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# Code No: R05320306

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 HEAT TRANSFER ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the scope of the study of heat transfer. (b) A cubical tank of water of volume 1 m3 is kept at a steady temperature of 65 0 C by a 1 kW heater. The heater us switched oﬀ. How long does the tank take to cool to 50 0 C if the room temperatue is 15 0 C. [6+10] 2. (a) Sketch various types of ﬁn conﬁgurations? (b) Aluminum ﬁns of rectangular proﬁle are attached on a plane wall with 5 mm spacing. The ﬁns have thickness 1 mm, length = 10 mm and the normal conductivity K = 200 W/mk. The wall is maintained at a temperature of 2000 C and the ﬁns dissipate heat by convection into ambient air at 400 C, with heat transfer coeﬃcient = 50 W/m2 k. Find the heat loss. [6+10] 3. (a) A long 20cm diameter cylindrical shaft made of stainless steel 304 comes out of an oven at a uniform temperature of 6000 C. The shaft is then allowed to cool slowly in an environment chamber at 2000 C with an average heat transfer coeﬃcient of h = 80 W/m2 0 C. Determine the temperature at he centre of the shaft 45 min. after the start of the cooling process. Also, determine the heat transfer per unit length of the shaft during this time period. (b) What are Biot number, Fourier number and Heisler charts? [10+6]

4. (a) Deﬁne the local and average skin friction (drag) coeﬃcient for a ﬂat smooth plate at zero incidence. (b) A thin ﬂat plate has been placed longitudinally in a steam of air at 200 C and while ﬂows with undisturbed velocity of 7.5 m/s. The surface of plate is maintained at a uniform temperature of 1200 C. i. calculate the heat transfer coeﬃcient 0.8m from the leading edge of the plate, ii. Also calculate the rate of heat transfer from one side of the plate to the air over the ﬁrst 0.8 m length. Assume unit width of the plate. [8+8] 5. (a) Derive an expression for the maximum velocity in the free convection boundary layer on a vertical plate. At what position in the boundary layer does this maximum velocity occur? (b) A horizontal pipe of 6 cm diameter is located in a room, whose temperature of air is 200 C. The surface temperature of the pipe is 1400 C. Calculate the free convection heat loss per meter length of the pipe. [8+8]

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Code No: R05320306

Set No. 1

6. (a) Explain how the condensate ﬁlm thickness on a vertical plate is inﬂuenced by diﬀerent parameters? (b) Saturated steam at 54o C condenses as a ﬁlm on the outside surface of a 25mm OD 3m long vertical tube. The tube surface is maintained at temperature of 43o C. Calculate the average condensation heat transfer coeﬃcient and the rate of steam condensation at the bottom of the tube. [6+10] 7. (a) Give comparison of parallel ﬂow and counter ﬂow heat exchangers. Why are counter ﬂow heat exchangers mostly used? (b) A heat exchanger is required to cool 55000 kg/h of alcohol from 66o C to 40o C using 40000 kg/h of water entering at 5o C. Calculate the surface area required for i. parallel ﬂow ii. counter ﬂow mode. Take U = 580 W/m2 K, cp for water = 4180 J/kgK, cp for alcohol = 3760 J/kgK. [6+10] 8. (a) What are the factors that inﬂuence the radiant heat exchange between two bodies? (b) Two equal discs of diameter 200 mm each are arranged in two parallel planes 400 m apart. The temperature of the ﬁrst disc is 500o C and that of the second disc is 300o C. Determine the radiating heat ﬂux between them, if these are i. Black ii. Gray with emissivities 0.3 and 0.5 respectively. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [4+12]

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Code No: R05320306

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 HEAT TRANSFER ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write Fourier‘s heat conduction equation and explain each term along with their units. (b) A pipe with a diameter of 2 cm is kept at a surface temperature of 40 0 C. Find the heat transfer rate per m length of this pipe if it is i. Placed in an air ﬂow in which the temperature is 50 0 C and ii. placed in a tank of water kept a temperature of 30 0 C. The heat transfer coeﬃcient in these two situations, which involve A. forced convectiion in air and B. free convection in water, are estimated to be 20 W/m2 K and 70 W/m2 K respectively. [6+10] 2. (a) Derive an expression for 1- Dimensional, steady state heat conduction state, with internal heat generation for plane wall. (b) Nichrome, having a resistivity of 100µΩ-cm is to be used as a heating element in a 10kW heater. The Nichrome surface temperature should not exceed 12200 C. Other design features include surrounding air temperature is 200 C, Outside surface coeﬃcient is 1.15 kW/m3 k, Thermal conductivity of Nichrome =- 17 W/mk. Find out which diameter Nichrome wire is necessary for a 1 meter long heater. Also ﬁnd the rate of current ﬂow. [8+8] 3. (a) A long 20cm diameter cylindrical shaft made of stainless steel 304 comes out of an oven at a uniform temperature of 6000 C. The shaft is then allowed to cool slowly in an environment chamber at 2000 C with an average heat transfer coeﬃcient of h = 80 W/m2 0 C. Determine the temperature at he centre of the shaft 45 min. after the start of the cooling process. Also, determine the heat transfer per unit length of the shaft during this time period. (b) What are Biot number, Fourier number and Heisler charts? [10+6]

4. (a) Deﬁne the local and average skin friction (drag) coeﬃcient for a ﬂat smooth plate at zero incidence. (b) A thin ﬂat plate has been placed longitudinally in a steam of air at 200 C and while ﬂows with undisturbed velocity of 7.5 m/s. The surface of plate is maintained at a uniform temperature of 1200 C. i. calculate the heat transfer coeﬃcient 0.8m from the leading edge of the plate,

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Code No: R05320306

Set No. 2

ii. Also calculate the rate of heat transfer from one side of the plate to the air over the ﬁrst 0.8 m length. Assume unit width of the plate. [8+8] 5. (a) How is a modiﬁed Groshﬀ number deﬁned for a constant heat ﬂux condition on a vertical plate? (b) A metal plate 0.71 m in height and 1.02 m in width forms the vertical wall of an oven. The temperature of the plate is maintained at 230o C, where as the air outside the oven is at 23o C. Assuming the oven to be un-insulated, compute the convection heat loss from the wall to the outside air. [4+12] 6. For laminar ﬁlm condensation, what is the ratio of heat transfer to a horizontal tube of large diameter to that to a vertical tube of the same size for the same temperature diﬀerence? What L/D ratio will produce the same rate of heat transfer to a tube in both the vertical and horizontal orientations? [16] 7. (a) Give a comparison of parallel ﬂow and counter ﬂow heat exchangers. Why are counter ﬂow exchangers are mostly used? (b) Sketch the temperature distribution of hot and cold ﬂuids along the length of heat exchanger for counter ﬂow arrangement and derive the expression for LMTD. [6+10] 8. (a) What is the shape factor with respect to itself if the surface is concave, convex or ﬂat? (b) Show that for two inﬁnite parallel gray planes exchanging radiant energy, the [6+10] mean emissivity is given by 1 1 + 1 − 1 . ε1 ε2 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05320306

Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 HEAT TRANSFER ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is Fourier‘s law of heat conduction? Explain. (b) A brick (k=1.2 W/m K) wall 0.15 m thick separates hot combusition gases of a furnace from the outside ambient air which is at 25 0 C. The outer surface temperature of the brick wall is found to be 100 0 C. If the natural convection heat heat transfer coeﬃcient on the brick wall is 20 W/m2 K and its emisssivity is 0.8, calculate the inner surface temperature of the brick wall. [4+12] 2. (a) Sketch various types of ﬁn conﬁgurations? (b) Aluminum ﬁns of rectangular proﬁle are attached on a plane wall with 5 mm spacing. The ﬁns have thickness 1 mm, length = 10 mm and the normal conductivity K = 200 W/mk. The wall is maintained at a temperature of 2000 C and the ﬁns dissipate heat by convection into ambient air at 400 C, with heat transfer coeﬃcient = 50 W/m2 k. Find the heat loss. [6+10] 3. (a) What are Biot and Fourier numbers? Explain their physical signiﬁcance. (b) A slab of Aluminum 10cm thick is originally at a temperature of 5000 C. It is suddenly immersed in a liquid at 1000 C resulting it a heat transfer coeﬃcient of 1200 W/m2 k. Determine the temperature at the centerline and the surface 1 min after the immersion. Also the total thermal energy removal per unit area slab during this period. The properties of aluminum for the given condition are: α = 8.4 × 10−5 m2 /s, K=215 W/mk, ρ = 2700 kg/m3 , Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg. [6+10] 4. (a) Explain for ﬂuid ﬂow along a ﬂat plate. i. Velocity distribution in hydrodynamic boundary layer. ii. Temperature distribution in thermal boundary layer. iii. Variation of local heat transfer co-eﬃcient along the ﬂow. (b) Under forced ﬂow conditions how does the prandtl number aﬀect relative thickness of thermal Boundary layer and velocity Boundary layer. Show that the velocity and temperature distributions within the Boundary layer are going to be similar in nature. [8+8] 5. (a) Why is an analytical solution of a free convection problem more involved than its forced convection counterpart? (b) A vertical plate is at 96o C in an atmosphere of air at 20o C. Estimate the local heat transfer coeﬃcient at a distance of 20 cm from the lower edge and the average value over the 20 cm length. [6+10] 1 of 2

Code No: R05320306 6. (a) What is nucleate boiling? Why is it important?

Set No. 3

(b) Saturated water at 100o C is boiled with a copper heating element having a heating surface of area 0.04 m2 which is maintained at 15o C. Calculate the surface heat ﬂux and the rate of evapoaration. [6+10] 7. (a) What do you mean by fouling factor? What are the causes of fouling? (b) A double pipe heat exchanger is constructed of a stainless steel ( k = 15.1 W/mK) inner tube of Di = 15 mm and Do = 19 mm and the outer tube of diameter 32 mm. The convective heat transfer coeﬃcient is given to be hi = 800W/m2 K and ho = 1200W/m2 K. For a fouling factor of Rf i = 0.0004m2 K/W on the tube side and Rf o = 0.0001m2 K/W on the shell side, determine i. The total thermal resistance ii. Ui and iii. Uo of the heat exchanger.

[4+12]

8. A spherical satellite of 1 m diameter encircles the earth at an altitude of 483 km. Estimate the shape factor of the earth from the satellite and hence calculate the equilibrium temperature of the satellite on the dark side and on the bright side of the earth. Assume that the diameter of the earth is 12880 km and its black body temperature is 20o C. The temperature of outer space may be taken as 0 K and the satellite is irradiated with a heat ﬂux of 1.3 kW/m2 from the Sun when on the bright side. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05320306

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 HEAT TRANSFER ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive steady state general heat conduction equation without heat generation in spherical systems. (b) State and explain the mode of conduction heat transfer. [10+6]

2. (a) What is critical thickness of insulator on a small diameter wire or pipe, explain its physical signiﬁcance and derive an expression for the same. (b) A plane wall 10 cm thick generated heat at the rate of 4×104 W/m3 . When an electric current is passed through it. The convective heat transfer co-eﬃcient between each face of the wall and the ambient air is 50 W/m2 k. Determine i. The surface temperature ii. The maximum temperature in the wall. Assume the ambient air temperature to be 200 C and the thermal conductivity of the wall material to be 15 W/mK. [6+10] 3. (a) What are Biot and Fourier numbers? Explain their physical signiﬁcance. (b) A slab of Aluminum 10cm thick is originally at a temperature of 5000 C. It is suddenly immersed in a liquid at 1000 C resulting it a heat transfer coeﬃcient of 1200 W/m2 k. Determine the temperature at the centerline and the surface 1 min after the immersion. Also the total thermal energy removal per unit area slab during this period. The properties of aluminum for the given condition are: α = 8.4 × 10−5 m2 /s, K=215 W/mk, ρ = 2700 kg/m3 , Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg. [6+10] 4. Nitrogen at 300 C ﬂows over a plate maintained at 700 C with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. (a) Determine the local and average values of convective heat transfer co-eﬃcient. (b) Also calculate the values of the boundary layer thickness (velocity, thermal) and momentum and displacement thickness at these locations. (c) Determine also the location at which the ﬂow turns turbulent, considering critical Reynolds number = 5 x 105 . [16] 5. (a) What is the recommended correlation for natural convection over a vertical plate or cylinder in the turbulent region? (b) How is the velocity ﬁeld developed in front of a vertical plate which is maintained at a temperature? 1 of 2

Code No: R05320306 i. Higher ii. Lower, than the surrounding ﬂuid. 6. (a) Distinguish between nucleate and ﬁlm boiling.

Set No. 4

[6+10]

(b) A heated 30 × 30 cm square copper plate, serves as the bottom for a pan of water at 1 atm. Pressure. The temperature of the plate is maintained at 119o C. Estimate the heat transferred per hour by the plate. [6+10] 7. In a cross ﬂow heat exchanger hot exhaust gases (Cp = 1000 J/kgK) entering at 300o C and leaving at 100o C are used to heat water, ﬂowing at 1 kg/s from 35o C to 125o C. The overall heat transfer coeﬃcient based on the gas side surface area has been found to be 100 W/m2 K. Using the NTU method, estimate the required gas side surface area. [16] 8. A long cylinder having a diameter of 2 cm is maintained at 600o C and has an emissivity of 0.4. Surrounding the cylinder is another long, thin walled concentric cylinder having a diameter of 6 cm and an emissivity of 0.2 on both the inside and outside surfaces. The assembly is located in a large room having a temperature of 27o C. Calculate the net radiant energy lost by the 2 cm diameter cylinder per meter length. Also calculate the temperature of the 6 cm diameter cylinder. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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