Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11, Ms Aldridge


Types of Chemical Reactions
Experimental Report compiled by Upekkha Pham

Report spills to teacher immediately. take great care and use appropriate instruments. take great care and use appropriate instruments. Long-term exposure can cause Dangerous for the permanent blue-grey staining of environment. take great care and Harmful if digested use appropriate instruments. Sodium Bromide . Report spills to teacher immediately. take great care and use appropriate instruments. take great care and use appropriate instruments.Very corrosive. mouth. When handling. Ms Aldridge Aim To demonstrate and distinguish the basic types of chemical reactions and infer probable products from the observations.Incompatible Prolonged exposure may lead to with strong acids. eyes and respiratory system . When handling. Contact with other material may Lead Nitrate. Report spills to teacher immediately. Keep away from naked flames. toxic. Report spills to teacher immediately. take great care and use appropriate instruments. Keep away from naked flames. Keep away from naked flames. Very harmful by ingestion. take great care and use appropriate instruments. Keep away from naked flames.Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11. Report spills to teacher immediately. alkali metals. When handling. or other bodily harm . Check glassware for any cracks or dents before use. Oxidizing. Keep away from naked flames. Safety Precautions • • SAFETY GOGGLES MUST BE WORN AT ALL TIMES DURING EXPERIMENT HANDS MUST BE WASHED AT THE END OF THE EXPERIMENT Hazard Risk Precaution When handling. Keep away from naked flames. Do not empty into sink. Report spills to teacher immediately. May cause serious permanent eye damage. When handling. Do not empty into sink. Dangerous for environment May cause severe burns. take great care and use appropriate instruments. Calcium Hydroxide Corrosive Silver Nitrate – Harmful. Highly flammable When handling. bromide rashes halogens Hydrochloric Acid . When handling. report to teacher immediately. Fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Causes irritation to skin. eyes and respiratory tract. Sodium Hydroxide cause fire. Minimize exposure. throat and skin Corrosive Glassware Cuts to skin. Harmful by skin contact or by inhalation of dust. Report spills to teacher immediately. eyes. May cause burns May irritate skin.. Very Corrosive Copper(II) Carbonate Harmful May cause irritation to skin and eyes When handling. If breakage occurs. Keep away from naked flames.

Strip of magnesium placed in blue Bunsen flame. 2-3 squirts of Ca(OH)2 placed into a new test tube. After short period of time – OBSERVATIONS RECORDED.Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11. 6. Ca(OH)2 test tube carefully waved over blue flame of Bunsen Burner. Bunsen Burner prepared. 2. End of gas delivery tube placed into test tube containing Calcium Hydroxide solution. PART B: SYNTHESIS REACTION 5. 3. Small amount of CuCO3 placed in test tube fit with gas delivery tube and stopper. OBSERVATIONS RECORDED. . 4. Chemicals Required • • • • • • • • • • • • Universal Indicator Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Silver Nitrate Solution (AgNO3) Sodium Bromide Solution (NaBr) Copper Sulphate Solution (CuSO4) Lead Nitrate Solution (Pb(NO3)2) Sodium Hydroxide Solution (NaOH) Calcium Hydroxide (Lime water) Solution (Ca(OH)2) Copper Carbonate Powder (CuCO3) Zinc Strips (Zn) Copper Strips (Cu) Magnesium Strip (Mg) Method PART A: DECOMPOSITION REACTION 1. Ms Aldridge Materials • • • • • • • Spatula Test Tube Rack Standard Test Tubes (6) Test tube fitted with gas delivery tube Test tube/Beaker tongs Bunsen Burner Dropper – already fitted with bottles containing chemicals.

Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11. 14. Three new test tubes filled with approximately 3 squirts of CuSO4. . 12. 2-3 mL of AgNO3 and NaBr solution placed into same test tube. During a period of 5-10 minutes – OBSERVATIONS RECORDED. NaOH solution added to test tube gradually until colour change became visible. Followed by approximately five drops of Universal Indicator. Pb(NO3)2 and AgNO3 solutions respectively. PART E: NEUTRALISATION REACTION 13. 8. Copper strip placed into test tube containing AgNO3. 15. 10. 9. PART D: DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT/PRECIPITATION REACTIONS 11. Zinc strip placed into test tubes containing CuS04 and Pb(NO3)2. OBSERVATIONS RECORDED. OBSERVATIONS RECORDED. 2-3 squirts of HCl solution placed into new test tube. Ms Aldridge PART C: SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION 7. OBSERVATIONS RECORDED.

a Neutralisation reaction occurs in which an acid and a base interact. the copper solution. this is when two or more substances are combined to form a single product. and an uncharged copper metal. As the Copper Carbonate powder was placed over the flame. These include. the zinc. Test tube 1. This is because a metal can replace a metal and/or a non-metal can replace a non-metal. This is because Zinc is higher in the reactivity series. thus it gave off a fair amount of heat. heat is generated and the metal is concerted to the metal oxide. . When carbon dioxide is bubbled through the lime water solution. The white-gray powder which gets left by the burnt magnesium is magnesium oxide or MgO. a Zinc strip was placed in Copper Sulfate solution. as for a Double Displacement reaction. originally blue due to the Cu2+ ions present. will displace the lead therefore the product is lead and zinc nitrate. of Test Tube 3 . Because zinc is more a more reactive metal then lead. The cloudiness apparent is caused by the suspended CaCO3. During this process. In a decomposition reaction. with time. the production of a gas became evident as the solution in the connected test tube began to bubble. Single displacement reactions involve one element taking the place of another in a compound. began to fade and became lighter. Reactions such as this. and very light fizzing occurred. it converts the hydroxide to the carbonate CaCO3. which is sparingly soluble. There are five major classes in chemical reactions. until reaching a point where a magnificent bright. During the process. Black crystals and a precipitate (copper metal) also began to form on the zinc strip and in the solution. The reaction was also quite exothermic. When zinc was emerged in Lead Nitrate solution (TEST TUBE 2). The general equation for a Decomposition reaction goes by: AB  A + B During the Synthesis reaction (Part B). black crystals and small bubbles were present on the zinc strip. involved a Decomposition reaction. which then results in Zn2+ ion (which does not have a characteristic colour). Chemical reactions involve a change from reactant substances to product substances whereby the product substances will have physical and chemical properties different from those of the reactant. therefore it wants to be 'charged'. white light was radiated. During Part C. In Part C. where by bubbles also became evident.Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11. Combustion is another term for this form of reaction. The light emitted is due to the chemical reaction taking place. This separate reaction correlates to the chemical equation: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ---> CaCO3 + H2O. a compound breaks down into two or more substances. Ms Aldridge Discussion & Analysis In this experiment. The general equation for a Synthesis reaction is: A + B  AB Single Displacement reactions or slightly more complicated then Synthesis reactions. by which the product was Copper Oxide (CuO) and carbon dioxide in its gaseous state. they must involve a detectable change. it began to gradually blacken from its initial turquoise coloured state. In order to be classified as a chemical reaction. in solution. with the formation of a salt. This oxide produces a base when mixed with water. a synthesis reaction. Lastly. a strip of magnesium was placed into the blue flame through which began to glow orange at first. where magnesium reacts with the oxygen in the air. when a metal reacts with oxygen. generally occur when the temperature is raised. To elaborate. Part A of this experiment. the positive and negative portions of compound interchange. various chemicals were used to demonstrate basic types of chemical reactions.

was when the product of water was present (also having an approximate pH of 7). or otherwise known as Metathesis. opaque mixture. therefore forming an insoluble substance. whereby the products are salt and water. Precipitation occurs if one type of positive ion present. similar to double displacement reactions. Thus the more drops of NaOH added. The colour change to a grey/blue became evident as is due to the copper (II) ions dissociating in the solution. the solution then goes from red → green then to purple. As for when Sodium Bromide was combined with Silver Nitrate. thus becoming a covalent molecule of water. an ionic salt and water. To elaborate. Part C experiments were all examples of a Single Displacement reaction. turning the originally clear solution. occur when the reactants are a base and an acid. it can be inferred that when the solution was green (pH 7). This is why silver forms a precipitate and why a new solution of copper nitrate forms. they react to produce a finely divided solid. The general formula of a Neautralisation reaction is: ACID + BASE  SALT + WATER . can combine with one type of negative ion present. During PART E of the experiment. the solution will become more blue in colour as more silver ions are removed from the silver nitrate solution and replaced by the copper (II) ions to form Copper (II) nitrate. there was evidence of silver precipitating out of solution by the formation of silver metal on the copper strip. The Universal Indicator tells us the pH of the solution. a blue precipitate of copper hydroxide formed. HCl(aq)+NaO(aq)→NaCl(aq)+H2O(l).Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11. Although. From the equation. On the Activity Series of Metals. but defined from the surrounding solution (CuSO4). When a colourless solution of Sodium Hydroxide was added to a clear blue solution of Copper Sulfate. the two solutions blended together and formed a milky white. the product of this reaction is generally. The positively charged hydrogen ion (H+) in the acid. copper is above silver. Through time. by which the precipitate appeared cloudy. By adding a few drops of NaOH gradually. and the negative charge of hydroxyl ions/oxide ions of the base. salt and water will be the final products. The 'driving force' behind a precipitation reaction is the formation of an insoluble substance. occurred during the procedure of combining Sodium Bromide with Silver Nitrate and Copper Sulfate with Sodium Hydroxide. into a translucent red colour. it portrays that after a reaction has occured. thus copper will replace silver in the silver nitrate solution. it is hard to detect whereabouts the salt is present. Universal Indicator was added to HCl solution. this colour change took a few minutes to become noticeable. it took a fair 19 drops of NaOH to transform the solution to purple. the more basic the solution will become. The general formula being: AB + CD  AD + CB Neutralisation reactions. the general formula is: A + BC  AC +B Double Displacement reactions. Ms Aldridge as the reaction progressed the AgNO3 solution slowly changed from clear to clear blue. Because solubility of salt in water is extremely high. From a pH indicator. lose their electrical charge. it only took one drop of HCl to reproduce the red colour. Precipitation reactions occur when clear solutions of two ionic substances are mixed.

and were successfully distinguished by using the rules and properties of the product. Ms Aldridge To conclude. various chemical reactions were demonstrated. .Upekkha Pham Chemistry Grade 11.

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