This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Wind Energy Industry Manufacturing Supplier Handbook
About the Sponsors
AWEA is a national trade association representing wind power project developers, equipment suppliers, services providers, parts manufacturers, utilities, researchers, and others involved in the wind industry - one of the world’s fastest growing energy industries. The Association provides up-to-date information on wind energy projects operating, new projects in various stages of development, companies working in the wind energy field, technology development, and policy developments related to wind and other renewable energy development. People count on AWEA to provide up-to-date, accurate information about the domestic and international wind energy industry.
The BlueGreen Alliance Foundation (BGAF) is a 501(c)(3) organization that works with the BlueGreen Alliance — a national partnership of fourteen labor unions and environmental organizations dedicated to expanding the number and quality of jobs in the green economy — to conduct research and educate the public and media about solutions to environmental challenges that create economic opportunities for the American people. BGAF’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Center focuses on job creation opportunities in the emerging clean energy industries. The Center serves as ‘one-stop shop’ for public officials looking to develop clean energy strategies for their communities as well as manufacturers looking to participate in supply chains in the growing wind power and solar energy industries.”
Global Wind Network is an international supply chain advisory group and network of manufacturers whose mission is to increase the domestic content of North America’s wind turbines, onshore and offshore. GLWN helps manufacturers identify and evaluate technical and business pathways in the wind sector and connect them with potential customers and their specific product needs. They also link wind industry OEM’s and component suppliers to help them expand their businesses and keep pace with market demand as well as supporting smart public policy initiatives and integrated federal/state/industry efforts that are key to expanding the wind industry.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) works with small and mid-sized U.S. manufacturers to help them create and retain jobs, increase profits, and save time and money. The nationwide network provides a variety of services, from innovation strategies to process improvements to green manufacturing. MEP also works with partners at the state and federal levels on programs that put manufacturers in position to develop new customers, expand into new markets and create new products. MEP field staff has over 1,400 technical experts – located in every state – serving as trusted business advisors, focused on solving manufacturers’ challenges and identifying opportunities for growth.
MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The
Wind Energy Industry
Table of Contents
Overview Section I — Wind Energy Market
GLOBAL WIND ENERGY MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN U.S. WIND ENERGY MARKET
8 9 11
Section II — Anatomy of a Wind Turbine Section III — Doing Business with OEMs
SUPPLY CHAIN OPPORTUNITIES THE ROLE OF INTEGRATORS ADDITIONAL SUPPLIER OPPORTUNITIES
28 29 31 33
Section IV— Meeting OEM Requirements
WHAT IS EXPECTED FROM A NEW SUPPLIER MARKET ENTRY TIPS WHAT SUCCESSFUL COMPANIES HAVE DONE DIRECTORY OF MAJOR INDUSTRY PLAYERS
34 36 38 39 40
The Wind Energy Supplier Development project is supported by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Energy Foundation. Wind Energy Industry Manufacturing Supplier Handbook is a publication of AWEA - BlueGreen Allliance - GLWN Photo Acknowledgement: (Front Cover) Rotek Inc., Ohio (Back Cover) Gamesa, Pennsylvania
This wind energy industry manufacturing supplier handbook is designed as a starting point for manufacturers interested in becoming suppliers to the industry. It provides information on the potential growth of wind energy markets, describes the ‘anatomy’ of a wind turbine and it’s components and provides an understanding of the practices and OEM requirements that are relatively common in the utility scale turbine industry.
While the wind industry has seen remarkable growth in the U.S. over the past several years, a significant portion of the parts and components for wind turbines are currently still being manufactured overseas. The sponsors of this handbook are committed to building a strong domestic manufacturing sector in the wind energy industry and our goal through this handbook is to inform manufacturers of market opportunities and ultimately increase the number of component manufactures that participate in industry supply chains.
However, it’s important to recognize that manufacturing components for the wind energy market is not necessarily an appropriate diversification strategy for many companies. OEM’s have very rigorous supplier qualification and quality requirements due to the very high cost of repair in the field and entry barriers may be high for some components.
As a result, we have made an effort to provide you with information to help you decide if this is the right market for your company, where you might fit in and whether you might qualify as a 1st, 2nd or 3rd tier supplier.
MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The
Wind Energy Industry
The handbook has been divided into several sections. Section I identifies industry opportunities for manufacturers and covers the Wind Energy Markets. schematics and descriptions of the major sub-components. A listing of the major wind turbine OEMs and 1st Tiers companies is also provided.S. both in the U. which describes the major working components.000 components. Section II offers a detailed review of the Anatomy of a Wind Turbine. It describes industry growth over the past decade and projections through 2020. Each of the major systems is reviewed with pictorials. Section IV outlines some Next Steps to help you decide the best fit for your company in this industry and how to get connected with existing supply chain partners. We describe a manufacturing model that has proven to be competitive and successful in this industry. Quality management system requirements are also reviewed. Please feel free to contact us with any questions or comments. and globally. starting with an Introduction that provides you with an overview of wind turbines and basic terminology. Section III focuses on the Structure of Supply Chains and requirements for component manufacturing. A turbine is a collection of systems that converts wind energy into electrical energy and includes an estimated 8. MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 5 .
S.3. • Residential scale wind turbines are less than 100kW. this would still be considered North America’s largest wind turbine.000 components. or business and can be connected to the electric grid or connected only to a storage battery or a building.000 wind turbines per year. farm. mostly for agricultural and rural applications. has a hub height of 262 feet (80 m) with a rotor diameter of 262 feet (80. By the 1920s. Utility scale turbines are greater than 1MW. The two-blade turbine (on the right). Community scale turbines are 100kW . They contain an average of 1. and supplies extra generated energy to the electric grid.000 . They contain an average of 30 . was a 3.000 components. like several buildings of a school or a shopping complex. The GE 1. factories were producing 100.S. The first wind turbine was invented by Charles Brush of Cleveland. due to funding cutbacks.5 m) (GE). a common utility scale model. The first large commercial utility-scale turbine was developed at the NASA Glenn Space Center. According to AWEA. with funding from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.Introduction Wind power as a commercial source of energy is an American invention. typically used for a specific load. built in response to the emerging oil crisis..1000kW (1MW).80 components. These small turbines are typically about 80 feet tall with a rotor diameter of 18 feet (AWEA). typically used for a home. typically connected to a transmission grid.2 megawatt wind turbine 6 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . in the 1970s.200 kilowatt or 3. wind turbines can be classified into three categories and this handbook will primarily address issues relating to utility scale turbines.5MW wind turbine. • • 1888: 12 kilowatt wind turbine 1970-1980 3. Ohio who constructed a 60 feet tall 12 kilowatt turbine in 1888 (see photo on the left). Hawaii in 1980 If not decommissioned. an average American home would need a 5kW wind turbine for its electricity needs.2MW unit and installed in Oahu. Today in the U. also in Cleveland. They can contain as many as 8. U.
5 MW turbine weighs 5.290 kg (6. TOWERS: Towers are usually tubular steel towers 60 to 80 meters about 195 to 260 feet high that consist of three sections of varying heights. OEMs typically have unique designs for wind turbine nacelles and the leading global OEMs manufacture nacelles in-house. though there are some with two blades. it connects the blades with the drivetrain.9 tons). rolled into the conical shape and then welded into rings. Rings are then welded together and painted. each consisting of metal rings that are thickest at the bottom of the tower and are conical in shape since towers taper slightly from the base to a narrower opening at the top. Nacelle components are produced (in-house or by outside suppliers) to the specifications of the OEM and then assembled at the nacelle plant. Blades are advanced in design. with the most common sizes around 40 meters (130 feet). gearbox. During the manufacturing process plated sheets are cut.0 MW turbine weighs 6. These usually have 3 sections. depending on the design and materials — a 40 meter LM Wind Power blade for a 1.Terminology BLADES: Most wind turbines have three blades. BLADE HUB NACELLE TOWER HUBS: The hub is the component to which the blades are attached. Blade weights vary. generator. (There are some towers with heights around 100 meters (330 feet). PERSON MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 7 . and shafts. OEMs usually have unique designs for blades. and may manufacture blades or purchase them from suppliers. Blades are generally 30 to 50 meters (100 to 165 feet) long. Some companies license wind turbine designs to other companies and several companies contract out nacelle manufacturing.4 tons) and one for a 2. Manufacturing includes labor-intensive processes like adding layers of fiberglass to blade molds and finishing the edges of the blades. NACELLES: The nacelle houses the main components of the wind turbine. but labor intensive in the manufacturing process. It is one of the single largest components of the turbine and each hub can weigh over 15 tons. The plants that produce nacelles are primarily assembly facilities. such as the controller. OEMs design towers.780 kg (6.
Section 1 Wind Energy Market 8 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .
Until 2010.The amount of electrical generating capacity worldwide available from windpower over the past 15 years has risen to close to 200.139 1.7 3.3 CUMMULATIVE CAPACITY (2010) COUNTRY China USA Germany Spain India Italy France UK Canada Denmark Rest of the World MW 44.214 20.493 1. and China having established themselves as global leaders. the U.181 27.1 1.Global Wind Energy Market US and China are the Leaders Over the past decade.9 1.116 2.7 World Total 35.065 5.204 4.676 13.S.750 % 46. NEWLY INSTALLED CAPACITY (2010) COUNTRY China USA India Spain Germany India UK Italy Canada Sweden Rest of the World MW 18. Currently.660 5.S.2 3.7 2.1 14.0 2.0 2.7 14.516 1.9 2.546 % 21.S.9 13.3 6. growing by almost 40% in 2009.8 20. electrical grids.009 3.0 4. with the U.7 13. and one of every five wind turbines worldwide is serving U.7 2.000MW.2 4.700 40.390 100 Source: AWEA and GWEC MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 9 .900 5.0 10.000 turbines have been installed in the U.752 26.6 1.086 962 948 690 603 4. had been global leaders in new installations for four years in a row.6 6. interest in wind energy has grown globally.802 100 World Total 194.S.797 5. over 35.
000 80.000 60.000 20.000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Charts Source: GWEC 10 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .Total Installed Global Capacity 200.000 120.000 40.000 140.000 180.000 160.000 100.
S.S. According to the U.S.180MW 2024 2030 LEGEND n OFFSHORE n LAND-BASED TIP Why “invest” in wind component manufacturing? Because for many it can prove a viable market for diversification. CHART A U. 20% WIND SCENARIO 305.S. 2010 40. opportunities for wind power in the U.Opportunities in U.S. the U. despite the economic downturn. Department of Energy’s “20% Wind Energy by 2030” report. 87% of American favor more wind power.000MW of installed capacity by 2030 – by the end of 2010. would have 305. MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 11 . it’s good for the environment and it’s a step in the right direction towards US energy independence. Wind Energy Market Over the past six years the U. According to these projections. the U. And 29 states have already passed renewable energy standards (see Chart B).000MW 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2006 2012 2018 Installed Capacity as of DEC 30. possesses sufficient and affordable wind resources to obtain at least 20% of its electricity from wind by the year 2030.S.S. Driving growth is the fact that our nation wants more wind energy. we were on track to meet these projections (see Chart A). According to a recent Harris Poll. continue to exist. wind energy market has seen significant growth and.
8% by 2025 NJ: 22. Pew Center. are in the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Energy 12 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . all growth to 2012 from RE and EE WA: 15% by 2020 WI: 10% by 2015 WV: 25% by 2025 Sources: (derived from data in) Lawrence Berkeley Labs.880 MW by 2015. including timelines. 1 GW wind goal by 2010 IL: 25% by 2025. 10% new by 2017. wind 75% of RPS KS: 20% by 2020 LA: 350 MW by 2012-13 MA: 15% new by 2020. then 1% annually. Details. 7 States and 3 Power Authorities have Goals CHART B LEGEND n RPS ACCELERATED OR STRENGTHENED RPS n VOLUNTARY STATE OR UTILITY STANDARDS OR GOALS AZ: 15% by 2025 CA: 33% by 2020 CO: 30% by 2020 10% – co-ops CT: 27% by 2020 DC: 20% by 2020 DE: 25% by 2025 HI: 40% by 2030 IA: 105 MW.5% by 2021 – IOUs 10% by 2018 – co-ops. have an RPS.5% by 2025 OK: 15% by 2015 OR: 25% by 2025 5 -10% – smaller utilities PA: 18% by 2020 RI: 16% by end 2019 SD: 10% by 2015 TX: 5. 500 MW non-wind goal UT: 20% by 2025 VA: 15% by 2025.Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Goals 29 states and D. munis ND: 10% by 2010 NE Public Power Districts: 10% by 2020 NH: 23.100 MW by 2015 MN: 25% by 2025. 8 GW wind goal by 2030 MI: 10% MWH and 1.C. 2 GW wind goal by 2020 MD: 20% by 2022 n ACCELERATED OR STRENGTHENED RPS n STRENGTHENED VOLUNTARY STANDARD n PILOT OR STUDY ME: 30% by 2010.5% by 2020 NM: 20% by 2020 – IOUs 10% – co-ops NV: 25% by 2025 NY: 30% by 2015 OH: 12. State Public Utility Commission (PUC) and legislative tracking services. goal with production incentives VT: 20% by 2017. 30% by 2020 – Xcel MO: 15% by 2021 MT: 15% by 2015 NC: 12.
Wind Energy Growth in U.000 Total Expected Online in Coming Years 30 17 20 Over 450 38.40 2.000 Source: AWEA MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 13 . wind turbine operations has jumped from just one in 2005 — GE Energy — to nine in 2010.500 Online 2010 22 11 12 Over400 20.S. The number of U. Mitsubishi.S. The following maps show the current installed wind power capacity in the U. the number of total facilities manufacturing components for the wind industry grew ten-fold.. KEY Turbine Nacelle Assembly Towers Blades US WIND TURBINE OEM NACELLE ASSEMBLY BY YEAR GE Energy 2002 2010 • Clipper 2006 2010 Gamesa 2006 2010 DeWind 20072010 Acciona 2008 2010 Northern Power Systems 2010* *manufacturing of 2. During this same period of time. from 40 in 2005 to over 400 in 2010.S.2 MW turbine Nordex 2010 Siemens 2010 Vestas 2010 Announced OEM Nacelle Assembly Facilities: Alstom.000 Announced 8 5 8 40 18. as well as the location of the manufacturing facilities. Nordic TOTAL OPERATING FACILITIES Online 2004 Towers Blades Nacelle Assembly Total Manufacturing Jobs 6 4 3 30 . A-Power.
675 353 2.275 18 70 266 164 2.192 457 386 10 1. 085 223 6 2.104 748 2 709 29 10.482 OR: PA: RI: SD: TN: TX: UT: VT: WA: WI: WV: WY: n >10.Installed Wind Power Capacity (MW) in 2010 WIND POWER CAPACITY IN MEGAWATTS n < 100 MW AL: AZ: CA: CO: DE: HI: IA: ID: IL: IN: KS: ND: NE 10 128 3.104 469 431 1.412 14 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .000 MW 2.046 1.299 2 63 3.074 1.177 1.00 MW TO 10.424 213 n 100 TO 1.000 MW 26 8 700 1.000 MW NH: NJ: NM: NY: MA: MD: ME: MI: MN: MO: MT: OH: OK: n >1.339 1.
Section II Anatomy of a Wind Turbine 15 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .
and controls. blade. The two typical configurations for these turbines are a modular gearbox system or a direct-drive system. the most common type. to explain the anatomy. electrical systems. This section reviews the construction of standard utility-scale wind turbines that are between one to three MW (Megawatt) in size. drivetrain. BLADE HIGH SPEED SHAFT BRAKING SYSTEM MAIN SHAFT BEARING HUB BLADE FACE BEARING ACTIVE HEAT EXCHANGER NACELLE COVER WIND MEASUREMENT POWER CONTROLLER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM YAW SYSTEM MAIN FRAME LOW SPEED SHAFT GEARBOX TOWER LUBRICATION SYSTEM GENERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM COLOR KEY n FABRICATED n COMPOSITE n CAST n FORGED n ELECTRICAL 16 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . rotor. communities.Anatomy of a Wind Turbine A wind turbine is a collection of operating systems that transfers the energy from wind into electric energy that ultimately will be used in homes. nacelle. yaw & pitch. gearbox. generator. and businesses. This style uses a gearbox to step up the rotor speed entering the generator. The main operating systems include: tower. This section will utilize the modular gearbox system.
Yaw Gear.200 tons of steel 50 . Lighting. Platforms. Ladders. Hoist. Cables SUPPLIER IMPLICATIONS • • • • 100 . Door Assemblies. Coatings/Paint. Flanges. Hatches. Brackets. Climb Assist.welded Attaches to concrete base and foundation • • Maximizes height for good wind 66% of total wind turbine weight INTERNAL COMPONENTS Steel Plate.Tower Rolled tower section Tower internals TOWER OVERVIEW • • • Supports the wind turbine Rolled steel sheet .120 meters in height Shipped in three sections or more Internals assembled at tower manufacturer MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 17 .
Carbon Fiber. Protective Painting/Coating. Root Insert. Barrel Nut. some are one piece) Core parts integrated into final blade assembly Hull with core materials Spar caps Spars with sandwich Root section Bolt holes 18 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .55 meters in length Vacuum resin infusion and pre-preg molding (most are two pieces. Fasteners.5 MW wind turbine BLADE OVERVIEW • • • Creates lifting force and rotational torque to generate power 70% to 75% fiberglass by weight with epoxy or polyester resin 7% of total wind turbine weight INTERNAL COMPONENTS Internal Core/Spar. Lightning Protection. Fiberglass. De-Icing System SUPPLIER IMPLICATIONS • • • • • • • • • 6-10 tons each 30 .Blades Blade for 2. Skin Composite Laminates. Epoxy or Polyester Resin.
Bearings. Lubrication System SUPPLIER IMPLICATIONS • • • One of the largest components at 7 . and coated hub INTERNAL COMPONENTS Hub . Pads. Hoses. Calipers. Housing). machined.Rotor Hub with Pitch System Hub with pitch system ROTOR HUB OVERVIEW • • Extract the power of the wind and convert it to rotary motion Hub connects the blades to the main shaft Cast. Pitch Brake (Disc.20 tons Material is typically cast ductile iron Tight casting and machining specifications MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 19 . Seals. Nose Cone.
Housings) • SUPPLIER IMPLICATIONS • • Main shaft is forged steel. Compression Coupling. machined and ground at 15. Transmission Shaft. brakes. Hoses. Bearing. and generator 10 -20 rpm low speed side to 1200 – 2000 rpm high speed side INTERNAL COMPONENTS • Main Shaft. bolted. Connector Plate. Calipers. main shaft. High Speed Shaft.some with rubber 20 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . Rotor Lockout. Seals. couplings. Rotor Lock. High Speed Coupling Brake System (Disc.Drivetrain Drivetrain Schematic Source: Romax DRIVE TRAIN OVERVIEW • • Consists of all the rotating components: rotor.25 tons weight Machined steel couplings. gearbox. Lubrication. keyed. Slip Ring Assembly. Pads. Seal.
shaft bearing). sun gear. Bosch Two more plants are beginning construction There is a growing market to maintain and repair the 20. Lubrication System. Moventas. Planetary Gears (ring gear. carrier bearing. GE. Hoses.Gearbox Gearbox Schematic Source: Romax Gearbox TIP GEARBOX OVERVIEW • • • • 10 . Cooling System. planet gear. Hoses.000 turbines in operation today INTERNAL COMPONENTS Housing. Clipper 3 more locations in process: ZF. Torque Arm Systems. Hollow Shafts Bearings (planet bearing.20 rpm to 1500-1800 rpm on high speed shaft One of the heaviest and most expensive components of a wind turbine Normally planetary or parallel-shaft gearboxes Not used on direct-drive wind turbines Gearbox Manufacturing occurs at 3 US locations: Winergy. Sensors (temperature. particulate) MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 21 . carrier gear).
Heat Exchanger) 22 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . Generator Temperature Sensor. Rotor Magnets. Lamination. Exciter. Slip Rings (slip ring and brush). Windings (stator & rotor). Reservoir. Filters. Cooling Fan. Shaft.Generator diagram Generator and heat exchanger Source: Ingeteam Generator Most generators TIP have been imported Generators represent a growing industry potential investment opportunity Northern Power builds their own Ingeteam from Spain is building an assembly plant in Wisconsin GENERATOR OVERVIEW • • • • Converts mechanical energy into electric power 3 types are synchronous. autolube system). Bearings (rotor front bearing. Pump Motor. Pump. Commutator and Brushes. Hoses. • double fed induction generator Most common is DFIG (Double Fed • Induction Generator) PMG (Permanent Magnet Generator) most commonly used on direct-drive turbines and are growing in popularity INTERNAL COMPONENTS Housing. Coils. Cooling System (Radiator. rotor rear bearing. Couplings. Encoder. asynchronous.
harmonics. Cabinet Heater. Relay. Main Transformer (pad mounted or nacelle mounted) MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 23 . Power Inverter. DC Intermediate Circuit. Power Supply. filter contractor). Motor Contactor. Soft Starter. Fuse Main Circuit Breaker.Electrical diagram Power converter Source: Ingeteam TIP ELECTRICAL OVERVIEW • • • • Power converters change electric power from one form to another. or one voltage to another Inverters convert DC to AC Switchgear connects or disconnects wind power plants from the grid Transformer adjusts the voltage Most opportunities are manufacturing to the Tier 2 & 3 components HIGHER FREQUENCY REPLACEMENT PARTS ON OPERATING TURBINES • • • Electrical System parts Electronic Control parts Sensors INTERNAL COMPONENTS Power Converter . Wiring and Connections (main contactor). Grounding System. Converter with IGBT Module (on the rotor side). (on grid side). Power Factor Correction System (capacitors. DC to AC or AC to DC. Main Disconnect.
Brackets. Wiring. Exit Hatch and Latches. Ducting 24 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . Lightening Rod.Nacelle Housing TIP These housings are built as subassembly containing many components and shipped to assembly plant for final assembly Nacelle housing NACELLE HOUSING OVERVIEW • • • Is the housing for all major components of a wind turbine Provides weather protection Normally made from lightweight materials such as fiberglass around a steel frame INTERNAL COMPONENTS Fiberglass Shell with Structural Steel Frame. Landing Pad.
Hoses.Yaw System Bull gear– 3 to 4 meter diameter TIP YAW SYSTEM OVERVIEW • • • Orients the wind turbine in line with the wind direction 3 or 4 motors used to rotate Includes a parking brake system Have been mostly imported and represents a good manufacturing opportunity for US companies INTERNAL COMPONENTS Brake. Fan. Electric or Hydraulic Drive. Calipers. Seals. Encoder MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 25 . Lubrication System. Polymer Slide Pads/Discs. Reducer Gearbox. Pinion gear. Housing. Pads.
hydraulic or mechanical systems. Rotary Electric Drive (pinion. heater. Pitch Gear. Spherical Bushing. Linkage. Limit Switch MECHANICAL PITCH SYSTEM Bearings and Lubricants. encoder. Seals. Motors. Limit Switch . Accumulator. Pump & Pump Motor. power supply. Battery Charger. Auto-Lube System. cabling. Hoses/Fittings. power electronics/drive.Pitch System Pitch Control Cyclinder If you supply components for electrical. misc. electrical) HYDRAULIC PITCH SYSTEM Linear Hydraulic Drive. Battery. Pitch Cylinder Linkage 26 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . Position Sensor. you could have an opportunity in this part of a wind turbine TIP View of Pitch System PITCH SYSTEM OVERVIEW • • • • Feathers the blades to best capture the energy from the wind Used to stall the rotor to help slow down the turbine Geared slew ring with electric or hydraulic driver Each blade controlled separately INTERNAL COMPONENTS ELECTRIC PITCH SYSTEM Motor. Gears. Motor Brake. Cylinder. Proportional Valve. contactor/circuit breaker fuse. Gear Reducer. Position Controller. Cooling Fan.
Solenoids INTELLIGENCE Computers. Electrical Circuits. actuators or related components today. Magnets. controllers. Position. Pistons. Hydraulic Pumps and Valves ACTUATORS Motors. Computers POWER AMPLIFIERS Switches.Control System Wind sensor Source: NRG TIP CONTROL SYSTEM OVERVIEW • • • • Balances and optimizes machine operation and power production Maximizes fatigue life Maximize energy production Provide means to monitor If you supply sensors. Voltage CONTROLLERS Mechanical Mechanisms. Electric Amplifiers. Current. power amplifiers. Temperature. Microprocessors MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 27 . Flow. you could have an opportunity in wind today INTERNAL COMPONENTS SENSORS Speed.
Section III Doing Business with OEMs 28 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .
Blade Core • Pitch Mechanisms • Drives • Brakes • Rotary Union NACELLE: • Nacelle Cover • Nacelle Base • Heat Exchanger • Controllers • Generator • Power Electronics • Lubricants • Filtration • Insulation • Gearbox • Pump • Drivetrain • Ceramics • Shaft FOUNDATION: • Rebar • Concrete • Casings OTHER: • Transformers • Bolts/Fasteners • Wire • Paints and Coatings • Lighting • Lightning Protection • Steelworking/Machining • Communication Devices • Control and Condition Monitoring Equipment • Electrical Interface and Connections • Batteries • Bearings • Brakes MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 29 . outsourcing parts. don’t manufacture the components/products required to build a wind turbine. The total number of parts purchased directly by OEM’s for each turbine is estimated to total between 800 and 1000 – out of the 8.Doing Business with OEMs Supply Chain Opportunities Wind energy OEMs. testing and shipping. for the most part. The most common method is by hiring an Integrator company.000 components in a turbine. These companies are primarily engaged in designing the turbine. Following are the types of components that are purchased directly as well as through intergrations. which procures and assembles components directly from Tier 2 & 3 suppliers – OEMs purchase about 90% of turbine components though Integrators. OEMs only purchase about 10% of components directly – manufactured by Tier 1 suppliers. TOWER: • Towers • Ladders • Lifts ROTOR: • Hub • Nose Cone • Blades .Composites . assembly. OEMs generally purchase manufactured components in two ways. Please note that each of these categories includes a number of sub-systems.
Cabinets Controls Electronic Components Harnesses Heating Elements Instrumentation Lighting Motors Sensors Software Accumulator Ducting Filters Heat Exchangers Hoses Composites Insulators Spinner Covers Misc. Wires. Packaging Plastic Components Rubber Components Signage Transportation & Logistics Frames Forge Main Shafts Shrink Discs Yaw Gears Large Fasteners Retainers Machine Shop Bases Housings Hubs Main Shafts Seal Labyrinths Fabricator Brackets Plates Rear Frames Structural Supports Lube Systems Motors Pumps Rotary Unions Seals Valves 30 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .TIER ONE Foundry Electrical Hydraulics & Electronics Bases Housings Hubs Bus Bars Cables.Tier One Direct Purchase DIRECT PURCHASE .
fiberglass shell. flanges. coatings. fasteners. insulation. pads. steel plate. shafts TOWERS: coatings. studs. Other components include: • • • BRAKES: calipers. rods. lube systems. seals BEARINGS: lubricants. platforms BLADES: fiberglass. substrates. drive systems. crane system. doors. hoses. rubber isolation mounts. 3. seals GENERATORS AND TRANSFORMERS: brushes. roots. gears. harnesses. mesh. windings. core. cooling systems. cooling fluids. plate. shafts. electric cabling. lighting. polymer enclosure. housings. coils. housings. and retainers. seals. controls GEARING AND DRIVES: actuators. gears. housings. power distribution • • • • TIP In addition to OEM parts. copper plate. discs. steel. bearings. pitch drive. cable. framing. couplings. bearings. wiring harnesses. cooling systems. UPS. protective film.The Role of Integrators: OEMs’ Other Customers Main Integrators Used By Wind Turbine OEMs and Their Tier 2. lubricants. tubing. laminates. wiring. brakes. lighting. ladders. you may also want to investigate supplying service parts MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 31 . & 4 Suppliers These tiers of suppliers supplies the following general types of components: castings. forgings. ducting. resins. hoists. hoses. rolling elements. barrel nuts NACELLE STRUCTURE: brackets. elevators. coatings.
32 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . contact the integrator who provides a sub-system for the turbine. Nacelle Housing TIP A majority of the components found in a wind turbine are produced by tier two. assemblers Coaters Other Main System Integrators: Blades. Gearing & Drives. Brake Systems. molders. Generator.Tier One Integrator The following is an example of a tier one integrator within the tower supply chain. not the wind turbine manufacturer. Bearings. welds. They are responsible for integrating components from the following suppliers: Product Steel plate Forged flanges Tower top Door frames Platforms Ladders Fasteners Electrical components Coatings Supplier Steel mill Forgers Fabricators Fabricators Fabricators Fabricators Forgers Extruders. three & four suppliers. To find your customer. The tower manufacturer is a focused fabricator who forms. Towers. Transformer. and assembles a complete tower.
It’s also important to recognize that currently there are about 14. The frequency of repair ranges from 1 out of 2 turbines per year on electrical components to 1 out of 10 on larger gearboxes. transformers.000 turbines out of warranty and some additional 5. logistics and erection fixtures. lighting. there are other opportunities for manufacturers to participate in the wind energy market. anchoring systems. O&M SERVICES AND PRODUCTS NEEDED: MAINTENANCE SERVICES: • Warranty and Out-of Warranty • Uptower Upkeep (PM) • Cleaning CONSTRUCTION SITE: • Fixtures • Embed Rings • Rebar • Anchor Rods • Fasteners • Electrical Cabling • Transformers • Tower Wiring • Lighting • Substation Equipment • O&M Building OFF-SITE SUPPORT: • Generators • Gearboxes • Blades • Accompanying Repair MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PARTS: • Electrical System Parts • Electrical Control • Sensors • Hydraulic System • Yaw System • Rotor Hub • Mechanical Brake • Rotor Blades • Gearbox • Generator • Support and Housing • Drivetrain MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 33 .000 wind turbines go out of warranty each year. fasteners. These include construction site electrical components. Other 2nd and 3rd tier opportunities exist for suppliers of parts in wind farm construction. repair and operations of wind farms. cabling.Additional Supply Chain Opportunities In addition to selling parts directly to an OEM or through an integrator. generators and blades. In these situations the contracting company would generally be the developer of the wind farm not the turbine OEM or Integrator. This includes supplying parts for maintenance. substation equipment and O&M structures. generators and blades. The goal is to minimize downtime which ranges from 1 day for electrical components and up to 6 days for gearboxes. Some of the types of services/products that are needed for wind farm operations are listed below.
Section IV Meeting OEM Requirements 34 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .
changes are rarely permitted. operating in harsh environmental conditions usually in remote locations and with the most sensitive components being 300’ up in the air. OEMs look for clear evidence of that core competency. The cost of repairing a nacelle – which must be dismantled on the ground – easily runs upwards of $250K and repair estimates often cost 10 times that of original manufacturing. Many require ISO 9001 to begin qualification process and conduct rigorous audits above and beyond to ISO standards prior to placing the first order. When screening prospective suppliers. MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 35 . TIP Wind turbine engineering often takes years and requires formal design certification. Driving the need for these high quality standards revolves around the extremely high cost of repair. After designs are certified.Meeting OEM Requirements Wind turbine OEMs are very conservative in their supplier qualification process and have extremely demanding quality requirements. As a result. They require consistent and zero defect quality. component production for wind turbine parts is almost always contract manufacturing. OEM–Supplier builds to print O&M– Supplier repairs or replaces part. Because of these high quality standards. Wind turbines are designed for a 20+ year lifespan. it may take up 18 months from the first contact until receipt of the initial production order.
What is Expected From a New Supplier Wind Turbine OEMs are Conservative and have Heavy Qualification Requirements OEMs have very specific expectations when considering a new supplier.Low Volume • Job Shop < Wind > Auto • Available Capacity • Right -Sized • Expandable COST COMPETITIVE • Off-shore Price Points • Logistic Advantages • World-Class Operation RELIABILITY OF DELIVERY • Equipment Redundancy • Vendor Redundancy • Demonstrated Results • Liquidated Damages DRIVING FACTORS IN THE WIND INDUSTRY: • • • The technical difficulty of the application The challenges of performing maintenance The high cost of repair 36 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry . These include: CONSISTENT QUALITY • ISO 9001 or Compliant PRODUCTION CAPABILITIES • High Mix .
Wind Turbines Gearboxes Auto Production per week Typical operation Design life Where maintenance is performed Machinery replacement Cost of major mechanical repair 4.000 Wind Turbine 4 – 6 units 20 – 24 hours/day 20 – 25 years 90 meters in the air in a remote location Often requires crane and special transport $300.$5.000 .000 – 6.$500.Comparison of Automobile Gearboxes vs.000 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 37 .2 hours/day 7 – 10 years Network of garages/ dealers Performed at ground level by hand & portable equipment $3.000 units 1 .000 .
Best Tier Repair and Maintenance INVEST IN ROBUST OPERATIONS • • • Quality Management Systems Multiple processes Ultra responsiveness MARKET YOUR COMPANY • • • Identify the buyers Differentiate yourself Get to the buyers! TAKE A RUTHLESS APPROACH TO COST REDUCTION • • Focus on LEAN operations Think world class REMEMBER OEM MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS • • • Capital equipment Long-term planning Hyper-competitiveness KEEP IN MIND CHANNEL OPTIONS • • • Start at a lower tier Team with a partner Try component repair 38 MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry .Market Entry Tips FIND THE BEST FIT • • Original Equipment.
What Successful Companies Have Done MAKE SMART INVESTMENTS • • Begin at a Lower Tier Grow One Customer at a Time PLAN FOR NEEDED INVESTMENTS • • • Process Improvement Quality Systems Capital DEVELOP MARKETING STRATEGY • • • Identify Target Customers Create a Winning WIND “Pitch” Launch Cost-Effective Sales Effort MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The Wind Energy Industry 39 .
com www.bwen.moldedfiberglass.gepower.gamesacorp.com www.northernpower.tnb.tpicomposites.com/en www.com www.danotekmotion.com/eng www.suzlon.mpshq.acciona-na.com www. Suzlon TBailey Thomas & Betts Corp.com www.de/index.tbailey.fuhrlaender.com www.siemens.com www.modernusa.clipperwind.com www.nordicwindpower.com www.com/en www.com www.katana-summit.smihyd.com www.lmwindpower.com www.trinitytowers.com www.com www.nordex-online.com/dragonproducts/dragonwind www.Wind Turbine OEM and Tier One Suppliers in the United States* OEM COMPANY US HEADQUARTERS STATE WEBSITE Acciona Energy American Tower Co.upwindsolutions. TowerTech TPI Composites Trinity Structural Towers Upwind Solutions Vestas West Branch Shelby Rancho Cucamonga Naperville Cedar Rapids Canton Fargo Round Rock Lamar Bristol Langhorne Atlanta Chicago Columbus Grand Forks Newport Beach Ashtabula Chicago Berkley Barre Denver Chattanooga Orlando Porter Chicago Anacortes Memphis Oklahoma City Scottsdale Dallas Medford Windsor IA OH CA IL IA MI ND TX CO RI PA GA IL NE ND CA OH IL CA VT CO TN FL MN IL WA TN OK AZ TX OR CO www.dmiindustries.php www.repower.towertechinc.com www.com www.energy.amertower.siag.de/index_en.com www.com/en * Only OEMs with utility-scale installations in 2009 are included on this list MANUFACTURING SUPPLIER HANDBOOK FOR The 40 Wind Energy Industry .com www.php?id=347&L=1 www.com www.vestas.ameronwindtowers.goldwindglobal.com www.de www.com www.com/entry/energy/us www.dewindco. Ameron Broadwind Energy Clipper Windpower Danotek DMI Industries DMSE/Dewind Dragon Wind Fuhrlaender Gamesa GE Energy Goldwind Katana Summit LM Wind Power Mitsubishi Molded Fiber Glass Nordex Nordic Windpower Northern Power Systems REpower SIAG Aerisyn Siemens Wind Power SMI & Hydraulics Inc.com www.com www.
org www.glwn.bgafoundation. Ohio 44135-5137 firstname.lastname@example.org GLWN™ .Global Wind Network AWEA .awea. contact: www. MN 55414 lindan@bluegreenalliance. Suite 1000.American Wind Energy Association BGAF . Washington.org 4855 West 130th Street. SE.For additional information on Supplier Handbooks. Suite 1.BlueGreen Alliance Foundation .org 1501 M Street NW. Minneapolis.org/cemc 2828 University Ave. Cleveland.org www. Suite 200. DC 20005 manufacturing@awea.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.