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Set No. 1

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Hydrogen sulﬁde is removed from coal gas by contact with a moving bed of iron oxide particles which convert to the sulﬁde as follows: Fe2 O3 → FeS In our reactor the fraction of oxide converted in any particle is determined by its residence time t and the time needed for complete conversion of the particle τ and this is given by t 3 1 − X = 1 − τ when t < 1 hr and with τ = 1 hr and X = 1 when t ≥1 hr. Find the conversion of iron oxide to sulﬁde if the RTD of solids in the contactor is approximated by the curve shown in the ﬁgure 1. [16]

Figure 1 2. (a) Write about dispersion model and mention its applications and limitations (b) An injected slug of tracer material ﬂows with its carrier ﬂuid down a long, straight pipe in dispersed plug ﬂow. At point A in the pipe the spread of tracer is 16m. At point B, 1 kilometer downstream from A, its spread is 32m. What do you estimate its spread to be at a point C, which is 2 kilometers downstream from point A? [8+8] 3. A reactor has ﬂow characteristics given by the non-normalised C curve in the given table and by the shape of this curve we feel that the dispersion or tanks-in-series models should satisfactorily represent ﬂow in the reactor.

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Code No: R05320802 Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Tracer Time concentration 0 10 9 15 57 20 81 30 90 41 90 52 86 67 77 70 Tracer concentration 67 47 32 15 7 3 1 0

Set No. 1

Find the number of tanks in series which will represent the reactor and the conversion expected, assuming that the tanks-in-series model holds. Data: The elementary liquid-phase reaction taking place is A + B → products, with a large enough excess of B so that the reaction is essentially ﬁrst order. In addition, if plug ﬂow existed, conversion would be 99% in the reactor. [16] 4. Consider a second-order reaction being can-led out in a real CSTR that can be modeled as two diﬀerent reactor systems: In the ﬁrst system a CSTR is followed by a PFR, in the second system the PFR precedes the CSTR. Let τs and τp each equal 1 min, let the reaction rate constant equal 1.0 m3 /kmol.min and let the initial concentration of liquid reactant, CAO , equal 1 kmol/m3 . Find the conversion in each system. [16] 5. What are the important physical properties of catalysts? Describe a method for determining the surface area. [16] 6. Discuss the spectrum of kinetic regimes in a porous catalytic reaction system and explain the factors that inﬂuence the rate of reaction of particles. [16] 7. A solid catalyzed ﬁrst-order reaction ε = 0, takes place with 50% conversion in a basket type mixed reactor. What will be the conversion if the reactor size is trebled and all else-temperature, amount of catalyst, feed composition, and ﬂow rate remains unchanged. [16] 8. Derive a rate equation for instantaneous reaction of any order between A from gas and B from liquid i.e A+bB →P, visualizing two-ﬁlm theory. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05320802

Set No. 2

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A large tank (860 liters) is used as a gas-liquid contactor. Gas bubbles ﬂows up through the vessel and out at the top, liquid ﬂows in at one part and out the other at 5 liters/s. To get an idea of the ﬂow pattern of liquid in this tank a pulse of tracer (M = 150 gm) is injected at the liquid inlet and measured at the outlet, as shown in ﬁgure 1. (a) Is this a properly done experiment? (b) If so, ﬁnd the liquid fraction in the vessel. (c) Determine the E curve for the liquid. (d) Qualitatively what do you think is happening in the vessel? [4+4+4+4]

Figure 1 2. (a) Write about dispersion model and mention its applications and limitations (b) An injected slug of tracer material ﬂows with its carrier ﬂuid down a long, straight pipe in dispersed plug ﬂow. At point A in the pipe the spread of tracer is 16m. At point B, 1 kilometer downstream from A, its spread is 32m. What do you estimate its spread to be at a point C, which is 2 kilometers downstream from point A? [8+8] 3. Aqueous A (CAO = 1 mol/m3 ) with physical properties close to water ( ρ = 1000 kg/m3 , D = 10 - 9 m2 /s) reacts by a second-order reaction ( k = 10 - 3 m3 /mol.s) as it ﬂows at 10 mm/s through a tubular reactor (dt = 10 mm, L = 20 m). Find the conversion of reactant A from this reactor. [16] 4. (a) Find the expression for conversion of a macroﬂuid in two equal-size mixed reactors for a zero-order reaction. If conversion is 99% for the microﬂuid, what is it for a macroﬂuid having the same reaction rate? 1 of 2

Code No: R05320802 (b) Discuss about mixing of two miscible ﬂuids.

Set No. 2

[10+6]

5. What is a catalyst? Explain its role in a chemical reaction with suitable examples. Describe about the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes. [16] 6. Calculate the eﬀectiveness factor of a single catalyst pore and of a catalyst slab for Zeroth - order kinetics. [16] 7. Find the activation energy of the ﬁrst-order reaction from the following data. dp (mm) CA (mol/lit) 1 20 2 40 2 40 -r′A 1 1 3 T(K) 480 480 500 [16]

A → R and CAo = 50 mol/lit.

8. Two small samples of solids are introduced into a constant environment oven kept there for one hour. Under these conditions the 4mm particles are 58% converted. The 2mm particles are 87.5% converted. (a) Find the rate controlling mechanism for the conversion of solids. (b) Find the needed for complete conversion of 1mm particles in this oven. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05320802

Set No. 3

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A reactor with a number of dividing baﬄes is to be used to run the reaction A → R with -rA = 0.05 CA mol/liter. min. Time, min Concentration reading 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 35 38 40 40 39 37 36 35

(a) Find the E versus t curve. (b) Calculate the variance of the E curve. (c) Calculate XA directly from the data. [4+4+8]

2. (a) Write about dispersion model and mention its applications and limitations (b) An injected slug of tracer material ﬂows with its carrier ﬂuid down a long, straight pipe in dispersed plug ﬂow. At point A in the pipe the spread of tracer is 16m. At point B, 1 kilometer downstream from A, its spread is 32m. What do you estimate its spread to be at a point C, which is 2 kilometers downstream from point A? [8+8] 3. A reactor has ﬂow characteristics given by the non-normalised C curve in the given table and by the shape of this curve we feel that the dispersion or tanks-in-series models should satisfactorily represent ﬂow in the reactor. Time Tracer Time Tracer concentration concentration 0 0 10 67 1 9 15 47 2 57 20 32 3 81 30 15 4 90 41 7 5 90 52 3 6 86 67 1 8 77 70 0 Find the number of tanks in series which will represent the reactor and the conversion expected, assuming that the tanks-in-series model holds. Data: The elementary liquid-phase reaction taking place is A + B → products, with a large enough excess of B so that the reaction is essentially ﬁrst order. In addition, if plug ﬂow existed, conversion would be 99% in the reactor. [16] 4. (a) Find the expression for conversion of a macroﬂuid in two equal-size mixed reactors for a zero-order reaction. If conversion is 99% for the microﬂuid, what is it for a macroﬂuid having the same reaction rate? 1 of 2

Code No: R05320802

Set No. 3

(b) Consider a single reacting macroﬂuid being processed in turn in batch, plug ﬂow and mixed ﬂow reactors. How does the degree of segregation aﬀect the conversion in each case? [10+6] 5. What is a catalyst? Explain its role in a chemical reaction with suitable examples. Describe about the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes. [16] 6. What is meant by eﬀective diﬀusivity. How it is estimated. Explain with a neat sketch for a spherical porous catalyst pellet. [16] 7. We plan to run an isomerization of A to R in a packed bed reactor (pure A feed,FAo = 5kmol/hr, W = 1 ton catalyst, P = 3atm, T =730 k). The catalyst deactivates so we plan to make 120 day runs. Then regenerate the catalyst .the rate of reac2 tion with CA in mol/m3 is -r′A = 0.2 CA a molA/kg.catalyst .hr and the rate of deactivation is -da/ dt = 8.3125×10−3 day−1 . Plot conversion and activity verses time for the run. [16] 8. Gaseous A absorbs and reacts with B in liquid according to A (g - l) + B (l) → R(l), - rA = k CA CB in a packed bed under conditions where KAg a = 0.1 mol/hr. m2 of reactor.Pa, KAL a = 100 m3 liquid/ m3 reactor .hr, a = 100 m2 / m3 reactor. fL = 0.01 m3 liquid /m3 reactor. DAL = DBL = 10−6 m2 /hr. At a point in the reactor where PA = 100 Pa and CB =100 mol/m3 liquid. Calculate the rate of reaction in mol/ hr.m3 of reactor. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05320802

Set No. 4

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A pulse test on a piece of reaction equipment gave the following results: The output concentrations rose linearly from zero to 0.5 µmol/dm3 in 5 min, then fell linearly to zero in 10 min after reaching the maximum value. (a) Calculate in tabular form the values of E(t) and F(t) at 1 min intervals (b) What is the mean residence time? If the ﬂow rate were 150 gal/min, what would be the total reactor volume? A second order reaction with kCA0 = 1.2 min - 1 is carried out in the system. [16] 2. (a) Using the dispersion model calculate the conversion for a closed vessel for the ﬁrst order isomerization A→ B with k = 0.18 min−1 . The results of a tracer test carried out on this reactor are as follows: t (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C (mg/liter) 0 1 5 8 10 8 6 4 3 9 10 12 14 2.2 1.5 0.6 0

(b) Compare your result in part (a) with the conversion calculated from a PFR. [12+4] 3. (a) Give a brief account of the tanks-in-series model (b) Fit the tank-in-series model to the following mixing cup output data to a pulse input. [8+8] t C 0-2 2 2-4 10 4-6 6-8 8 4 8 - 10 2 10 - 12 0

4. (a) For a ﬁrst-order reaction with ε = 0 show that the performance equations for a macroﬂuid in plug ﬂow and a microﬂuid in plug ﬂow are identical. (b) Discuss about mixing of two miscible ﬂuids. [10+6]

5. What is the basis for classiﬁcation of catalyst? Explain about the type of catalysts used in hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions of commercial importance. [16] 6. Develop an equation describing diﬀusion and reaction in a catalyst pellet. Assume that the surface reaction is of nth order in the gas phase concentration of A within the pellet. Write the boundary conditions to solve the resulting diﬀerential equation. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: R05320802

Set No. 4

7. What are the experimental devices used for collecting experimental data to estimate the kinetic parameters of a catalytic reaction. Explain the strategy of applications of those devices for diﬀerent reactions. [16] 8. What is a ﬂuid-ﬂuid reaction? How it diﬀer from ﬂuid-solid reaction? Give some examples of ﬂuid-ﬂuid reactions of industrial importance, gas-liquid and liquid liquid reactions. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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