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# Code No: RR322205 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. (a) State and prove total probability theorem.

(b) Give the classical and axiomatic definitions of probability.
(c) List the axioms of the probability. [8+4+4]

2. (a) With neat diagram explain Three wired D.C Telemetry System.
(b) With neat diagram explain Three wired A.C Telemetry System. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain the generation of VSB modulated wave. With neat diagram also draw
the response of “Side band shaping filter”.
(b) Explain the demodulation of DSB-SC wave by using ‘Costas-loop’method.
[8+8]

## 4. (a) For an FM modulator with an unmodulated carrier vc =20V, a modulation

index m=1,and a load resistance RL =10Ω, determine the power in the modu-
lated carrier and each side frequency, and sketch the power spectrum fort he
modulated wave.
(b) Describe the significance of the FM noise triangle. [10+6]

5. (a) State and Prove Sampling Theorem as applicable to Band Limited Signals.
(b) Find the Minimum Sampling Rate and Nyquist Interval for the Signals repre-
sented by
m(t) and m2 (t) where m(t)=Sin(300πt)/πt. [8+8]

6. (a) Describe Delta Modulation system what are its limitations? How can they be
overcome?
(b) A voice frequency signal band limited to 3KHz is transmitted with the use of
Delta Modulation systems. The pulse repetition frequency is 30,000 pulses/sec
and the step Size is 10mv.Determine the maximum permissible speech signal
amplitude to avoid a slope overload. [9+7]

## 8. What are the 3 - types of bipolar encoding discuss? [16]

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) If X has the PDF

fX (x) =e−x , x > 0
=0 , else where
Calculate the mean value of g(x) = e4X/3 .
(b) A random variable X has the PDF P(x) =1/2X ,where x=1,2,3,4,5..........
Find the moment generating function, mean and variance. [8+8]
2. (a) Explain why Hydraulic Systems are used rather than Pneumatic Systems in
Industrial Environment.
(b) Explain the disadvantages in Electrical Telemetry System. [16]
3. (a) Derive the formula for instantaneous value of A.M voltage.
(b) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only the carrier is sent
but it increases to 8.93Amps when the carrier is modulated by a single sine
wave. Find the percentage modulation. Determine the antenna current when
the depth of modulation changes to 0.8. [10+6]
4. (a) An FM signal Xc(t)= Ao Cos(ωo t +β Sinωm t) is applied as input to an RC
high pass network. Assume that 1/ωRC >> 1 in the frequency band occupied
by Xc(t). Show that the output voltage of RC network is an AM signal. Find
the modulation index of AM signal.
(b) In a FM system the frequency deviation constant is 1KHz/V. A sinusoidal
modulating signal of amplitude 20Volts and frequency 3MHz is applied calcu-
late [8+8]
i. Peak frequency deviation
ii. Modulating index
iii. Bandwidth.
5. (a) The signals g1 (t)=10Cos (100πt) and g2 (t)=10 Cos (50πt) are both sampled
at the rate of 75 samples per second. Show that the two sequences of samples
thus obtained are identical. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
(b) The signal g(t)=10cos(60πt) cos2 (160πt) is sampled at the rate of 400 samples
per second. Determine the range of permissible cutoff frequencies for the ideal
reconstruction filter that may be used to recover g(t) from the sampled version.
[8+8]
6. (a) What is uniform and non uniform Quantization. Explain how to calculate the
Quantization noise power of uniform Quantization?

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 2
(b) Compare DPCM and PCM systems. [10+6]

## 7. (a) In the on-off keying version of an ASK system,

√ symbol 1 is represented by
transmitting a sinusoidal carrier amplitude 2 Eb / Tb ,where Eb is the signal
energy per bit and Tb is the signal duration. Symbol ‘0’ is represented by
switching off the carrier. Assume That 1 and 0 occur with equal probability,
for an AWGN channel. Determine the Average probability of error for this
i. Coherent reception
ii. Non coherent reception, operating with a large value of bit energy-to-noise
density ratio.

Note: for large values of x I0(x) =exp(x)/( 2 Πx).
(b) A high frequency transmitter used in binary communication system is peak
power limited to 1KW. The power loss in the channel is 60 dBand the noise
power at the receiver input(ηrb ) is 10−4 watts. Assuming maximum signal-
ing rate and equi- probable message bits, find pe for non-coherent ASK and
coherent PSK Signaling schemes? [10+6]

8. What is the Major disadvantage in using NRZ encoding? How do RZ encoding and
biphase encoding attempt to solve the problem. [16]

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Define the mean and the variance of a random variable. Calculate the mean
and the variance of a random variable x., Whose probability density function
is
f(x)=1/(b-a) a≤x≤b
=0 otherwise
(b) Two independent random variables X and Y have the probability density
functions
fx(x)= 1/a[4(x)-4(x-a)] And
fy(y)= 1/b[4(y)-4(y-b)] with 0< a <b.
Find the PDF of z such that z=x+y and plot it. [8+8]
2. Explain with neat diagram of Hydraulic Telemetry and explain its main consider-
ations taken using Hydraulic Telemetry System. [16]
3. (a) Derive the formula for instantaneous value of A.M voltage.
(b) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only the carrier is sent
but it increases to 8.93Amps when the carrier is modulated by a single sine
wave. Find the percentage modulation. Determine the antenna current when
the depth of modulation changes to 0.8. [10+6]
4. (a) In an FM system, the modulating signal m(t)=2.4Cos(1000πt) and the fre-
quency deviation is 4.8 KHz. If the amplitude of the modulating signal is now
increased to 7.2V, what is the new deviation? Find the modulation index in
each case.
(b) For the balanced ring modulator circuit the carrier input frequency is fc =500KHz
and modulating input signal frequency ranges from 0 to 5KHz.Determine out-
put frequency range and output frequency for a single input frequency of
3.4KHz. [8+8]
5. (a) Plot the spectrum of PAM wave produced by Modulating wave m(t)=Am Cos(2π
mt).Assuming a modulating factor µ <1,modulating frequency fm =0.25Hz
,sampling period Ts =1 sec and pulse duration T=0.45 seconds.
(b) Using an ideal reconstruction filter, plot the spectrum of the filter output.
Compare this result with output that would be obtained if there was no aper-
ture effect. [10+6]
6. (a) Define the terms
Quantization Error and Inter symbol interference in Digital Communication
and discuss their reasons for their existence.

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 3
(b) Define Nyquist rate of sampling and derive the expression for it. [10+6]

7. (a) What is meant by power spectrum? Explain power spectrum of binary PSK
& FSK signals along with graphs
(b) Give the comparison of M-ary digital modulation techniques. [8+8]

8. Explain ON OFF signaling and show that it requires twice as much power as
polar signaling. [16]

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Explain about central limit theorem.

(b) Calculate the mean and variance of [8+4+4]
i. Gaussian random variance.
ii. Poisson distribution.

## 2. Write a short notes an electrical, Pneumatic, Hydraulic and Optical Telemetry

Systems. [16]

3. (a) What are the different types of distortions in diode detectors and explain
them. Explain how to reduce distortions?
(b) Explain the envelope detection of AM signals. [8+8]

## 4. (a) In an FM system, the modulating signal m(t)=2.4Cos(1000πt) and the fre-

quency deviation is 4.8 KHz. If the amplitude of the modulating signal is now
increased to 7.2V, what is the new deviation? Find the modulation index in
each case.
(b) For the balanced ring modulator circuit the carrier input frequency is fc =500KHz
and modulating input signal frequency ranges from 0 to 5KHz.Determine out-
put frequency range and output frequency for a single input frequency of
3.4KHz. [8+8]

5. (a) What is meant by Natural Sampling and how it differs from Flattop Sampling?
explain
(b) For the Modulating signal m(t)=4cos80t+20cos1000Πt,determine the allow-
able Sampling rates and sampling intervals. [8+8]

6. (a) Consider a sine wave of frequency fm and amplitude Amax applied to a delta
modulator, with representation of levels at ±δ. Show that slope overload
distortion will occur if
Am > δ/2Πfm Ts where Ts is the sampling period.
(b) What is the maximum power that may be Transmitted without Slope overload
error? [12+4]

7. (a) Binary data is transmitted over a RF band pass channel with a usable band-
width of 10MHz at a rate of 4.8x106 bits per second using and ASK signaling
method. The carrier amplitude at the receiver antenna is 1mV and the noise
power spectral density at the receiver is 10−5 watts/Hz

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Code No: RR322205 Set No. 4
i. Find the error probability of a coherent receiver and
ii. Find the error probability of a non coherent receiver
(b) Derive an expression for the probability of bit error in a PSK system. [10+6]

8. Explain ON OFF signaling and show that it requires twice as much power as
polar signaling. [16]

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