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Eric Gilbertson, egilbert@mit.

edu
Kavya K.Manyapu, kavyam@mit.edu
Lennon Rodgers, rodgers@mit.edu
2.14/2.140 Analysis and Design of Feedback Control
Systems
(Spring 2009 Term Project)
May14
th
,2009
Objective & Motivation
Problem Definition
Technical Approach
Theoretical Plant Model
Controller Design
Simulation Results
Experimental Design
Results
Conclusions
Electric Vehicles (EVs) could soon become a
transportation option in the U.S.
EVs can be modeled and controlled using the
tools learned in this class
SISO system
The speed is controlled via a
single 0-5V signal (throttle)
www.electricmotion.org
Accurate model of the motorcycle
Add speed control to the electric motorcycle
Rise Time (~4 seconds) for step input of 13 m/s (~30 MPH)
Zero Steady State Error
Theoretical Motorcycle (Plant) Model
Controller Choice PID
P = Good disturbance rejection
I = Zero steady state error
D = Faster response
SISO tools/Matlab ROM of gains
Simulink to model and tune gains
Validated the model using experimentation
Equations of Motion

V
in
= iR +V
emf
+ L
di
dt

J

= z F
w
r
w

m x = F
w
C( x + 2 x w + w
2
) ( + Sin)mg


X =
V
in
Ls+ R
K
t
z
J
r
w
+ mr
w
(
\
|
\
!
|
s+Cr
w
(1+ 2w)
(
\
|
\
!
| +
K
t
z
r
w
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

( + sin )mgr
w
+Cw
2
r
w
J
r
w
+ mr
w
(
\
|
\
!
|
s+C(1+ 2w)r
w
+
K
t
2
z
2
Ls+ R
( )
r
w
|
|
|
|
|
|
Constant Description Method Value
L Inductanceofthemotor
Measuredwithinductance
meter
50*10
6
Hen.
R Resistanceofmotor MeasuredwithOhmmeter 0.12Ohm
K
t
Torqueconstant
Determinedfrom
manufacturersdata
0.187Nm/AmpandVolt/
rad
m
Totalmassofmotorcycle
anddriver
Calculated/Estimated 295kg
J
CombinedMomentof
Inertiaforbothfrontand
rearwheels
Calculated/Estimated 1.4kgm
2

z SprocketRatio Fixed 6
r
w
Radiusofthewheel Measured/Estimated 0.32m
C
d
DragCoecient Estimated 0.6
A FrontalAreaofmotorcycle Estimated 0.41m
2


P
w
= F
w
x =
1
2
AC
d
(20+ 2)
2
+ mg






20

P
w
meter
= (P
meter
P
lights
) 0.88
Eciencyofmotor
Tunedvaluesof,AandC
d

(withinuncertainty)toobtain:


P
w
meter
= P
w
PID gains estimated using SISO
tools
Finalized using Simulink:
K
P
= 3, K
I
= 1/2, K
d
= 1/5
StepInput,13m/s
13m/s
AnalogInput:Throttle(05V)
Note:voltagedividerwasused
DigitalInput:Speedometerpulses
AnalogOutput:Commandsignal(05V)
StepInput,OpenLoop
C
o
m
m
a
n
d
/
P
I
D

M
o
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

StepInput,ClosedLoop
StepInput,ClosedLoop,BeaconHill StepInput,Openvs.ClosedExp.,Flat
Design and implementation of a PID
controller
Validation of the design through experiment
Future work
Use plant model to predict power consumption and
compare to the experimental (power meter)
Lessons learned
EM noise is a serious issue with power electronics
Arduino microcontroller was a good final choice
Gene F. Franklin, 2006, Feedback Control of
Dynamic Systems, 5
th
Edition, Prentice Hall
Vittore Cossalter, Motorcycle Dynamics, 2
nd

Edition
Electric motorcycle design:
www.electricmotion.org
?