# Code No: RR222101

Set No. 1

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Describe various types of airfoil sections used in aircraft industry. Describe in details 6 digit and 7 digit series of NACA sections. Make use of sketches and c1 -cd -α plots to illustrate your answer. [16] 2. An airfoil at an angle of attack of 100 gets c1 = 1.26 and cd =0.0115 .Obtain cn and ca . Hence obtain them from dimensional analysis. [16] 3. Deﬁne the term Drag force acting on an airfoil / wing or any moving object. What are the causes and eﬀects of drag? Write down expression for total drag and its components. Hence compare drag of various objects. Make use of sketches /plots to illustrate your answer. [16] 4. Deﬁne a complex potential function from the ﬁrst principle. What is represented by a Complex potential function? Consider a point source placed in a uniform stream. Plot the streamlines and equipotential lines. Make use of sketches and plots to explain your answers. [16] 5. Show that a straight line of length 4a can be obtained from the conformal transformation of a circle of radius a. Hence obtain lift coeﬃcient on such ﬂat plate placed at α = 30 to the free stream. [16] 6. An airscrew is required to produce thrust of 4500 Newtons at a speed of 125 m/s at sea level. The diameter of the disc is 2.5 m. Estimate the minimum power to be supplied on the basis of ideal actuator disc. Another propeller is placed in its slipstream such that its disc area is just equal to that of the slipstream. Work out the size ant input power to the second propeller on the basis of Froude momentum theory. [16] 7. At 1.25 m radius on a 3 bladed airscrew, the airfoil section has the following characteristics; solidity = 0.1 ,θ = 290 7’ ,α = 40 7’, CL = 0.49 L / D = 50 Allowing for both axial and rotational interference, ﬁnd the local eﬃciency of the element. [16] 8. What are the possible variants of a rotary wing aircraft? Explain design features and other details with sketches and plots. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR222101

Set No. 2

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain mean line and thickness distribution in case of NACA 5 digit series of airfoil sections. How are the diﬀerent from Juokowaski airfoils? [16] 2. Make use of dimensional analysis to work out formulas for aerodynamic forces and moments. [16] 3. An airplane weighing 14,000 N, S = 16.5 m2 has its drag polar given as CD = 0.025 + 0.054 CL 2 . Plot the thrust vs. velocity curve and obtain lift coeﬃcient for minimum drag. What is the signiﬁcance of this condition? [16] 4. Show that the Complex Potential function w = Uze −iα represents uniform ﬂow in the direction α .Sketch the stream lines and Equipotential lines. [16] 5. Apply the Kutta-Zhukovsky transformation to obtain a cambered airfoil of thickness ratio 15% and camber of 10%. Make use of sketches and plots to elaborate your answer. [16] 6. An airscrew is required to pruce thrust of 5000 Newtons at a speed of 130 m/s at sea level. The diameter of the disc is 2.5 m. Estimate the minimum power to be supplied on the basis of ideal actuator disc. Another propeller is placed in its slipstream such that its disc area is just equal to that of the slipstream. Work out the size ant input power to the second propeller on the basis of Froude momentum theory. [16] 7. Deﬁne the term activity factor. Explain its importance in propeller’s performance and design. Derive an expression for it. [16] 8. Explain the functioning a conventional helicopter. What are the uses of collective pitch lever and stick for cyclic pitch? Make use of sketches / plots to elaborate your answer. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR222101

Set No. 3

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Sketch a sweptback wing showing sweep, taper and twist features. Explain the use and requirement of each of these features. Make use of c1 -cd -α plots as well. [16] 2. Compare pressure distribution over an airfoil in an ideal ﬂuid medium with that in a viscous incompressible ﬂuid medium. How does the real ﬂuid eﬀect the pressure distribution? Illustrate with sketches and plots. [16] 3. An airplane weighing 160,000 N, S = 42 m2 has its drag polar given as 2 CD = 0.014 + 0.05 CL . Plot the thrust vs. velocity curve and obtain lift coeﬃcient for minimum drag. What is the signiﬁcance of this condition? [16] 4. Sketch the stream line pattern of the ﬂow given by the Complex Potential function w = A z 2 , where A is a constant and other symbols have usual meaning. Find the magnitude and direction of the stream at x = 1,y= 2 when A = 10. [16] 5. A long elliptic cylinder of t / c ratio = 1 / 7, is set in , and with its major axis parallel to, a uniform irrotational stream of 35.4 m / s. Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between pressure holes set in the nose and at the point of maximum thickness. [16] 6. An airplane powered by a single propeller is ﬂying in straight and level condition at an altitude. Develop an expression for the slipstream velocity of the propeller in terms of ﬂight speed, drag coeﬃcient, wing plan form area and the propeller diameter. [16] 7. A 3-bladed airscrew is driven at 1560 rpm at a ﬂight speed of 110 m / s at sea level. At 1.25 m radius, the local eﬃciency is estimated to be 87%, while the L/D ratio of the blade section is 57.3. Calculate the local thrust grading, ignoring rotational interference. [16] 8. What is the use and necessity of a vertical tail rotor in case of a conventional helicopter? Compare the means of generation of lift on a helicopter with that on a ﬁxed wing aircraft. What is the equivalent of tail rotor in an airplane? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR222101

Set No. 4

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Describe various types of airfoil sections used in aircraft industry. Describe in details 6 digit and 7 digit series of NACA sections. Make use of sketches and c1 -cd -α plots to illustrate your answer. [16] 2. Consider NACA 2412 and NACA 23012 airfoil sections. Illustrate the eﬀect of leading edge radius on the pressure distribution on these two airfoil sections. Make use of sketches / plots to explain your answer. [16] 3. An airplane weighing 250,000 N, S = 80 m2 has its drag polar given as 2 CD = 0.016 + 0.04 CL . Plot the thrust vs. velocity curve and obtain lift coeﬃcient for minimum drag. What is the signiﬁcance of this condition? [16] 4. Show that the Complex Potential function w = (q/2π) Ln (z-zo ) represents a source located at zo . Sketch the streamlines and equipotential lines. [16] 5. A long elliptic cylinder of t / c ratio = 1 / 7, is set in , and with its major axis parallel to, a uniform irrotational stream of 35.4 m / s. Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between pressure holes set in the nose and at the point of maximum thickness. [16] 6. Show from ideal actuator disc theory that the ’inﬂow’ factor of a single propeller driving the airplane in st. and level ﬂight depends upon its ﬂight speed, drag coeﬃcient, wing plan form area and propeller diameter. [16] 7. An airplane is powered by a single engine, whose speed-power variation is given Speed(rpm) 1800 1900 2000 2100 Power(kW) 1072 1113 1156 1189 The ﬁxed pitch airscrew of 3.05 m has the following characteristics: J KT KQ 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.118 0.115 0.112 0.109 0.106 0.103 0.0157 0.0154 0.0150 0.0145 0.0139 0.0132

and is directly coupled to the engine crankshaft. What will be airscrew thrust and eﬃciency during the initial climb at 52 m/s. [16] 8. Describe with neat sketches / plots a fully articulated rotor system of a helicopter. Explain its action in eﬀecting collective and cyclic pitch as desired by the pilot. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR222101 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 4

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