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1

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-II

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Is there any role molecular weight of solvent in absorption operation?

(c) Why absorption operation may not be considered as isothermal operation?

(d) Write short notes on ideal solutions. [4+4+4+4]

2. Show that Z= HtoL NtoL for stripper. [16]

3. A feed solution containing 4000kg of water and 20kg of acetic acid is to be extracted

with benzene solvent to recover 80% acetic acid by weight. The equilibrium data

is:

S.No x′ = gm acetic acid per kg water x′ = gm acetic acid per kg benzene

1 0.920 1.020

2 1.140 1.620

3 1.525 2.910

4 2.04 5.35

5 3.29 20.10

6 5.23 36.0

Calculate:

(a) The number of cross - current stages required, if 1000 kg of benzene per stage

is used and

(b) The concentration of acetic acid in the combined extract. [16]

4. Discuss continuous countercurrent multistage extraction and explain how it is

shown on a triangular chart. Indicate how the quantities and compositions of ex-

tract and raffinate are computed. For a given separation indicate how the number

of equilibrium stages required is found. [16]

5. (a) Explain the concept of HETP and HTU.

(b) With the help of a neat sketch explain the construction and working of cen-

trifugal extractor. [8+8]

6. (a) Discuss in detail about Adsorption equilibrium.

(b) Explain about adsorption Hysterisis.

(c) For adsorption from dilute liquid solutions in stagewise countercurrent oper-

ations, where the Freundlich equation describes the adsorption equilibrium,

derive analytical expressions in terms of n,m, Yo and YN , for the minimum

adsorbent/solvent ratio when fresh adsorbent is used. [4+4+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 1

7. (a) Discuss fixed bed adsorption and its application in food industry.

(b) Apply Freundlich equation for multi stage cross-current adsorption operation

and derive

(Y1 /Y2 )1/n - 1/n (Y0 /Y1 ) = 1-Yn [8+8]

8. Ground nut oil is extracted from granulated ground nut meal in a counter-current

multi-batch arrangement using ether as solvent. The solids charge contains 0.35 kg

oil/kg exhausted meal and it is desired to obtain a 90% oil recovery. How many

theoretical stages are required if 50 kg ether is used per 100 kg untreated solids.

The entrainment data are as below. [16]

Concentration of oil 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.67

kg oil/kg solution

Entrainment: 0.28 0.34 0.40 0.47 0.55 0.66 0.8

Kg solution/

Kg extracted meal

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 2

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-II

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Give the Kremser brown equation for the number of the theoretical plates in an

absorption tower taking absorption factor as unity. What are the assumptions

made in obtaining this equation?

(b) Explain with suitable example about mass transfer with chemical reaction for

absorption. [10+6]

2. An acetone-air mixture containing 0.025 mole fraction acetone has its acetone re-

duced to 1% of this value by counter current absorption in a packed tower. Gas

flow rate of pure air is 1kg/m2 sec and water is1.6 kg/m2 . For this system the equi-

librium diagram is given by Y=1.75X/(1-0.75X) where Y is kg moles of acetone

/kg mole of air in gas phase and X is kg moles of acetone per kg mole of water in

liquid phase. What is the tower required if height of overall transfer unit is HtoG

=50 cm. [16]

3. Draw a neat sketch of multistage cross current extraction unit and make the mater-

ial balance by using solvent free coordinates? Also explain how to estimate number

of stages for given problem. [16]

4. (a) Write short notes on fractional extraction with the help of flow chart.

(b) Explain the procedure for the estimation of number of stages for counter cur-

rent extraction of immiscible liquids. [8+8]

5. An aqueous solution contains 25% acetone by weight together with a small amount

of an undesired contaminant. For the purpose of later process, it is necessary to have

the acetone dissolved in water without impurity. To accomplish this, the solution

will be extracted counter currently with trichloroethane, which extracts the acetone

but not impurity. The extract will then be counter currently extracted with pure

water in a second extractor to give the desired product water solution and the

recovered solvent will be returned to the first extractor. It is required to obtained

98% of the acetone in the final product. Water and trichloroethane are insoluble

over the acetone concentration range involved, and the distribution coefficient (kg

acetone /kg trichloroethnae)/(kg acetone /kg water) =1.65 = constant.

(a) What is the largest concentration of acetone possible in the recovered solvent?

(b) If the recovered solvent contains 0.005 kg acetone/kg trichloroethane, if 1 kg

of trichloroethane /kg of water is used in the first extractor and if the packed

height of the column in both the extractors is same what concentration of

acetone in the final product will result? [16]

1 of 2

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 2

6. (a) Discuss briefly the difference between Vander Walls adsorption and Chemisorp-

tion.

(b) An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts

of an impurity which is to be removed by a single stage contact with the ab-

sorbent carbon, which adsorbs insignificant amount of principle solute. Color

intensity is proportional to the concentration of colored substance. It is de-

sired to reduce color to 10Y* =8.91 × 10−5 X 1.66

Where Y* = equilibrium color, units/kg of solution X = adsorbate concentra-

tion, units/kg carbon. [6+10]

(b) A batch of water containing residual chlorine from a treating proess, at a

concentration 12 ppm, is to be treated with activated carbon at 250 C to re-

duce the chlorine concentration to 0.5 ppm. The carbon consists of 30-mesh

granules, density = 561 kg/m3 (35 lb/ft3 ) = mass of particle/gross volume of

particle. Adsorbate diffusional resistance is expected to be small relative to

that in the liquid. The equilibrium distribution coefficient = c*/X = 0.80 (kg

Cl2 /m3 liquid)/(kgCl2 /kgC) = 0.05 (kg Cl2 /ft3 liquid)/(kg Cl2 /kg C). [8+8]

(b) Write a note on various types of equilibrium diagrams for a solid-liquid system

for leaching operation.

(c) With a neat sketch, explain the working and operation of Bollman extractor.

[4+6+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 3

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-II

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Can absorption be accompanied by a temperature change? Why?

(c) What is the difference between physical absorption and chemical (reactive)

absorption? Explain with suitable examples and also mention advantages and

disadvantages. [4+4+8]

free liquid. The equilibrium relation ship is given by ye= mx. Obtain an expression

for the number transfer units if the inlet and exit gas compositions are y1 and y2

respectively. If a recovery of 90% of the solute is required and the liquid rate is 1.5

times the minimum calculate the number of transfer units by graphical methods.

[16]

3. (a) The coefficient of distribution of the solute C between two mutually immiscible

liquids A (carrier) and B (solvent) is K=yc /xc =0.75. Draw the equilibrium

curve using the right triangular coordinates.

(b) Define selectionry. What are the paremeters to be considered for selection of

a silrent in liquid-liquid extraction. [8+8]

4. A feed of one thousand kilograms aqueous solution of pyridine per hour (50% by

mass) is to be extracted with pure benzene to reduce the solute content in the

raffinate to 2%. Determine the number of ideal stages required if the solvent rate

is 1.3 times the minimum. [16]

Equilibrium data

Water layer

Pyridine, mass% Benzene, mass%

1.17 0.0

3.55 0.0

7.39 0.0

13.46 0.15

22.78 0.25

32.15 0.44

42.47 2.38

48.87 3.99

49.82 4.28

56.07 19.56

1 of 3

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 3

Benzene layer

Pyridine, mass% Benzene, mass%

3.28 94.54

9.75 87.46

18.35 79.49

26.99 71.31

31.42 66.46

34.32 64.48

36.85 59.35

39.45 56.43

39.27 55.72

48.39 40.05

(b) With the help of a neat sketch explain the construction and working of cen-

trifugal extractor. [8+8]

(b) Prove that for crosscurrent two-stage treatment of liquid solutions by contact

filtration, when the adsorption isotherm is linear, the least total adsorbent

results if the amounts used in each stage are equal. [6+10]

sorbent clay. Laboratory tests with the clay and oil in a representative percolation

filter show the following instantaneous sulfur contents of the effluent oil as function

of the total oil passing through the filter

% Sulfur 0.011 0.020 0.041 0.067 0.0935 0.118 0.126 0.129

Assume that the specific gravity of the oil is unchanged during the percolating.

The untreated oil has a sulfur content of 0.134%, and a product containing 0.090%

sulfur is desired.

(a) If the effluent from the filter is composited, what yield of satisfactory product

can be obtained per kg of clay?

(b) If the effluent from the filter is continually and immediately withdrawn and

blended with just sufficient untreated oil to give desired sulfur content in the

blend, what quantity of product can be obtained per kg of clay? [16]

8. Ground nut oil is extracted from granulated ground nut meal in a counter-current

multi-batch arrangement using ether as solvent. The solids charge contains 0.35 kg

oil/kg exhausted meal and it is desired to obtain a 90% oil recovery. How many

theoretical stages are required if 50 kg ether is used per 100 kg untreated solids.

2 of 3

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 3

The entrainment data are as below. [16]

Concentration of oil 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.67

kg oil/kg solution

Entrainment: 0.28 0.34 0.40 0.47 0.55 0.66 0.8

Kg solution/

Kg extracted meal

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

3 of 3

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 4

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-II

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) What is absorption factor? How is this related to stripping factor?

(c) Discuss what factors should be considered in the selection of a solvent for

absorption. [6+4+6]

free liquid. The equilibrium relation ship is given by ye = mx. Obtain an expression

for the number transfer units if the inlet and exit gas compositions are y1 and y2

respectively. If a recovery of 90% of the solute is required and the liquid rate is 1.5

times the minimum calculate the number of transfer units by analytical methods.

[16]

3. (a) Give a few examples of potential applications of solvent extraction for waste-

water treatment.

(b) Explain the representation of different co-ordinate systems in liquid-liquid

extration with respect to solvent free basis..

(c) What is mixture rule. [4+8+4]

4. Explain in detail for the estimation of number of stages for continuous counter

current extraction with out reflux using rectangular graph sheets and also write

the relevant equations. [16]

kg/hr in a counter current fashion with benzene to remove 95% of the dioxane.

What is the minimum solvent required? If 900 kg/hr of solvent is used, estimate

the number of transfer units, NtoR . the equilibrium data was given below:

Wt.% of dioxane in water : 5.1 18.9 25.2

Wt.% of dioxane in benzene : 5.2 22.5 32.0 [16]

6. A solution of washed, raw cane sugar, 48% sucrose by weight, is colored by the pres-

ence of small quantities of impurities. It is to be decolorized using an adsorptive

solid in a contact filtration plant. The data for an equilibrium adsorption isotherm

were obtained by adding various amount of the carbon to separate batches of the

original solution and observing the equilibrium color reached in each case. The

data, with the quantity of adsorbent expressed on the basis of the sugar content of

the solution, are as follows:

1 of 2

Code No: R05320801 Set No. 4

Kg carbon/kg dry sugar 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.03

Color removed, % 0 47 70 83 90 95

The original solution haws a color concentration of 20, measured on an arbitrary

scale, and it is desired to reduce the color to 2.5% of its original value.

(a) Convert the equilibrium data to Y* = color units /kg sugar, X= color units/kg

carbon. Do they follow the Freundlich equation? If so, what are the equation

constants?

(b) Calculate the necessary dosage of fresh carbon, per 1000 kg of solution, for a

single-stage process. [16]

(b) Distinguish between fluidized and teeter beds. [8+8]

8. (a) For a multistage counter current leaching operation show how by graphical

method and composition of raffinate, extract cnbe obtained along with number

of stages.

(b) Write note on various types of equilibrium diagrams for a solid liquid systems

fopr leaching operation. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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