3.

Protection of Information Assets (25%)
Protecting Personal & Institutional Information Assets & Data Extra Credit Project Jack Mason & July James
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets 12/01/1999

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
• 3. Protection of Information Assets • (Content Area, Approximately 25% of exam) • 3.1 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of logical access controls to ensure the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information assets. • 3.2 Evaluate network infrastructure security to ensure integrity, confidentiality, availability and authorized use of the network and the information transmitted. 3. Protection of Information Assets 2
(25%)

3. Protection of Information Assets 2
• 3. Protection of Information Assets • 3.3 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of environmental controls to prevent and/or minimize potential loss. • 3.4 Evaluate the design, implementation, and monitoring of physical access controls to ensure that the level of protection for assets and facilities is sufficient to meet the organization's business objectives.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
3

Knowledge Statements 1
• 3.01 Knowledge of the processes of design, implementation, and monitoring of security (e.g. gap analysis, baseline, tool selection) • 3.02 Knowledge of encryption techniques (e.g. DES, RSA) • 3.03 Knowledge of public key infrastructure (PKI) components (e.g. certification authorities (CA), registration authorities) • 3.04 Knowledge of digital signature techniques
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
4

Knowledge Statements 2
• 3.05 Knowledge of physical security practices (e.g. biometrics, card swipes) • 3.06 Knowledge of techniques for identification, authentication, and restriction of users to authorized functions and data (e.g. dynamic passwords, challenge/response, menus, profiles)

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

5

Knowledge Statements 3
• 3.07 Knowledge of security software (e.g. single sign-on, intrusion detection systems (IDS), automated permissioning, network address translation) • 3.08 Knowledge of security testing and assessment tools (e.g. penetration testing, vulnerability scanning) • 3.09 Knowledge of network and Internet security (e.g. SSL, SET, VPN, tunneling)
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
6

Some Possible Threats
• • • • • • • Email Interception Email Spoofing Web Data Interception Network & Volume Invasion Marketing Data / Spam & Junk Mail Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses Password Cracking
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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More Possible Threats
• Mail bomb • Denial of Service (DoS) • Piracy of Intellectual Property

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

8

Email Interception
Methods • Script Monitor
– Running a script on a server that receives email traffic, monitoring emails for certain keywords or number patterns. (I.E. “bomb + president” or credit card number patterns)

Defenses • Digital Certificates
– Digital certificates authenticate you as the sender and are extremely difficult to forge. Allows very strong encryption of email communications.

• Account Emulation
– Stealing someone’s user id and password to gain access to their email account.

• PGP
– “Pretty Good Privacy” allows strong encryption of your text. Can be incorporated easily into any text oriented program.

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9

Standard Encryption

• • • •

Text is encrypted and sent by the originator Ciphertext is decrypted by recipient Same key is used for encryption and decryption If key is intercepted or deciphered, encryption becomes useless
– This is how WWII was won...
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Strong Cryptography
• “There are two kinds of cryptography in this world: cryptography that will stop your kid sister from reading your files, and cryptography that will stop major governments from reading your files. This book is about the latter.” -- Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. • 40 bit cryptography is considered weak. This can be intercepted and deciphered in seconds using today’s tools. • By contrast, 128 bit cryptography is considered technically infeasible to crack. Most banks require a 128 bit browser for online banking.

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11

Dual Key Cryptography
• Key pair is generated - public and private key. • Public key is sent to server and exchanged with others • Private key is guarded by the user

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Dual Keys Continued
• Encrypted message is generated using recipients public key and your private key. • Only the intended recipient with the corresponding private key will be able to decrypt. • NSA hates this to be in the hands of the general public… but you have the right to privacy.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
13

What is a Digital Certificate?
(X.509)

• Acts as a virtual signature • Very hard to forge • Can be used for encryption or authentication • Resides in the Browser/Email Client/OS • Free digital certificates are available • PGP Freeware is available
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
14

What is PGP?
• Created by Phil Zimmerman
– PGP is now a subsidiary of Network Associates

• Secures e-mail and files • Based on “Public Key” Cryptography • Users whom have never met can exchange encrypted documents. • Freeware
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
15

How To Encrypt a Message (1)
This will describe how to encrypt a message using Digital Certificates with Netscape Communicator.
Clicking on the Security button in Netscape Communicator opens the Security Window below:

• Obtain and install a certificate using the step by step instructions at the issuing website.
16

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

How To Encrypt a Message (2)
• Users must exchange “public keys”. • Can be done via LDAP directory or email exchange.
An email that has a digital certificate attached will display this icon in Communicator. You can click on the icon to examine the cert. Certs emailed to you are automatically added to Communicator’s database.

You can search for certificates on public directories (LDAP) directly from within Communicator

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

17

How To Encrypt a Message (3)
• Once keys have been exchanged, address an email to the other party. • Click on the Security button and select the option for encrypting message. • That’s it!
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
18

Certificate Fingerprint:E4:58:C8:8F:B5:90:4C:AC:AB:79:9C:6A:32:0C:3E:4E

Email Spoofing
• Happens when someone impersonates an email user, sending messages that appear to be from the victim’s email address. • Spoofing can be prevented by using your Digital Certificate or PGP to “Digitally Sign” your email message. • Even Certificates can be spoofed, although difficult. Check the “Certificate Fingerprint” of the message to be sure it’s authentic.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Shopping Securely
• You should never input sensitive info such as Credit Card numbers into a nonsecure website. • Make sure website is certified by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA)

List of default trusted CA’s in Communicator

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

20

How to Shop Securely
• When you enter a secure site, Communicator’s Security icon will change as shown: • Click on the Security button to examine which CA asserts that this site is safe.

Note: Attempting to enter a secure site that is not signed by a valid or default CA will result in a cautionary error message.

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

21

Hacking In to Your Computer
• DSL and Cable internet access means round the clock connections of home and small business computers to the Internet. • Greatly increases the chance of attack. • Physical access is always a danger, too. • Hackers can gain access to your personal files, Quicken data, etc.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
22

Stopping Hackers
• Set up a personal/home firewall. • Encrypt your sensitive files!!!
– PGP, all platforms. – Mac OS 9 Built-In Encryption Feature

• Don’t give out your passwords to anyone! • Use difficult passwords - not simple dictionary style words.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
23

Password Strength
• Simple words out of a dictionary make bad passwords. • Use mixed upper and lower case characters. • Use non-alphanumeric characters such as: ~!@#$%^&*()_+=-{}[]|\:;”’/?.>,<` • Avoid sharing passwords, even with friends and family.
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Password Strength Examples
• Using a simple passphrase such as “coffee” is simple to hack, takes about 40 minutes to break. • Using random alphanumerics is significantly more difficult: A passphrase such as “bR1a9Az” takes about 22 years to crack. • Using the full range of the keyboard with truly random characters is totally infeasible to crack. A passphrase like “,ThX1pD<V+” would take 3.8 x 8 10 years to crack.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Key Strength Comparison
• Most browsers ship with a default of 40 bit encryption capabilities. • You must upgrade to a 128 bit encryption capable browser for most online banking.
Key Length (bits) Individual Attacker 40 w eeks 56 centuries 64 millenia 80 infeasible 128 infeasible Sm all Gr oup days decades centuries infeasible infeasible Academ ic Netw ork hours years decades infeasible infeasible Large Com pany milliseconds hours days centuries infeasible Military Inte lligence Agency microseconds seconds minutes centuries millennia

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Strong Encryption Browsers
• Netscape Communicator is freely available for all platforms with 128 bit encryption capability and full features. • 128 bit capable version of Microsoft Internet Explorer is available for Windows and Macintosh. (Mac version has limited features.) • You may have to install additional plug ins to get 128 bit capabilities out of MSIE.
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Viruses
• Computer viruses are 100% man made. • Can be transmitted via email, disk, network, etc… • Most are harmless experiments. • Some are intended to wreak havoc on individuals and networks.
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Virus Protection
• Get a virus protection package and install it on your computer. • Check the vendor’s website for downloadable updates and alerts on new viruses. • Don’t open email or attachments from unknown sources.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
29

Safeguarding Customer Information
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) Compliance

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

30

Why was GLBA enacted?

Section 501 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires Financial Institutions to establish standards relating to administrative, technical and physical information safeguards to protect customer records and information. 31
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

Safeguard Objectives:
• Ensure security and confidentially of customer records and information.
• Protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security of the records. • Protect against unauthorized access or use of records or information which could result in harm or inconvenience to customer.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
32

Information Security Plan

• Written to insure security and confidentiality of non-public customer financial information (NPI). • Protect against any anticipated threats and hazards. 33 • Protect against unauthorized access or use. 3. Protection of Information Assets
(25%)

Non-public customer information
(NPI)
• • • • • • • • • Credit card numbers Social Security numbers Drivers license numbers Student loan data Income information Credit histories Customer files with NPI NPI Consumer information Bank Account data
34

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

Financial Institutions
Including Colleges

and

Universities must ensure
that their security programs provide adequate protection to customer information in whatever format – electronic or hardcopy.

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

35

FTC Ruling
consumer’s information is not a privacy issue but is one of security.

Compliance with FERPA does not exempt colleges and universities from GLBA safeguarding regulations.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
36

FERPA vs.. GLBA
• The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act addresses the privacy of student information. • Gramm- Leach-Bliley Act addresses the security of customer records and information.

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37

University Actions
• Has established a committee to insure compliance. • Committee meets regularly to review and insure compliance with the act. • Performs risk assessment and regular testing. • Oversees service providers and contracts. • Trains staff to maintain security and confidentially.

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

38

Why Protect your Identity?

Identity Theft
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Statistics on Identity Theft in New Jersey
4802 Complaints / year • • • • • • • • 1. Credit Card Fraud 2,350 -- 49% 2. Phone or Utilities Fraud 867--18% 3. Bank Fraud 669 --14% 4. Government Documents/Benefits Fraud 396 --8% 5. Loan Fraud 356 --7% 6. Employment-Related Fraud 260 -- 5% 7. Attempted Identity Theft 477 --10% 8. Other 710 -- 15%
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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What is Identity Theft?
• Under ID Theft Act, identity theft is defined very broadly as:

knowingly using, without authority, a means of identification of another person to commit any unlawful activity.
(unlawful activity: a violation of Federal law, or a felony under State or local law).
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Identity Theft

When someone steals your identity, they are usually using your credit to obtain goods and services for themselves that “you” will have to pay for. 42
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

How Does an Identity Thief Get Your Information?
• Stealing files from places where you work, go to school, shop, get medical services, bank, etc. • Stealing your wallet or purse. • Stealing information from your home or car. • Stealing from your mailbox or from mail in transit. • Sending a bogus email or calling with a false promise or fraudulent purpose.
- For example: pretending to be from a bank, creating a false website, pretending to be a real company, fake auditing letters.
43

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

From: PNC Bank Sent: May 17, 2004 6:31 PM To: abuse@Miami.edu Subject: To All PNC bank users
Dear PNC user, During our regular update and verification of the user data, you must confirm your credit card details. Please confirm you information by clicking link below.
http://Cards.bank.com pncfeatures/cardmember access.shtml
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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How Does an Identity Thief Use Your Information?
• Obtains Credit Cards in your name or makes charges on your existing accounts (42%). • Obtains Wireless or telephone equipment or services in your name (20%). • Forges checks, makes unauthorized EFTs, or open bank accounts in your name (13%). • Works in your name (9%). • Obtains personal, student, car and mortgage loans, or cashes convenience checks in your name (7%). • Other uses: obtains drivers license in your name.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
45

Victims of Identity Theft
• If your identity is stolen, do the following immediately:
– Contact the fraud department of the three major credit bureaus (Equifax, Experian, Trans Union). – Contact your creditors and check your accounts. – File a police report. - File a complaint with the FTC.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Recovery
• Take back control of your identity:
– Close any fraudulent accounts. – Put passwords on your accounts. – Change old passwords and create new PIN codes.
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Prevention
Protect yourself Protect others

Guard against fraud:
• Sign cards as soon as they arrive.

• Keep records of account numbers and phone numbers.
• Keep an eye on your card during transactions. Also be aware of who is around you, is anyone else listening? • Check your credit report and credit card monthly statements. 48 3. Protection of Information Assets
(25%)

Annual credit bureau report
• New Jersey residents are entitled to one free annual credit report. • If you are denied credit, you are allowed to request one free copy of your credit report. • Check your report for accurate information, open accounts, balance information, loan information, etc.
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Credit Bureau Links
• Equifax – www.equifax.com
– To order a report, 1-800-685-1111
– To report fraud, 1-800-525-6285

• Experian – www.experian.com
– – To order a report, 1-888-397-3742 To report fraud, 1-888-397-3742

Trans Union – www.tuc.com
– To order a report, 1-800-916-8800 – To report fraud, 1-800-680-7289
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Have you been a Victim?

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51

You may be a victim if:
• • • • You are denied credit. You stop getting mail. You start getting collection calls/mail. You start getting new bills for accounts you do not have or services you did not authorize. • Your bank account balances drops.
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Damages
• • • • Time Money Credit rating Reputation

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Good Practices
• Photocopy the contents of your wallet/purse. • Photocopy your passport (keep a copy at home and one with you when you travel). • Empty your wallet/purse of non-essential identifiers. • Do not use any information provided by the people who may be trying to scam you look it up yourself. • Shred documents before you depose of them.
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GLBA requires us to PROTECT CONSUMERS from substantial harm or inconvenience.

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

55

What can we do to guard NPI?
• Keep confidential information private. • Use care when asking or giving SSN. • Use secure disposal methods. • Protect the privacy of data transmissions. • Improve procedures.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Actions to prevent Others from becoming Victims
• Determine what information you need. • Provide a secure workplace. • Always ask for a student’s ID or debtors account number. • Keep prying eyes away from customer’s information. • Don’t expose NPI information to the outside world.
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Actions to prevent Others from becoming Victims
• Take care when you provide employee’s or customers’ personal information to others. • Know & explain how you handle personal information. • Ask for written permission prior to sharing personal information. • Report problems or concerns to managers or supervisors.
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Remember to always maintain confidentiality, security and integrity :
Avoid
– – – – – unauthorized disclosure removing information from your office sharing information tossing information in the trash down loading or e-mailing information.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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General Privacy
• Do not provide correcting information for account verification questions. • Be suspicious. • Be paranoid. • Don’t be afraid to say no when asked for information that is not required to conduct the current business transaction.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
60

What are university assets?

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

61

University Assets
Are customer information and records assets?

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

62

Safeguarding Information
• Information takes many forms.
• Information is stored in various ways.

• Data assets have unique risks.

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Safeguarding Information
Your Role:
• • • • • • Ensure Physical Security. Select and Protect hard to guess passwords. Avoid email traps and disclosures. Back up files. Log off your computer when not in use. Do not open emails with attachments from unknown sources. • Obliterate data before giving up your computer. • Recognize social engineering tactics.
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Safeguarding Information
Your role as a user….

What else can you do?

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Check your work area!

• • • •

Do you leave NPI reports on your desk? Is NPI stored in unlocked file cabinets? Keep computer disks secure. Do not save NPI on your computer C drive.
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Safeguarding Information
Your role….
The University has many policies and procedures to help you, learn them.

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University Regulations & Guidelines related to Safeguarding
Standards for University Operations Handbook • Confidentiality • Accounting for Financial Resources • Acceptable Use of Network &Computing Resources:
– – – – – Agreement for Accessing Information Acceptable Use Policy Guidelines for Interpretation of Acceptable Use Acceptable Use Supplement Basics
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Potential Damages to Any U.
• • • • • • Reputation Violation of federal and state laws Fines Reparation costs Recovery costs Increased prevention costs

Georgia Tech accidental release of credit card to the internet cost them over $1,000,000.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Expectations

• All University employees are responsible for securing and caring for University property, resources and other assets. • University relies on the attention and cooperation of every member of the community to prevent, detect and report the misuse of university assets.
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Prevention

• Protect yourself • Protect others

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71

Safeguarding customer information and university assets is everyone’s job!

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Information Security Management
(ISO/IEC 17799:2000) &

Certified Risk Analysis Methodology Management (CRAMM)

ISO - International Standardization Organization
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%) 3. Protection of Information Assets 12/01/1999

Migrating
Migrating from compliance with the IM&T (Info. Management Tech) Security Manual to compliance with BS7799 Overview Implementation - assistance available

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

74

What is Information Security Management (ISM)?
An enabling mechanism whose application ensures that information may be shared in a manner which ensures the appropriate protection of that information & associated information assets 75
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

Basic Components
• Confidentiality: protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure • Integrity: safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information/data • Availability: ensuring that information and associated services are available to users when required
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Problem
• Until early 90’s information was handled by many organizations in an ad hoc and, generally, unsatisfactory manner • In a period of increasing need to share information, there was little or no assurance that such information could or would be safeguarded • What control measures there were focussed almost entirely on computer data, to the exclusion of other forms of information
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Code of Practice
• 1993: in conjunction with a number of leading UK companies and organizations produced an ISM Code of Practice incorporating the best information security practices in general use. • Addressed all forms of information;e.g. computer data, written, spoken, microfiche etc
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Code of Practice - Aims
• To provide
– A common basis for organizations to develop, implement, and measure effective information security management practice – Confidence in inter-organisational dealings

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Balance
• A common concern amongst organizations is that the application of security measures often has an adverse impact on, or interferes with, operational processes • BS7799 processes are flexible enough to ensure that the right balance can be struck security with operational efficiency!
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Assets - Examples

3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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The Standard
• And
– Personnel Security. Measures to reduce risks of human error, theft, fraud or misuse of facilities – Physical/Environmental Security. Prevention of unauthorized access, interference to IT services and damage – Computer and Network Management. To Ensure correct and secure operation of computer and network facilities 82
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

The Standard
• ………….
– System Access Control. Controls to prevent unauthorized access to computer systems – System Development and Maintenance. A security program complementing development/maintenance of IT systems – BCP. Measures to protect critical business processes from major failures and disasters – Compliance. To avoid breaches of statutory or contractual requirements and ensure the ISMS is operational
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

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Controls
Each of these Categories contains a number of security controls, mandatory or otherwise, which can be implemented as part of the information security risk management strategy
The same controls will not, necessarily apply across the board, owing to the varying nature 84 of organizations, risk factors etc 3. Protection of Information Assets
(25%)

The Crux of the Matter
• Information is subject to numerous risks; which can be grouped together under the generic headings of:
– Accidental – Natural – Deliberate

• A risk being the product, in this case, of the threat to information and its assets, and vulnerability to the of Information Assets threats 85 3. Protection
(25%)

Risk Analysis
• The point is:
– An effective risk management strategy cannot be implemented until the risks are identified and measured (that is, analyzed)

• It almost goes without saying, that Analysis should be based upon a sound and proven methodology • therefore the we will use CRAMM
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CRAMM
• Developed in 1985, CRAMM Risk Analysis Methodology is a complete package, containing:
– the risk analysis process itself – associated documentation (inc. report functionality; results and conclusions) – training – software support tools
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CRAMM Version 4.0
• This version, the latest, includes
– Full support for BS7799 including
• • • • • GAP analysis Implementation of a security improvement program Statement of Applicability Risk Modeling for multi-role organizations AND undertake a Risk Analysis !

• A fit with BS7799: Part 2
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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Management Framework: ISMS
Policy Document
Step 1 Define the Policy Scope of ISMS
Information Assets

Step 2

Define Scope of ISMS Undertake RA

Step 3

Risk Assessment

T. V. I.

Results & Conclusions

Step 4

Degree of Assurance Required Control Objectives

Manage Risk
Select Control Options

Step 5

Additional Controls

Select Controls

Step 6

Statement of Applicability

Statement

90 (NB: Additional controls would incorporate DPAInformation Assets and Info Governance requirements) 3. Protection of 1998, Caldicott (25%)

And then……..
• Develop and implement security policies which comply with your specific requirements in terms of BS7799 • Review and Maintain • Simple, isn’t it? • No, it is appreciated that compliance with BS7799 is a significant undertaking • But, as the benefits themselves are significant…it is not only good practice, but makes good sense to adopt the standard 91
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

You are Not Alone
• CRAMM risks models are being developed for specific organizations (e.g. Acute Trusts) • Such models will encompass approximately 90 - 95% of organizations • Pioneer Projects - results of which will be fed into the overall implementation process • Training • Development and maintenance program • FAQs • Help Desk • User Groups 92
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)

Thanks for Coming!

For further information, contact: Dr. A. Rush, Ph.D. arush@Miami.edu
3. Protection of Information Assets (25%)
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