This booklet is part of the Arabic book, 'Sharh Hadeeth Jibra'eel'
by Shaikh Muhammad ibn Saleh al-Uthaimeen
Translated by Shawana A. Aziz
؟ﺮﻴﺨﻣ «ì ﺮﻴﺴﻣ .ﺎﺴﻧﻻl ﻞﻫ
ﻦﻴﭼﻴﺜﻌﻟl ﺢﻟﺎﺻ ﻦﺑ ﺪﭼﺤﻣ ﺦﻴﺸﻟ
ﻞﺜﻣ +ﺪﻘﻟﺎﺑ .ﺎﭼرﻻﺎﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﺗ ﺔﭼﻬﻣ ﻲﻧﺎﻌﻣ ﺦﻴﺸﻟl ﻪﻴﻓ ﻦﻴﺒر ~ﺎﺘﻜﻟl
ﺐﺠر ﻞﻫ, +ﺪﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﻲﺻﺎﻌﭼﻟl ﻰﻠﻋ ,ﺎﺠﺘﺣﻻl, ﻲﺻﺎﻌﭼﻠﻟ ﷲl ﺮرﺪﻘﺗ
+,ﺪﻘﭼﻟl, +ﺪﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﻰﺿﺮﻟl
Published by Quran Sunnah Educational Programs
Faith in the Divine Decree
The four levels of faith in the Divine Decree.................................................03
The Knowledge......................................................................................................05
The Writing.............................................................................................................09
The Five Kinds of Writing
The Will.....................................................................................................................17
The Creation............................................................................................................21
Allah has al-Mashee'ah, al-Iradah and al-Muhabbah................................25
Allah's Will for the occurrence of Kufr despite His Hatred for it...........31
Allah's Decree and the slave's pleasure with it............................................35
Four States of man
a) Dissatisfaction.........................................................................................38
b) Patience.....................................................................................................39
c) Pleasure......................................................................................................40
d) Thankfulness............................................................................................41
The sinner's justification by the Divine Decree...........................................43
Does man have freedom of choice?................................................................53
Benefits of faith in the Will and Decree of Allah.........................................57
Shaikh Saleh al-Fawzan writes in Mujmal Aqeedah as-Salaf,
"Many groups have been misled in their understanding of
Qadar (Predestination/Divine Decree). From them are the
Jahmiyah and the Jabriyah who claim that the slave is forced
in his actions and he has no control, ability or will. He is like a
feather or a leaf which is blown by the wind.
Another group went to the other extreme and declared that
every man creates his own actions. Allah has no will or
control in the slave's action. The slave performs his actions by
his choice and power that is independent of the Will of Allah.
Some of them exaggerated to the extent that they said that
Allah does not know the thing before it occurs...
The first group (Jabriyah) affirmed the Divine Decree and
exaggerated (in their affirmation of Allah's Will) and thus
robbed the slave from his will.
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The second group (Qadariyah) exaggerated in (their affirmation
of) the slave's will until they deniedthe Will andDecree of Allah.
Boththese groups are greatly mistakenandmisguided.
The Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah is on the middle path – they
affirmability, choice and will for the slave but it is subservient to
the Will and Power of Allah and the slave cannot do anything
except by the Will of Allah.”
[end quote]
This booklet gives the reader a thorough understanding of how
the will, choice and ability of the slave are subservient to the
Will and Power of Allah in the words of the noble Shaikh
Muhammad ibn Saleh al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah).
Apart from explaining what it means to believe in the Divine
Decree, the Shaikh has expansively clarified important issues
related to the subject, like Allah's Will for the occurrence of Kufr
despite His Hatred for it.
Explanation of additional issues like - the sinner's justification by
predestination. Is it obligatory upon us to be pleased with what
has been decreed? - make the book more comprehensive and
beneficial for the reader.
We ask Allah to forgive our mistakes and make us amongst
those who are patient and pleased with the Decree of Allah.
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Eeman (faith) in the Divine Decree/Predestination is
to believe that Allah has decreed everything due to
His (Absolute) Knowledge.
The scholars therefore, say that Eeman in the Divine
Decree has four stages:
The Knowledge
The Writing
The Will
The Creation
Faith in the
divine decree
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+ﺪﻘﻟﺎﺑ .ﺎﭼرﻹl
- 04 -
Allahis the Knower of everything- ingeneral andindetail.
Allah knows everything concerning His Own Actions like
creation, givinglife, causingdeath, sendingdownrain, etc.
Allah knows everything concerning the actions of His creatures
like the sayings and deeds of man. Even actions of the
animals are knowntoAllah.
Everythingis knowntoAllahbefore it occurs.
are numerous,
amongst themare; "Allahis Ever All-Aware of everything." [Soorahal-
Ahzab (33): 40] "It is Allah, Who has created the seven heavens and
the earththe like thereof. His Commanddescends betweenthemthat
you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah
comprehends all things in (His) Knowledge." [Soorah at-Talaaq (65):
The proofs of Allah's Knowledge
level 1
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ﻰﻟ,ﻷl ﺔﺒﺗﺮﭼﻟl ﻢﻠﻌﻟl
“With Himare the keys of the Ghayb (unseen), none knows thembut
He. He knows whatever there is in(or on) the earthandinthe sea; not
a leaf falls, but he knows it. There is not a grain in the darknesses of
the earth or anything fresh or dry, but is written in a clear record."
[Soorahal-An'am(6): 59]
Let us discuss (Allah's Knowledge mentionedin) the above verse,
The word, 'whatever' is general. So, Allah knows everything on the
earthandinthe seas.
Any leaf in any tree in any place - at the top of a mountain or in the
depth of a valley or in a meadowlocated in any part of the world. All
trees shed leaves but Allah knows the leaf (that falls at the given
time). (andAllahalsoknows) everyleaf that shoots out - beforehand.
AllahKnows everygrainsmall or biginthe darknesses of the earth.
The word, 'darknesses' is plural which indicates that the earth has
darknesses; darkness of the night, darkness of the sea, darkness of
the sand, darkness of the clouds, darkness of the rainanddarkness of
the dust. These are six darknesses and there may be more which we
are unaware of. However, these darknesses do not change anything
betweenAllahandthe grain. Allahknows the grainandsees it.
“He knows whatever
there is in the earth and the sea."
"not a leaf falls but he knows it."
"There is not a grain
in the darknesses of the earth."
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“nor anything fresh or dry"
“but is written in a Clear Record."
Allahknows everythingthat is freshor dry.
Clear Record means al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet). Al-
Lawhal-Mahfoodhis due tothe Knowledge of Allah.
The Knowledge of Allahconcerning the actions of manis inscribed in
the Book of Allah (i.e., al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh), “Or do they think that
We hear not their secrets and their private counsel? (Yes We do) and
Our Messengers (i.e., angels in charge of recording man's deeds) are
bythemtorecord.” [Soorahaz-Zukhruf (43): 80]
Allah knows the secret and the private counsel.
is that which one conceals in his heart and talks
about it to himself.
counsel is one's confidential talk with a friend.
Both are known to Allah.
This Knowledge of Allah was never preceded by ignorance and is not
affected by forgetfulness. Therefore when Fir'awn asked Moosa,
“What about the generations of old?" (Moosa) said, "The knowledge
thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord is neither unaware nor
He forgets.” [SoorahTa-Ha (20): 51-52]
“unaware” means ignorance “nor He forgets” means He knows.
Knowledge of man, on the other hand, is surrounded by both - prior
ignorance and subsequent forgetfulness, “Allah has brought you out
from the wombs of your mothers while you know nothing.” [Soorah
an-Nahl (16): 78]
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Allah recorded the destiny of everything fifty thousand years before
creating the heavens and the earth. He recorded everything that will
exist or not exist until the establishment of the Hour.
WhenAllahcreatedthe pen, He saidtoit, "Write."
The penasked, "OLord, what shall I write?"
Allahreplied, "Write the decree of what is tohappen."
So everything that is to happen until the Day of Judgment was
written. Thus whatever occurs tomancouldnot have missedhimand
whatever misses himcouldnot have occurredtohim.
The proof (that everything was previously recorded) is the Saying of
Allah, “Knowyou not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and on
earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh). Verily!
That is easyfor Allah.” [Soorahal-Hajj (22): 70]
level 2
the writing
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ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟl ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟl ﺔﺒﺗﺮﭼﻟl
“No calamity befalls the earth or yourselves but is inscribed in the
Book of Decrees (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh) before We bring it into
existence. Verily, that is easyfor Allah.” [Soorahal-Hadid(57): 22]
The people of knowledge saidthat the Writingis of manykinds:
which is in al-Lawh al-
Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet).
of man.
The Writing about the life of man is recorded while one is in the
womb of his mother. Ibn Mas'ood narrated, “The Messenger of Allah
told us, 'Every one of you is collected in the womb of his mother for
the first forty days thenhe becomes a clot for another forty days then
a piece of flesh for another forty days. Allah then sends an angel to
breathe a soul into him. The angel is commanded to write down four
decrees - his provision, life-span, deeds and whether he will be
doomedor blessed(inthe Hereafter).
By the One besides whom there is no god, one of you may do the
deeds of the people of Paradise until there is no more than a cubit
between him and it - then the decree overtakes him and he does the
actions of the people of Hell andthus enters it.
One of you may do the deeds of the people of Hell until there is no
more thana cubit betweenhimand it. The decree thenovertakes him
and he does the actions of the people of Paradise and thus enters it.''
Such is because the first writing (in al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh) is
(i) The General Writing
(ii) The Writing about the Life
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While reading the above Hadeeth,
we should not
forget the other Ahadeeth that give glad tidings to man. It is true that
this Hadeeth causes one to be terrified and one might ask, 'How can
one man performthe deeds of the people of Paradise until there is no
more than a cubit between himand it and then - we seek refuge from
Allah- he commits anact of the people of Hell?
There are – al-Hamdulillah – other texts which relieve the
believer fromhis anguish(concerningthis Hadeeth);
Allah's Messenger said, “There is no one amongst you but
Allahhas alreadydecreedhis place inParadise or inHell."
They asked, "O Messenger of Allah, should we not rely on the
Bookandleave striving?"
The Prophet said, "Strive, for each one will be facilitated to do
that for which he is created. Those who are blessed will
performthe acts of those who are blessed and those who are
the doomed will performthe acts of those who are doomed."
Thenhe recitedthe verse, "As for himwhogives (incharity)
and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Himand believes in al-
Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease
(goodness). But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself
self-sufficient...We will make smooth for him the path for
evil.” [Soorahal-Layl (92): 5-10]
This is a glad tiding from the Prophet - if one performs the acts of
the blessed people then this is a proof that he is written amongst the
blessedpeople. Solet himbe pleased.
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ImamBukharee narratedinhis Saheehthat the Prophet was in
a battle and there was a brave and courageous man concerning
whomthe Prophet said, "Verily, he is fromthe people of Hell." -
despite his braveryandcourage.
This was hardonthe Sahabahandso one of themsaid, "By Allah,
I will followhim." andsohe did.
An arrow of the enemy wounded the brave man and so he was
angered. He placed his sword on his chest and leaned on it until
the sword emerged from his back. The man thus committed
The Companion returned to the Prophet and said, "I bear
witness that youare the Messenger of Allah!"
The Prophet asked, "What is the matter?"
The Companion replied, "The man concerning whom you
informedus that he was fromthe people of the Fire, didsuchand
Then the Prophet said, "Verily, a man may perform actions of
the people of Paradise while he is from
the people of the Fire." [See, Saheehal-Bukharee]
I ask Allah to purify my intentions and your intentions because
intentions play a major role inone's orientation. The heart is the chief
andit controls man. We must therefore consider the heart, examine it
and purify it - perhaps, it contains impurities. Man might pretend to
performgooddeeds throughthe limbs but there might be inhis heart
this corrupt impuritythat leads one tothe fire inthe end.
as it seems to the people
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Some of the Salaf said,
"My soul has not striven for anything
- its striving is (only) for Ikhlas (sincerity)."
That which many of us consider insignificant requires immense
striving. If there is any bit of Riya (show-off) in a person, he is not a
mukhlis (one who possesses Ikhlas - sincerity). Perhaps, Riya might
be in his heart and it becomes a cause of his destruction at the last
Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) mentioned (a story with regards to) the
effects of sins and its consequences. Aman indulged in Riba (interest
- forbidden business) was prompted to recite the Shahadah by his
family members at the verge of death. But he would only say 'ten
eleven' because his heart only contained those prohibited issues that
prevailed and overwhelmed it at the last moment. We seek Allah's
When Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) was at the verge of death
– and his knowledge, worship and piety are well-known –
whenever he lost consciousness, he wouldsay, "not yet, not yet.'
So he was asked upon regaining his consciousness, "O Abu
Abdullah, what was your saying, 'not yet, not yet?’ ”
He replied, "I sawShaytan biting on his fingers and saying, 'You
have passed me. OAhmad.' I told him, 'Not yet, not yet.' meaning
I have not passedyouas longas the soul inthe body.
Man is thus in danger and as the Prophet said, "...until there is no
more than a cubit between him and it (Paradise) then the decree
overtakes himand he does the actions of the people of Hell and thus
he enters it (Hell)."
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(iii) The Annual Writing
(iv) The Continuous Daily Writing
which is recorded annually
during Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Qadr). (This Writing is)
concerningwhat will happenduringthe (coming) year.
"We sent it (this Qur'an) down on a blessed night in the month of
Ramadan. Verily, We are ever warning. Therein (that night) is
decreedeverymatter of ordainments." [Soorahad-Dukhan(44): 3-4]
'decreed' means everyissue is clarifiedandspecifiedindetail.
Allah also says, “Verily! We have sent it (this Qur'an) down in the
night of al-Qadr.” [Soorahal-Qadr (97): 1]
is the writing of
the actions because indeed man does not act except that it is
recorded – whether the act was in his favor or against him as Allah
says, “Nay! But you deny the recompense. But verily, over you (are
appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you, Kiraman
(honorable) Katibeen writing down (your deeds). They know all that
youdo.” [Soorahal-Infitaar (82): 9-10]
“Indeed We have created man, and We know what his own self
whispers to him. We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our
Knowledge). (Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels)
receive, one sitting on the right and the other on the left. Not a word
does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by himready (to record
it).” [Soorahal-Qaf (50): 16-18]
This Continuous Daily Writing is different from the previous
writings. The previous writings are concerning what man will do
whereas this writing is concerning actions which he has performed
andthus he will be recompensed(accounted) for them.
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(v) The Writing of the Angels that are present at the
doors of the mosques on Friday. They write down (the names of)
those whoreachthe mosque first.
Whoever reaches at the first hour, it is as if he has sacrificed
a camel (in Allah's cause).
Whoever goes in the second hour it is as if he has sacrificed
a cow.
Whoever goes in the third hour, it is as if he has sacrificed a
horned ram.
Whoever goes in the fourth hour, it is as if he has sacrificed
a hen.
Whoever goes in the fifth hour, it is as if he has offered an
When the Imam comes out (i.e. starts delivering the sermon),
the angels present themselves to listen to the sermon."
[Saheeh al-Bukharee]
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Everything exists or does not exist by the Will of Allah. The
Muslims are largely unanimous on this issue and all of them
agree, “Whatsoever Allah Wills happens and what He does not
Will does not occur.”
The Actions of Allah are without doubt by the Mashee'ah (Will) of
Allah like creation, provision, life and death. Similarly actions of the
creationare alsobythe Mashee'ah(Will) of Allah.
The proof from the Quran is the Saying of Allah, “If Allah had willed,
succeeding generations would not have fought against each other
after clear Verses of Allah had come to thembut they differed - some
of them believed and others disbelieved. If Allah had willed, they
would not have fought against one another but Allah does what He
likes.” [Soorahal-Baqarah(2): 253]
Everythingoccurs bythe Will of Allah.
level 3
the will
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ﺔﺌﻴﺸﭼﻟl ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟl ﺔﺒﺗﺮﭼﻟl
Fighting is the actionof the creationwhichAllahcaused (to occur) by
His Mashee'ah(Will).
Allah says,
“We have appointed enemies for every Prophet
Shayateen among mankind and jinn,
inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.
If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it,”
[Soorah al-An'aam (6): 112]
“If Allah had willed they would not have done so.”
[Soorah al-An'aam (6): 112]
“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight -
and you will not unless (it be) that Allah wills,
the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists).”
[Soorah at-Takwir (81): 29]
Our actions thus occur bythe Will of Allah
(that everything – the good and evil - exists by the Will of Allah)
Question: Is the creationthe dominionof Allah?
Reply: Yes.
Question: Can there be anything in the dominion of Allah which
Allahdoes not want?
Reply: No. As long as the thing belongs to Allah, there cannot be
anythinginHis Dominionthat Allahdoes not want.
Rational proof
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Thus, everything that is in Allah's Dominion is by His Will and
Decision. There can never be anything in His Dominion that which
He does not want.
If there were in His Dominion that which He does not will then His
Dominion would be deficient, (because) there would be in His
dominion that which would occur without His Knowledge and be
beyondHis Control.
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Faith in the Creation means believing that Allah created everything.
The proof is the Sayingof Allah,
“He (Allah) has created everything
and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.”
[Soorah al-Furqan (25): 1-2]
“Allah is the Creator of all things
and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.)
over all things.” [Soorah az-Zumar (39): 62]
“He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth.
How can He have children when He has no wife?
He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.”
[Soorah al-An'am (6): 102]
“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.”
[Soorah al-Qamar (54): 49]
level 4
the creation
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ﻖﻠﺨﻟl ﺔﻌﺑlﺮﻟl ﺔﺒﺗﺮﭼﻟl
There are numerous verses which clearly mention that everything is
a creation of Allah - even actions of mankind are a creation of Allah
although they are by the choice and will of man because the actions
of manare anoutcome of twothings:
a) Strong will
b) Complete strength
, if I were to ask you to lift a rock weighing 10
kgandyourefuse saying, "I don't want tolift it."
Inthis case, youdecide torefuse tolift the rock.
I again ask you to lift the rock and you say, "Yes." So, you try to
lift the rockbut youare unable todoso.
Inthis case, youare unable tolift the rockdue tolackof strength.
For the third time I ask you to lift and you say, "Yes." This time
youlift it over your head.
Inthis case, youliftedthe rockbyyour strengthanddecision.
All our actions are thus an outcome of strong will and complete
strength, andthe One Whocreatedthis will andstrengthis Allah.
If Allahhadcausedyoutobe paralyzed, thenyouwouldbe incapable.
If Allah had changed your intention of doing that act, then (too) you
wouldnot have done it.
ABedouinwas asked, "Bywhat doyouknowyour Lord?"
He replied, "Through revoking of one's intentions and
changingof one's interest."
For example
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Man sometimes firmly resolves to do something then he changes his
mind without any cause. Sometimes one goes out intending to meet a
friend but he changes his mind and does not go without a reason. It is
Allah, Whocausedhis heart tochange his intentionandsohe returns.
Therefore, we say, "The actions of manare a creationof Allahbecause
they are an outcome of strong will and complete strength and the
Creator of this will andstrengthis Allah."
Allah is the Creator of will and strength (of man) because these are
the characteristics of the slave and the All-Powerful Who created the
slave is Allah. The Creator of the one whopossesses the characteristic
(i.e., the slave) is (also) the Creator of the creature's (slave's)
characteristics. It is thus clarified that the actions of man are a
creationof Allah.
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Allah has
Hereunder are discussions concerning
the issue of al-Qadar because this
subject - as we have mentioned at the
beginning of our discussion - is critical,
andincludes numerous issues.
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ﺔﺒﺤﻣ, «~l+| ﻪﻟ, ،ﺔﺌﻴﺸﻣ ﷲ .,ﻷl ﺚﺤﺒﭼﻟl
Allah says in the Quran,
"Allah does what He Wills (al-Mashee'ah)."
[Soorah Ibraheem (14): 27]
"Allah does what He wants (al-Iradah)."
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 253]
Are al-Mashee'ah (Will) and al-Iradah
(Want/Will) one and the same thing?
No, theyare different.
Are al-Iradah (Want/Will) and al-Mahabbah
(Love) one and the same thing? i.e., if Allah Loves something
(does it also mean that) He Wills it? and if Allah Wills
something(does it alsomeanthat) He loves it?
Al-Iradahandal-Mahabbahare not the same.
Sothere are three things –
(i) al-Mashee'ah
(ii) al-Iradah
(iii) al-Mahabbah
All three have different meanings.
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Al-Mashee'ah (Will)
Al-Mahabbah (Love)
Al-Iradahhas twoaspects;
concerns issues of the universe
regardless of whether it is lovedbyAllahor is detestable toHim. Allah
might Will something although He does not love it and He might Will
somethingthat He Loves.
Evil is createdbythe Will of AllahalthoughHe does not love it.
Corruption in the earth exists by the Will of Allah although Allah
does not love it.
Kufr exists bythe Will of AllahalthoughAllahdoes not love it.
So perhaps Allahmight Will anissue concerning the universe that He
does not love andHe might Will anissue whichHe Loves.
is related to issues of the Sharee'ah
(religious legislations).
Al-Mahabbah includes only those things which Allah has made
Evil is not loved by Allah but He loves obedience regardless of
whether it occurs or does not occur.
(a) an aspect which comprises of al-Mashee'ah
(b) an aspect which comprises of al-Mahabbah
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The first aspect of al-Iradah which includes
al-Mashee'ah is al-Iradah al-Kawniyah
(the Universal Will)
The second aspect of al-Iradah which includes Love
is al-Iradahash-Shar'iyyah(the Legislative Will).
The Universal Will necessarily occurs. If Allah wants
something to happen with regards to the universe then it
occurs without fail regardless of whether Allah loves it or
does not love it.
(al-Iradahal-Kawniyyahis mentionedinverses like)
"Allahdoes what He wants." [Soorahal-Baqarah(2): 253]
“If it is Allah's Will tokeepyouastray." [SoorahHud(11): 34]
This verse means, "If Allah Wills to keep you astray" and it does not
mean, 'Allah loves to keep you astray' because Allah does not love to
misguide His slaves.
The Legislative Will may not necessarily occur like the
Saying of Allah, "Allah wishes to accept your repentance."
[Soorahan-Nisa (4): 27]
The Will mentionedinthe verse is al-Iradahash-Shar'iyyahbecause if
it meant al-Mashee'ah (i.e., the universal Will which necessarily
occurs) then repentance would have occurred with regard to all
mankind but we see that there are people who repent and there are
those whodonot repent.
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It is possible that both the Wills – al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah
and al-Iradah ash-Shar'iyyah - agree with each other in one
situationlike for example, the Eemanof AbuBakr . This is what
It is the Legislative Will of Allah
It is the Universal Will of Allah
of al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah (Universal Will)
which is different from al-Iradah ash-Shar'iyyah (Legislative
Will) is the Kufr (disbelief) of Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab. Their
Kufr falls under al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah because Kufr is the
opposite of Sharee'ah and Allah does not love the
of al-Iradah ash-Shar'iyyah (Legislative Will)
which is different from al-Iradah al-Kawniyyah
is the Eemanof Fir'awn. It is the Shar’iyyahWill because
Allah sent Moosa to him. Moosa called him (to faith)
but Allah did not Will it to occur due to al-Iradah al-
Kawniyyahandtherefore, it didnot occur andFir'awndidnot
accept Eeman.
because Allahloves it.
because it occurred.
An example
An example
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- 30 -
for the
DESpite his
occurrence of
for it
- 31 -
ﻲﻧﺎﺜﻟl ﺚﺤﺒﭼﻟl
ﻪﻟ ﻪﺗ~l+| ﻊﻣ ﺮﻔﻜﻠﻟ ﻪﻧﺎﺤﺒﺳ ﷲl ﺔﻴﻫlﺮﻛ
If Allah hates Kufr (disbelief) then how is it that
He Wills it tooccur althoughnoone canforce Allah?
Murad(cause/motive) is of twokinds;
a) Murad (cause/motive) which is (loved) for oneself. The
thing that is beloved is wanted for one's own self, like
Eeman. So Eeman is the Murad of Allah universally and
legislativelybecause it is intendedfor Himself.
b) Murad (cause/motive) for (the well-being of) someone
else - meaning AllahWills it to occur not because He loves
it but when He arranges the well-being (of His creation,
He Wills it to occur) for the benefit of others. This canalso
include those issues which are due to Wisdom and not
due tobeingforced.
Kufr is detestable to Allah but Allah Wills it to occur for His slaves
If there was no Kufr, the believer would not have been
distinguished fromthe disbeliever and he would not deserve
praise since everybodywouldbe a Mu'min(believer).
If there was no Kufr, there would have been no struggling. Who
wouldfight the believers?
- 32 -
If there was no Kufr, the Mu'min (believer) would not have
valuedthe blessingof Islam.
If Kufr did not occur and all of mankind was Muslim then Islam
wouldnot have beena merit.
If Kufr did not occur, the creation of Hell-Fire would be futile
whereas Allah has mentioned, "If your Lord had so willed, He
could surely have made mankind one nation (all following
the religion of Islam) but they will not cease to disagree -
except himon whomyour Lord has bestowed His Mercy and
for that did He create them. The Word of your Lord has been
fulfilled, "Surely, I shall fill Hell with jinn and men all
together.’" [SoorahHud(11): 118-119]
It is thus clear that the universal will – which might be detestable to
Allah– couldbe intendedfor (the well-beingof) others.
A father immensely loves his son. If a spark of fire was to fall on the
son, it would hurt the father's heart as though the spark fell on him
due tohis love for the son.
The son falls sick and is taken to the doctor, who prescribes that the
son be treated with cauterization* (treatment by fire) in order to
regainhis health. The father agrees tothe treatment.
This (decision of the father) is for the sake of the son and not for his
ownself. It is for (the well-beingof) someone other thanhimself.
* A medical term describing the burning of a part of body to remove or close off a
part – in a process called Cautery which destroys some tissue in an attempt to
mitigate damage, remove an undesired growth or minimize other potential medical
harmful possibilities such as infections, when antibiotics are not available.
- 33 -
You thus find that the father, with full calmness, comfort and
contentment decides that his son be cauterized with fire although if a
spark of fire was to fall on his son, it was as if it fell on the father's
It is thus known that something hateful can occur - not for one's
ownself but for (the well-beingof) someone else.
It is also known that something detestable might be done - not for
one's own self but for the sake of someone else. Such is also the case
of Kufr, sin and corruption. Allah Wills it when it assures well-being –
thus Kufr is willedby Allahfor the sake of others andnot for His Own-
- 34 -
and the slave’s
with it
- 35 -
ﻪﺑ ﺎﺿﺮﻟl, ﷲl ·ﺎﻀﻗ ﺚﻟﺎﺜﻟl ﺚﺤﺒﭼﻟl
It is obligatory
It is obligatory
upon us to believe in the Decree of Allah
whatever it might be and be pleased with it (i.e., the Decreeing of
What has beendecreedis of twotypes;
1. The Legislative Decree (or the religious decree)
2. The Universal Decree
upon us to be pleased with the legislative
decree like:
Allahhas prescribed . We have to believe in
its obligationandaccept it.
Allah has decreed the prohibition of adultery. It is obligatory
uponus tobelieve inits prohibition.
Allah has decreed the legitimacy of trade. It is obligatory upon
us to believe that trade is halaal (permissible) and be pleased
Allah has decreed the prohibition of Riba (usury). It is obligatory
uponus tobelieve andaccept its prohibition.
The bottomline of this issue is that it is obligatory to be pleased with
the Shar’iyyah (Legislative) Decree and accept it because,
"Whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the
disbelievers." [Soorahal-Maidah(5): 44]
but is it obligatory upon us to be pleased with what has been
the five daily prayers
- 36 -
The Universal Decree is that which Allah decrees concerning the
universe. If this decree is lovedby one andis inaccordance withone's
nature thenpleasure withit is fromthe natural instinct of man.
For example,
If Allah decrees for the slave to be knowledgeable then he is
If Allah decrees for the slave to be wealthy then he is pleased
If Allah decrees that the slave has children then he will be
pleasedwiththe Decree of Allah.
and does not
agree with his nature like sickness, poverty, ignorance, loss of
children, etc. then the scholars have disagreed concerning it. Some
saidthat it is obligatorytobe pleasedwithit while others saidthat it is
Mustahabb(recommended) tobe pleasedwithit. The correct opinion
is that
Man can be in four conditions when the decree is unfavorable and
does not agree withhis nature,
a) Dissatisfaction
b) Patience
c) Pleasure
d) Thankfulness
If the decree is not favorable to man
pleasure with the unfavorable universal decree of Allah is
- 37 -
1) Dissatisfactionis prohibited.
(for example) If one is afflicted with hardship
concerning his wealth, then he is dissatisfied with
the Decree and Will of Allah. He starts scratching his
face and tearing his clothes. He finds in himself
hatred for Allah's arrangement of affairs. This is
prohibitedandtherefore Allah's Messenger cursed
the one, who wails and the one who listens to it, "He
is not fromus, whoslaps his cheeks, tears his clothes,
andcalls the call of ignorance."
No, never does it ever decrease the hardship of the calamity, rather it
increases it. Manbecomes dissatisfiedandgrief-stricken. He does not
gain any benefit from it. The Decree of Allah will surely occur no
matter what. Youhave nopower over it - (it is not suchthat) if youhad
not done that then this would not have happened. This thinking is a
delusion from Shaytan. The decree will surely take place therefore
Allah's Messenger said, "Whatever occurred to you could not have
missedyou, andwhat missedyoucouldnot have occurredtoyou,"
Without doubt the decree has to occur as Allah Willed it, Allah's
Messenger said, “...if anything(inthe formof trouble) comes toyou,
don't say, “If I hadnot done that, it wouldnot have happenedsuchand
such,' but say, Allah did what He had ordained and your 'if' opens the
gate for Shaytan.” [SaheehMuslim(6441)]
Does this prohibited action, which is a major sin, decrease the
hardshipof the calamity?
- 38 -
If one drives in a car and has an accident and so he
pitifully says, "If I had not come out for this ride, then
mycar wouldnot have beendestroyed.”
Will this benefit him? No. It will never benefit because this accident
was decreed and the matter is carried out just as it is decreed no
matter what.
Man suffers from hardship and is saddened
but he practices patience and does not utter with his
tongue (anything that is displeasing to Allah), nor
(does any act that is displeasing to Allah) through his
limbs. He takes control of his heart andsays,
"O Allah, recompense me for my hardship and give
me that which is better than it. Verily, we belong to
Allah and to him we shall return." [See, Saheeh
The rulingof patience here is that of obligation.
hardship and not utter anything that is prohibited nor do anything
that is prohibited.
2. Sabr (Patience)
It is obligatory on man to be patient
ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ء اﺮﻴﺧ ﻲﻟ ﻒﻠﺧا ٬ﻲﺘﺒﻴﺼﻣ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻧﺮﺟ ﻢﻬﻠﻟا
نﻮﻌﺟا ﻪﻴﻟإ ﺎﻧإ ﷲ ﺎﻧإ
- 39 -
3. Ridaa (Pleasure)
Being pleased with the Decree of Allah despite being
afflictedbya calamity
The difference between Sabr (patience) and Ridaa
(pleasure) is that the heart of the Radi (one who is
pleased) is never hurt, it goes alongwiththe Decree.
Allah’s Messenger said, “...If he (the believer) is granted ease of
living, he is thankful and this is best for him. And if he is afflicted with
a hardship, he perseveres andthis is best for him.” [SaheehMuslim]
i.e., both the situations are the same for him as far as accepting the
decree of Allah is concerned. He is pleased whether he is in difficulty
or inease.
Some of the scholars say that this (state of affair) is obligatory while
the majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is
not obligatory- rather it is Mustahab(recommended).
Ridaa (pleasure) is without doubt a more complete state than Sabr
(patience) but as for making it obligatory uponthe people and saying
that it is obligatory upon you to be in the same state during calamity
and in its absence is difficult and no one can handle it. Man can
practice patience but he is incapable of beingpleasedat all times.
- 40 -
4. Shukr (Thankfulness)
One might findthis strange. Howcanone be afflicted
with calamity and thank Allah? Isn't this contrary to
the nature of man?
Man would be thankful to Allah if he were to know the rewards of a
calamity that is endured with patience. Allah says, "Only those who
are patient shall receive their rewards in full, without reckoning."
[Soorah az-Zumar (39): 10] and He said, "give glad tidings to as-
Sabireen (the patient ones, etc.) who, when afflicted with calamity,
say: "Truly! To Allahwe belong andtruly to Himwe shall return. They
are those on whom are the Salawaat (blessings) from their Lord and
His Mercy...” [Soorahal-Baqarah(2): 155-157]
One says, "Howtrivial andworthless is this worldinmy eyes! If I were
to gain from this calamity - which I bear with patience - such
blessings, mercy of Allah and rewards without reckoning.” - then one
will thankAllahfor this blessing.
He will then see that this is a blessing from Allah because the whole
world is transient whereas the rewards, blessings and mercy are
forever – sohe thanks Allahfor this calamity.
Thankfulness upon calamity is Mustahab (recommended) and not
obligatory because it is of a higher level than pleasure – however,
thankfulness uponblessings is obligatory.
So, these are the states of man with respect to what is decreed
universally and that which are against nature and not favorable to
- 41 -
What do you say about being pleased with
regards to what man does (against) the religious rulings like
adultery and robbery. Are you pleased with his adultery and
There are twoaspects tothis:
First: Allah decreed it and originated it and therefore it is a
universal decree. We have to be pleased with it in this regard
and we do not say, 'Why Allah caused the adulterer to
commit adultery? Or why He caused the robber to commit
robbery?' We cannot raise objections.
Second: We are not pleased with the action of the slave. We
establish the Hadd (punishment) on him, "The woman and
the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them
with a hundred stripes. Let not pity withhold you in their
case, in a punishment prescribed by Allah, if you believe in
Allah and the Last Day. And let a party of the believers
witness their punishment." [Soorahan-Nur (24): 2]
Concerning the robber, Allah said, "Cut off the hand of the
thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they
committed, a punishment by way of example fromAllah. And
Allahis All-Powerful, All-Wise." [Soorahal-Maidah(5): 38]
It is known that flogging and cutting of hand is
displeasing. If one were to be pleased with them, then we
would not have inflicted it as a punishment upon them.
- 42 -
the sinner’s
Divine decree
by the
- 43 -
+ﺪﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﻦﻴﺒﻧﺬﭼﻟl ,ﺎﺠﺘﺣl ﻊﺑlﺮﻟl ﺚﺤﺒﭼﻟl
We have mentioned that everything is recorded, everything occurs
bythe Will of Allahandeverythingis a creationof Allah.
If we were to catcha mandisobeying Allahand ask him, "Why do you
commit disobedience?"
He replies, "This is bythe Will andDecree of Allah."
"This is a false argument. There is no justification for your sin in
predestination. The proof is the Saying of Allah, "Those who took
partners with Allah will say, "If Allah had willed, we would not have
taken partners with Him nor would our fathers...” Likewise, belied
those who were before them till they tasted of Our Wrath." [Soorah
al-An'am(6): 148]
So, Allah did not accept their excuse and the proof that He did not
accept their argument are the words, 'till theytastedof Our Wrath.'
If they had an excuse in the Divine Decree then Allah would not have
made themtaste the Wrath.
Sodoes this belief give the sinner anexcuse for his sins?
This statement is correct but if one uses this statement to
justifyhis sins thenthis is what we sayinreply,
- 44 -
But those whoare against
what we have mentionedwill
come upwiththis argument,
Howdoyouassert that Allahfalsifiedthe argument of those who
said, "If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners with
Him..." [Soorah al-An'am (6): 148] whereas Allah said to His
There is a difference betweenthe meanings of the two
"Follow what has been inspired to you (O Muhammad )
from your Lord, None has the right to be worshiped but He
and turn aside from those who associate partners with
Allah." [Soorahal-An'aam(6): 106-107]
This is a consolation for the Messenger, Allah is explaining to
himthat their Shirk is occurring by the Will of Allah- inorder
to calm the Prophet Allah is teaching the Prophet
that if it is the Will of Allah then it will surely occur and one
shouldbe pleasedwithit.
"Follow what has been inspired to you (O
Muhammad ) from your Lord, 'none has the right to be
worshipped but He' and turn aside from those who associate
partners with Allah. Had Allah willed, they would not have taken
others besides Himinworship. We have not made youa watcher
over themnor are you set over themto dispose of their affairs."
[Soorahal-An'am(6): 106-107]
- 45 -
As for the second verse, "If Allah had willed, we would not have taken
partners (inworship) withHim..." [Soorahal-An'am(6): 148]
Verily, Allah falsified their argument because they wanted to justify
their Shirk andsinby the Divine Decree. If they hadpresentedthe the
Divine Decree in order to submit to the Decree along with
rectification of the situation, then we would have accepted it from
them, like if they had committed Shirk and then said, “this occurred
by the Will of Allah, but we seek forgiveness and we repent from it.'
Then we say, 'you are correct.' But if they say when we forbid them
fromShirk, 'If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in
worship) with Him...” [Soorah al-An'am (6): 148] then this is not
acceptable fromthemat all.
The falsity of the argument of the sinner by
predestination is also proven by the Saying of Allah,
"Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in
order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the
Messengers." [Soorahan-Nisa (4): 165]
The proof inthis verse is that if sendingthe Messenger cuts out all the
excuses of the sinner then it means that the Decree was never an
excuse for the sinner - because if Decree was an excuse for the sinner
thenit should have beencut off by the sending of the messengers but
the Decree still stands.
- 46 -
Another proof of the falsity of usingthe Divine Decree as
an excuse is to say to those who use predestination as an excuse
- before you are two ways - a good way and an evil way. Before
entering the evil path, does he know that Allah has decreed for
himtoenter the pathof evil?
Surely he does not know. If he does not know then why does he not
expect that Allahhas decreedfor himthe pathof goodness?
Man does not know what Allah has decreed except after it occurs
because the Will of Allah, as some scholars said, is a concealedsecret.
It is not knownuntil after it occurs andwe witness it.
So we say to the sinner, 'You preceded yourself to the evil while you
were unaware that Allah had decreed it for you. So if you were
unaware then why did you not expect that Allah had decreed for you
the goodandtake the door togood?!'
If the sinner (who seeks to use al-Qadar as an excuse) is
asked, "What do you choose for your worldly affairs; good or
He will reply: the good.
We say: Then why do you not choose the good with regards
tothe affairs of the hereafter?
Similarly if we ask the sinner, "When you travel to a city and
there are twoways; the left way is not flat, has a deadendand
has great dangers while the right way is flat and safe. So
throughwhichpathwill youtravel?”
- 47 -
He will surelyreply, "Fromthe right."
We say, "Why do you go to the right way which has good and
success with regards to the issues of the world? Why do you
not go to the left path in which there is a dead end and is not
flat andthensay, 'this is decreedfor me?!”
He will reply, "I do not know the decree but I choose for
myself the better option.”
So we say, "Why do you not choose the best with regards to
the Hereafter (too)?!"
We catch any man and begin to violently beat
him. Whenever he screams we tell him, 'This is
the Decree of Allah.'
Surely he will not accept it whereas whenever he disobeys Allah, he
says, 'this is the Decree of Allah' but if we disobeyAllahconcerningan
issue that pertains to him, he will not accept when we tell him, 'this is
the Decree of Allah' rather he will say, 'this is your action.’
A thief was brought before Ameerul-Mumineen Umar
Ibn Khattab who ordered that the thief's hands be
cut because suchis (prescribedinthe Sharee'ah).
So the thief said, “Wait, O Ameerul-Mu'mineen, By
Allah, I didnot steal except byAllah’s Will andDecree.
Another example:
Will he accept this justification?
Is this not a proof against him?
- 48 -
The thief was truthful in his statement but before
him was Umar ibn Khattab, who said, “We are not
cutting your hands except with the Will and Decree
of Allah.” Then he ordered the cutting by the Decree
of Allah. So Umar used the same argument against
himwhichthe thief usedas a proof.
that Allah's Messenger approved of
using the Divine Decree as an excuse in the Hadeeth which
mentions that Adam used the Divine Decree as an excuse.
When Moosa said, “you are our father, you caused us and
yourself to be expelled from Paradise.” So, Adam said, “Do you
blame me for that which Allah had written for me before He
created me? So the Messenger said, 'So, Adam overpowered
Moosa.” [Saheehal-Bukharee]
i.e., Adam won the argument, although argued
baseduponthe Will of Allahandhis Decree.
Doesn't this Hadeeth approve using Divine Decree as an
This is not anexcuse by the Will andDecree of Allahfor the
action of the slave or his sin.
It is an excuse by
the Divine Decree for the affliction and not the sins, and
therefore he said, 'you caused yourself and us to be expelled
from Paradise.' And he did not say, 'you disobeyed your Lord
andcausedus tobe expelledfromParadise.’
If someone argues
u u Adam
It is an excuse by the Divine Decree
for the calamity that resulted from the action.
- 49 -
So, Adam used the Divine Decree as an excuse for the
expulsion from Paradise which is considered a calamity, and
and someone said to you, 'Why did you travel? If
you had stayed at home then this would not have happened to
you?' Howwill you reply? You will reply saying, 'this is the Will of
Allah and His Decree. I did not come out in order to run into an
accident, rather I came out for goodbut I met withanaccident.
Similarly, did Adam disobey Allah in order to be expelled from
No. What happenedtohimwas merelythe Will andDecree of Allah.
Therefore, Adam’s excuse by the Decree for the calamity that
occurred is a sound argument and therefore Allah's Messenger
said, "Adamover-poweredMoosa."
what would you say concerning a man
whocommittedsins, regrettedandthenrepentedfor?
One of his brothers came to him and asked, 'How did this
He replies, 'This is the Will of AllahandHis Decree.'
Is his excuse correct?
Yes, it is correct because he repented. He did
using the Divine Decree as an excuse for calamities is not
not use the Divine
Decree as anexcuse tocontinue his sinrather he is regretful.
If you were to travel and then meet with an
Another example,
- 50 -
Anexampleof this is the followingincident.
Allah's Messenger entered upon Ali ibn Abee Talib
and Fatima and found themsleeping, and it was as
if the Messenger blamed them for not waking up
(for prayers) So, Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “O Messenger
of Allah, verily our souls are in the Hands of Allah. If
He Wishes, He ceases them, and when he wishes He
sends them. The Messenger of Allah left while
saying, "But, man is ever more quarrelsome than
anything." [Soorahal-Kahf (18): 54]
No, rather the
Prophet explained that this is arguing because the Prophet
knows that the souls are in the Hands of Allah but man has to be
determinedandmake sure that he wakes upfor prayers.
In conclusion, it is clear to us that using the Divine Decree as an
excuse for calamities is permissible. Similarly, using
as an excuse for sin after repentance is permissible. As for
using as an excuse for sinning in order to become
guilt-free andpersist insinis not permissible.
r r
So, did the Prophet accept the excuse?
the Divine
the Divine Decree
- 51 -
- 52 -
does man have
- 53 -
ﺲﻣﺎﺨﻟl ﺚﺤﺒﭼﻟl
؟ﺮﻴﺨﻣ «ì ﺮﻴﺴﻣ .ﺎﺴﻧﻻl ﻞﻫ
The following statement has become widespread
amongst people in today's times;
If the actions whichmanperforms are those concerningwhichhe has
a choice thenmanhas freedomof choice like his beingable toeat and
drink. Therefore, when the call to Fajr prayer is heard, some people
proceedtowards water. This is bytheir choice.
Similarly, whenmanfeels sleepyhe goes tobedbyhis choice.
When he hears the call for the Maghrib prayer he eats by his
Similarlyyouwill findthat manhas freedomof choice inall actions.
then the punishment of the sinner would be
injustice. Howcanmanbe punishedfor something over whichhe has
then how could man be rewarded for
something over which he has no control? Are punishments and
rewards futile?
So, man has choice but he does not performany action except that it
is Decreed by Allah because there is an authority over his authority,
but Allah does not force man. Man has choice and and he acts by his
Therefore, when an act occurs without the man's intention, then it is
not attributed to him. Allah said about the people of the Kahf, “We
'Does man have freedom of choice
or is he bound (by the Decree of Allah)?'
If it was not so
If it was not so
- 54 -
turned them on their right and on their left sides." [Soorah al-Kahf
(18): 18]
Sothe act of turningis attributedtoAllah, because theywere sleeping
and they had no power over themselves, Allah's Messenger said,
“He, who forgetfully eats or drinks in the state of fasting, then his
fastingis complete because verily, Allahfeeds himand...”
So, the feeding and drinking is attributed to Allah because the man
didnot doit bychoice. He didnot choose toruinhis fast byeatingand
Consequently, I have not seen this statement in books of the Sahabah
or the Taba'een, and those who followed them, nor in the statements
of the scholars, not even in the writings of Shaikhul-Islam ibn
Taymiyah, IbnQayimor fromthe philosophers. Rather, this has come
up in later times and people have started to think about it, “Is man in
control or is he controlled?”
We knowthat we performactions by our choice and decision. We do
not feel that anybodyis compellingus or forcingus todoit. Rather we
are the ones who want to do something, then we do it and if we want
toabandonit, we abandonit.
But as we said earlier in the levels of the Divine
Decree that our actions are a result of strong will and
complete strength and these are two characteristics
in ourselves, and we are a creation of Allah, and the
creator of the bark is the creator of the branches
- 55 -
- 56 -
of faith in the
DIVINE decree
- 57 -
+ﺪﻘﻟl, ·ﺎﻀﻘﻟﺎﺑ .ﺎﭼرﻹl ﺪﺋlﻮﻓ
1. Completion of faith in Allah
2. Completion of the pillars of Eeman
3. Man stays content
4. Completion of Faith in Allah's Lordship.
5. Faith in the Divine Decree truly exposes
man to the Wisdomof Allah
because Qadar is the
Power of Allah, soEemaninit is the completionof one's FaithinAllah.
Allah's Messenger mentioned it under Eeman in the Hadeeth of
because he knows that everything is
fromAllah, he is pleased with it and content. He knows that what has
occurred to him could not have missed him and what missed him
couldnot have occurredtohim.
We have already mentioned that what has occurred can never be
changed, so do not attempt, think or say 'If,' because that which has
occurredcannot be changedor altered.
resembles the first benefit because if man become pleased with Allah
as his Lord, then he submits to his Decision and Decree and relies
concerning His Decree of
good and evil. Man knows that behind his thinking and imagination,
there is the One, Whois Greater andmore Knowledgeable. Therefore,
many a time we doa thingor somethinghappens andwe hate it while
it is goodfor us.
- 58 -
Sometimes, man perceives that Allah restricted him from doing
something he wants, then later when things takes place, he
understands that the goodwas innot doingit.
Howmany times do we hear that someone reserves a seat ina certain
airline for a trip, then when he reaches (the airport), he finds that he
has missed the flight and the trip - and then the plane meets an
So, before when he had arrived to board the flight and found that it
had taken off, he was saddened but when the accident occurred, he
knows that it was good (on his part) and therefore, Allah says,
“Strugglingis ordainedfor you(Muslims) thoughyoudislike it. It may
be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a
thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.”
[Soorahal-Baqarah(2): 216]
- 59 -

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