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Set No. 1

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) A cylinder contains 0.45 ×10−3 cu.m of loose dry sand which weighs 7.5 N. Under a static load of 200Kpa, the volume is reduced by 1 % and then by vibration it is reduced by 12% of the original volume. If the solid unit weight of the grains is 27000 N/ cu.m, compute the void ratio and bulk unit weight under the static load and vibrated load. (b) Explain what is Relative density and thixotropy and their use. 2. (a) Explain the diﬀerence between compaction and consolidation. (b) Proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil sample, and the following observations were made: Water content,% 7.7 11.5 14.6 17.5 19.5 21.2 Weight of wet soil,kg 1.7 1.89 2.03 1.99 1.96 1.92 If the volume of the mould used was 950c.c and the speciﬁc gravity of soil was 2.65, Make necessary calculations and draw i. compaction curve and ii. 80% saturation line. 3. (a) What is Stoke’s law as applied to soils. (b) Describe the procedure used for doing hydrometer analysis for determining grain size distribution of ﬁne-grained soils. [6+10] 4. (a) Mention two diﬀerent methods of determining the permeability coeﬃcient of a soil. Explain when you prefer each of them. (b) Write a note on factors aﬀecting permeability. 5. (a) Brieﬂy explain the uses of ﬂow net. (b) Derive an expression for seepage force per unit volume of soil interms of the hydraulic gradient and unit weight of water. [8+8] 6. (a) How would you determine the stresses at a point due to i. Strip load ii. Circular load. Compare the zones of inﬂuence due to the two types of loads. (b) A load of 16KN/m2 is uniformly distributed over a circular area of 6m diameter at the ground surface. Calculate the vertical stress at a point P which is at a depth of 5m directly below the center of the loaded area. [10+6] 1 of 2 [8+8] [6+10] [8+8]

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 1

7. (a) Describe a suitable procedure for determining pre consolidation pressure. (b) Explain ‘secondary consolidation’. (c) The total anticipated settlement due to consolidation of a clay layer under a certain. Pressure is 150 mm. If 45 mm of settlement has occurred in 9 months, what is the expected settlement in 18 months? [6+6+4] 8. The results of consolidated undrained triaxial test conducted on a soil sample are given below: Cell Pressure(kPa) 1800 1000 1800 Additional stress at failure(kPa) 1600 2200 Pore pressure at failure(kPa) 400 800 Find the shear strength parameters with respect to (a) total stress (b) eﬀective stress ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

2 of 2

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 2

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Prove from ﬁrst principles, void ratio e is given by the expression γd = G.γw 1+e where γd is dry unit weight. (b) Soil A has dry density of 1.65g/cc (16.5 kN/m3 ). Soil B has a dry density 1.75g/cc (17.5 kN/m3 ). Both soils have G = 2.65, loose density 1.20 g/cc (12kN/m3 ) and max density of 2 g/cc (20kN/m3 ). Which soil is having higher relative density? Which soil has higher void ratio in natural state? [8+8] 2. (a) Brieﬂy explain the factors aﬀecting compaction. (b) A laboratory compaction test on soil having speciﬁc gravity 2.68 gave a maximum. Dry density of 1.82 g/cm3 and a water content of 17 %. Determine the degree of saturation, air content and percentage air voids at the maximum dry density. What would be the theoretical maximum dry density corresponding to zero air voids at the optimum moisture content? [8+8] 3. (a) One kg of dry soil was subjected to sieve analysis. The mass of soil retained on each sieve is IS Sieve No. 2.00mm 1.40mm 1.00mm 500µ 250µ 125µ 75µ Mass,g 20 40 135 260 280 120 90 Plot the grain size distribution curve and compute the % gravel, coarse sand, medium sand, ﬁne sand and silt and also the Uniformity co-eﬃcient. (b) What are index properties of soil? Why are they required? 4. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of soil water. Discuss. (b) The following data pertains to the coeﬃcients of permeability of a stratiﬁed soil deposit. Soil Coeﬃcient of permeability(mm/sec) Thickness of stratum(m) A 1 × 10−3 3 −4 B 2 × 10 4 −6 C 4 × 10 5 Determine the ratio of coeﬃcients of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability. [8+8] 5. (a) Brieﬂy explain the uses of ﬂow net. (b) Derive an expression for seepage force per unit volume of soil interms of the hydraulic gradient and unit weight of water. [8+8] [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 2

6. (a) How would you determine the stresses at a point due to i. Strip load ii. Circular load. Compare the zones of inﬂuence due to the two types of loads. (b) A load of 16KN/m2 is uniformly distributed over a circular area of 6m diameter at the ground surface. Calculate the vertical stress at a point P which is at a depth of 5m directly below the center of the loaded area. [10+6] 7. (a) Bring out the points of diﬀerence between compaction and consolidation. (b) A normally consolidated clay layer of 10 m thickness has a unit weight of 20 kN/m3 and speciﬁc gravity 2.72. The liquid limit of the clay is 58%. A structure constructed on this clay increase the overburden by 10%. Estimate the ultimate consolidation settlement. There is no secondary compression. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain with a simple sketch, how triaxial compression test is conducted on a soil sample. (b) In an undrained triaxial test on a sample of saturated clay the cell pressure is maintained at 100 kPa. The unconﬁned compressive strength of the clay is 300 kPa. At what vertical stress in addition to cell pressure, should the sample fail? [10+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 3

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain two fundamental building blocks of clay minerals. (b) Deﬁne speciﬁc surface of soils. How does it inﬂuence the engineering behaviour of soils. (c) Distinguish between adsorbed water and free water. 2. (a) Explain the diﬀerence between compaction and consolidation. (b) Proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil sample, and the following observations were made: Water content,% 7.7 11.5 14.6 17.5 19.5 21.2 Weight of wet soil,kg 1.7 1.89 2.03 1.99 1.96 1.92 If the volume of the mould used was 950c.c and the speciﬁc gravity of soil was 2.65, Make necessary calculations and draw i. compaction curve and ii. 80% saturation line. [6+10] [6+4+6]

3. (a) Explain laboratory method of determining Shrinkage limit of a given soil 08 (b) Soil A is silty sand and soil B is highly plastic clay, which soil will have higher i. ii. iii. iv. Liquid limit Shrinkage Limit Void ratio Natural Water content. Explain why?

[8+8]

4. (a) What are the factors aﬀecting the permeability of soil? Explain. (b) A constant head permeability test has been carried out on a soil sample, 10 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. With a hydraulic head of 30 cm, 300 c.c of water has been collected in 15 minutes time. Compute the coeﬃcient of permeability of soil. [10+6] 5. (a) Write short notes on : i. critical hydraulic gradient ii. phreatic line (b) In a ﬂownet the number of ﬂow channels is 6 and the number of equipotential drops is 12. The co-eﬃcient of permeability is 3 × 10−3 cm/sec. Calculate the quantity of seepage under a head of 3m. [10+6] 6. (a) Derive the expression for vertical pressure due to a line load 1 of 2

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 3

(b) A rectangular area 3 × 2 m is uniformly loaded with load intensity of 150kN/m2 at the ground surface. Calculate the vertical pressure at a point 3m below one of its corners by Newmark’s chart. [8+8] 7. (a) The water table in a lake has been lowered by 20m below the bed, will this cause a settlement of a clay layer 5m thick, lying 25m below bed level? Explain. (b) An oedometer test is performed on a 2cm thick clay sample. After 5 minutes, 50% consolidation is reached. After how long a time would the same degree of consolidation be achieved in the ﬁeld where the clay layer is 3.7m thick? Assume the sample and the clay layer have the same drainage boundary conditions (double drainage). [8+8] 8. (a) How is critical void ratio determined in the direct shear test? What is the signiﬁcance of critical void ratio? (b) The following results were obtained from a direct shear test on specimens of sandy clay of cross section 60 mm × 60 mm: Normal load,N 280 560 1080 Shear force at failure,N 240 320 460 Find the shear strength parameters. If a triaxial test is carried out on a specimen of the same soil with a cell pressure of 120 kPa, ﬁnd the deviator stress at which the failure would be expected. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 4

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between Cohesive and non-cohesive soils. (b) While boring was done the soil sample was found to be saturated with kerosene oil. The saturated density of the soil is 2.4×103 kg/m3 . Determine the void ratio and dry density if speciﬁc gravity for soil grain and kerosene oil were 2.65 and 0.89 respectively. [8+8] 2. (a) Explain the diﬀerence between compaction and consolidation. (b) Proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil sample, and the following observations were made: Water content,% 7.7 11.5 14.6 17.5 19.5 21.2 Weight of wet soil,kg 1.7 1.89 2.03 1.99 1.96 1.92 If the volume of the mould used was 950c.c and the speciﬁc gravity of soil was 2.65, Make necessary calculations and draw i. compaction curve and ii. 80% saturation line. [6+10]

3. (a) The Laboratory test on a particular sample of soil gave the following: Eﬀective Size D10 = 0.115, D60 = 2.7 and D30 = 0.575 obtain the values of Cc and Cu . (b) Brieﬂy explain the diﬀerent Index properties of soils. 4. (a) Explain the Phenomena of capillarity in detail. (b) In a falling head test the head fell from 300 mm to 100 mm in 800 seconds for a sample whose diameter was ten times that of stand pipe and whose length was 100mm. Find the coeﬃcient of permeability. (Soil sample has a void ratio of 0.52). What would be your answer if void ratio is increased to 0.62. [8+8] 5. (a) What is ﬂow net? Draw a typical ﬂow net for a homogeneous earth dam section and indicate the phreatic line. (b) A single row of sheet piles is driven upto a depth of 4m in a bed of clean sand having a co-eﬃcient of permeability of 0.002 cm/sec. An impermeable layer of very stiﬀ clay exists at a depth of 10m below the G.L. The sheet pile wall has to retain water upto 4m above G.L. The height of water level on the down stream side is 0.5m. Construct the ﬂow net and determine quantity of seepage loss considering unit width of the sheet pile. [8+8] 6. (a) How would you determine the stresses at a point due to i. Strip load 1 of 2 [6+10]

Code No: RR320101

Set No. 4

ii. Circular load. Compare the zones of inﬂuence due to the two types of loads. (b) A load of 16KN/m2 is uniformly distributed over a circular area of 6m diameter at the ground surface. Calculate the vertical stress at a point P which is at a depth of 5m directly below the center of the loaded area. [10+6] 7. (a) Distinguish between normally consolidated and over consolidated soils. (b) Explain in detail any one method for determining the coeﬃcient of consolidation of soil. (c) The void ratio of a clay is 1.56, and its compression index is found to be 0.8 at Pressure of 180 kN/m2 . What will be the void ratio if the pressure is increased to 240 kN/m2 ? [4+8+4] 8. (a) Derive the relation among major principal stress, minor principal stress and shear strength parameters at incipient failure condition. (b) An unconﬁned compression test was conducted on a saturated clay specimen 38 mm in diameter and 80 mm in height. The specimen failed when an axial load of 400 N was applied and the corresponding axial deformation was 7 mm. Find the unconﬁned compressive strength of the soil. When a triaxial compression test was carried out on a specimen of the same soil at a cell pressure of 100 kPa, the sample failed at a deviator stress of 400 kPa. Determine the shear strength parameters of the soil. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Experimental Study and Numerical Behavior of Solid Wood and Glued Wood in Requested Mode i Moroccan Wood Case of Grown Eucalypti and Quercus Ilex

by International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

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