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Set No. 1

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the concept of temperature and equality of temperature. (b) State the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. For non ﬂow process, prove the following energy equation:Q = W + ∆U . [8+8] 2. (a) A refrigerator is rated at a COP of 4. The refrigerated space that it cools requires a peak cooling rate of 30,000 kJ/h. Calculate the power of the electrical motor required for the refrigerator? (b) Two kg of air is heated at constant pressure of 200 kPa to 5000 C. Calculate the entropy change if the initial volume is 0.8 m3 . [8+8] 3. (a) Prove that the eﬃciency of an Otto cycle depends upon its compression ratio. (b) A spark ignition engine operates on an Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 9 and temperature limits of 300 C and 10000 C . If the power output is 500kW, calculate the thermal eﬃciency and the mass ﬂux of air. [8+8] 4. (a) What are the diﬀerent methods of governing of steam turbines? Explain any one method with the help of neat sketches. (b) Determine the enthalpy required to produce 6 kg of dry saturated steam at a pressure of 750 kN/m2 from water at 300 C . Take speciﬁc heat of water as 4.2 kJ/kgK. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain brieﬂy with a sketch the working principle of a jet propulsion unit. (b) A six cylinder petrol engine working on four stroke Otto cycle runs at a speed of 2000 rpm. Each cylinder is 100 mm in diameter and the stroke is 150 mm. If the mean eﬀective pressure is 500 kN/m2 , ﬁnd the indicated power of the engine. [8+8] 6. (a) Prove that the volumetric eﬃciency of a compressor is given by ηv = 1 − K/100 [(p2 /p1 )1/n − 1] (b) A compressor delivers 2 kg/s of air at 2 MPa having received it from the atmosphere at 200 C. Determine the required power input and the rate of heat removed if the compression process is polytropic with n = 1.4. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain the diﬀerent methods by which power from one shaft to another is transmitted.

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Code No: RR220801

Set No. 1

(b) A belt embraces the shorter pulley 1650 and runs over at a speed of 1700 m/min. Dimensions of the belt are: width = 20cm, thickness = 10mm, density is 1 g/cm3 . Determine the maximum power that can be transmitted at the above speed if maximum permissible stress in the belt is not to exceed 20 bar, µ = 0.3. [8+8] 8. (a) With the help of neat sketch explain the following terms in connection with spur gear. i. Circular pitch ii. Dedendum circle iii. Addendum circle (b) What are the diﬀerent types of thrust bearings? Explain? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10]

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Code No: RR220801

Set No. 2

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A cylinder closed at both contains a free piston. On one side of which is nitrogen and other side is air. The initial pressure and volume of each is being 1.03 bar and 0.5 m3 respectively. Both the piston and cylinder are perfectly insulated. In the cylinder on the air side of the piston there is an electric heater which is used to heat the air. Heat is added to the air in this manner until the volume occupied by the nitrogen is 0.3 m3 . The initial temperature of each gas is 50o C . Determine (a) the ﬁnal temperature of air and (b) the heat supplied to air. Assume Cp for air as 1.005 and R for air as 0.287 kJ/kgK and γ = 1.4 for nitrogen. Also draw the PV diagram. [16] 2. (a) Prove that Kelvin-Planck statement and Clausius statement of Second law of thermodynamics are equivalent. (b) Heat is supplied to a working ﬂuid of an engine at the rate of 100 kcal/min at a constant temperature of 4500 C . The working ﬂuid expands adiabatically into the engine cylinder and ﬁnally it is discharged from the engine at a constant temperature of 1000 C . Find the power developed by the engine. [8+8] 3. (a) In what respect diesel cycle diﬀers from Otto cycle. Which cycle gives higher eﬃciency for the same compression ratio? (b) The maximum allowable pressure in an Otto cycle is 8 MPa. Conditions at the beginning of the air compression are 85kPa and 220 C . Calculate the required heat addition and the MEP, if the compression ratio is 8. [6+10] 4. (a) Explain the main advantages and disadvantages of ﬁre tube boiler over water tube boilers. (b) A power plant is to be operated on an ideal Rankin cycle with the superheated steam exiting the boiler at 4 MPa and 5000 C . Calculate the thermal eﬃciency and the quality at the turbine outlet if the condenser pressure is i. 20 kPa ii. 10 kPa, and iii. 8 kPa

[8+8]

5. (a) Describe the operation of a two stroke cycle IC engine with neat sketches.

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Code No: RR220801

Set No. 2

(b) The indicated power of a two cylinder four stroke cycle petrol engine is 15 kW when it runs at a speed of 1000 rpm. If the mean eﬀective pressure is 600 kN/m2 , determine the necessary bore and stroke assuming the stroke is 1.2 times the bore. [10+6] 6. An air compressor has a piston displacement of 12 m3 /min. The pressure and temperature of air at the end of suction stroke are 100 kN/m2 and 150 C. The pressure and temperature of air in the receiver of 2 m3 capacity is raised to 750 kN/m2 and 400 C in 70 seconds. Determine the volumetric eﬃciency of the compressor. The initial pressure and temperature in the receiver are 103 kN/m2 and 150 C. [16] 7. (a) State the applications, advantages and disadvantages of chain drives. (b) Power is transmitted between two shafts by a V - belt whose mass is 0.9 kg/m length. The maximum permissible tension in the belt is limited to 2.2 kN. The angle of lap is 1700 and the grove angle is 450 . If the coeﬃcient of friction between the belt and pulley is 0.17, ﬁnd the maximum power transmitted by the belt. [8+8] 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of gears? Explain their applications. (b) Describe the following bearings with the help of neat sketch: i. Single row deep groove ball bearing ii. Thrust ball bearing ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10]

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Code No: RR220801

Set No. 3

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A cylinder closed at both contains a free piston. On one side of which is nitrogen and other side is air. The initial pressure and volume of each is being 1.03 bar and 0.5 m3 respectively. Both the piston and cylinder are perfectly insulated. In the cylinder on the air side of the piston there is an electric heater which is used to heat the air. Heat is added to the air in this manner until the volume occupied by the nitrogen is 0.3 m3 . The initial temperature of each gas is 50o C . Determine (a) the ﬁnal temperature of air and (b) the heat supplied to air. Assume Cp for air as 1.005 and R for air as 0.287 kJ/kgK and γ = 1.4 for nitrogen. Also draw the PV diagram. [16] 2. (a) Explain the term ‘entropy’. What is its diﬀerence with the temperature? (b) A Carnot engine operates in series between two reservoirs maintained at 5000 C and 400 C respectively. The energy rejected by the ﬁrst engine is utilized as energy input to the second engine. Determine the temperature of this intermediate reservoir between the two engines if the eﬃciencies of both engines are the same. [6+10] 3. (a) In what respect diesel cycle diﬀers from Otto cycle. Which cycle gives higher eﬃciency for the same compression ratio? (b) The maximum allowable pressure in an Otto cycle is 8 MPa. Conditions at the beginning of the air compression are 85kPa and 220 C . Calculate the required heat addition and the MEP, if the compression ratio is 8. [6+10] 4. (a) Explain the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Dry saturated steam Wet steam Superheated steam Dryness fraction of steam

(b) A Rankin cycle operates between pressures of 2 MPa and 10 kPa with a maximum temperature of 6000 C . If the insulated turbine has an eﬃciency of 80 percent, calculate the cycle eﬃciency and the temperature of steam at the turbine outlet. [8+8] 5. (a) Describe the major classiﬁcations of internal combustion engine. 1 of 2

Code No: RR220801

Set No. 3

(b) A four stroke cycle internal combustion engine has a piston diameter of 150 mm and the average piston speed is 200 m per min. If the mean eﬀective pressure is 700kN/m2 , ﬁnd the indicated power of the engine. [8+8] 6. A single stage single acting compressor 20 cm in diameter and 20 cm in stroke delivers air at 2000 kN/m2 . The temperature and pressure at the suction are 270 C and 100 kN/m2 . Assuming compression and expansion follow the law pv1.2 =Constant and clearance is 20% stroke volume, ﬁnd (a) the volumetric eﬃciency and (b) power of the compressor if the compressor runs at 200 rpm. 7. (a) Explain the diﬀerent types of belt drives with the help of neat sketches. (b) A ﬂat belt running over a pulley of 800mm diameter running at 240rpm is having a coeﬃcient of friction between the belt and the pulley 0.28 and angle of lap is 1650 . If the maximum tension in the belt is 3kN, determine the power transmitted by the belt drive. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication (b) A compound gear train consists of 6 gears A,B,C,D,E and F and they have 20,30,40,50,60,70 teeth respectively, A is ﬁtted to the ﬁrst shaft and B is mashed with C. Gear D and E are ﬁtted to the third shaft and E is meshed with F which is ﬁxed to another shaft. If A rotates at 210 rpm, ﬁnd the rpm of F. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR220801

Set No. 4

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. (b) Calculate CP and Cv of air if 0.46 kg of air at 179o C expends isentropically to three times its original volume. During this expansion process the temperature drops to 15.5o C The work done by the air is 52.9 kJ. [8+8] 2. (a) Give the two classical statements of the second law of thermodynamics. Explain how it leads to a clariﬁcation of the ﬁrst law. (b) Air is compressed from a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 21 C to a ◦ pressure of 2 bar and temperature of 38 C. For this process determine: i. change in entropy ii. whether heat is added or removed or is it zero iii. the ﬁnal temperature if the process were isentropic. Sketch process for part iv. on a T-s plane [6+10] 3. (a) In what respect diesel cycle diﬀers from Otto cycle. Which cycle gives higher eﬃciency for the same compression ratio? (b) The maximum allowable pressure in an Otto cycle is 8 MPa. Conditions at the beginning of the air compression are 85kPa and 220 C . Calculate the required heat addition and the MEP, if the compression ratio is 8. [6+10] 4. A steam power plant is proposed to operate between the pressures of 10 kPa and 2 MPa with a maximum temperature of 4000 C, as shown in ﬁgure4 given. What is the maximum eﬃciency possible from the power cycle? [16]

◦

Figure 4 Saturated liquid h1 = hf = 191.8 kJ/kg 1 of 2

Code No: RR220801 Super heat h3 = 3248kJ/kg s3 = 7.1279 kJ/kg. K

Set No. 4

5. A four stroke cycle petrol engine has a diameter of 150 mm and a stroke of 250 mm. The mean eﬀective pressure exerted upon the piston is 700 kN/m2 and the crank shaft makes 406 revolutions per min. If there is an average misﬁres of 3 per minute, ﬁnd the indicated power of the engine. [16] 6. (a) Explain why a reciprocating air compressor with clearance delivers less air than a reciprocating compressor with no clearance? (b) A single stage air compressor draws 25 liters of air per second at 100kN/m2 and compresses it according to the law pv1.2 =constant to the delivery pressure 600kN/m2 . Calculate the power required to drive the compressor assuming the mechanical eﬃciency as 80 per cent. [6+10] 7. (a) Explain the diﬀerent methods by which power from one shaft to another is transmitted. (b) A belt embraces the shorter pulley 1650 and runs over at a speed of 1700 m/min. Dimensions of the belt are: width = 20cm, thickness = 10mm, density is 1 g/cm3 . Determine the maximum power that can be transmitted at the above speed if maximum permissible stress in the belt is not to exceed 20 bar, µ = 0.3. [8+8] 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of gears? Explain their applications. (b) Describe the following bearings with the help of neat sketch: i. Single row deep groove ball bearing ii. Thrust ball bearing ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10]

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