hsia said: "The inferior man always denies his mistakes. how can the vehicle go?" [2. and (3) laughs at the words of the wise.2] Confucius said: "If you strive for virtue. 31. Confucius said: "A clever speaker with a pretentious attitude is seldom considered a person of virtue." [4.6] 1The Chinese for virtue is jen. and (3) the words of the wise." [12. 27." It is often translated as "humanity" and understood as "love of one's fellow human beings. the inferior man loves material things. The inferior man (1) does not know the mandate (law) of Heaven.4] Confucius said: "I have never found anyone who really loves virtue or really hates evil." [19. (2) great men." [4. The inferior man understands profit. The inferior man is always anxious. 29.1] Confucius said: "If you lack virtue.1] Confucius said: "If a person is not honest and trustworthy. what good is he? When the yoke-bar of a large wagon or collar-bar of a small wagon is broken.16] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu lives in harmony with others. The inferior man crumbles. If you choose to live where there is no virtue.24] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu remains steady in times of crisis. 40. you will be like the north polar star." [4. you will be free of evil.11] Confucius said: "The Chun-Tzu is always at ease. The virtuous are comfortable with virtue. 34. 37." [2. how can you become wise?" [4. 30.

Confucius said: "Speak with sincerity and honesty.6] Confucius said: "The true scholar. try to be like him. he was elegant in his ceremonial cap and gown. will not live contrary to virtue.17] Someone said: "Yung is a man of virtue. overcome evil. 204 .4] Confucius encouraged Ch'I-Tiao K'ai to become a government official. Confucius said: "When you see a virtuous person.1] Confucius said: "The virtuous man is reluctant to speak. being unable to prevent wrongdoing — these things trouble me.5. and you will get along even if you live among the barbarians. then he will have trouble even among his own people.2] Confucius said: "The virtuous man has something significant to say." [9. studying without dedication. and he labored diligently in the clearing of drainage ways and canals. the whole world would become virtuous.] Confucius said: "The historian Yu was truly a man of virtue. 54.41. isn't that a case of delusion?" [12." Niu replied. he was like an arrow. be humble and respectful. The virtuous man is brave. He commonly wore simple and coarse clothing. 56. who is a man of virtue. pride. won't your virtue increase? If you work on your own evil rather than criticizing the evil of others. 51. 46. knowing what is just but not doing it. won't you overcome evil? If. 57." [14. but those who speak well are not necessarily virtuous. but he is not an effective speaker.5] Someone said: "What do you think of the saying. When the government in his country was just." [5. He lived in a humble house." [7. I don't know whether Yung is a man of virtue. how can you not be hesitant to speak about it?" [12." [14. "How can we increase virtue. He lived on the simplest food and drink. you endanger your own life as well as the lives of your parents." [4.29] Confucius said: "Yu had a flawless character.3] Tzu Chang asked about correct behavior. 44. [5.5] Confucius said: "Recognizing virtue but not pursuing it.3] Fan Chih asked. my friend. those who comprehend virtue are few and far between." [14." [15. "Then how will we repay virtue? I think we should repay wrongdoing with justice and virtue with virtue. out of a fit of anger." Confucius said: "Why must he be an effective speaker? Smooth talk breeds hostility.36] Confucius said: "Yu. "Are you saying that virtue is mere hesitation in speaking?" Confucius said: "Achieving that is so difficult. and greed. on appropriate occasions. 55. If someone speaks insincerely and dishonestly. and when the government was unjust. it is right here!" [7.3] Confucius said: "Is virtue far away? If I strive for it. but bravery alone is not the same as virtue. can he be considered a person of virtue?" Confucius said: "This is certainly a difficult accomplishment." [12. 53. and avoid delusion?" Confucius said: "An excellent question! If you place responsibility over success. 45. If anyone could do that for an entire day. He is willing to die in the pursuit of virtue. and he demonstrated the highest filial piety toward the ancestral spirits." [15. reflect upon your own lack of virtue.21] Hsien asked: "If someone has gotten beyond arrogance. but. 48. Confucius said: "To defeat selfishness and to follow the rules of propriety is virtue. 'Repay wrongdoing with virtue'?" Confucius replied.8] 43. 50." Confucius was pleased. 42. 49. but I don't see why he should be an effective speaker. When you see someone who lacks virtue." [15." [15. and if he is not humble and respectful. Ch'I-Tiao K'ai replied: "I am not yet sincere enough. the brave are not afraid.21] Confucius said: "The wise are not befuddled. but I do not know that it is enough to be called virtue. 47. 52.28] Yen Yuan asked about the nature of virtue. I cannot find a single flaw in his character!" [8. resentment. the virtuous are not anxious. he was like an arrow.

66. 65. to be mature and have nothing worth passing on to the future. express love to all." [1. devote yourself to the service of your prince." [1." [15. a certain amount of flexibility is permitted.44] When Confucius arrived. Propriety 61.7] Tseng Tzu said: "Virtue is perfected when we perform the proper funeral rites for our parents when they die and when we continue the proper religious services [sacrifices] in their honor after they are long gone. If you govern by means of virtue and the rules of propriety. but not as good as a poor man who is content with his life and a rich man who loves the rules of propriety." Tzu Chang asked what they were. 1Li (often translated as "ritual") is propriety (proper conduct) with regard to religious rites and moral and social interactions. you will receive respect.58." [1. If you are kind. But be careful: Flexibility without propriety will create disorder. he should be respectful to his elders. the people will have a sense of shame and will want to do what is right. and kindness. the people will be easily governed." [2. and funeral services conducted without true sorrow: I can't stand such things!" [3. Then. engage in earnest inquiry. Honesty without propriety is rudeness. to be old and to hang on to life — a good-for-nothing!" He whacked him on the shins with his staff. a young man should serve his parents. you will receive the services of others. 62. Confucius said: "When people can spend an entire day together without ever discussing justice. 205 . he should study literature and the arts. and reflect on things at hand [that can be put into practice] — this is virtue." [1. and be honest with your friends." [17. diligence.16] Tzu Chang asked Confucius about virtue. 67. be constant in your purpose. you will achieve your goals. Confucius said: "When at home. Confucius said: "Courtesy. If you are diligent. if he has the time and energy." [1." [8.26] Confucius said: "Courtesy without propriety is a waste of effort. you will win people's hearts. If you are courteous. generosity.12] Tzu Kung asked: "What do you think of a poor man who doesn't grovel or a rich man who isn't full of pride?" Confucius said: "They are good. people will trust you." [19. If you are honest.46] 63.9] 69.6] Tzu Hsia said: "If you can respect and love virtue. if you are generous.15] Confucius said: "If you govern with laws and punishments.3] Confucius said: "Rulers with no vision. and follow men of virtue. Caution without propriety is timidity. Yu Tzu said: "In following the rules of propriety (li) 1 . but instead focus their attention on mere cleverness. He should always be earnest and truthful. when away from home. honesty. religious ceremonies performed without reverence and respect.6] Tzu Hsia said: "Pursue a serious and wide course of study." [14. Confucius said: "Virtue is the practice of five things. he found Yuan Zang waiting but lying down in a sprawled-out position.6] 60.2] Confucius said: "If rulers love and honor propriety. Confucius said: "To be young and not show proper respect. 70. [14. 64. it is hard to see what can be done with them. The ancient kings were skillful at practicing propriety with flexibility. Filial Piety 68. 59. then you are truly learned even if someone says that you are not [because you lack formal education]. Boldness without propriety is recklessness. serve your parents to the utmost. the people will avoid crime but will have no sense of honor or shame.

78. Confucius said: "It is wrong to offer sacrifices to ancestral spirits other than one's own.71.21] 73. I love the ceremony.24] Lin Fang asked about the fundamentals of religious ritual." [3.17] Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits. 77. .11] Meng I Tzu asked about the meaning of filial piety. 83. Confucius told Fan Chih. brothers. obey him. 72. why do I need to serve in the government?" [2.18] Confucius said: "Never ignore your parents' ages. you love the sheep. in funeral services.18] The Duke of Sheh told Confucius: "In my land. Confucius said: "When your father is alive. you must continue to respect and serve them without complaining. . Religious Propriety 79. Confucius said: "Nowadays filial piety means being able to support your parents.'" Later . what about death?" Confucius said: "If we don't understand life. offer sacrifices to them in accordance with the rules of propriety." Fan Chih said: "What did you mean by that?" Confucius said: "When your parents are alive. in subsequent years. If you do so for [at least] three years after your father's death. 80." Confucius said: "The just in my land act differently. When your father has passed on. Without respect.4] Tzu Kung proposed doing away with the sacrifice of sheep on the first day of each month. you are a coward. 206 . or merely providing them with food and wine. If a father steals a sheep." [4. and I told him that it is not disobeying your parents. If you know what is right and don't do it. Confucius said: "Tz'u Kung. how can we understand death?" [11." [3." [4. then you are a true son (hsiao). what's the difference between the two kinds of support?" [2. and the son conceals the wrongs of his father. you can have a positive effect on government. 76. Confucius said: "That's an excellent question! In religious rituals and ceremonies. 'Filial piety' doesn't mean merely doing physical tasks for your parents. frugality is better than extravagance." [13.11] Tzu Lu said: "When the grief of mourning has expended itself. which are both a source of joy (because they are still living) and a source of anxiety (because their deaths are coming nearer). This is justice." [2. when they die. how can we serve the spirits?" Lu said: "Well. serve them in accordance with the rules of propriety. Confucius said: "If we don't know how to serve human beings. . But if they will not go along with you.8] Someone asked Confucius: "Why do you not serve in the government?" Confucius said: "What does The Book of History 1 say about filial piety? 'Just by loving your parents. "Meng I Tzu asked me about the meaning of filial piety. The father conceals the wrongs of his son. the son will turn him in.' Since this is so. Confucius said: "It means 'not disobeying your parents. it should cease. 1A pre-Confucian Chinese classic.5] Tzu Lu asked about the meaning of filial piety. live as he did.21] Confucius said: "In serving your parents." [2. and sisters.14] 81. 74. 75." [1. But we support even our horses and dogs. bury them in accordance with the rules of propriety. and then. Confucius said: "What matters is the expression you show on your face." [19. people are just." [2. you may disagree with them from time to time and seek to correct them gently.7] Tzu Hsia asked about filial piety. true sorrow is better than mere ceremony. 82.

and refined)?" Confucius said: "He was conscientious and loved to study.18] Confucius said: "If a student is not hungry for knowledge. 95.18] "A scholar who is pursuing truth. 86." [7." [4. I will not give him my explanations. Confucius said: "Listen to all points of view. like an ignoramus!" When Confucius heard this. don't do to others. I will not repeat the lesson. [7." [3. Speaking without mistakes and acting without regrets — that is true advancement.11] Studying and Learning 87. To think and not study is a danger. I will not teach him.17] Tseng Tzu said: "Gifted. and forget that old age is setting in. he said: "Asking about everything is a form of propriety. I have found it in the ancient books that I love. but who is ashamed of old clothes and plain food." [2.23] Tzu Kung [following Confucius] said: "Don't do to others what you don't want done to you." [2.15] The Silver Rule 1 85. 93." [5. 88. he asked about everything. speak cautiously about the rest. yet learning from the ignorant." [7.9] Tzu Kung asked: "How did Kung Wen Tzu get the title 'wen' (learned. Possessing. reject what is doubtful.19] Confucius said: "It is quite dangerous to study strange doctrines. Be open-minded. Highly knowledgeable. but set aside what seems dangerous. my enjoyment is so great that I forget to eat.8] Confucius said: "I was not born with wisdom. full. and be careful with what you put into practice. is not worth talking to. 1As distinguished from the "Golden Rule": "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. if he is not struggling to explain things for himself. yet appearing empty. This is the path to knowledge. and then you will have few regrets. 92." [8.20] Confucius said: "Study as if you have not reached your goal — as if you were afraid of losing what you have gained. 97." [15." [2. 96. yet learning from the slow. yet not inclined to get even: I once had a friend [Confucius] who was like this. and he was not ashamed to learn from people less learned than himself. yet seeming to lack.16] Confucius never discussed strange phenomena. events contrary to the natural order. Confucius said: "To study and not think is a waste. forget my problems.14] Confucius said: "When I study. 91. Someone said: "Who says that Confucius is a master of the rules of propriety? When he enters the Grand Temple.5] 90. extraordinary physical occurrences. 94." 207 . or ghosts. If I lift one corner and he doesn't lift the other three." [8. he got the name 'wen. Tzu Kung asked: "Is there a single principle that can serve as a guide for all our actions?" Confucius said: "What you don't want done to yourself. 98. unjustly injured. Therefore." [7.15] Confucius said: "What is the path to knowledge? To say that you know when you do know and to admit that you don't know when you don't know. 89. and then you will make few mistakes.84.'" [5. literary. When Confucius entered the Grand Temple. he asks about everything." [2.17] Tzu Chang was studying in order to advance himself [in government service].

I continue to bring more buckets. If. Confucius said: "Be inspired by poetry. Tzu Chang said: "The true scholar. and dirt from a dungheap cannot be used to build a wall." [8. He is reverent at religious services and sorrowful at funerals.15] 104. and those who are ignorant but do not even study are the lowest sort of people. "One who loves boldness but does not study is defeated by his own lack of self-control. Modern scholars study in order to obtain approval from others." [4. "One who loves wisdom but does not study is defeated by ignorance.99. he should devote himself to the service of the state. Confucius said: "If your words are grand. He is truly worthy of our admiration.22] 110." [14.14] 101. When a student has completed his studies.1] 107." (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) "One who loves virtue but does not study is defeated by aimlessness. after dumping one bucket-full. Tzu Hsia said: "When a servant of the state has finished his work. "One who loves honesty but does not study is defeated by rudeness. Confucius said: "Studying the liberal arts and governing yourself by means of the rules of propriety." [9.13] 108. it is my stopping. those who study but have difficulty learning come next.8] 100. Those who study and learn easily are next best. he thinks first of justice.8] 106. Confucius said: "A scholar who is concerned with comfort is not a true scholar. it is my continuing.25] 103. have you heard of the six defeats?" "No. however. When he sees an opportunity for personal gain." [14. Confucius said: "The ancient scholars studied for their own improvement.3] 102." [16. and I expected them to act accordingly. but I judge them and their words on the basis of what they do. Tsai Yu slept during the daytime [contrary to the rules of propriety?]." [17. "One who loves persistence but does not study is defeated by his own rigidity." [5. guided by the rules of propriety. Confucius said: "If a man doesn't continually question — 'What is this? What is that?' — I cannot help him." [15. Confucius said: "The ancients were reluctant to speak. Tsai Yu has taught me this lesson." [12. it is easy to stay on the path of righteousness. "Then sit down.21] 112.9] 111." [15. completed by music." [14." Confucius said. he should then devote himself to study. Confucius said: "The purpose of speech is to convey meaning.40] 208 ." [19. fearing that their actions would not measure up to their words." said Yu. Confucius said: "You cannot carve rotten wood.9] 105. Now. Confucius said: "Learning is like building an embankment: If I stop carrying the buckets of earth.18] Words and Actions 109. There is no point in scolding Tsai Yu. you will find that it is difficult for your actions to measure up to them. when facing danger. "and I will tell you." [19. I hear what they say. is willing to lose his life. "One who loves sincerity but does not study is defeated by deception. Confucius said: "Those who are born wise are the best. Confucius said: "Yu. I used to believe what people say.

Ancient warlords were valiant. (1) Friendship with the virtuous. but in changed form. which also exist today." Tzu Kung said: "Suppose you had to do without one of these. and all things go along naturally." [7." [2.19] 116. I would choose a man who acts with caution. and they will be respectful. who plans carefully. and love the people. Confucius said: "There are three mistakes commonly made by subordinates in the presence of their superior: (1) To speak when one should not. be true to your word. which would you give up first?" Confucius said: 209 . and (3) friendship with the clever are all harmful.20] 123. what would we disciples have to record and pass on?" Confucius said: "Does Heaven speak? Yet the four seasons continue to pass. and (3) the enjoyment of being with friends of good character are all beneficial. and reject the crooked. who would you choose to assist you?" Confucius said: "I would not choose a man willing to fight tigers with his bare hands.18] Three Things 114. When Confucius heard of this. This is blind.19] 122. (1) Friendship with flatterers. and the people will not follow you. Love and care for them. have I been disloyal? (2) In my relations with my friends. (1) The enjoyment of extravagance. the savages of today are depraved. (2) friendship with the truthful. (3) To speak without watching the expression on their superior's face. you must pay strict attention to business.16] Government 120.5] 118. This is deceptive. (2) Not to speak when one should.10] 125.4] 115. or to cross a river without a boat. (2) friendship with those who compromise principles." Tzu Kung said: "Master. have I been unfaithful? (3) Have I reviewed and followed the precepts of my teacher?" [1.113. Tseng Tzu said: "Each day I examine myself on three points: (1) In interacting with others. Tzu Kung asked about government. and who finishes what he begins. loyal. are inferior to us. Ancient savages were unrestrained. enough weapons. and (3) friendship with the learned are all beneficial. Advance the able and instruct the incompetent. if you didn't speak.5] 124." [16. and the confidence of the people. Confucius said: "To govern a state of a thousand chariots (a small country). Does Heaven speak?" [17. This is imprudent. Promote the crooked and reject the straight. Confucius said: "The ancients had three deficiencies. and the people will follow you. You should employ them according to the seasons." [5. Confucius said: "There are three kinds of enjoyment which are beneficial and three kinds of enjoyment which are harmful. Tzu Lu asked: "If you had to lead an army. (2) the enjoyment of sensual indulgence." [16. the warlords of today are just hot-headed. The Duke of Ai asked: "How can I get the people to follow me?" Confucius replied: "Promote the straight.4] 117.6] 119." [16. and they will be loyal." [2. though they have kings. (2) the enjoyment of speaking of the goodness of others. be economical in expenditure. Ancient fools were naively honest. he said: "Twice is enough. and they will strive to be virtuous." [17.5] 121. or to die without thinking. Confucius said: "There are three kinds of friendship which are beneficial and three kinds of friendship which are harmful. Confucius said: "I wish I could avoid speaking. (1) The enjoyment of music and ritual. The Master replied: "Enough food. Confucius said: "The tribes of the East and North (Koreans and Mongolians). even when we lack kings. and (3) the enjoyment of creature comforts are all harmful." [3." [1. Chi Wen Tzu always thought three times before acting. Chi K'ang [a ruler] asked: "How can I get the people to be respectful. the fools of today are full of deceit. and virtuous?" Confucius said: "Practice dignity.

the cautious are restrained and hold things back."Weapons. The fervent are go-getters and move things forward. on the one hand." [14. (5) being kingly without being imperious. you may speak and act with boldness. If the work of the state cannot be carried out successfully. which would it be?" Confucius said: "Food. and when this is what he pursues. is this not maintaining a royal dignity without being arrogant? (5) When the ruler dresses as a king in accordance with the rules of propriety so that he is looked upon with admiration. then even if he gives orders. is this not being kingly without being imperious?" 210 . then the work of the state cannot be carried out successfully. then what is said won't be understood. (3) pursuing what he desires without being greedy. then the people will be disoriented in their actions. you will never achieve anything great. and do not concentrate on small gains. But if a ruler does not live righteously.7] 126. Tsze-chang asked: "How should a ruler act in order to govern well?" Confucius replied.6] 128. then criminal punishments will not be imposed in accordance with justice. and. culture] will not develop." [13.4] 134. Tzu Hsia. if you concentrate on small gains. If you can't make your own life right. asked about government. the cautious. Tzu Lu said: "The ruler of Wei wants you to become a member of his government.11] 131." Tzu Kung said "What if you had to give up one of the remaining two. If you govern after making yourself right." Tzu Lu said: "You don't mean it! Why should that be your first priority?" Confucius said: "If language is not used correctly. (4) maintaining a royal dignity without being arrogant.21] 133. Confucius said: "To govern is to make right." [The result will be balance in the state.17] 127. you will find governing easy. If propriety does not prevail. Confucius said: "If you can make your own life right. he will be followed without his giving orders. the fervent and." [13. Therefore. Chi K'ang Tzu asked about government. how can you make the lives of others right?" [13. then the rules of propriety will not be observed and music [that is. If what is said is not understood. What will you work on first?" Confucius said: "The correction of language use [rectification of names]. (2) giving the people work that does not overburden them.17] 132. If criminal punishments are unjust. who will accuse him of greed? (4) When the ruler is aware of his lordly standing and yet treats all of his people with respect. and if music [that is. Impatience is opposed to thoroughness.13] 129. all violence and therefore the death penalty would be done away with." [13. when the government is unjust.] [13. the Chun-Tzu must see to it that language is used correctly and that what he says is carried out in practice. who will object to this? (3) When the ruler's leading desire is for good government. bold action is possible. All men must die." [12. who was serving as governor of Chu Fu. but you must be reserved in what you say. but a state cannot survive without the confidence of its people.3] 130. Confucius said: "When the government is just. on the other hand. Confucius said: "When a ruler lives righteously. Confucius said: "If a country were ruled by good men for a hundred years. if I were ruling I would employ. he will not be followed. Confucius said: "Since it is hard to find men who act in accordance with the mean. "He must honor the five excellent things and banish the four bad things." Tsze-chang said: "What are the five excellent things?" Confucius said: "(1) Being benevolent without great taxing and spending. Confucius said: "Be patient." Tsze-chang said: "Could you explain these further?" Confucius replied: "(1) When the ruler helps the people derive increased benefit from the things already available to them. who then would not be made right?" [12." [13. culture] does not develop. is this not being benevolent without great taxing and spending? (2) When he requires people to perform tasks that they are naturally suited for.

Confucius said: "Even if you were wise enough to grasp it.20] 136. Confucius said: "Who can leave the room without using the door? So why doesn't anybody follow the Dao?" [6. nor live in one where there is rebellion. but I can't. you should then be ashamed to be wealthy and famous. this is oppressive. the people do not debate politics.4] DAO 135. perhaps you do not manifest it. the people will not recognize your attainment." [12. (2) To require payment of taxes without sufficient notice. you should be ashamed to be poor and unrecognized. then he becomes free of his culture. When the Dao prevails in the empire. then hide. I see it in front of me.18] 138. Confucius has enriched me with literature and disciplined me with the rules of propriety. not even if you offered someone a reward to do so. Confucius said: "Knowing the Dao is not as good as loving it." [9. but I can't see the way. but no one can match his stupidity." [16." [15. Confucius said: "Live in constant good faith and love learning." [5. this is cruel.] Chang Tso and Chieh Ni were working together in the fields when Confucius and Tzu Lu were passing by. if that's the case. you are not virtuous enough to hold on to it.13] 139." [6. this is petty. why don't you follow one who escapes from the world entirely?" And with that. Confucius said: "If you had no desires. I am ready to give up. and yet there it is. Nonetheless.15] 137. let him answer his question for himself. then he becomes free from language. Confucius said: "When the Dao prevailed in his country. to insist upon immediate compliance.39] 142." Tzu Lu then approached Chieh Ni. Confucius said: "One who knows the Dao first becomes free of the world. [The Daoists. "And what are the four bad things?" Confucius said: "(1) Putting people to death without having instructed them through the law. 211 .18] 141." "Well. Be willing to die for the sake of following the Dao. When the Dao prevails. Chi K'ang Tzu had been robbed and was very upset. it gets more difficult. and suddenly it is behind me. rather than following a scholar who flees from this situation or that situation. you will certainly lose it. (4) To be tight-fisted in the giving of pay or rewards." Chieh then said: "The world is in radical disorder! Who [is Confucius to think that he] can change it? As for you. When the Dao declined in his country. he went back to his work and wouldn't stop. Do not enter a disorderly state. In that case.2] 145. Confucius said: "Human beings are manifestations of the Dao. Confucius sent Tzu Lu to ask about the best place to cross the river. When the Dao does not prevail. you are still not perfect. Chang Tso asked: "Who is that in the carriage?" Tzu Lu said: "It is Confucius" Chang said: "The Confucius of Lu?" "Yes. Even if you are wise enough to grasp it and virtuous enough to hold on to it. (3) To issue orders without a sense of urgency and then." [20. rising up in front of me again. if you don't act in accordance with the rules of propriety. it goes higher." [14. The Dao is not a manifestation of human beings. and loving it is not as good as taking delight in it.10] 140." "The follower of this Confucius of Lu?" "Right. So even if you grasp it.32] 144. When it does not prevail. Ning Wu Tzu played the wise man.Tsze-chang then asked. Delving into it. and suppose also that you manifest it. I have done all that I am able to do. then he becomes free from lust." 143. who said: "Who are you?" "I am Tzu Lu. this is outrageous." [8. Confucius said: "When the Dao prevails in the realm. show yourself. Suppose you are wise enough to grasp it and virtuous enough to hold on to it. he played stupid. I want to follow it. Yen Yuan said: "Looking up at it. no one would steal from you. all of a sudden. Someone might be able to match his wisdom.

met an old man carrying a basket on a shoulder-pole. But the Chun-Tzu practices his justice from within society. Tzu Kung asked whether Shih or Shang is the more worthy.15] 156.21] 152. Confucius said: "Some sprout but do not flower." [9.23] 149. the Master said: "He is a Daoist. May I ask why?" 212 . you told him to act without delay. and Shang's is deficient. When Tzu Lu told Confucius what had happened. with whom will I associate? If the Dao prevailed in the world. Confucius said: "Hui is no help to me. When Zan Yu asked. Zan Yu asked the same question. feeding him a dinner of chicken and millet. Tzu Lu asked whether it is good to carry a teaching into practice as soon as one hears it. He asked him: "Have you seen my Master?" The old man said: "You don't know how to work the land. you advised him to delay." Confucius sent Tzu Lu back to see the old man." [18.3] 154." [9. When you have faults." [5. The men of Lu were reconstructing the treasury building." [4. You can't even distinguish between the five kinds of grain. is your Master?" The old man then planted his staff in the ground and began to pull weeds. and introducing him to his two sons. [11.12] 148. but when Tzu Lu arrived. Confucius said: "Be loyal and trustworthy. Tzu Lu left and caught up with Confucius. Confucius said: "Shih's conduct is excessive.24] 153." [18. there would be no need to change anything. don't hesitate to correct them. The next day. Tzu Lu said: "If you don't live in society. Min Tzu Ch'ien said: "Why not keep its original style? Why change it completely?" Confucius said: "This fellow doesn't say much. Confucius said: "I have not found anyone who can recognize his own faults and lament them within himself. having fallen behind Confucius and the other disciples. how can the relationship between ruler and ruled be set aside? For the sake of his own purity.6] 146. Confucius said: "He who always seeks his own advantage will become the target of much resentment. Who. The old man allowed him to stay overnight. He is satisfied with everything I say. and Confucius told him. indeed. the Daoist disrupts the bonds of society. he is right on target. "You should act immediately. Confucius said: "He who is strict with himself will rarely go wrong. and he is well aware of the reality of injustice.Tzu Lu went back and reported to Confucius what had happened. Tzu Lu just stood there with his arms folded. but you can't force them to understand. Later. but when he does.9] 151. Don't associate with those who are not your moral equal.26] 150. Why be in such a rush?" Later on." Kung Hsi Hua said: "When Tzu Lu asked you. Confucius said: "You might force people to obey. Tzu Lu." [11. some flower but do not bear fruit." [8. he found that the old man and his sons were gone." [11. Confucius said: "You should consult with your father and your older brother before you act." "Then is Shih superior?" Confucius said: "Excess is the same as deficiency" [because both violate the doctrine of the mean and the rules of propriety].13] 155. Confucius said sadly: "I can't enter into human relationships with the birds and beasts! If I don't associate with people. how can you practice justice? If the relationship between old and young cannot be ignored." [4.7] Miscellaneous Teachings 147.

said: "What does that official know about me? In my youth. and you will avoid arousing resentments." Tzu Kung answered." When Confucius heard this." [15.3] 165." [15.2] 169." [12. What we need is no lawsuits.4] 213 . so I push him." [17. The wise do not lose people. When the time is not right to speak with someone and you do speak with him. he said to his disciples: "Oh-me-oh-my! What shall I take up? What shall I take up? Shall I take up charioteering? Shall I take up archery? I think I shall take up charioteering!" [9." [17.Confucius said: "Zan Yu tends to give up easily. Confucius said: "Someone who shows a tough face." said Confucius. There is nothing they won't do to keep it." [13. so I restrain him. Confucius said: "I don't worry about being unknown. at thirty I had learned much." Confucius. at sixty my ear was obedient to the truth. [14." [11. I seek to be worthy of being known." [17. I worry about my lack of ability. you lose him.13] 158. Then they worry continually about losing it. is contemptible.12] 166." [4. "What if everyone hates you?" "Also not good. so I had to learn many practical skills." [14. Is it necessary for the Chun-Tzu to possess practical skills? Of course not. Confucius said: "All people share the same nature.2] 164.21] 157. I am not concerned about being unknown. at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without violating the moral law.24] 159.14] 162. and yet he doesn't seem to have any particular skills. you waste your time. To be rich without arrogance is easy. Confucius said: "There are those sorry souls who make themselves miserable getting something they want. nor do they waste their time.14] 170. Confucius said: "I am no better than anyone else in judging lawsuits." [2. A man from Ta Hsiang said [sarcastically]: "What a great man is Confucius! His learning is so sweeping. but through their conduct they become quite different from each other. It is better if the good people like you and the evil ones hate you. my family was poor. at forty I had no more doubts." [9. Tzu Kung asked: "What if everyone likes you?" "Not good.15] Descriptions of Confucius 167.7] 161. Confucius said: "Only the most wise and the most foolish do not change. Confucius said: "To be poor without resentment is difficult.11] 160.29] 163. Confucius said: "When the time is right to speak with someone and you don't speak with him. Confucius said: "At fifteen my mind was fixed on learning. Confucius said: "To have faults and not correct them — this is a fault indeed!" [15. A high government official asked Tzu Kung: "If your Master is really a Chun-Tzu.32] I am not concerned about lack of success. I am concerned about the means I use to achieve success. like a thief sneaking over a wall.6] 168. Confucius said: "Expect much from yourself and little from others. but who is weak inside. at fifty I knew the Mandate of Heaven (T'ien-ming). "Heaven has made him wise and good and has also given him various practical skills. Tzu Lu tends to leap before he looks. hearing about this. why does he know so many practical skills." [17.

He said: "If Heaven does not want to destroy me.15] 182. and I didn't become an alcoholic." [7.5] 181. I served my parents and elder brothers. yet not authoritarian. and I teach without becoming weary. Confucius said: "I can live happily with plain rice to eat. and my arm as a pillow. 214 .1] 172. and trust. The Master was mild yet strict. [9. When the Master returned from court. What problems could I possibly have?" [9. arbitrariness. Confucius said: "I have never denied my instruction to anyone. [7. rich or poor. Confucius said: "I do not claim to be enlightened or a man of virtue. There is nothing that I do that is not right out in front of you. But I strive for these without being discouraged." 1 [7. and I select what is good and follow it.37] 179. There were four things the Master had eliminated from himself — imposing his will. Confucius said: "I am a transmitter.171. [7. authoritative. [7. water for drink. do you imagine that I conceal anything from you? I conceal nothing.7] 175. and egotism.4] 180.33] 174.15] 176. This is what can be said of me. Wealth and honors obtained unjustly are but floating clouds. I study hard and remember what I have learned. Not me. yet carefree." [7. I love and rely upon the teachings of the ancients. I served my rulers. what can the people of Kuang do to me?" [9. Confucius said: "There are those who can act without knowledge. I compare myself to old P'eng. That is the way I am. correct action." [7. There was a fire in the stables. Confucius said to his disciples: "My friends.24] 178. he asked: "Was anybody hurt?" He didn't ask about the horses. not an original thinker.27] 173. Confucius said: "When out in the world.12] 1A government official of the Shang Dynasty (1751-1112 BC) who loved to recite old stories. loyalty." [7. The Master taught four things: Culture. stubbornness. There was fear for the Master's life when he was in the district of Kuang. courteous. At home. This is the second level of knowledge" [innate knowledge being the first level]. [10.23] 177. I listen carefully. I never took funerals lightly.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful