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Texanlab Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.

Colourfastness Testing Series

COLOUR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION AND LIGHT


In the recent past the colours in the general apparels observed to have been fading more severely, when exposed to sunlight in wet conditions (especially wetted with body perspiration) as compared normal sunlight exposure. This is a very reason why a relevant test method was developed called colour fastness to light of textiles wetted with perspiration. This method is developed to determine resistance of colours in textiles to the combined effect of perspiration & light. European as well as American test methods are available for this test. It has been developed using reference standard test methods of colour fastness to Light and Perspiration. Two methods of testing are widely accepted by most of the customers. They are: 1. American Test Method (AATCC 125) Colourfastness to Perspiration and Light 2. ISO Test Method (ISO / DIS 105 B07) Colour fastness to Light of textiles wetted with perspiration. The concept used in this method is to wet the fabric specimen with the help of artificial perspiration solution prepared and expose the wet specimen to artificial light. ISO test method is still under developmental process, which is expected to be completed shortly and will be published. Both the methods recommend the use of artificial light source, namely Xenon Arc lamp exposure as it is representative of natural daylight. Test procedure in brief: Summary : A specimen of textile is wetted in perspiration solution and exposed to artificial light source under specified conditions together with dyed blue standards having known fading characteristics. The fastness is evaluated by comparison of the colour change of the specimen with that of the standards under standard viewing conditions. Parameters ISO 105 B07 AATCC TM 125 Apparatus and Materials: Light fastness tester as per ISO 105 B02 / AATCC TM Apparatus 16, Balance and pH meter Material Water repellent white card Specimen size 10 x 40 mm 5.1 X 7.0 cm Acid and Alkaline perspiration solution as Acid solution as per Reagents and chemicals per ISO standard or acid AATCC standard solution as per AATCC standard Blue Wool Light fastness 1 to 8 L 2 to L 9 reference standards

Colour fastness to Perspiration and Light

Texanlab Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.


Colourfastness Testing Series

Parameters Test procedure

Assessment

ISO 105 B07 Soak the specimen for 30 + 2 mins and mount the specimen on water repellent white card. Expose the specimen for BWS 4. The light fastness rating corresponds to the number of the blue wool reference standard on the light fastness scale which shows a similar contrast.

AATCC TM 125 Soak the specimen for 30 + 2 mins and mount the specimen and expose it to AATCC 16, option 3 for 20 AFU Using Colour Change Grey Scale 1-5

Perspiration solution: ISO 105 E04* Chemical composition L- histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate (C6H9O2N3.HCl.H2O) Sodium chloride (NaCl) Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4 .12H2O) or Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate (Na2HPO4.2 H2O) Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate, anhydrous (Na2HPO4) Lactic acid (85%) Total volume pH Alkaline solution 0.5 g 5.0 g 5.0 g 2.5 g 1 litre 8.0 Acid solution 0.5 g 5.0 g 2.2 g 1 litre 5.5 AATCC 15 2002 (1994) Acid solution 0.25 0.001 g 10 0.01 g 1 0.01 g 1 0.01 g 1 litre 4.3 0.2

* Test can be performed with the help of acid perspiration solution accordingly AATCC TM 15 for ISO test. Comparison between commonly followed ISO and AATCC testing methods There is often confusion between the two tests in the minds of people not familiar with the test procedures. The methods have two distinct differences in terms of assessment and duration of testing. Often, the AATCC method is incorrectly asked for a number of hours whereas the correct measure is accelerated by way of AATCC Fading Units or AFU. Test conditions, the most common ISO test is conducted at low effective humidity (extreme conditions).

Colour fastness to Perspiration and Light

Texanlab Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.


Colourfastness Testing Series

As a summary, the following table shows the major differences. Parameter Assessment Duration of test Temperature ISO 105 B02 Blue Wool Scale 1 to 8 Not relevant. Test completed when sample shows specific fading. Black Standard Thermometer AATCC 16 Standard Grey Scale 1 to 5 Defined by Buyers, typically 20 AFU for apparel, higher for home textiles Black Panel Thermometer

Water cooled light fastness machine

Case study 1: A 100 % cotton printed garment was received in lab with a complaint of colour loss especially at the neck and arm hole portion. The sample was investigated in detail and tested for various colour fastness parameters separately including Perspiration and Light. All the results were in the acceptable range, but same sample when tested for combined effect of Light and alkali perspiration, it was noticed that colour faded severely. This confirmed that the colours used for dyeing had very poor colour fastness to light and perspiration.

(Picture of alkali Perspiration and Light, Tested up to BWS 4)

Colour fastness to Perspiration and Light

Texanlab Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.


Colourfastness Testing Series

Case study 2: A fabric was received for testing of colour fastness to light, perspiration and combined effect of Light and Perspiration. Result of colour fastness to Light and Perspiration individually was observed to be satisfactory / within acceptable limits. But results of colour fastness to acidic Perspiration and Light combined was observed to be very poor.

(Picture of acidic Perspiration and Light Tested up to BWS 4)

Colour fastness to Perspiration and Light