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Glossary of Metalworking Terms Abrasion - The process of rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction. Abrasion-Resistant Steels - A family of steel products developed for those applications involved in sliding and/or impact abrasion. Abrasive - A substance capable of grinding away another material. Accordion Reed Steel - Hardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00. Material has to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity. Acid Steel - Steel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica. Steel produced in a furnace with an acid lining, i.e. consisting of a siliceous refractory and under a siliceous slag. With an acid slag, carbon, silicon and manganese only are removed so that the pig iron must not contain sulfur and phosphorus in percentages exceeding those permissible for the specification being made. Most steel manufactured today is in furnaces with basic linings. Acid-Brittleness - Brittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness. Acid Dipped - Dry Rolled Finish. Produced by dry cold rolling bichromate dipped alloy with polished rolls resulting in a burnished appearance and retaining the color obtained by dipping (True Metal Color). Acid-Process - A process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus pig iron is required as this element is not removed. Activation - The changing of the passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. Age Hardening - Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. The term as applied to soft, or low carbon steels, relates to a wide variety of commercially important, slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures. Aging - A change in properties that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after hot working or a heat-treating operation (quench aging in ferrous alloys), or after a cold working operation (strain aging). The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but does not involve a change in chemical composition. In a metal or alloy, a change in properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures.



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Air Cooling - Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air. Air-Hardening Steel - A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. Such steels attain their martensitic structure without going through the quenching process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly large sections, about 2 in. or more in diameter. AISI Steels - Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in that all numbers are preceded by letters: A represents basic openhearth alloy steel, B acid Bessemer carbon steel, C basic open-hearth carbon steel, CB either acid Bessemer are basic open-hearth carbon steel, E electric furnace alloy steel. Alclad - Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy or aluminum of high purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum alloy. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas of the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environment. Alkaline Cleaner - Uses an alkaline solution, usually sodium hydroxide, to clean residual oils and iron fines left on the strip from the cold reduction process. Allotriomorph - A particle of a phase that has no regular external shape. Allotropy - The property whereby certain elements may exist in more than one crystal structure. The property possessed by certain elements to exist in two or more distinct forms that are chemically identical but have different physical properties. In the case of iron the crystal structure has one form at room temperature and another at high temperature. When heated above 910oC the atomic structure changes from body centered cubic to face centered cubic but reverts again when cooled. The allotropy of iron modifies the solubility of carbon, and it is because of this that steel can be hardened. Alloy - A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Alloy Steel - Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium, Low Alloy steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents. Alloying Element - An element added to a metal, and remaining in the metal, that effects changes in structure and properties. Alpha Brass - A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly for cold working. Alpha Bronze - A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc. Alpha Iron - The polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670 (degrees) F. has a body



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centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410 (degrees) F. Aluminizing - Forming an aluminum or aluminum alloy coating on a metal by hot dipping, hot spraying, or diffusion. Aluminum – Al Atomic Number: 13 Atomic Weight: 26.981538 Melting Point: 933.437 K (660.323°C or 1220.581°F) Boiling Point: 2792 K (2519°C or 4566°F) Density: 2.70 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid A silvery white metal of valence 3. Ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently. (2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides) (3) Alloying element in nitriding steel. Aluminum is also used to deoxidize steel and control grain size. Grain size control is affected by forming a fine dispersion with nitrogen and oxygen, which restricts austenite grain growth. Aluminum is also an extremely effective nitride former in nitriding steels. Aluminum Killed Steel – A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent. Amorphous - Noncrystalline. Analog - Full-body electromagnetic induction testing; a type of non-destructive test. Angstrom Unit - (A) A unit of linear measure equal to 10(-10)m, or 0.1 nm; not an accepted Si unit, but still sometimes used for small distances such as interatomic distances and some wavelengths. Anisotropy - The characteristics of exhibiting different values of a property in different directions with respect to a fixed reference system in the material. Annealing - (1) Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical, or other properties. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used: black annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright annealing, flame annealing, graphitizing, intermediate annealing, isothermal annealing, malleableizing, process annealing, quench annealing, recrystallization annealing, and spheroids. When applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing, without qualification, implies full annealing. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften an age-hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving. (2) The process of heating and cooling a cold reduced sheet to induce softness and formability. Two types: box annealing (Cold Sheet Mill) and continuous annealing (Galvanize Mill) Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) Computerized systems used to control and maintain strip thickness; activated through x-ray measurement with feedback loops to control mill screw down pressures and/or speed. Annealing Twin - A twin formed in a metal during an annealing heat treatment.


ASTM . etc.The size of the grains in steel heated into the austenitic region. An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt-water solution either continuously or intermittently. characterized as a solid solution. Austempering . This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal. in a plain carbon steel. http://www. because of the presence of alloying elements. but the presence of certain alloying elements. nickel.A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness.Glossary Página 4 de 73 Anodizing (Aluminum Acid Oxide Coating) . Austenite is stable only above 1333 (degrees) F. Such steels are known as austenitic. a false structure introduced during preparation of a specimen.Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. Attenuation . Austenitizing .Pre-stressing a hollow metal cylinder by the use of momentary internal pressure exceeding the yield strength.A group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being joined are coalesced by heating with an arc.Quenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the transformation range. in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction high enough to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products. shows stability of Austenite at normal temperatures. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content. The use of pressure and filler metal is optional. A wide variety of dyes colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process. such as nickel and manganese.(1) A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. until transformation is complete.The fractional decrease of the intensity of an energy flux. at a temperature below that of pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation. Atomic-Hydrogen Weld .Abbreviation for American Society For Testing Material.html 31/05/2011 . including the reduction of intensity resulting from geometrical Artificial Aging .lincolnmachine. Austenitic Grain Size . Both carbon and alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material. stabilizes the austenitic form.In microscopy. chromium. (2) Phase in certain steels. See AISI-SAE specifications. Austenitic Steel .. usually of carbon or iron carbide. absorption. and then holding the alloy. with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Furnaces with capacities up to 200 tons are now in use. Artifact . Arc Furnace . usually within 0. such as manganese. and scattering. which.05%. Autofrettage . even at normal temperatures.Steel. Arc Welding . including metals and alloys. ASME .Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing).An aging treatment above room temperature.Arc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. An organization for issuing standard specifications on materials. Austenite .A steel melting furnace in which heat is generated by an arc between graphite electrodes and the metal.

lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and is formed at temperatures below about 660 F (350 C). such bark always suffers from decarburization. a slender. Sometimes referred to as semi. BASIC STEEL-(See Basic Process. A slag.A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. not broken Banded Structure .Steels in which the deoxidization is controlled to produce an intermediate structure between a rimmed and killed steel. zinc. Base Metal .killed steels. under the oxide-scale layer. Also. Balanced Steel . tin.lincolnmachine. the material. Banding .Glossary Página 5 de 73 Autoradiograph .A structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely through the thickness. Banded . Bamboo Grain Structure .A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of carbide.(See Open Hearth Process. copper. e. generally formed at temperatures below 840 to 930 F (450 to 500 C): upper bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lath-shape units of ferrite. lead. rich in lime.Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel. Bark . produces the so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45. Basic Open Hearth .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Bainite . This technique identifies the locations of the radioisotopes.Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.A metal that oxidizes when heated in air.Appearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working.A radiograph recorded photographically by radiation spontaneously emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in.) Basic Oxygen Process .) Basic Steel . or added to.html 31/05/2011 .g. http://www. they possess uniform properties throughout the ingot and amongst their applications are boiler-plate and structural sections. non ferrous metals.See Tin Plate Base Box. In the case of steel. and is formed at temperatures above about 660 F (350 C) . and plastics.Surface of metal. Base Box . as opposed to noble metals such as gold and platinum. being formed and phosphorus removed.A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood. Basic Process . Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite. Band Saw Steel (Wood) . open hearth or electric. in which the furnace is lined with a basic refractory. needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite.The 1" or 1-1/4" strapping that is pulled tight around the body of the coil to keep the wraps tight is still on the coil.A steel making process either Bessemer.

axle. springs. or shaft. along a line where contact is made with a pin.Glossary Página 6 de 73 Bath Annealing .A flat cold rolled usually .The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective bearing area. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). For nonferrous metals. it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content.A process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet. The development of the process has led to the present day Basic Oxygen Steel-making plants that account for bulk production of commercial quality steels in the UK. beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches.A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation. etc. A method of producing steel. in which the material is bent around its axis and/ or around an outside radius. the end preparation for field welding of the joint. samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. the process is known as lead annealing. Black Annealing .A compressive load supported by a member. hold down http://www. Bauxite . usually a tube or collar. and the cross-sectional area varies from 2 1/4 to 36 sq. rivet. An iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thickness of 1 1/2 in. Beveling . Bessemer Process . If a vice is to be employed. which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. Belly Band . then you must line the jaws with some soft metal. Billet . or extrusion. Black Oil Tempered Spring Steel Strip (Scale Less Blue) .An alloy containing two elements.An alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. Bend Test . Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel. such as snaps. Bend Radius . strip or wire after hot working and pickling.A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging.html 31/05/2011 . Binary Alloy . Beryllium Copper . While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47.Raising a ridge on sheet metal.70/. to permit a flow of the metal in the piece being tested. Beading .Refers to pipe. it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished rolling or for extrusion.The only commercial ore of aluminum. where air is blown under pressure through molten iron to remove the impurities by inside radius of a bent section. blue-black in color.Is immersion is a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used.Various tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a metal product. as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc.lincolnmachine. rolling. In a pinned or riveted joint. first introduced in the last century. Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity. in. For testing. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain.The band (strapping) that goes around the outside diameter of a coil. lock springs. apart from minor impurities. the affective area is calculated as the product of the diameter of the hole and the thickness of the bearing member. Bearing Strength . Bearing Load .80 medium high carbon steel strip. corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O.

A primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron.Heating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. to 275 lbs. Blast Furnace .A cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas. The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore. billets slabs. rectangular in cross section. Forging sometimes makes iron and steel blooms. strip. and more especially if the steel is worked at the elevated temperature. produced on a blooming mill. (2) On modern. when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300 and 700 (degrees) F. coke. steam. but still used in underdeveloped countries. usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes made by forging. Blister . which in failing to escape is held in pockets. and limestone as raw materials.A lightweight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. and in thicknesses from 55 lbs.A defect in metal. trap springs. The earliest iron making process. (2) Modern Definition: a semi-finished hot rolled steel product. Bluing . Killed steels are virtually free of this kind of brittleness. Also known as bloomery iron. (3) A semi-finished hot rolled product.A vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used. or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated. It is used either as is for stampings. Brittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some temperature within the range of 300 (degrees) to 650 (degrees) F. usually hot. Bloomery . for producing pig iron. NOTE: This term is ordinarily applied to sheet. originally smooth. resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface in order to soften the metal. high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than 36 sq.Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air. A process of softening ferrous alloys in the form of hot rolled sheet. The formation of bluish oxide on the surface is incidental. Blowhole . in. sheet-bar etc.Reduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging.Glossary Página 7 de 73 springs. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental. Very small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters. etc. This method is now almost obsolete. but it does not have the same degree of spring-back. Two different processes manufacture it. For iron and steel. which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals. Blooming-Mill . Blister Steel . It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring. Blue Annealing . http://www.html 31/05/2011 . on or near the surface.(1) Ancient Definition: iron produced in a solid condition directly by the reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion.A mill used to reduce ingots to blooms. base box weight. or other agents at a suitable temperature. (1) Form sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem. Blue Brittleness . This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures. Black Plate .lincolnmachine. The bar. by heating in the open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. Sizes range from 12 to 32 in width. Bloom .High-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. The carbon content is variable but usually low. the width is not more than twice the thickness. is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation (carburizing) furnace. rectangular in section.

and burns with a brilliant green flame.Strip. but sometimes above or within it. Boron – B Atomic Number: 5 Atomic Weight: 10. especially for low carbon alloys.The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lacquer. etc. ignites at about 1112 (degrees) F. poor hot working and poor machining properties. good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance or carbon arc welding. Body-Centered . Brake . Brass is harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc. eyelet machine items. formability or machinability in the annealed state. Brass . with the top constricted. has excellent cold-working. snap fasteners. If operated manually. Used for drawn cartridges. it is called a press brake. Formerly widely used but now largely supplanted by Cartridge Brass.html 31/05/2011 . Bonderizing . therefore not sacrificing ductility. and is then cooled slowly. if power driven. A copper-zinc alloy yellow in color.37 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid It is gray in color.lincolnmachine. Brale . it is called a hand brake. Brasses . Temper is imparted by cold rolling and classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages of rolling (reduction in thickness) from the previous annealing gage. It is formable http://www. and at its center. used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals. conical in shape. tubes. Box Annealing . or space-centered.Glossary Página 8 de 73 or finished parts.Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation.0005-. Brass (Yellow) . In box annealing a ferrous alloy. It is usually added between . 65% copper and 35% zinc.Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. develops high tensile strength with cold-working. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties. also called a bar folder. It does not affect the strength of ferrite.Ingot mold. the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the bottle-neck.Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell.811 Melting Point: 2348 K (2075°C or 3767°F) Boiling Point: 4273 K (4000°C or 7232°F) Density: 2. Rated excellent for soft soldering. Known as 'High Brass' or 'Two to One Brass'.A diamond penetrator. which stops rimming action by trapping escaping to significantly increase the hardenability.A piece of equipment used for bending sheet.This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys. this process is also called close annealing or pot increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration. sometimes called centered. the charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. it is malleable and ductile. Bottle Top Mold . used in the manufacture of capped steel. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only. but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000 (degrees) F.

lincolnmachine. or may be bonded.Fracture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation. Braze Welding . Bright Drawing . the name is used when http://www. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure. or drawing operation. a bright.Bright steel wire.Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800 F (425C). slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. but additionally. whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire. etc.html 31/05/2011 . bands.Primarily an alloy of copper and tin. Brinell Hardness Test . May be accomplished by a torch.The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing appreciable plastic deformation.A common standard method of measuring the hardness of materials. Brittle Fracture .The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired. Used for round head wood screws. and the hardness value is read from a chart or determined by a prescribed formula. but lower than those of the metals being joined. as in brazing sheet.Stiff bright wire of hard temper.A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. washers. electric welded chain. Bridling . bright surface. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges. Bronze .Glossary Página 9 de 73 and ductile.Multiple shaving.Steel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright. Bright Basic Wire .com/glossary_metalworking_terms.The process of drawing hot rolled steel through a die to impart close dimensional tolerances. Bright Annealing . bending.A family of welding procedures where metals are joined by filler metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal. The product is termed bright steel. Broaching . Brittleness . bolts and rivets. scale free surface.The cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming. Break Test (for tempered steel) .An acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder's lines. accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the piece. Bright Bessemer Wire . Normally wire is drawn down to size without annealing. and improved mechanical properties. Caution-Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition. Filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing. particularly through holes. clips. A microscope then measures the diameter of the indentation in the material surface. develops high tensile strength with cold-working and is not heat treatable. but above 840 (450 C). Bright Dip . Bright Annealed Wire . Brazing .

Bulges and/ or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the edges remaining otherwise flat. Calcium – Ca Atomic Number: 20 Atomic Weight: 40. even in the presence of acids or alkalis.(1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. Cake .(1) Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them.html 31/05/2011 . shearing.A hardened. the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers. and beryllium bronze. and polished high carbon spring steel strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for wood band saw applications) with a Rockwell value of roughly C47/49. copper. (2) In grinding getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other. copper-base alloys and aluminum. or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins. Butt Welding . Buckle . Buffer . (3) Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment. etc.A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling. aluminum bronze. Burr . Butcher Saw Steel . Burnt . or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins. Alternate bulges or hollows recurring along the length of the product with the edges remaining relatively flat.A definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by overheating. bronze.A raised area in the steel caused by an object going between the work rolls and bruising them.078 Melting Point: 1115 K (842°C or 1548°F) Boiling Point: 1757 K (1484°C or 2703°F) Density: 1. using heat. in which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is generally produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass.Smoothing surfaces through friction between the material and material such as hardened metal media. Burnishing . tempered.A substance added to aqueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-ion concentration. For each B&S gage number in thickness reduction.lincolnmachine. In this system.while temper is expressed by the number of B&S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. for example. manganese bronze. blanking . without overlapping the strip. Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S) . Burning .54 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment. (2) The type of welding that fuses the head end of one coil to the tail end of another.Glossary Página 10 de 73 referring to other alloys not containing tin.Roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting.A standard series of sizes referred to by numbers. where is assigned a hardness value of 1/4 hard. Bruise .

A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line. Carbide .Glossary Página 11 de 73 Is used in certain steels to control the shape. all non-metallic. Carbon Range .(1) Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line. and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. Benefits may include improved ductility. for reduction of oxides.In steel specifications. For rating of weld-ability. (2) Sometimes used to denote crown in rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection cause by the rolling pressure.html 31/05/2011 . Is the most important alloying element which is essential for the formation of cementite. Toughness and ductility of pearlitic steels are decreased with increasing carbon content. sometimes referred to as oil canning. strength. the carbon concentration in a steel.0107 Melting Point: 3823 K (3550°C or 6422°F) Boiling Point: 4098 K (3825°C or 6917°F) Density: 2. Carbon Potential . The cap causes to top metal to solidify. in the form of coke. Carbon Free . under prescribed conditions.15.Semikilled steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap fitting into the neck of the mold. http://www. Camera Shutter Steel . Canning . size and distribution of oxide and/or sulfide inclusions. and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature are increased with increasing carbon content up to approximately spheriodite. Carbon Restoration . tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. hardness. Carbon – C Atomic Number: 6 Atomic Weight: 12. is very extensive. Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys.25 . Compared to steels with similar microstructures. bainite. Carbon Equivalent . (3) Edgewise curvature. this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel.Hardened.Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon. a formula commonly used is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15].2670 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Carbon has three allotropic modifications.Chromium .A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. Carbon content 1. hardenability.A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface. impact strength and machinability.Referring to the rating of weld-ability. Camber or Bow . and iron-carbon martensite. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. Capped Steel .60%.A measure of the capacity of an environment containing active carbon to alter or maintain.Replacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level. Pressure is built up in the sealedin molten metal and results in a surface condition much like that of rimmed steel. pearlite. the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable. Its metallurgical use.

lincolnmachine. liquids or gases.html 31/05/2011 . carbon monocide. by diffusion. which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set. create a concentration gradient. or core. Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with a suitable carbonaceous material. Cast Iron . by diffusion. or core. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-working. Cartridge Brass . Also termed plain carbon steel. (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire.70% copper 30% zinc. and straight carbon steel.Glossary Página 12 de 73 Carbon Steel . A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and. create a concentration gradient. and flame hardening. nitriding. Case Hardening . carbonitriding. http://www. or gas. Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids. Temper is obtained by cold rolling.Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment.Iron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about 2%). Carbonitriding . The oldest method of case hardening. and ammonia. all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy. Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds. is made substantially harder than the inner portion.A process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at the surface and. or a mixture of the two. by diffusion. the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. liquid. This is one of the most widely used of the copperzinc alloys. the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion. Case .65%.Steel in the form of castings. or case. (2) Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidization.In a ferrous alloy. Carburizing (Cementation) .(1) Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened. A generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that change the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or nitrogen. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the work A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast Spring Steel Wire. and. Cast . good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding.60% and manganese to about 1. with silicon usually limited to 0.Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocarbons. induction hardening. cyaniding. it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-working. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened. Cast Steel . creates a concentration gradient. Rated excellent for soft-soldering. poor hot working and poor machining properties. Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion. ordinary steel. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing. usually containing less than 2% carbon. which may be a solid.

16 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements and makes up about 0. Cermet .The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. Centrifugal Casting . (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing.(1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. a material rich in rare earth elements. Cerium is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights.69% of carbon.Wearing away of metal through the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid. Th.html 31/05/2011 . Cementation . Cerium – Ce Atomic Number: 58 Atomic Weight: 140. Nd.(1) An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold. Chafery . (2) A relieved http://www. prior to the introduction of the Bessemer and open-hearth methods. a material that is used to make flints for lighters.A casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated or revolved. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high-carbon tool steels. Y)PO4).(1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. Today. When it occurs as a phase in steel. (2) Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape.116 Melting Point: 1071 K (798°C or 1468°F) Boiling Point: 3697 K (3424°C or 6195°F) Density: 8. Cerium is also used as a catalyst to refine petroleum and as an alloying agent to make special cerium is primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite sand (Ce. but not as readily as ferrite. which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. or cemented metallic oxides. and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel.0046% of the earth's crust. It has limited substitution solubility for the carbide-forming elements. It is magnetizable.A powder metallurgy product consisting of ceramic particles bonded with a metal. Ceramic Tools . Cavitation Damage . Chamfer . but can be safely used if combined with other materials. Hard and brittle. notably manganese.Glossary Página 13 de 73 Casting .A charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron making processes to reheat a bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag. it is the hard constituent of cast iron. Cavitation . Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation.Cutting tools made from fused.lincolnmachine. That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. Cerium is also a component of Misch metal. La. sintered. Cementite . the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements. Pure cerium will ignite if it is scratched with a sharp object.A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron carbide.

Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades). is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness.Forming an acid surface to improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys. (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases hardenability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon). Charpy Test . Chemical Milling . Chromium – Cr Atomic Number: 24 Atomic Weight: 51. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.A substance (chromic acid) that is applied to hot dip galvanize sheet to prevent the formation of white rust during shipping and storage. relatively hard.The chemical composition of the steel that in part determines the physical and mechanical properties of the product. in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of chromium into the base metal.A method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be worked into the finished product. generally carried out in pack. Straight chromium steels are susceptible to temper embrittlement and can be brittle. Chemistry (of slab) .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Chromizing .A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched.15 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid It is of bright silvery color. or salt bath. mainly aircraft skins.Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by chemical treatment. Chromadizing (Chromodizing.Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals.Removing metal stock by controlled selective chemical etching. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. Its principally functions as an alloy in steel making. Chemical Treatment . Chipping is often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. Chromatizing) . Chromium-Nickel Steel . The energy absorbed. by treatment with a solution of chromic acid.lincolnmachine. Charcoal Tin Plate . It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. caused by roll vibrations.html 31/05/2011 . Chatter Marks .A surface treatment at elevated temperature. http://www. Chemical Polishing . Chipping . is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. vapor. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum.9961 Melting Point: 2180 K (1907°C or 3465°F) Boiling Point: 2944 K (2671°C or 4840°F) Density: 7.Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements.Glossary Página 14 de 73 angular cutting edge at a tooth corner.

Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of coiling. or most of the grains. Usual sizes are 4 3/4 wide and 6 wide x .A process for covering one metal with another. Cluster Mill . specific gravity 8.Fracture of a crystal by crack propagation across a crystallographic plane of low index. in a polycrystalline metal by cleavage. which it resembles closely. A departure from longitudinal flatness. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Cleavage Plane .9. Coil Weld . Cogging . resulting in bright reflecting facets. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling. Cleavage .933200 Melting Point: 1768 K (1495°C or 2723°F) Boiling Point: 3200 K (2927°C or 5301°F) Density: 8..Glossary Página 15 de 73 Cigarette Knife Steel . Coil Breaks .Fracture of a grain. Coefficient of Expansion .The ratio of change in length. area. Cleavage Fracture .25 Carbon contentChromium .A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together.010. Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl . 1.A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls. Cladding .Hardened. Clad Metal . or volume per degree to the corresponding value at a standard temperature. tempered and bright polished. occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold.An intermediate rolling process when a hot ingot is reduced to a bloom or slab in a cogging mill. of medium hardness.004 to . welding.15. heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily. http://www.A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. melting point 2696 (degrees) F. it resists corrosion like nickel.lincolnmachine. Cobalt – Co Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Weight: 58. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results.not always visible in the cold reduced product. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel. Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil .86 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid A gray magnetic metal. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling. the sulfate being used as 31/05/2011 . it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite.

Cold Work . (2) A portion of the surface of a forging that is separated. used for screws. except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness. while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal. Cold Rolled Finish . Cold Reduction . or -120 °F) for the purpose of obtaining desired conditions or properties such as dimensional or microstructural stability. at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening).. etc. it is usually followed by tempering.The process of reducing the cross sectional area of wire. The process changes the mechanical properties of the steel and the finished product is accurate to size.(1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. strength. Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate) . Cold Working . Commercial Bronze . ductility and other characteristics known as tempers. with the lightest commercial tin coat. hammering. (2) Reduction of strip thickness through the use of force rather than heat.Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains.A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface. Same as cold reduction. with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. wire. etc.Glossary Página 16 de 73 Coils . Columbium . oil canning. For high qualities and heavier coatings. free from scale with a bright surface finish. bar or tube by drawing the material through a die without any pre-heating.(1) Reduction of metal size. Coining . Cold Drawing .Metal strip. etc. used for food containers. such as rolling.Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening). produced from hot-rolled strip. Cold Rolling . which see. Cold Reduced Strip .Permanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its recrystallization temperature. from the main body of metal by oxide.Exposing steel to suitable subzero temperatures (-85 °C. Cold drawing is used for the production of bright steel bar in round square. in part.usually in one continuous piece or length.Standard tin plate. drawing. When the treatment involves the transformation of retained austenite. by rolling on a cold reduction mill. usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness. Cold Shut .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. hexagonal and flat section. hardware. Cold Treatment . (3) A condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures below the recrystallization temperature.See Niobium Nb Columnar Structure . stiffness.A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc. A higher grade is the best cokes.lincolnmachine. It is http://www. Although termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. having the long axis perpendicular to the casting surface. the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures. Commonly.Coiled flat sheet or strip metal.html 31/05/2011 .Plastic deformation.

and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.(1) A method of producing blooms.Furnace. A constitutional diagram may be. billet. Continuous Phase .com/glossary_metalworking_terms.A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place.A phase.The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of developing. or may approximate.A graphical representation of the temperature and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram). Contact Corrosion . Constitute . The castings are continuously withdrawn through the bottom of the caster whilst the teeming of the metal is proceeding. the compressive strength has a very definite value. Continuous Pickling . A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet. Compressive Strength . in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace. Controlled Rolling .15 max. Continuous Casting .A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. The need for primary and intermediate mills and the storage and use of large numbers of ingot moulds is eliminated. i.lincolnmachine. The less noble of the metals is liable to be attacked. an electrolytic cell is created. Commercial Quality Steel Sheet . (2) A casting technique in which the ingot. Constitutional Diagram .When two dissimilar metals are in contact without a protective barrier between them and they are in the presence of liquid.Glossary Página 17 de 73 somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility. or may represent metastable conditions or phases.html 31/05/2011 . zinc will act as a protector of steel in sea water whereas copper or brass will attack the steel in the same environment.In an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one phase.Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at 0. In the case of a material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture. Compare equilibrium diagram. the phase that forms the background or matrix in which the other phase or phases are present as isolated volumes. The continuous casting process is also used in the production of cast iron. In the case of materials which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture. based on original area of cross section.e.A hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is closely http://www. Continuous Furnace . The degree of corrosion is dependent on the area in contact and the electro-potential voltage of the metals concerned. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass. aluminum and copper alloys. Continuous Strip Mill . Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces . that occurs in a characteristic configuration in a microstructure. or other shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured. billets and slabs in long lengths using water cooled moulds. or combination of phases. tube.Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks. and equilibrium diagram. the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material.

Core . consisting of a metal core wire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal form the atmosphere. Corrosion Embrittlement . rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals. Coring . a grain or a carbide particle) resulting from non-equilibrium growth over a range of temperature. Coupon .A filler-metal electrode.933 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster. and particularly during the final rolling passes.32°F) Boiling Point: 2835 K (2562°C or 4644°F) Density: 8.lincolnmachine. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack. to produce a fine-grain microstructure. Universally and extensively used in the arts in brasses.546 Melting Point: 1357. bronzes. It is used in certain steels to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion.77 K (1084. Corrugated . Corrosion Fatigue . usually intergranular and often not visually apparent. improves the properties of the weld metal and stabilizes the arc.Effect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive environment alone. tube. moisture or other agents. Corrosion .A variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of structure (such as a dendrite. A series of deep short waves.62°C or 1984. http://www.As a defect.html 31/05/2011 .often an extra piece (as on a casting or forging) or a separate piece made for test purposes (such as a test weldment).A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity. Converter .In the case of steel this refers to a component that has been case-hardened where the centre is softer than the hard surface layer or case. Alternate ridges and furrows. (2) Deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with cellulose or other binder. also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling.Glossary Página 18 de 73 controlled. Covered Electrode . The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack. Universally used in the pure state as sheet.The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment.(1) Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere.Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling. used in arc welding. Cooling Stresses . Copper – Cu Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Weight: 63. It can also be applied to the central part of a rolled rimming steel.A piece of metal from which a test specimen is to be prepared .

usually done to increase width.Glossary Página 19 de 73 Creep . that occurring at an accelerating rate. that specific value of composition. oxygen. http://www. Cross Rolling . Creep Limit . (2) The maximum nominal stress under which the creep strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant temperature. with a resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting. phase. metal ions. and such. or physical properties occurs. Also termed transformation range. Critical Strain . Critical Range . Creep Strength .The minimum rate of continuous cooling just sufficient to prevent undesired transformations. The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed. Critical Cooling Rate .com/glossary_metalworking_terms.That strain which results in the formation of very large grains during recrystallization.(1) The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified quantity of creep in a given time. Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. (2) In an equilibrium diagram. (2) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature.(1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. as well as a direction parallel to. in crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid stream. Cropped Head/Tail .A type of concentration-cell corrosion. Cutting off ends of billets ingots or slabs containing pipe or other defects. that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate. at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems are in equilibrium.(1) The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about 90 (degrees) from the direction of the previous rolling. Crossbow .html 31/05/2011 . tertiary creep.A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal.The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. or combinations thereof. Sometimes used synonymously with creep strength.(1) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. secondary creep. Critical Temperature . Critical Point(s) . The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal.The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded. Crop . the slowest rate at which it can be cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of austenite at any temperature above the Ms. corrosion of a metal that is caused by the concentration of dissolved salts.Synonymous with critical point if pressure is constant. Crevice Erosion . Same as transformation temperature.Squaring of the strip by use of mechanical shear. (3) Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is called primary creep.Deviation from flat across the strip width. For steel. temperature and pressure. or other gases. the length of the original slab. Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal.lincolnmachine. (2) A (hot) rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a direction perpendicular to.

Body-centered cubic. Cupping . and used in the melting of Refers to crystal structure. Crucible .html 31/05/2011 . in metals. Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. Cryogenic Applications . or clay or other refractory material. The cyanided alloy is usually quench hardened. Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge. The difference in strip thickness from center to edge. usually synonymous with grain and crystallite. cast steel or wrought steel. This process is used where a thin case and high hardness are required.The fracture of severely worked rods or wire where one end has the appearance of a cup and the other that of a cone. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies.Composed of crystals. Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture) . Crystalline Fracture .A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron. or a mixture of sodium and potassium cyanide.lincolnmachine.A contour on a sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center.) Cube-Centered . with an exterior extended rim of failure in shear.Glossary Página 20 de 73 Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal) . the failure of metals under repeated stresses. http://www. Crucible steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman in about 1750 and remained in use until the late 1940's. in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a central flat area of failure in tension. A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed.The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool and work piece in the principal direction of cutting.Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt.(1) A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms.Sub-zero temperature applications. all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom.A fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a grainy appearance. is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.(concerning space lattices) . Crown or Heavy Center . Compare fibrous fracture. The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing. Crystallization . Crucible Steel .A process of introducing carbon and nitrogen into the surface of steel by heating it to a suitable temperature in a molten bath of sodium cyanide. ions or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. Cutting Speed . frequently seen in tensile test pieces of a ductile material.Metallography.High-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered crucible. (2) A coherent piece of matter.The direction parallel to the axes of the rolls during rolling. Crystalline . (Fatigue. diluted with sodium carbonate and quenching in oil or water. Crystal . followed by quenching.Fracture.The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. Cyanide Hardening . Cyaniding .

com/glossary_metalworking_terms. although an organic solvents are useful. ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-drawing Deformative Bands .10% and manganese in the 0. bands in which deformation has been concentrated unhomogeneously. stable above 2552 (degrees) F.Segregation of solute atoms to the line of a dislocation in a crystal. The ingot is usually cooled by the impingement of water directly on the mold or on the walls of the solid metal as it is lowered. Degenerate Structure . strip or plate.Glossary Página 21 de 73 DC (Direct Chill) Casting . Decarburization .Usually refers to pearlite that does not have an ideally lamellar structure. Dead Soft Temper . Refer to Stretcher Leveling. completely annealed.Perfectly flat. It is of body-centered cubic crystal structure. Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. In ferrite. Usually are used primarily alkaline cleaners. to melting point.Removal of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel. Degassing Process (In steel making) . Degreasing . it is often called semi continuous casting.html 31/05/2011 .Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action. The degree of degeneracy may vary from slight perturbations in the lamellar arrangement to structures that are not recognizably lamellar. Dead Soft Steel .A method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing. oil or other lubricant-type materials by immersion in an effective solvent. Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action. As pertaining to sheet.Heating metal to above the critical range and appropriately cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility. Deep-drawing quality sheet or strip steel. therefore. Dead Flat . Dead Soft Annealing . Delta Iron .A continuous method of making ingots or billets for sheet or extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold.lincolnmachine. Deburring .50% range.20-0.Removal of grease. The length of the ingot is limited by the depth to which the platform can be lowered.Steel. the frozen shell of metal acting as a retainer for the liquid metal below the wall of the mold. The base of the mold is a platform that is gradually lowered while the metal solidifies. Decoration (of dislocations) . or sheet metal in the annealed state.Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire. http://www. strip. usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. the dislocations may be decorated with carbon or nitrogen atoms. Deep Drawing . normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the basic oxygen process with carbon less than 0.Generally. Water vapor. oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers.The process of cold working or drawing sheet or strip metal blanks by means of dies on a press into shapes which are usually more or less cup-like in character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal.Allotropic modification of iron.

forging dies. flame descaling and tumbling. In steel sheet. (2) Sometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with them. It employs a pyramid shaped diamond with an included angle of 136o which is impressed into the specimen using loads of 5 to 120 kg making a small square impression. Dendritic Segregation . to lessen the amount of scale. Other methods of descaling steel products include sand blasting. The term when applied to steel often refers to drawing dies through which hot rolled wire and bar are drawn to produce the finish and dimensional accuracy that is required for bright steel. The condition of the surface is such that it can then be rolled or forged into a satisfactory product. Indicates transverse or across the width.The term die is most commonly used in tooling. Diffusion . die-casting dies. Dish . (2) The spontaneous movement of atoms or molecules to new sites within a material. forming dies. Die .Glossary Página 22 de 73 Dendrite . DI (Ideal Diameter) .An instrument for measuring the expansion or contraction of a solid metal resulting from heating. Descaling . Die Sinking . tending to make the composition of all parts uniform. This test is used for finished or polished components because the impression can be very small.html 31/05/2011 . http://www. liquid or solid. always at elevated temperatures.It is necessary to remove the scale from hot rolled bars or coil before bright drawing. Dilatometer . i. polymorphic changes.lincolnmachine. etc. Die-Lines .A crystal that has grown in treelike branching mode. thread cutting dies. finds greater use in the laboratory than the workshop.A concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge.e. Discoloration . blooms or billets.Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements through the arms of dendrites.A process of burning out defective areas on the surface of ingots.The diameter of a round steel bar that will harden at the center to a given percent of martensite when subjected to an ideal quench (i. etc. cooling.A change in the visual appearance of the material caused by formation of oxides when exposed to contaminating atmosphere. The diamond pyramid hardness number is obtained from a calculation based on measuring the diagonals of the impressions in the steel. being most evident in cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range.(1) Removal of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable chemical agents. Deseaming . This is normally carried out by shot blasting or pickling in acid. the term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere.. A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern.e. e. more commonly known as the Vickers test. Grossman quench severity H=infinity) Diamond Pyramid Hardness Test . and wire technology. strip. press tools "punch and die" but there are many other types of Spreading of a constituent in a gas. Deoxidation .Forming or machining a depressed pattern in a die.Lines of markings daused on drawn or extruded products by minor imperfections in the surface of the die.This test.

Slow crack propagation that is accompanied by noticeable plastic deformation and requires energy to be supplied from outside the body.A term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod usually round and center less ground. being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test. Draw Quality . Drill Rods are used principally by machinists and tool and die makers for punches. An operation in which a metal shape is formed by forcing hot metal into impressions formed in solid blocks of hardened alloy steel. Duplex .A natural carbonate of calcium and magnesium generally used as a flux in blast furnaces.A category of stainless steel with high amounts of chromium and moderate nickel content. screw machine parts.013 to 1 1/2 diameter. without fracture. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (dope) from the rolls. Commercial qualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. Drop Forging . ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test. Duplex stainless steels provide high resistance to stress corrosion cracking (formation of cracks caused by a combination of corrosion and stress) and are suitable for heat exchangers.Reheating after hardening to a temperature below the critical for the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel.lincolnmachine. etc.A forging hammer than depends on gravity for its force. (2) Reducing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. The property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold.Eliminating any damage or defects from the outer or inner diameter of the coil in preparation for shipping. Drawing . by height of cupping in an Erichsen test or by other means. giving a burnished appearance. usually blued.More flexible grade of steel. the forging dies.A forging made with a drop hammer.A hardened and tempered spring steel strip. small tools. Dressing of coil . (3) A misnomer for tempering. Drop forgings are widely used in the automotive industry for crankshafts. Dry Rolled Finish .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. http://www. dowel pins. Ductility . Drop Hammer . A less popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming quality. etc. taps. of material previously plain pickled.The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. stub-axles. The sizes range in round stock from .85 carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. The dies are made in halves. produced from approximately .html 31/05/2011 . one attached to the rising and falling block of the drop forge and the other to the stationary anvil. The duplex class is so named because it is a mixture of austenitic (chromium-nickel stainless class) and ferritic (plain chromium stainless category) structures.A linear defect in the structure of a crystal.Finish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant. Dolomite .Glossary Página 23 de 73 Dislocation .(1) Forming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies. This combination was originated to offer more strength than either of those stainless steels. Drill Rod . hence its name. gears. Doctor Blade Steel Strip . Drawing Back . drills. In steel. Ductile Crack Propagation . Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cur to desired lengths. desalination plants.

Mill Edge. The surface is wiped clean and coated with a white powder. Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs Elastic Strain . 1 Edge A. Not filed. Egg-Shaped Coils . Sheet Steels or Aluminum Sheet. . Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. No. The term is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys that harden during aging at room temperature. Also termed scallop. generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Dye Penetrant Inspection .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Eddy-Current Testing . This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.lincolnmachine. . The part to be inspected is cleaned and coated with a dye which penetrates any flaws that may be present. Not as perfect as No. 5 Edge . filing or drawing. width tolerance +/. Slit and Edge Rolled.Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet.Square. No. No. Edge Filing . round or square edge.The trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type of age-hardenable alloy (17S). Edging . 1 edge. Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . 1/2% Mg.A square edge produced by square edge rolling. No.Smooth. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.The ability to accept permanent deformation. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. Sawed. Width tolerances close. Width tolerances and finish not as exacting as No. which contains nominally 4% Cu. produced by slitting only.The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling.html 31/05/2011 . or edge rolled. uniform. 1 edge. 4 Edge .Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products.Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are http://www.A method for detecting surface porosity or cracks in metal. 6 Edge .An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr.Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties.A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. The powder absorbs the dye held in the defects indicating their location. The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used. 3 Edge . Has not been slit.A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files. either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified. filed. .Slit.005. Machined or Drawn .A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. . . mounted at various angles. Width tolerances liberal. Earing . Edges .Glossary Página 24 de 73 and marine applications. Elastic Limit . Sheared. Durability . Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields..Coil that is sagging at the center. . No. . Edge Strain or Edge Breaks .Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-current flow is induced in the test object. 2 Edge. No. Duralumin (obsolete) .The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress. Copper Base Alloys.

chromium or nickel . Decorative and protection against corrosion.Zinc plating process whereby the molecules on the positively charged zinc anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. but they are more expensive. A cleaning. Method for imparting brilliance to stainless steel by removing a thin layer of the http://www. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Electrical Steels . Grain orientated steels have preferential magnetic properties in the direction of rolling and non. Furnaces may be either an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by elect deposition. Build-up of a part or parts undersize.An anodic treatment.The property which enables a material to return to its original shape and dimension.lincolnmachine. an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied. They are supplied in the form of cold rolled sheet or strip. The thickness of the zinc coating is readily controlled. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite electrodes to the metal bath. By increasing the electric charge or slowing the speed of the steel through the plating area.Steels which are characterized by their magnetic properties and are intended for the manufacture of electrical circuits. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) .. or oxidizing treatment in which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte.Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrode instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material. Electroplating .html 31/05/2011 . Electrolytic Tin Plate . Electropolishing . Protection against wear. to illustrate: 1. 4. polishing. brass .Glossary Página 25 de 73 restored upon release of the stress.Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by electrochemical dissolution. chromium .(Electrolytic Brightening) An anodic treatment. Because of relatively high cost. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions.copper and nickel The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electro-deposition. cadmium or zinc . polishing. Protection against corrosion.Steelmaking furnace where scrap is generally 100% of the charge. or oxidizing treatment in which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte. Electrogalvanized . almost always by arc. Various plated metal and combinations thereof are being used for different purposes. Pate for rubber adhesion. 3. A cleaning. the coating will thicken. 6. Various plated metals and combinations thereof are being used for different purposes. Protection against carburization and for brazing operations. Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening) .Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically. copper. Electro-Galvanizing . 2. generally less than 2mm thick and up to 1500mm wide. 5. An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel. an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied. Electocleaning . DC units consume less energy and fewer electrodes.. only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process. nickel and chromium .. Electric Furnace Steel .grain orientated steels have similar magnetic properties both transversely and in the direction of rolling. Elasticity . Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer .


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surface akin to a reverse electroplating process without any working of the underlying metal. Also known as bright finishing. The process highlights surface irregularities (i.e. roll grit pattern, pickle matte, scratches, pits and digs). At best, very special processing is required to enhance surface to be electro polished. Electroslag Refining - A specialized steel making process in which a rolled or a cast ingot in the form of an electrode is re-melted in a water cooled copper mould. The melting is activated by resistive heat generated in a conductive slag. The resulting product has a similar basic chemical composition to the original ingot, but is characterized by high purity and low inclusion content. Typical applications include high integrity components for the aerospace industry. Elevated Temperature Drawing - A process of drawing steel bars at elevated temperatures (normally 250-300oC) which under optimum conditions produce steels that have higher tensile and yield strengths than those cold drawn with the same degree of reduction. Elongation - (1) Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal. (2) In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length. Elongation After Fracture - In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length. Embossing - Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern. End-Quench Hardenability Test (Jominy Test) - A laboratory procedure for determining the hardenability of a steel or other ferrous alloy. Hardenability is determined by heating a standard specimen above the upper critical temperature, placing the hot specimen in a fixture so that a stream of cold water impinges on one end, and, after cooling to room temperature is completed, measuring the hardness near the surface of the specimen at regularly spaced intervals along its length. The data are normally plotted as hardness versus distance from the quenched end. Endurance Limit - Same as fatigue limit. Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an indefinite number of times without causing fatigue failure. Epitaxy - Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the lattice of the substrate crystal. Equilibrium Diagram (1) A diagram constructed from thermal and other data showing the limits of composition and temperature within which the various constituents or phases of alloys are stable. (2) A graphical representation of the temperature, pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermo dynamical equilibrium. In condensed systems, pressure is usually considered constant. Equiaxed Crystals - Crystals, each of which has axes approximately equal in length. These are normally present in the centre of a steel ingot. Equiaxed Structure - A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions.



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Erichsen Test - A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal, restrained except at the center, is deformed by a cone-shaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility. Similar to the Olsen Test. Readings are in millimeters. ERW - Electric Resistance Welding (used in formation of pipe). Etchant - A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details. Etching - (1) In metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface. (2) Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details. Eutectic - A mixture of two or more constituents which solidify simultaneously out of the liquid at a minimum freezing point. Eutectoid - (1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids, the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation. Eutectoid Steel - Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system, with about 0.80% to 0.83% carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. When more carbon is present, the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain elements, such as nickel or chromium, lowers the eutectoid carbon content. Exfoliation - A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal, causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product. Expander Steel - Hardened and tempered, blue polished. Carbon content about 1.00, Chromium .17. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately .003 less than the grooves and thickness from .012 to .020. Extensometer - An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress. Extensometer Test - The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength by the offset method and so forth. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram. Extra Hard Temper - In brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage. Extra Spring Temper - In brass mill terminology. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage. Extrusion - Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape. The production of a section by forcing a billet to flow through a die. Often



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used for producing complex sections, the process is used with both hot and cold metal. Seamless tubes are produced by forcing a hot billet to flow through a die over a mandrel positioned centrally in the die. Eye of Coil - The center of the coil as wound. Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices) - Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the close-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres. Fatigue - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue fractures are progressive, beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress. Fatigue Life - The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure for a stated test condition. Fatigue Limit - The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure an infinite number of stress cycles. If the stress is not completely reversed, the value of the mean stress, the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated. Fatigue Strength - The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure, the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated. Ferrite - Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc polymorph of iron ( -Fe). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon in -Fe. A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron. Unless otherwise designated (for instance, as chromium ferrite), the solute is generally assumed to be carbon. On some equilibrium diagrams there are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed. Ferrite Banding - Parallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of working. Sometimes referred to a ferrite streaks. Ferrite-pearlite Banding - Inhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Ferritic Grain Size - The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel. Ferroalloy - An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel. Ferro-Manganese - An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel. Ferrous - Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum). Ferrous alloys are, therefore, iron base alloys. Fiber or Fibre - (1) The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties. It is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous appearance of a fracture. It is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of working. (2) The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process. Direction in which metals have been caused to flow,


The name is derived from its common and principle usage. Firecrack . and wire rods are termed semi-finished produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrode position. very accurate to gage. but not necessarily. slabs. Flare Test .Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment.(1) In forging. very smooth. with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed. Also called shatter cracks and snowflakes.An extremely flat. Finished Steel .lincolnmachine. the fin of metal which results form leakage between the mating die surfaces.Glossary Página 29 de 73 as by rolling. Finery .Raised area on the strip caused by a thermal crack on the work roll surface. (2) In die casting. Fiber Stress .The temperature at which hot working is completed. Flame Hardening .A fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or silky appearance. involving a tapered expansion over a cone.Short discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. and then cooling as required. Flash . In a fractured surface. It is usually. Flame Annealing . Blooms. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced.(1) Local stress through a small area (a point or line) on a section where the stress is not uniform. Filler Metal . Flapper Valve Steel . then repeatedly oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. Flakes . (3) In resistance butt welding.html 31/05/2011 . of different composition from the parent metals.Areas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white crystalline appearance. Fibrous Fracture . the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel Similar to pin expansion test.A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a high-temperature flame.15 carbon.A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a hightemperature flame. flakes appear as bright silvery areas. Finishing Temperature . sheet bars. on an etched surface they appear as short discontinuous cracks. Fish eyes .A test applied to tubing. a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. http://www. polished. (2) Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load.A charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast. billets.A third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal during fusion or braze welding. given as load per unit area.Finished edges. the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. Filed Edges . as in a beam under a bending load. hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.

soundness. a material used to prevent the formation of. usually hot.Glossary Página 30 de 73 Flash Welding . at high magnification.Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as composition. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Flat Latch Needle Steel . especially in metals. rectangular in shape. prepared edge section up to 1 1/4 wide. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods.(1) In refining.html 31/05/2011 . Not to be confused with the specific product. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations. with specific reference to photographs of the fracture surface. to enable macroscopic study of the fractured surface.85. in thickness. Fractography . http://www. Forge Welding . Carbon content . Fluting .(1) Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. the heat being produced by electric arcs between the members being welded. primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. (2) In mechanical metallurgy.Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small. Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact. Flux .Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces. Flow lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part. indicating the direction of working or rolling. Forging .lincolnmachine. as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. It may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal.A flat Cold Macrofractography involves photographs at low magnification. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired with followed by edge dressing. oxides and other undesirable substances. The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals. Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching. Flow Stress .006 in.Surface appearance of metals when broken.The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined by a heavily deformed network of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold working. paths followed by volume elements of metal during deformation. Fracture .A resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat. with or without dies. case depth. Folds . microfractography. a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten mixture. Flow Lines . (2) In welding. and presence of defects. Flat Wire .Metal in sheet form less than 0. Fragmentation . or to dissolve and facilitate the removal of. Foil . with relation to thickness. grain size.Supplied cold rolled and annealed. These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to rotate to a stable orientation determined by the slip systems.Welding hot metal by applying pressure or blows. into desired shapes with compressive force.Plastically deforming metal. Fracture Test .The uni-axial true stress required to cause plastic deformation at a specified value of strain.Descriptive treatment of fracture. Fluted Tubes.

lead and bismuth to aluminum. among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel.Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an ingredient has been introduced to give small broken chips. (2) Developing a condition on the rubbing surface of one or both mating parts where excessive friction between high spots results in localized welding with substantial spalling and a further roughening of the surface. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling.(A) (No. Use of the term annealing without qualification implies full annealing. the resulting action is referred to as couple action. means heating the metal to about 100 (degrees) F. tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. followed by soaking at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature. Fretting (Fretting Corrosion) .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. lower power consumption. Gages . standard numbering systems indicating decimal thicknesses or diameters. Compare normalizing.Glossary Página 31 de 73 Free Machining . http://www. A typical cooling rate would be 210F/h 100 C/h.A furnace which is placed over the strip as it exits the zinc bath for the purpose of producing a fully alloyed iron-zinc coating. Formerly for the purpose of galvanizing.Corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. Galling .lincolnmachine. not suitable for bending in any direction. lead to brass. and for hypereutectoid steel. usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). above the critical temperature range.Coating steel with zinc and tin (principally zinc) for rust proofing purposes. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip. Where the two dissimilar metals are in contact.Mfrs. especially in a corrosive environment. and longer tool life.(1) Annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly through the transformation range. Galvanic Corrosion . and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.000 YS Min. 1 Temper) In low carbon sheet or strip steel. Galvanneal Furnace . cleaned. Friction Gouges or Scratches .Steel sheet or strip. 140. Full Finish Plate . The furnace can be gas fired or induction. Galvanizing . For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185.000 TS. Fusion Welding .A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. Today's galvanizing processing method consists of uncoiling and passing the continuous length of successive coils either through a molten bath of the metal termed Hot Dipped Galvanizing or by continuously zinc coating the uncoiled sheet electrolytically. and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel. stiff and springy. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper. Refer to Galling. cut length steel sheets were passed singly through a bath of the molten metal.html 31/05/2011 .termed Electro-Galvanizing. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid steel is usually above Ac3. Full Hard Temper . better surface finish. Used principally on iron and steel. annealed.(1) The damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles from localized areas due to seizure during sliding friction. reduced either hot or cold.Any welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the weld. when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in contact under pressure. Full Annealing (ferrous materials .Action that results in surface damage. (2) An annealing treatment in which a steel is ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (A3 or Acm) and then cooled slowly to room temperature.

and the McQuaid-Ehn Test has been developed as a method of measurement. The addition of certain metals affects grain size. or alternatively. An increase in the average size of the grains in polycrystalline metal or alloy. In steel. Certain deterioration. the ductility in the direction of rolling is almost twice that at right angles to the direction of rolling. Grain sizes are reported in terms of grains per unit area or volume. caused by orientation of the constituents of the metal in the direction of working during forging.An advanced stage of overheating in which material in the region of austenitic grain boundaries melts. (2) Average diameter of grains in the metal under consideration. Also known as burning. the number of grains per unit area. Grain Boundary . Gauge . and characterized by a face-centered cubic crystal structure..(1) For metals. (2) To bend across the grain is to bend at right angles to the direction of rolling. average diameter. Grain Growth . In mill practice grains are usually studied only as they appear in one plane. The ASTM has set up a grain size standard for steels. including twinned regions or sub-grains if present. (3) To bend with the grain is to bend parallel to the direction of rolling. Grain Coarsening . Grain-Boundary Sulfide Precipitation .A heat treatment that produces excessively large austenitic grains. usually a result of heating at elevated temperature. (1) (Direction of) Refers to grain fiber following the direction of rolling and parallel to edges of strip or sheets.An increase in metallic crystal size as annealing temperature is raised.The form of iron stable between 1670 (degrees) F. An individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or alloy. the question of general grain size is of great significance. or as a grainsize number derived form area measurements. for example vanadium and aluminum tend to give steel a fine grain. it is somewhat stronger and very ductile.A solid polyhedral (or many sided crystal) consisting of groups of atoms bound together in a regular geometric pattern. or alternatively. and 2550 (degrees) F. Grain-Boundary Liquidation . Average diameter of grains in the metal under consideration. usually expressed as an average when the individual sizes are fairly uniform. Grain Flow . Gas Welding . Grain . a measure of the areas or volumes of grains in a polycrystalline material.Bounding surface between crystals.Welding with a gas flame. Since increase in grain size is paralleled by lower ductility and impact resistance. Grain Size . GFM .A copper-zinc alloy containing 95% copper and 5% zinc.Glossary Página 32 de 73 Gamma Iron ..A term for thickness. the number of grains per http://www.A machine designed to hot forge a cylindrical bar shape while it is turning at speed.An intermediate stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are redistributed to the austenitic grain boundaries by partial solution at the overheating temperature and reprecipitation during subsequent cooling. occur almost exclusively at grain boundaries. growth occurs by invasion of crystal areas by other crystals.html 31/05/2011 . When alloys yield new phases (as in cooling).com/glossary_metalworking_terms. such as season cracking and caustic embrittlement.lincolnmachine.Gyratory Forging Machine . Gilding Metal .Fiber like lines appearing on polished and etched sections of forgings. grain boundaries are the preferred location for the appearance of the new phase. It has thermal and electrical conductivity slightly better than half that of electrolytic copper and corrosion resistance comparable to copper. While similar to deoxidized copper in physical properties.

the question of general grain size is of great significance.A coarse grain or pebbly surface condition which becomes evident during drawing. Tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield Grains . Guide .A heating and cooling process by which the combined carbon in cast iron or steel is transformed.000 Y. The addition of certain metals affects grain size. Graphite .A drill. These are three common grades.A type of irregular surface produced when metal fractures.lincolnmachine.Removing material from a work piece with a grinding wheel or abrasive belt.Device for holding the metal in the proper position. (B) In brass mill terminology. during rolling. usually with one or more flutes and with coolant passages through the drill body. wholly or partly. Granulation .70% thickness reduction. used for deep hole drilling. Since increase in grain size is paralleled by lower ductility and impact resistance. 110. It can be sub classified into trans-granular and inter-granular forms. for example vanadium and aluminum ten to give steel a fine grain. Gun Drill . type. Guide Scratch . Also applies to similar scratches appearing as a result of slitting.Individual crystals in metals. grain like appearance as differentiated from a smooth silky. Often called gray iron. http://www. Graphitizing . oil hardening. Granular Fracture . characterized by a rough..html 31/05/2011 . Primary graphitization refers to formation of graphite during solidification.S.A cast iron that gives a gray fracture due to the presence of flake graphite. (C) In Stainless Steel Strip.Annealed and pre-ground (to close tolerances) tool steel flats in standard sizes ready for tool room use.The formation of grains immediately upon solidification. or slitting. Annealing a ferrous alloy in such a way that some or all of the carbon is precipitated as graphite. Secondary graphitization refers to later formation during heat treatment. Gray Cast Iron .Glossary Página 33 de 73 unit area.Shallow cracks formed in the surface of relatively hard materials because of excessive grinding heat or the high sensitivity of the material. water hardening.S. Granulated ..(A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. but the implication that the metal has crystallized is completely misleading. Grinding Cracks . produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper.Scratches or marks appearing parallel to edges of cold rolled strip caused by scale or other particles which have become imbedded in or have adhered to the rolling mill guide. to graphitic or free carbon.000 T. For Chromium-Nickel grades HalfHard Temper 150. Ground Flat Stock . Half Hard Temper .The polymorph of carbon with a hexagonal crystal structure. Grinding . Graphitization . or fibrous.Min. and air hardening quality. half hard is two B&S numbers hard or 20. This type of fracture is frequently called crystalline fracture.Formation of graphite in iron or steel.

Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip . For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness.Coloration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal details of structure.Drawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range. Heat Tinting .Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by indentation. Hard Drawn .Increasing hardness by suitable treatment. Hardness .(A) (For steel see Full Hard Temper) (B) In brass mill terminology. quench hardening. bending and stretching. Heat Treatment . Heat of Steel . Hard Drawing . Hard Temper is four B&S numbers hard or 37. precipitation hardening. Hardening . Various hardness tests such as Brinell. See Brinell Hardness. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring.Degree to which a metal will resist cutting.1% reduction.Glossary Página 34 de 73 Hammer Forging . ductility. conditions or properties are http://www.A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating.The identification that describes the origin of the slab (heat).html 31/05/2011 .Wire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work. induction hardening.lincolnmachine.In a ferrous alloy. Vickers Hardness. a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of 136 is used as the indenter. Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness. Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures.Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of temperature changes. Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. It is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thicker than a decorative deposit. abrasion. such as increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces.Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows. rather than as a decorative coating. Hardenability . time of retention at specific temperature and rate of cooling all being as important as the temperature itself. and similar properties of both metals and their alloys. flame hardening. Rockwell Hardness. case Hard Temper . Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire .A medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. penetration. usually involving heating and cooling. Heat Number . In the Vickers test. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength. Compare with press forging. When applicable.The product of a single melting operation in a furnace. starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics. quenching and tempering. the following more specific terms should be used: age hardening. Scleroscope Hardness. Rockwell and Vickers may be used. Hard Chromium Chromium deposited for engineering purposes. hardness. Used principally for cold wound springs. malleability. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. Hardness (indentation) .

Hot Top . tin. rivets. Idiomorphz .Brittleness in hot metal in the hot forming range.(1) A reservoir. or welding.(1) Brittleness of metal. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. to hold molten metal on top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid having pipe or voids. screws.Stress is proportional to strain in the elastic range.(1) Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion.Plastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening.Removing stock generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a workpiece with an abrasive stick mounted in a holder.A dark relatively rough oxidized finish resulting from rolling the metal while (2) An annealing treatment carried out at a high temperature. Immersed Scanning . Hot Dip . May subsequently be pickled or bright dipped but the rough surface remains. Hypereutectoid Steel . but whose microstructure and physical properties were altered by the heat.A particle of a phase the has a regular external shape. a planned. cutting. Used for springs. Honing . the search unit being coupled to this object through a column of http://www.That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing.A steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon.In ultrasonics.html 31/05/2011 . usually zinc. thermally insulated or heated. Hydrogen Embrittlement . or terne. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey Hooke's law is known as the elastic limit. resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). etc. Hot Short (Shortness) . Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures.The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe2O3. approaching the solidus temperature. for a sufficiently long time that inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional processes. (2) A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and internal pressure developed subsequently.65% A copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. Hot Rolled Finish . High Brass . Hooke's Law . Possesses high tensile strength. for the purpose of fizing a rust resistant coating. Hematite .lincolnmachine. Hot Working .Glossary Página 35 de 73 attained. systematic movement of the beam relative to the object being inspected. Hypereutectoid Alloy . a process whereby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal. Heat-Affected Zone .In steel mill practice. any alloy containing more than the eutectoid concentration of solute. HNX Gas .In a eutectoid system.A mixture of hydrogen and Nitrogen gas used to prevent oxidation and to "clean" the strip during the annealing process Homogenizing . The lower limit of temperature for this process is the re-crystallization temperature.

Elements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired. and then cooling as required. Interstitial Solid Solution . Same as inter-granular.Formation of oxides beneath the surface of a metal.) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal. silicates.The resistance of a material to indentation. The type of specimen and testing conditions affect the values and therefore should be specified. Ingot .Arc welding in an inert gas such as argon or helium. A nonmetallic material in a solid metallic matrix. or between grains. Induction Hardening .html 31/05/2011 . and cooling to room temperature after each step.The aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps. Inclusions .A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction. usually measured by means of an Izod or Charpy test. as in the Charpy or Izod. Interrupted Aging .A process of heating by electrical induction.The placing of a sheet of paper between two adjacent layers of metal to facilitate handling and shearing of rectangular sheets. Inhibitor .Between crystals. In most cases the object and the search unit are submerged in water. Intermediate Annealing .lincolnmachine. Intercrystalline . The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow. usually in bending.A solid solution in which the solute atoms occupy (interstitial) positions between the atoms in the structure of the solvent.A substance which retards some specific chemical reaction. Pickling inhibitors retard the sissolution of metal without hindering the removal of scale from steel. This is the usual type osf hardness test. usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen. A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading. or torsion. Ingot Iron .The amount of energy required to fracture a material. sulfides. http://www. or to prevent sticking or scratching.Quenching in which the metal object being quenched is removed from the quenching medium while the object is at a temperature substantially higher than that of the quenching medium.Test designed to determine the resistance of metal to breakage by impact. Interleaving . Compare with progressive aging. Induction Heating . Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding . in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load.Commercially pure open-hearth iron. tension.An annealing treatment given to wrought metals following cold work hardening for the purpose of softening prior to further cold working.Glossary Página 36 de 73 liquid. Internal Oxidation . Impact Energy (Impact Value) . Interrupted Quenching . Indentation Hardness . Impact Test . Impurities . Quench hardening in which the heat is generated by electrical induction.A casting suitable for hot working or remelting.Particles of impurities (usually oxides.

016 to . ductile and malleable. tempered and bright polished with round edges. Same as transcrystalline and transgranular.The term killed indicates that the steel has been sufficiently deoxidized to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. usually notched.15% carbon are rimmed steel. and is then cooled to and held at a temperature that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide aggregate. Isothermal Transformation .85. The general practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents. Killed Steel .html 31/05/2011 . However. Izod Test .com/glossary_metalworking_terms.lincolnmachine. Ranges of sizes . Also called precision casting. also all forging grades.85 and that always.25% carbon are killed. contains small but significant amounts of carbon.Within or across crystals or grains. in engineering practice. or frozed mercury pattern is removed through the use of heat.845 Melting Point: 1811 K (1538°C or 2800°F) Boiling Point: 3134 K (2861°C or 5182°F) Density: 7.039 to 393 in width and . Carbon content . (2) A casting made by the process.039 in thickness. Thus iron-carbon alloys containing less than about 0. cast iron and wrought iron. is fixed at one end and broken by a falling pendulum.15% to 0. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming.Thinning the walls of deep drawn articles by reducing the clearance between punch and die.Glossary Página 37 de 73 Intracrystalline .Hardened. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel. Alloys with higher carbon contents are always termed steels. structural steels from 0. http://www. Isothermal Annealing . as measured by the subsequent rise of the pendulum.874 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid A magnetic silver white metal of high tensile strength. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent. A properly killed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from aging. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Iron – Fe Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Weight: 55. Investment Casting . such as silicon or aluminum.A diagram that shows the isothermal time required for transformation of austenite to commence and to finish as a function of temperature. In general all steels above 0. Most steels below 0.25% carbon and some special steels in the low carbon range. The energy absorbed. for the same carbon and manganese content Killed Steel is harder than Rimmed Steel. Ironing .A change in phase at any constant temperature. Jig Saw Steel .(1) Casting metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature after which the wax. Same as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram or S-curve. Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram .A pendulum type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen. or lost-wax process.A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic. plastic.1% C may be referred to as irons. An element that has an average atomic number of 55.

titanium. Lap . Light Metal .Partial melting of an alloy. An abnormal structure resulting in a separation or weakness aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of the metal.One of the low-density metals such as aluminum. or their alloys. Lattice .2 Melting Point: 600. as parallel arrays or packets of lath-shape units about 0.A term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported by the producer. Environmental concerns are resulting in a decreased usage of lead in the steel industry.A term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering. but not welding them.lincolnmachine. Usually associated with a fusion weld in thick plate.46°C or 621. Kip . Lap-Weld .Martensite http://www.In polycrystalline materials. appearing as a seam. in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together. and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe. May be the result of pipe. blisters. LEAD – Pb Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Weight: 207.61 K (327. This occurs by regular bending of the slip lamellae along the boundaries of the band.0% C and solely in steels containing less than about 0.Glossary Página 38 de 73 Kind Band (deformation) . seams.A system of cracks or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of a plate.5% C. Liquation .Space lattice. magnesium. The purpose is to improve the flatness of characteristics of the strip. Ladle Analysis . Laminations . Lamellar Tear .1 to 0. caused by fording over hot metal.43°F) Boiling Point: 2022 K (1749°C or 3180°F) Density: 11.A load of 1000 lbs. respectively. or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface. Lamination defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts. Lattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so as to pass through collinear lattice points. beryllium. Leveling .A surface defect.Metal defects with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of the metal. Lath Martensite .3 m thick.html 31/05/2011 . inclusions.342 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Improves machinability. It does not dissolve in steel but stays as globules. It is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle. fins. and having a habit plane that is close to {111}. a volume of crystal that has rotated physically to accommodate differential deformation between adjoining parts of a grain while the band itself has deformed homogeneously. or segregation elongated and made directional by working. partly in steel containing less than about 1. and non-collinear lattice points.A mechanical process in which the strip is stretched beyond its yield point by bending over small diameter rolls.

the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish melting on heating. Open Hearth or Electric Processes. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the field point. Macrograph .A term applied to Open-Hearth steel wire in the . the reproduction is known as a http://www.) Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. very ductile.A relative measure of the machinability of an engineering material under specified standard conditions. suitable for cupping.A covered arc-welding electrode that provides an atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen.In a constitutional diagram. Macro-Etch . drawing. etc. 5 dead soft temper. A copper-Zinc alloy containing 20% zinc.Sheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness. Volume 16.45/.com/glossary_metalworking_terms.Glossary Página 39 de 73 Liquidus .This is a generic term for describing the ability of a material to be machined.html 31/05/2011 . When photographed.The principal direction of flow in a worked metal.A term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Lead and Tin) by immersion in a bath of Terne Metal. tool life.A photographic reproduction of any object that has not been magnified more than ten times.lincolnmachine. A graphic reproduction of a prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.(Characteristic of No.80% cu. M B Grade .Etching of a metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. Oil tempered wire is more suitable to precision forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire. metal bellows. (The product of Basic Oxygen.Contain from 0. Ninth Edition. An overall review is provided in the ASM Metals Handbook: Machinability. because of close control of tensile strength and superior straightness.75 carbon range either hard drawn or oil tempered. Longitudinal Direction . and/or surface finish and integrity. Is a light golden color. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties are the same for both basic and acid steel. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. chip control. Machinability . forming. Low Brass . machinability must be qualified in terms of tool wear. Oil tempered wire of M B and W M B types are the most widely used of all spring wires. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal hose.10 to 0. . 1989. etc. W H B and extra W H B designate Acid Open Hearth Steels. Bessemer.60% manganese. Low Carbon Steels . for use as a plate in offset printing.Consists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in hot acid and of examining the etched surface to evaluate the soundness and homogeneity of the product being tested.) Low-Hydrogen Electrode . NOTE M B. Long Terne . Machinability Index . Lithographic Sheet Aluminum . 5 Yemper-Not a defect in No. Luders Lines (Steel) . H B and extra H B designate Basic Open Hearth steels. while W M B.30% carbon and less than 0. To be meaningful. Macroetch Test . Overall machining performance is affected by a myriad of variables relating to the machining operation and the workpiece.

Macroscopic .3 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Lustrous. part of the carbon is removed completely. with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high manganese accompany each other. Manual Welding .and then cooled in air. and lowers the Ms temperature. to the formation of fine pearlite. Macrostructure . (2) It counteracts brittleness from sulfur. held in the medium until the temperature is uniform through-out -but not long enough for bainite to form . applied to the magnetized part. Magnetite . It is important because it deoxidizes the melt and facilitates hot working of the steel by reducing the susceptibility to hot shortness. therefore. Magnetic-Particle Inspection . in some (2) When the process is applied to carburized material.A process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free carbon or.html 31/05/2011 .Glossary Página 40 de 73 photomacrograph (not a macrophotograph). Finely divided magnetic particles. Manganese contributes to the effectiveness of normalizing for strengthening.The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. Quenching an austenitized ferrous alloy in a medium at a temperature in the upper part of the martensite http://www. It increases hardenability inexpensively.The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the metal is subjected to rolling or hammering. Its principal function is as an alloy in steel making: (1) It is ferrite-strengthening and carbide forming element.lincolnmachine. Martempering . This variation of the process is frequently called marquenching.Welding where in the entire welding operation is performed and controlled by hand. It combines with sulfur to form MnS stringers which increases machinability. Malleabilizing . reddish-white metal of hard brittle and. The treatment is frequently followed by tempering. the controlling Ms temperature is that of the case. The more malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others.The oxide or iron of intermediate valence which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe3O4. Manganese – Mn Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Weight: 54. are attracted to and outline the pattern of any magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities. non-malleable character. The metal is used in large quantities in the form of Spiegel and Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copper-base alloys.(1) A hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous material is quenched into an appropriate medium at a temperature just above the Ms temperature of the material. Malleability .A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials.Visible either with the naked eye or under low magnification (as great as about ten diameters.938049 Melting Point: 1519 K (1246°C or 2275°F) Boiling Point: 2334 K (2061°C or 3742°F) Density: 7. therefore increasing the probability of retained austenite.

etc. or slightly above that range. another metalloid in character.. by rolling.Contains from 0. phosphorus.. It is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a body-centered tetragonal lattice.html 31/05/2011 . there being a rather distinct beginning temperature. Mechanical Polishing . Produce by etched or mechanically roughened finishing rolls. and selenium. etc.Glossary Página 41 de 73 range. hardness.30% to 0. manganese. Melting Point . hammering. Mechanical Spring . antimony. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. Matt or Matte Finish . are generally considered metalloids. thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application.A twin formed in a metal during plastic deformation by simple shear of the structure. May be made by any of the standard Mechanical Twin .00% manganese. metalloid has a specialized. it covers elements commonly present in simple steel. properties or structure. Arsenic. tellurium. Mechanical Working . elongation. boron.The temperature at which a pure metal. and fatigue limit. a metastable transitional structure intermediate between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a given solute differ considerably.lincolnmachine. modulus of elasticity. (b) In steel metallurgy. Its microstructure is characterized by an acicular.The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied. The alloy is then allowed to cool in air through the martensite range. but the term mechanical properties is much to be preferred. Mechanical Properties . frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic. Martensite is magnetic. for example. formed by a transformation of austenite below the Ms (or Ar) temperature. tensile strength. A distinctive needle like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. silicon and sulfur. Martensite Range .(1) In an alloy. or needle-like. The mechanical properties of steel are dependent on its microstructure. Obviously. even if erroneous. Medium-Carbon Steel . compound or eutectic changes form http://www. These properties have often been designated as physical properties. carbon.(a) Element intermediate in luster and conductivity between the true metals and non-metals.The interval between the Ms and Mf temperatures.Any spring produced by cold forming from any material with or without subsequent heat treatment.A method of producing a specularly reflecting surface by use of abrasives. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition. to change its shape. pattern. meaning.60% carbon and less than 1.The principal phase or aggregate in which another constituent is embedded.(Steel) Not as smooth as normal mill finish. (2) A metastable phase of steel. Martensite . drawing. the hightemperature phase transformed to martensite depends to a large extent upon the temperature attained in cooling. Matrix .Plastic deformation or other physical change to which metal is subjected. and holding it in the medium until the temperature throughout the alloy is substantially uniform. Matalloid . no hard and fast line can be drawn.

55(degrees) to the compression direction and are confined to individual grains.Glossary Página 42 de 73 solid to liquid. another metalloid in character. Metallography .A measure of the rigidity of metal.The temperature at which martensitic transformation is essentially complete during cooling after austenitization. Mill Finish . Mf Temperature . Metal Spraying . Most metals are malleable and ductile and are. the temperature at which the liquid and the solid are in equilibrium. silicon and sulfur. Microcrack . carbon manganese. Metalloid . The sheets are aligned at +/. the reproduction is known as a photomicrograph (not a microphotograph). lustrous. Ratio of stress.An optical instrument designed for both visual observation and photomicrography of prepared surfaces of opaque materials at magnifications ranging from about 25 to about 1500 diameters. it covers elements commonly present in simple steel. usually in the form of wire. boron.25% C.A graphic reproduction of the prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification greater than ten diameters. is melted by an oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene blast or by an electric arc and is applied at high speed by gas pressure against the object being coated. when polished. elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and. tellurium. no hard and fast line can be drawn. etc. are generally considered metalloids.An opaque. Metastable . denser than other substances. metalloid has a within proportional http://www.A process for applying a coating of metal to an object. that is the range between solidus and liquidus temperatures. They are an instability which carry exclusively the deformation at medium strains when normal homogeneous slip is precluded. sheet or plate in the as rolled state. antimony. in general.The edge of strip.(a) Element intermediate in luster and conductivity between the true metals and nonmetals.Thin sheet like volumes of constant thickness in which cooperative slip occurs on a fone scale.html 31/05/2011 .Possessing a state of pseudo-equilibrium that has a free energy higher than that of the true equilibrium state but from which a system does not change spontaneously. When photographed. Compare shear bands. meaning. and selenium. Arsenic. The metal.The range of temperature in which an alloy melt. a good reflector or light. which usually contain two sets of bands.A surface finish produced on sheet and plate.lincolnmachine. Metal . Melting Range . Characteristic of the ground finish used on the rolls in fabrication. Obviously.A crack of microscopic size. phosphorus. Microstructure .The science concerning the constituents and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the microscope. lb) In steel metallurgy.Carbon steel containing a maximum of about 0. Unsheared. Mild Steel . Microbands (deformation) . Metalograph . frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic. even if erroneous. Micrograph . Modulus of Elasticity . Mill Edge .The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters.

Specifically. stretch modulus or modulus of extensibility.) the patenting treatment and by many continuous passes through drawing dies.e. to corresponding strain. (5) Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steel.Glossary Página 43 de 73 limit. Modulus of Elasticity (tension) . i. It increases hardenability of steels and helps maintain a specified hardenability. Stronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hot-worked (rolled. Natural Aging . The tangent modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit.The temperature at which a martensitic transformation starts during cooling after austenitization. The ratio of stress to strain within the perfectly elastic range. becoming very ductile and malleable when properly treated at high temperatures. these are used in radio and related work.. (2) Deepens hardening. From this powder. the latter is the slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. (Used mainly in the Pipe Mill. by reduction of molybdenum trioxide or ammonium molybdate with hydrogen.Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature. It increases high temperature tensile and creep strengths. ductile sheet and wire are made by powder metallurgy techniques. the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity.Non-destructive testing. stamped.A form of cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a desired shape. These high mechanical properties are obtained by a combination of the high carbon content. Pure molybdenum can best be obtained as a black powder. shear modulus or modulus of torsion. The high toughness characteristic of this material is obtained by the patenting. obey Hooke's Law throughout the twist. not hardness. 60% copper and 40% zinc.lincolnmachine. the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal stress to the change in volume per unit volume is the bulk modulus. Also called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity.A polished high tensile strength cold drawn wire with higher tensile strength and higher torsional strength than any other material available. or extruded) products. (6) Forms abrasion-resisting particles.Force which would be required to stretch a substance to double its normal length. Molybdenum hardened steels require higher tempering temperatures for softening purposes. (4) Raises hot and creep strength. Mold . on the assumption that it would remain perfectly elastic.94 Melting Point: 2896 K (2623°C or 4753°F) Boiling Point: 4912 K (4639°C or 8382°F) Density: 10. Music Wire . NDT . the modulus obtained in tension or compression is Young's modulus.html 31/05/2011 . Ms Temperature .Alpha-beta brass. High strength brasses are developed from this by adding other elements. the former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point. (3) Counteracts tendency toward temper brittleness. tough metal of grayish-white color. Molybdenum . Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Raises grain-coarsening temperature of austenite. Such wire is purchased according to tensile strength. red hardness.2 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Hard. Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy) .Mo Atomic Number: 42 Atomic Weight: 95.

com/glossary_metalworking_terms. and 5-30% Ni. In general. Nickel Steel . Nitriding . Neumann Band .Steel containing nickel as an alloying element.Local reduction of the cross-sectional area of metal by stretching. greatly facilitate the hardening reaction.002 to .Glossary Página 44 de 73 Necking .html 31/05/2011 . Nickel Silver .57 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster.A mechanical (deformation) twin in ferrite. Used for electroplating.912 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Silvery white.lincolnmachine.15.A structure in which the crystals of one constituent are surrounded by envelopes of another constituent which gives a network appearance to an etched test specimen. as well as in nickel-base alloys such as Monel Metal. slightly magnetic metal.Chromium . Usually supplied in a 2 width from .25 . It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels. Used for cutting the eyes of needle and milling the latch in a latch needle.6934 Melting Point: 1728 K (1455°C or 2651°F) Boiling Point: 3186 K (2913°C or 5275°F) Density: 8. of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. principal among them being aluminum. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature). the depth of the case is less than with carburizing. results in finer grain size and forms stable carbides. the increase in hardness being the result of surface nitride formation.Process of surface hardening certain types of steel by heating in ammonia gas at about 935-1000 (degrees) F. Certain alloying constituents. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water.035.90638 Melting Point: 2750 K (2477°C or 4491°F) Boiling Point: 5017 K (4744°C or 8571°F) Density: 8. Network Structure .Copper base alloys that contain 10-45% Zn. Niobium increases strength at elevated temperatures.Cb) Atomic Number: 41 Atomic Weight: 92. Carbon content 1. Nickel – Ni Atomic Number: 28 Atomic Weight: 58. http://www. extra precision rolled with sheared edges. Used as an alloying agent. It is used in low alloy steels to reduce the sensitivity of the steel to variations in heat treatment and distortion and cracking on quenching. Needle Cutter Steel .. also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. It also improves low temperature toughness and hardenability.Usually supplied quarter hard rolled. lowering the hardenability of the steel. (3) Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic. Niobium – Nb (was known as Columbium . It lowers transition temperature and raises the strength of low carbon steel. it is of great importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-Nickel. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels.

or ears. sulphides. Notch Brittleness . 0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Increases the strength. it will form a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding (heating in a partially dissociated atmosphere of ammonia gas). impact or fatigue tests.Strip steel ordered or sold on the basis of absence of unevenness.20% aluminum. Nitrogen . Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel . Non-Refractory Alloy .50 chromium. that is. that is. (2) Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above A3 or Acm and then cooling in still air to a temperature substantially below A1.A term opposed to refractory alloy. Quenching is not required to produce a hard case.(1) The first structurally stable particle capable of initiating recrystallization of a phase or the growth of a new phase.Glossary Página 45 de 73 Introducing nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable temperature (below Ac1 for ferritic steels) in contact with a nitrogenous material.20-. Non-Metallic Inclusions . Normalizing .lincolnmachine. the new phase growing from (commonly oxides). usually ammonia of molten cyanide of appropriate composition. Is performed to refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress. otherwise.00°F) Boiling Point: 77. nitrogen combines with the aluminum to provide grain size control.html 31/05/2011 . (2) The http://www. Composition usually .(1) A heat treatment applied to steel.36 K (-195.0067 Melting Point: 63. . but it decreases the ductility and toughness. Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. A non-refractory alloy has malleability.15 K (-210. thereby improving both toughness and strength. Nitriding Steel . silicates or similar substances held in metals mechanically during solidification or formed by reactions in the solid state.Initiation of a phase transformation at discrete sites.A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress concentration. it is said to be notch ductile. For example. hardness and machinability of steel.Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so. and . ease of flattening when subjected to rolling or hammering.00 molybdenum.90-1.85-1. Nucleus .00°C or -346.A measure of the susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture at locations of stress concentration.151. Values can be obtained from static.Pearlite that has grown as a colony with an approximately spherical morphology. in a notch tensile test a material is said to be notch brittle if its notch strength is less than its tensile strength. The cooling rate usually is in the range 900 to1800 F/h (500 to 1000C/h). Non-Ferrous Metals .79°C or -320. and separated form the matrix by an interface.44°F) Density: 0.Steel which is particularly suited for the nitriding process. on the edges of the steel. .40 carbon. In aluminum killed steels. Nitrogen can reduce the effect of boron on the hardenability of steels. Notch Sensitivity . Nodular Pearlite . when subjected to deep drawing. Nucleation .N Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.

html 31/05/2011 . The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a standard steel ball under pressure. Readings are in thousandths of an inch. Oil Stain Aluminum .A mineral from which metal is (or may be) extracted. In ferrous industry. whereas in the acid open-hearth steel process.Rough surface on black plate.Outside Diameter (of coil or pipe) Oil Hardening . usually magnesite. Olsen (Ductility) Test . Orange Peel (effect) . OD . silica. Oil-Hardening Steel .A reverberatory melting furnace with a shallow hearth and a low roof. This test is sometimes used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing. is the raw material charged in. i.Steel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and quenching in process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil. In the basic open-hearth steel process.A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and depth of impression.Process of making steel by heating the metal in the hearth of a regenerative furnace. the furnace is regenerative. Yellow Brass Half Hard is termed 2 numbers hard.A pebble-grain surface which develops in forming of metals having coarse grains. Number as Pertaining to Hardness .e. Also referred to as pebbles and alligator skin.A surface roughening (defect) encountered in forming products from metal stock that has a coarse grain size. Open Welds . Rolling subsequent to staining will change color from darker browns to lighter browns down to white. temper is referred to as so many numbers hard. sheet or strip.Stain produced by the incomplete burning of the lubricants on the surface of the sheet. This term is derived from terminology used on the mill floor where by temper or hardness is imparted by cold working and classified as to hardness by the number of Brown & Sharpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state. continuing until the cup formed from the metal sample fractures. the lining of the hearth is basic.lincolnmachine.A weld that shows an area that is not fused. is used as the furnace lining and pig iron. Orientation (crystal) . similar to the Erichsen ductility test. Open-Hearth Furnace .Arrangement of certain crystal axes or crystal planes in a crystalline http://www. Ore . an acid material. Open-Hearth Process .Glossary Página 46 de 73 heavy central core of an atom. extremely low in phosphorous (less than 0. It is due to uneven flow or to the appearance of the overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too high a temperature.04%). The flame passes over the charge in the hearth.In copper base alloys inductry. in which most of the mass and the total positive electrical charge are concentrated. Open Surface . Orange Peel . resulting from imperfection in the original steel bars from which the plate was rolled. causing the charge to be heated both by direct flame and radiation from the roof and sidewalls of the furnace.

When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating.A structure in which the lengths and widths of individual grains are large compared to their thicknesses. Oxide .Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. random orientation exists. in a bath of molten lead. The addition of oxygen to a compound.A length of pipe used to convey oxygen onto a bath of molten metal. Overaging .. Oxidation . Pancake Forging . If there is any tendency for one arrangement to predominate. tightly adhering oxidized skin. in the absence of any such preference. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. with subsequent cooling. in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830 (degrees) F.Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. This effect is increased with temperature increase.(1) A reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a loss of electrons. Overheating .The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. Oxidized Surface . the overheating is known as burning. usually in wire form. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite. produced without the use of residual metallic or metalloidal deoxidizers.A rough forged shape which may be obtained quickly with a minimum of tooling. Passivation .(1) Treatment of steel. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface. The opposite of ribbon wound. Pass . (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. or in a fused salt mixture held between 800 (degrees) F. Contrast with activation. hence a staining or discoloration. Oxygen-Free Copper .lincolnmachine. http://www.Glossary Página 47 de 73 aggregate with respect to a given direction or plane.Electrolytic copper free from cuprous oxide. (2) Chemical combination with oxygen to form an oxide. Patenting . usually in air. Pancake Grain Structure .Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. or by combination of working and heat treating.A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill. Sometimes termed stagger wound or vibrated wound. it is known as the preferred orientation. so that the property is altered in the direction of the initial value. (2) A heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold drawing to wire. Pack Rolling . scale prevents the sheets from being welded of oxygen with another element. and 1050 (degrees) F. a method usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil.html 31/05/2011 . Rolling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time. Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound .A method of even winding metal strip or wire on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. It usually requires considerable machining to attain the finish size. Oxygen Lance .A surface having a thin. by mechanical working.

after passing the elastic limit. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity. Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. Pearlite . and chemical resistance.973761 http://www.A physically homogeneous and distinct portion of a material system. Because of excellent toughness. It has excellent electrical properties.A process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel are twisted together and then forge welded. resistance to fatigue and wear.A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin. corrosion resistant comparable to copper.A method of non-destructive testing for determining the existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being inspected. these alloys find general use as springs and in making fittings. A regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F. Phosphor Bronze . Peritectic . carbon arc and resistance welding. Temper is imparted by cold rolling. Phosphorus – P Atomic Number: 15 Atomic Weight: 30. great toughness and resistance to fatigue. It has corrosion resisting properties comparable to copper.An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase to produce another solid phase. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F.A sheet product on which a raised or indented pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls. silver alloy brazing.5 to 10% of tin. which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. strength. Patterned or Embossed Sheet .Non-elastic or plastic. Penetrant Inspection . Phase Diagram . Peening .Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe. Phase .Synonymous with constitutional diagram.lincolnmachine. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. oxyacetylene. fine grain.A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent.Copper base alloys. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide. deformation of metal under stress.D. with 3. Commonly used for making swords as early as the 3rd century A. Phosphor Bronze Strip .Glossary Página 48 de 73 Pattern Welding . resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. to which has been added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1% for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes.Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement.html 31/05/2011 . Rated good for soft soldering. Homogeneity and toughness are thereby improved. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent chemical in the liquid employed as the inspection medium. Permalloy . Permanent Set .

Long fern like creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling. at the top and reaching down into a casting.html 31/05/2011 . magnetic susceptibility. galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty pickling. After the acid bath. Pickling . http://www.A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters.. In the manufacture of Phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent. microscopic bare spots. Used in primitive iron making.lincolnmachine. that pertain to the physical nature of a material.Microscopic imperfection of the coatings. (4) A tubular metal product. boiling point 536 (degrees) F. leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed. that is. and improves machinability in free-cutting steels.A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses.. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3.. Pickling Patch . but this usage is not recommended.5% carbon.(1) The central cavity formed by contraction in metal. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties.82. which occurs in the approximate center. However. density. Piling . during solidification.65 K (280. and other impurities. coefficient of thermal (3) An extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward the center of the rod at the back end. specific gravity 1. In steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications. caused by the shrinkage of cast metal.30 K (44.Those properties familiarly discussed in physics. The term micrograph may be used.g. essentially cone-like in shape. cast or wrought.Iron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace.A sharp depression in the surface of the metal.Contraction cavity. Pit (defect) . (2) The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a cavity. it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets.47°F) Boiling Point: 553. Pipe . Pinholes .5°C or 536. for example.Glossary Página 49 de 73 Melting Point: 317. reflectivity. Pin Expansion Test . also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thickness of light gage metal. etc. to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel.9°F) Density: 1. Properties other than mechanical properties. density.An operation by which surface oxide (scale) is removed by chemical action.A process in which several bars are stacked and hot rolled together with the objective of improving the homogeneity of the final product. Pig Iron . Pipe (defect) .15°C or 111. Physical Properties . increases resistance to corrosion.A defect in tin plate. Photomicrograph . especially ingots. e. the steel is rinsed in water. exclusive of those described under mechanical properties. thermal expansion. made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube. electrical conductivity. Balance largely silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus. Sulfuric acid is typically used for carbon and low-alloy steels.82 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms. electrical conductivity. Pinchers . melting point 111 (degrees) F. sulphur.

particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and the gamma face centered form.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1. or will remain. in castings. Pouring .Producing a specularly reflecting surface. is of fundamental importance in the hardening of steel. or by rolling in a planishing mill. as ventricular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near (225)A. partly in steels containing more than about 0.Is the same as box annealing.The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic structure.lincolnmachine.A vessel for holding molten metal.html 31/05/2011 . for stress relieving. permanent after release of the stress that caused it.A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. for example. from a fused electrolyte. If the change is reversible.A thin coating of metal laid on another metal. resulting in a high gloss or polish. Planishing . Also used to refer to the electrolytic reduction cell employed in winning certain metals.The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive.Martensite formed. Polymorphism . Pot Annealing .Glossary Página 50 de 73 Pitting . Postheating . Plate Martensite .Forming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by non-uniform electro-deposition or by corrosion. The allotropy of iron. or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure. such as aluminum.0% C.The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture. Plasticity .Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal. Pot .Heating weldments immediately after welding. Precipitation Hardening .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Powder Metallurgy .Deformation that remains.Producing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose. for tempering.Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent form a supersaturated solid solution. Planimetric Method . Plate . and usually a large number of crystals. Polished Surface . Numerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation temperatures during heating or cooling. or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels Plating .A method of measuring grain size. Plastic Deformation . Polycrystalline .The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects. it is allotropy. http://www.The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other types of molds. in which the grains within a definite area are counted. Polishing .

A condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the crystal orientations are not random.(1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. heating a ferrous alloy to a temperature close to.(1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. Pulse-Echo Method .Particles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation takes place. although on a very small scale during the present century. Proeutectoid (phase) . Ingots are homogenized by preheating.A process for making wrought iron in which cast ore is melted in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained. The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method. Pyrometer .Shearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die. Progressive Aging . Proof Stress . Primary Crystal . the lower limit of the transformation range and then cooling. This process was developed by Henry Cort about 1784 and remained in use until 1957. usually hot. This process is applied in order to soften the alloy for further cold working. blanking.Metal products. Puddling Process .The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during solidification. Press Forging .Nonferrous metal. Propertional Limit . (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. Punching . embossing and the like. Compare with interrupted aging.Glossary Página 51 de 73 Precipitation Heat Treatment . in order to soften the alloy for further cold working. coining. Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution. of the highest quality and free from visible defects.In the sheet and wire industries.The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (Hooke's Law).An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continuously increased during the aging cycle. and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured.A nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed onto a part.An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures. http://www.html 31/05/2011 . between dies in a press. principally sheet and plate.The movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing. Preheating . (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads. Primes . Process Annealing . (3) Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working.Forging metal. Punch .com/glossary_metalworking_terms.lincolnmachine. Preferred Orientation . but below.

Usually a protective atmosphere is maintained in the box to protect the metal from oxidation. standing on the base of the box. Recrystallization Temperature . or yield strength. Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal) .95% reduction. Recovery .(1) Increasing the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material. Radiant Tube Annealing Box . caused by internal defects or inclusions. Differences in thickness. The process usually involves the formation of martensite. most commonly accomplished by immersing the metal in oil or water. The austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually above Ac3 and for hypereutectoid steels usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm).com/glossary_metalworking_terms. ragged or burred or otherwise disfigured. and the length of this line is inversely proportional to their interplanar distance. (B) In brass mill terminology. Quench Aging . a medium soft temper produced by a limited amount of cold rolling after annealing. Quenching . usually accomplished by heating. the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal. Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling rapidly enough so that some or all of the austenite transforms to martensite.(A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel.000 T. (C) In stainless steel terminology tempers are based on minimum tensile. (3) A process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced by a new. Ragged Edges .A box which is heated. S. performed on cold worked metals without altering the grain structure or strength properties substantially. stressfree grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time. http://www.S. (2) Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing.Glossary Página 52 de 73 Quarter Hard (No.(1) The removal of residual stresses by localized plastic flow as the result of lowtemperature annealing operations. by means of tubes in which gas is burned. as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature.The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. inside. (2) The formation of a new.Aging that occurs after quenching following solution heat treatment. cracked. Radiography . quenching has no effect other than to hasten cooling.. min. For ChromiumNickel grades Quarter Hard Temper is 125.lincolnmachine. the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties. high-carbon pig iron or a high-carbon alloy.In the heat treating of metals. are apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent screen or on photographic film placed behind the object. Recarburizing . strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold worked metal. A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a predetermined temperature and cooling rapidly in air or liquid medium to produce a desired crystalline structure. Quench Hardening .A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially.A group of points arranged about a center in such a way that the line joining each point of the center is perpendicular to a family of planes in the crystal.000 Y. split. In the case of most copper base alloys.Edges of Sheet or Strip which are torn. Quarter hard is one B and S number hard or 10. 75.html 31/05/2011 . Recrystallization .A nondestructive method of internal examination in which metal objects are exposed to a beam of X-ray or gamma radiation.(1) The change from one crystal structure to another. density or absorption. 3 Temper) .

Such processes include spot welding.A temperature. expressed as a percentage of original area. between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the specimen. Flash and butt welding are sometimes considered as http://www.(1) Commonly. Reduction of Area .'Incidental' or 'tramp' elements not named in a specification. Resilience .A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances. Resistance Welding . it refers to metals having melting points above the range of iron. the difference. Residual Elements . usually nonmetallic. the grain size.Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. Reflector Sheet . These inclusions are usually due to contaminated scrap.A metal having an extremely high melting point. plaques. The high-purity coating imparts good polishing characteristics and the core gives adequate strength and formability. etc. between the original cross-sectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum crosssectional area measured after complete separation.A type of welding process in which the work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact. . used for plumbing pipe. hardware. Red Shorness . badges.A copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 15% zinc.html 31/05/2011 . Residual Stress . Refining Temperature .Glossary Página 53 de 73 Recystallization Annealing . employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the structure -.lincolnmachine.Annealing cold worked metal to produce a new grain structure without a phase change. coins. Rephosphorizing (Steel) . (2) The difference. cobalt. which is used for furnace linings and such. Red Brass . It is somewhat stronger than commercial bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold working. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding.85% Copper -. usually just higher than the transformation range. Refractory Alloy . condenser tubes. NOTE: Black Plate in tempers T5 and T6 (R/B range 68/84) are temper rolled from Rephosphorized steel. Refractory Metal .A Ladle-chemical treatment consisting of the addition of phosphorus as a work hardening agent when temper rolling black plate or sheet steel resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a corresponding loss in ductility. expressed as a percentage of original area. Residuals . is used or vanity cases. seam or line welding and percussion welding.The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain.Small quantities of elements unintentionally present in an alloy.Brittleness in steel when it is red hot. Because of its particular. and nickel.An alclad product containing on one side a surface layer of high-purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of commercial-purity aluminum or an aluminum-manganese Refractory . Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation. In the broad sense.A heat-resistant material.

If the rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring of the ingot is completed. Most steels below 0. the final contours of which are produced by side or edging rolls.The capacity of an optical or radiation system to separate closely spaced forms or entities.A surface defect consisting of scale partially rolled into the surface of the sheet. wavy edges. etc. Resulfurized Steel . Strips of sheet are passed between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural members of various contours.Finished edges. Rolling Direction (in rolled metal) . Rolling .Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls the contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous http://www.Glossary Página 54 de 73 resistance welding processes. Reducing the cross-sectional area of metal stock. or from steel in the higher hardness ranges. Ribbon Wound . Rockwell Hardness (Test) .. Riffles . For the same carbon and manganese content rimmed steel is softer than killed steel. Rolled In Scale .Waviness at the edge of sheet or strip.Passing sheet or strip metal through a series of staggered small rolls so as to flatten the metal.A standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling.Low-carbon steel in which incomplete deoxidation permits the metal to remain liquid at the top of the ingot. the metal is known as capped steel.A term applied to a common method of winding strip steel layer upon layer around an arbor or mandrel. corrugations.html 31/05/2011 . Rolled Edges . Rolling Mills . The sulfur is added to improve machinability.An operation used in forming sheet. Resolution . Ripple (defect) . the degree to which such forms or entities can be discriminated. rounded corners and rounded edge. shape and lengthen it following the roll pattern.A slight transverse wave or shadow mark appearing at intervals along the piece. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator. Various dial readings combined with different major loads. sometimes called molded sections. five scales designated by letters varying from A to H.The direction. resulting in the formation of a bottom and side rim of considerable thickness. The edge contours most commonly used are square corners. in the plane of the sheet.A term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thickness by passing it between rolls which compress.15% carbon are rimmed Rimmed Steel . through the use of rotating rolls.lincolnmachine. This method is relatively ineffective in removing defects such as buckles. The rim is of somewhat purer composition than the original metal poured. the B and C scales are most commonly in use. twists. Roller Leveling . The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. also. or otherwise shaping metal products. Roll Forming .Steel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts after refining.

billets. Scarf Joint . paper.Finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes. e. Scalped Extrusion Ingot . slabs. bars.Material unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting. plates. Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine) . Scleroscope Hardness (Test) . sections.Machining without regard to finish. and metal foil into desired shape. plastics. a diamondpointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. 31/05/2011 . Scrap . Scratch Brushed Finish . with a specified high-carbon steel as 100.A method for measuring the hardness of metals. billets and slabs before fabrication. (2) A defect consisting of a flat volume of metal joined to a casting through a small area. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. The Scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance. SAE . Salt Spray Test . by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish.Glossary Página 55 de 73 intermediate and final shapes.(1) Oxidation of metal due to heat. blooms.(1) A blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold face. or by uneven mold surfaces. ordinarily by using a gas torch. Scab (scabby) . Rule Die Steel .A hardened and tempered medium high carbon spring steel strip sufficiently low in hardness to take moderately sharp bends without fracture. usually to be followed by a subsequent operation. resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide. Scaling . solid. Scarfing . sheets and strip. usually within 0. or occurring where the skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded.Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal.A butt joint in which the plane of the joint is inclined with respect to the main axes of the members.g.. intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of cutting or stamping fabrics. rails. Rough Machining . a flat side being separated from the metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand.A layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature. rods.05%.A cutting machine with sharpened circular blades or disclike cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil.Cutting surface areas of metal objects. Scalping .An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently. (2) Removal of scale from metal. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. It is usually set in a depression. Scale . or hollow extrusion ingot which has been machined on the outside surface.A cast.lincolnmachine.Machining the surface layers from ingots. http://www. NOTE: cutter discs are also employed in producing circles from flat sheets but with differently designed machines. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content.

On the surface of metal a crack that has been closed but not welded. Semifinished Steel . Seam Annealing .lincolnmachine. Segment Steel .) . . blooms. Hardened and blue tempered with round edges.html 31/05/2011 . Secondary Hardening .Steel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset solidification shrinkage.Cast iron (not steel) of high quality. This term not used in connection with non-ferrous alloys.Glossary Página 56 de 73 Seam (A defect.The process of heating the seam weld at the Pipe Mill to improve strength. in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current.058 to .A steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element.60%. Segregation Banding . or other manufacturing defects. through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction into the surrounding cold metal.In an alloy. such as blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during working. Seconds . Segregation . obtained by using a large percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron.Used for laminated piston rings. Semikilled Steel .An electric-resistance type of welding process. Shear .In homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.imperfections in the base material. usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid. backed up by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these backed up by bearings on a shaft mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings and backup rolls.The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of its own species. concentration of alloying elements at specific regions. Semi-Steel .020.A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved.030.024 and .A mill having two work rolls of 1 to 2 1/2-in diameter Carbon content about . usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working. Sendzimir Mill . Hardness usually Rockwell’s 30 N 68 to 71. or both. to form martensite either through air hardening or.Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same steel at some lower temperature for the same time.163 and thicknesses are .The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in moderate degree or extent. widths vary from .Steel in the form of billets. as in welding and induction hardening. Self Diffusion . Seam Welding . Self-Hardening Steel . which may be classified in two general groups -. Similar to cold shut and laminations. requiring further working before completion into finished steel ready for marketing. http://www.

Shot Blasting . providing a more homogeneous product. Shear Strength .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Short .A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances. Shell Molding .A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and minimum width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. They carry most of the deformation at large strains. resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern.Brittle.Bands in which deformation has been concentrated unhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. Also called Croning process. hot. Shore Hardness Test .Same as Scleroscope test. Hard but may be 4 Nos.A term applying to terne coated (Lead and Tin) sheets with reference to Base Box sizes (14 x 20) Refer to terne plate. (2) Hard Rolled High Carbon Rockwell C 28/33. Shim .Arc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are protected by a gaseous atmosphere.A void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center.Steel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel. Shielded-Arc Welding . Shrinkage Cavity . (3) Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Rockwell C 44/51. It is designed as cold. Sheet is thinner than plate. the products of decomposition of the electrode covering. Shear Crack . Shear Steel . In steel there are four general types: (1) Low Carbon Rockwell B 80/100.A diagonal.lincolnmachine.This is when the sides of the strip are continually being sheared off while the strip is being pulled into two vertical overlapping knives. transgranular crack caused by shear stresses. The bands are non-crystallographic and form on planes of maximum shear stress (55 (degrees) to the compression direction). Sheet . Hard.The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of cross section. (4) Austenitic Stainless Steel Rockwell C 35/45. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. Shortness .html 31/05/2011 .A form of brittleness in metal. different systems being present in adjoining groups. die and machine alignment purposes. Short Terne .Glossary Página 57 de 73 Shear Bands (deformation) . using metal as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. Brass shim of commercial quality is also used and most generally specified is 2 Nos. Usually only one system is present in each regional group of grains. or a blanket of fusible flux. Compare microbands.Cleaning surface of metal by air blast. Silicon – Si Atomic Number: 14 http://www. used primarily for tool. and red. Side Trimming . the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified minimum amount.Forming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with preheated (300 to 500 (degrees) F) metal patterns.

3296 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Extremely common element. Single-Action Press . such as cobalt acing as a matrix. the major component of all rocks and sands. with about 0. are those of a metalloid. in all steels.A plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together. in order to feed the shrinkage of the ingot. A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysteretic loss. cemented together by a relatively low-melting metal. Silver Solders . containing carbides of extremely refractory metals.0855 Melting Point: 1687 K (1414°C or 2577°F) Boiling Point: 3538 K (3265°C or 5909°F) Density: 2. and edge configuration. and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets. by heating Skelp .Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace. from which pipe or tubing is made.A steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or silky appearance.% silicon. zinc and other metals. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. structure or other characteristics. it aids the resistance to scaling up to 500°F in air and decreases magnetic hysteretic loss. In larger quantities.Used for making sinkers in hosiery making machinery.Composite. copper. Supplied both hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. usually steel.A reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hold excess molten metal on top of an ingot mold. other elements being usually dept as low as possible. extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. width. Carbon content about 1. its chemical reactions.html 31/05/2011 .Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion. It is one of the principal deoxidizers with the amount used dependent on the deoxidization practice.Alloys of silver. Skin . Usually extra precision rolled and extra flat. Bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders.. to some extent. etc.lincolnmachine. It slightly increases the strength of ferrite without a serious loss of ductility.Diffusing silicon into solid metal.Glossary Página 58 de 73 Atomic Weight: 28. Sinker Steel . Also called shrink head or feeder head. Sintered Carbide . Silky Fracture . such as tungsten. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited. or in a compact.25. at an elevated temperature.A forming press that operates with a single function. usually after preliminary compacting by pressure. Silicon Steel . Silicon is present. Siliconizing . silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture. melting between 650 and 875 (degrees) C.505.A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object. however. used for making strong yet moderately ductile joints that resist http://www. in composition. such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or ejecting the formed work. Sintering . Sinkhead or Hot Top . titanium. tantalum.

A processing unit that is used for side trimming or slitting into multiples (mults).Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -.In a constitutional diagram. lead-base or tin-base alloys. soft and ductile. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides. Slip Line . develop mechanical properties.The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip takes place. Produced by subjecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or skin rolling (a very light rolling). Slit Edges . associated with local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries. resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite. at least twice as wide as it is thick. Solid Solution . Slip Direction . Slab .lincolnmachine.In low carbon-rolled strip light cold rolling operation that is employed to improve flatness. which are the soft solders. Slag . Skull . intermediate between ingot and plate. copper. or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable.The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters.A layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when metal has been poured. Solder Embrittlement . and/or reduce the tendency of stretcher strain or fluting during forming. Soaking . Hard solders are alloys that have silver.Loose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during the rolling operations.Glossary Página 59 de 73 Skin Pass Rolling .Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface.Reduction in ductility of a metal or alloy. or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 (degrees) F. Slack Quenching . Solidus . 4 Temper) . Soldering . Slitter .A product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of a processed ore. is generally termed brazing. Sliver (defect) .most commonly. (2) A solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase equilibrium. Slip .(1) A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species.The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal.The process of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the particular steel. the locus of points representing the temperatures at http://www.A piece of metal.Prolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature. and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility. Slip Plane . Slitting . Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No.Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters. produce the final surface finish or texture.Plastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite crystallographic plane.html 31/05/2011 .

A system of equivalent points formed by the intersections of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes.The cracking and flaking of particles out of a surface.Structure of steel that is. In a truly sorbitic structure. resulting from the tempering of martensite.html 31/05/2011 . for which the specific gravity is taken as 1.In a phase or equilibrium diagram. holding at that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution.for receiving the X-ray diffraction pattern. the space lattice may be thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells. Spectograph (X-rays) . Solvus .An instrument using an extended surface -.The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the greater or major extent. from the decomposition of austenite. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide is dissolved. 4. or a fluorescent screen -. Structure of steel. . 2. Speroidizing . The trend is to call this structure tempered martensite. The alloy is left in a supersaturated.A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water.a photographic plate or film. Sorbitic Pearlite . Prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1. . (Applicable to hypereutectoid steel containing a carbide network. has a fine.Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. The first type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope. and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution.0000.Body-centered. the second type is tempered martensite. the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. Solute . Heating to temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below Ae1.A low-grade of Virgin Zinc containing approximately 98% Zinc used in Galvanizing processes.The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the lesser or minor extent. Specific Gravity . Solution Heat Treatment . Solvent . Spalling . Sorbite (obsolete) . and then re-heating in accordance with methods 1 or 2 above. the limits of solid solubility. the component that dissolves the solute. and may subsequently exhibit quench aging. Space-Centered (concerning space lattices) . . http://www. unstable state. on cooling under the proper conditions.A fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening. Spheroidizing methods frequently used are: 1. lamellar appearance.Glossary Página 60 de 73 which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt on heating. Space Lattice (crystal) . Spelter (Prime Western Spelter) . the component that is dissolved in the solvent.lincolnmachine. to prevent the reformation of a carbide network. the locus of points representing the temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid phases. 3.Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature. Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just below Ae1. An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited.

containing 15-30% manganese.Any treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy of the dimensions of a part.An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area.Steel. (1) Heating austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium. and less than 1% silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer. Spheroidize Anneal . usually made in the open hearth or electric furnace. Stablizing Treatment . normally of the high-carbon or alloy type.In brass mill terminology. Spheroidized Structure . Spring Temper is eight numbers hard or 60.Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form.An indicator of elastic stresses. Spinning .A treatment applied to austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium or columbium.Glossary Página 61 de 73 Speroidizing Annealing . lending itself to appropriate heat treatment. columbium. Spring Steel . or basic openhearth process. This treatment is used to produce globular carbides and maximum softness for best machinability in some analyses.html 31/05/2011 .The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool. Spring Steel Strip . hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip.lincolnmachine. Stabilizing Anneal .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion. or to improve cold formability.50% reduction. or tantalum. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or columbium carbide.High-manganese pig iron. (3) Precipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid solution to improve the workability. Spiegel . used in the manufacture of springs. (2) Transforming retained austenite in parts made from tool steel. approximately 5% carbon. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving. to decrease the http://www. Spot Welding . The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electrical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces.A sub critical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases.A microstructure consisting of a matrix containing spheroidal particles of another constituent. or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a carbide of titanium. frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held.A special type of annealing that requires an extremely long cycle. columbium. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures. Spheroidizing . Spring Temper . Spring-Back .Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are required marketed in the annealed state.

An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range. weak mineral acids. ingot iron contains considerably less. Strain Aging . The length is not determined by mold dimensions. steel usually containing at least 0. Usually by fusion spots caused by overheating during box annealing. http://www. usually blued.Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety. Stainless Steel . The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as being at about 5% metallic alloying elements.25%. referred to its original size or shape. containing manganese. on the high-carbon side.html 31/05/2011 . carbonyl iron.85 carbon coiled rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges.A hardened and tempered spring steel strip. Sterling Silver . in high-alloy steel. Steel Strip .5%. the maximum carbon is about 2. usually carbon. etc. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. True strain (or natural strain) is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length.An iron-base alloy. Strand Casting (Continuous Casting) . and often other alloying elements.00%.00 to 27. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. the remainder being unspecified but usually copper. and electrolytic iron. embossing. or to obtain dimensional term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining. atmospheric oxidation. on the low-carbon side.0%. Strain . but always containing a high percentage of chromium. hence its name.Glossary Página 62 de 73 tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. In the United States the alloy contains 10% Cu. malleable in some temperature range as initially cast. Strain Hardening . A term indicating a group of stainless steels the principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from 4. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink ('dope') from the rolls. produced from approximately . Conventional strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length. the manganese content is the principal differentiating factor. Sticker .2% Ag.A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body.A silver alloy containing at least 95. Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cut to desired lengths. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids. about 2. Steel is to be differentiated from two general classes of irons: the cast irons.Operation in which a cast shape is continuously drawn through the bottom of the mold as it solidifies.Aging induced by cold working.Steel sheets or strip adhering. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. and pressing.lincolnmachine. Steel . In some steels containing extremely low carbon. blanking. Standard Gold . Stamping .A legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold.An iron alloy. and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron. Straight-Chrome .

250 in thickness.Heating to a suitable temperature. single stand reversing. tubing. 1 Edge-A smooth. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. Stretcher Straightening . True stress denotes the stress where force and area are measured at the same time. called normal stress and shear stress. often thought of as force acting through a small area within a plane. such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching. Stress Relieving . Stress-Corrosion Cracking . the load being held at such a level as to cause rupture.A thermal treatment to restore elastic properties and to minimize distortion on subsequent machining or hardening operations.Glossary Página 63 de 73 Stress .No. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. either external (applied) or internal (residual). round or square edge. Stretcher Strains .A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape. Stress-Rupture Test .Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses.A tension test performed at constant temperature. Sometimes called patent leveling. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. No. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding Same as Luders lines. No. 2 Edge-A natural round mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating.005'. Strip Steels and Stainless Strip .html 31/05/2011 . no straightening is performed after the stress relieve temper. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. under . Stretch Forming . Conventional stress. width tolerance ± .com/glossary_metalworking_terms. Ordinarily. uniform.Failure by cracking under combined action or corrosion and stress. depends on metal and corrosive medium.lincolnmachine. and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. Strip . receptively. It can be divided into components.A process for straightening rod. Stress Relief .Leveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and subjected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion. or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel. either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified. normal and parallel to the plane. Strip Steel (cold rolled) . as applied to tension and compression tests. Stretcher Leveling .A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage. Has not been slit. Stress Relieve Temper .Force per unit area. is force decided by the original gauge length.A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width. This treatment is usually applied to material that has been heat treated (quenched and tempered). or edge rolled. filed. Tolerances no closer than hot-rolled strip limits. 3 Edge-Square. which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand. Normal practice would be to heat to a temperature 100°F lower than the tempering temperatures used to establish mechanical properties and hardness. produced by http://www. Also known as creep-rupture test.Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some materials when deformed just past the yield point.

A macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions. Sulfurized Pickle Oil . However.21°C or 239. Not as perfect as No.Glossary Página 64 de 73 slitting only.A stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are partly or completely spheroidized. kinds and positions of the atoms within it. 1 edge. Generally.065 Melting Point: 388. Sulfur – S Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.36 K (115.html 31/05/2011 . and shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required. Sulfide Spheroidization . and the number.A portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from neighboring portions of the same crystal. In steel most commonly encountered as an undesired contaminant.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Non-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications. Width tolerance close. Structure . Subgrain .An annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a temperature below the A1 temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature.The arrangement of parts. No.60°C or 832. No. it is frequently deliberately added to cutting stock.The layer of metal underlying a coating. the most common being a paleyellow brittle solid. especially. No. Width tolerances and finish not as exacting as No. Substrate . Substitutional Solid Solution . Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure) . in crystals. 1 edge. Supercooling . 5 Edge-An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr.75 K (444. neighboring subgrains are separated by low-angle boundaries.A solid solution in which the solvent and solute atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution. 4 Edge-A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Subcritical Annealing . the shape and dimension of the until cell.Cooling to a temperature below that of an equilibrium phase transformation without the transformation taking place. thermal.28°F) Density: 2.lincolnmachine. 6 Edge-A square edge produced by square edge rolling.38°F) Boiling Point: 717. vibratory. Superalloy . Width tolerances liberal. Not filed. to increase machinability.A network of low-angle boundaries (usually with mis-orientations or less than one degree) within the main grains of a microstructure.An oiled applied at the Pickle Line (on cold reduced product only) which contains a sulfur based emulsifier which enhances lubricity in cold reduction and burn off of oil in annealing. Sulfur Print . regardless of whether the layer is base metal.An alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile. generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit http://www.

but unadvisedly.Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle. TELLURIUM – Te Atomic Number: 52 Atomic Weight: 127.(1) In heat treatment. to denote the carbon content.Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of the coil is conical rather than or reduction in area during cold working. and characterized by a certain structure.A generic term covering several processes applicable to a suitable ferrous alloy that produce. thereby achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that cannot be hardened by heat treatment). thereby improving transverse properties. re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness.Pouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds.html 31/05/2011 .60 Melting Point: 722.12°F) Boiling Point: 1261 K (988°C or 1810°F) Density: 6.Surface discoloration on a metal. Surface Hardening . temper is sometimes used.Arrangement of rolling mills. (2) In tool steels. Tack Welds . by quench hardening only. Used for determining surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts.lincolnmachine.A section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest. Tapping . Tarnish . Temper . Teeming . There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. The processes commonly used are induction hardening. a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core.232 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid It is added to steel to modify sulfide type inclusion size. The resulting sulfide type inclusions are finer and remain ellipsoidal in shape following hot working. Telescoping . allowing the metal to pass from one set of rolls into the next. the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment. Taper Section . flame hardening and shell hardening. The term applies particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds. http://www. Tandem Mill .(1) Heating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase transformation without the transformation taking place. in direct line. Superheating .Small scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper alignment while the final welds are being made. or where large hardness impression might be harmful. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. morphology and distribution.Form of Rockwell hardness test using relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration.51°C or 841. or both. A sectioning angle 5(degrees) 43 achieves a depth magnification of 10: 1.Glossary Página 65 de 73 Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test . (2) Heating molten metal to a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity. usually from a thin film of oxide or sulfide. mechanical properties.66 K (449.

Blue is developed at approximately 600 (degrees) F. however. It is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a wide range of uses. The percentage of tin is usually kept as low as possible because of its high cost. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons) per square inch of original cross section. Terne Plate . such as coiled and flat mechanical springs.Glossary Página 66 de 73 Temper (Met. ignition vibrator springs.90/1. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room temperature.) . rules. and to obtain a specified hardness or temper. a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength) Breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. etc. or are cooled slowly through. Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip 90/1. aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are shown as follows Temper Brittleness . tin mill products.Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within. or slowly cooled through.') A process of re-heating quench-hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its This product. the temperature range from about 700 to 1100 F (375 to 575 C). The operation is performed to improve flatness. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed. gradually separating the jaws. In flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel. springs for the electric and electronic fields.html 31/05/2011 .03 with Rockwell range C 48/51. The purpose is to improve the flatness of characteristics of the strip. A reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature in steels heated in. Manufactured from carbon range of . Ternary Alloy An alloy that contains three principal elements. steel tapes. Light cold rolling of sheet steel. Tempered Spring Steel Strip Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. In heat treatment. Usually measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine. Also termed Pinch Pass or Skin Rolled. Tempering (Also termed 'drawing. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite.03 carbon range (Also known as clock spring steel.The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. springs for timing devices. while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip. Each branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own system of temper designations. stainless strip.lincolnmachine. to minimize the formation of stretcher strains.Sheet steel. about 15% is normally necessary in order to http://www. Where specification calls for blue or straw color. and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. Tension Leveling A mechanical process in which the strip is stretched beyond its yield point by bending over small diameter rolls while under tension. re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. Temper Rolling Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually 1/2 to 1 1/2%) to forestall stretcher strains. coated with a lead-tin alloy. same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required.

yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal.lincolnmachine.A hardened and tempered. machinists.A Tin Plate Base Box is measured in terms of pounds per Base Box (112 sheets 14 x 20) a unit peculiar to the tin industry. Thermal Analysis .. Thermocouple . 135. specific gravity 7.360 square inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate weighing from 55 to 275 pounds per base box. this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29. in which the distribution is not random. the state of distribution of crystal orientations. and automobile technicians.001 to . Tinning . Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock . the object to be coated is made cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt.000 Y. Boiling point 4384 (degrees) F. Titanium – Ti Atomic Number: 22 http://www. also as a constituent in alloys. it is synonymous with preferred orientation.A method of studying transformations in metal by measuring the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur. In the usual sense. Tin Plating . and polished thin section. Principal use as a coating on steel in tin plate. For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175.93°C or 449.A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar metals in contact. (B) In Brass mill terminology..08 K (231.000 T. Usually 1/2 in width and in thicknesses from . It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers. commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electrodeposition. since pure lead does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion.html 31/05/2011 .Coating with tin.287 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility. high carbon strip steel. To convert to decimal thickness multiply weight per base box by . It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses. edged. Texture Three-Quarter Hard Temper . but low tensile strength.Glossary Página 67 de 73 obtain proper coating of the steel.(A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength.In a polycrystalline aggregate. Tin – Sn Atomic Number: 50 Atomic Weight: 118. Also prepared in standard 12 lengths with rounded ends and in 10 ' and 25' coils.00011. ground.S. min.710 Melting Point: 505. the junction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical potential with changes in temperature.Electroplating metal objects with tin.050 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. Universally used in the metal industry. also by spraying.47°F) Boiling Point: 2875 K (2602°C or 4715°F) Density: 7.S. Tin Plate Base Box . This corresponds to its area of sheet totaling to 31.4% thickness reduction.

It is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test.A constitutional change in a solid metal. Transformation Range .lincolnmachine. 10-ft-lb transition temperature. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation.5 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Bright white metal. Titanium. Tolerance Limit . Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. that is gripped by the operator's tongs. Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. thus increasing the effectiveness of boron. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature.Extremely small quantity of an element. titanium is detrimental to machinability and internal cleanness.g.Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling.html 31/05/2011 . the temperature at http://www. Ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing.A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains. also provides grain size control at elevated temperatures in micro alloy steels. (1) Fixes carbon in inert particles (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardenability in medium chromium steels. It is added to boron steels because it combines with oxygen and nitrogen. Ac (cm) In hypereutectoid steel. very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Tong Hold . Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges) . usually too small to determine quantitatively. Now finding application in its own right because of its high strength and good corrosion resistance. Usually measured by impact test.Glossary Página 68 de 73 Atomic Weight: 47. In excess. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. e. Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging. usually on one end..(1) An arbitrarily defined temperature within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to primarily crystalline (cleavage) fracture. high impact values indicating high toughness. Commonly used definitions are transition temperature for 50% cleavage fracture. The two ranges are distinct. Trace .The portion of a forging billet. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding.867 Melting Point: 1941 K (1668°C or 3034°F) Boiling Point: 3560 K (3287°C or 5949°F) Density: 4.Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for use in the manufacture of tools. particularly during cooling.Property of resisting fracture or distortion. as titanium nitride. Toughness . Transformation Temperature . and transition temperature for half maximum energy.Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes the change from gamma to alpha iron. Transformation . (2) Sometimes also used to denote the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly with temperature. Torsion . or the formation of pearlite from austenite. Tool Steel . but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness. The following symbols are used for iron and steels: .The permissible deviation from the desired value.

Ar3 The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. Transverse .Literally.lincolnmachine. Truss Spring Steel .html 31/05/2011 . Ac3 The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating.74. .84 Melting Point: 3695 K (3422°C or 6192°F) Boiling Point: 5828 K (5555°C or 10031°F) Density: 19.A previously irresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or by quenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. (1) Forms hard abrasion -. Trowel Steel . Ar4 The temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to austenite during cooling. Trepanning . . Ae (cm) Ae1 Ae3 Ae4 The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. 'across'. Triple Point .3 grams per cubic centimeter Gray metal of high tensile strength. but rolled extra flat -.Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.Hardened and tempered spring steel. It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids. . . . (2) Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures. the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling.90 to 1. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. but not to strong alkalis.Glossary Página 69 de 73 which the solution of cementite in austentite is completed during heating. .resistant particles in tool steels. and depend on the rate of change of temperature. http://www. Ac4 The temperature at which austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. Used in the manufacture of plastering trowels. Tungsten – W Atomic Number: 74 Atomic Weight: 183. . .The intersection of the boundaries of three adjoining grains. Ar1 The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling. Tumbling .A method for determining micro hardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter. . as observed in a section. Troosite (obsolete) . NOTE: All these changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during heating. Must be formed very severely and must be as free as possible from decarburization. Ac1 The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating. M(f) The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. Carbon content about . Preferred terminology for the first product is tempered Tukon Hardness Test . usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular to the direction of working. . for the latter.Rockwell C 50. ductile and malleable when specially handled. Ar (cm) In hypereutectoid steel.Supplied cold rolled and bright annealed. . M(s) (or Ar) The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling.70 -Manganese .05 carbon content. Ordinary tolerances. fine pearlite.A type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder.

A portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the lattice of the remainder of the crystal. Twin . of composition varying between WC and W(2)C.A frequency. such as cobalt. the other as the twin. extensively used for Sintered Carbide Tools. one may be regarded as the 31/05/2011 . They include longitudinal. (2) That portion of welding cycle during which the cross-sectional area is increased by the application of pressure.Compound of tungsten and carbon. compressive. Twin. imbedded in a matrix of soft metal. The orientation of the twin is either a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis.Glossary Página 70 de 73 Tungsten Carbide . as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal. Annealing .A winding departure from flatness.A type of non-destructive testing used for testing of pipe. Vanadium – V Atomic Number: 23 Atomic Weight: 50.(1) The localized increase in cross-sectional area resulting from the application of pressure during mechanical fabrication or welding. Twist . Ultrasonic Frequency .A rolling mill in which rolls with a vertical axis roll the edges of the metal stock between some of the passes through the horizontal rolls. Twin.The maximum conventional stress. that a material can withstand. that is greater than the highest audible frequency. Ultimate Strength . surface. transverse.lincolnmachine.Waves of ultrasonic frequency.Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air. or shear.A twin produced as the result of heat treatment. Utility Sheet Aluminum . Upset . Vacuum Melting . Twin.(1) A metal working operation similar to forging. In ferrite.A type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is temporarily unoccupied. and standing waves. generally regarded as being higher than 15 kc per sec. as in forming heads on rivets by flattening the end of wire. Universal Mill . Upsetting . Deformation .A twinned region produced by a shear like distortion of the parent crystal structure during deformation. deformation twins form on {211} planes. Vacancy . the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure. associated with elastic waves.9415 Melting Point: 2183 K (1910°C or 3470°F) Boiling Point: 3680 K (3407°C or 6165°F) http://www. Crystal . (2) The process of axial flow under axial compression of metal. tensile. Ultrasonic Waves . Ultrasonic Testing (UT) .Mill finish coiled or flat sheet of unspecified composition and properties produced in specific standard sizes and suitable for general building trade usage.Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship.

05% increase hardenability whereas larger amounts tend to reduce hardenability because of carbide formation.15 and Tungsten .Hardened. Steel must withstand great fatigue stresses.A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning.Suitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions. particularly those with extremely hard surfaces.A type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms.Glossary Página 71 de 73 Density: 6. Vickers Hardness (Test) . Vanadium is also utilized in ferrite/pearlite micro alloy steels to increase hardness through carbonitride precipitation strengthening of the matrix. and resistance welding. extra precision rolled. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness. tempered and white polished extra precision rolled. Additions up to . inhibits grain growth during heat treating while improving strength and toughness of hardened and tempered steels. seams and buckled plates.17.Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. which includes gas. Weldability . This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only. after heating. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace known as a finery. hard metal.0 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Gray-white.Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. Waloon Process .00. Carbon content about 1.Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine. for example. Watch Main Spring Steel . Water Hardening . Carbon content about 1. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table.An early two-hearth process for making wrought iron by refining cast iron. Fusion welding. the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. It cannot be electrodeposited. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain).com/glossary_metalworking_terms. arc.Metal obtained directly from ore and not used before. Weld Bead . Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels.A deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass.lincolnmachine. re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace known as a chafery. (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening. unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids. Wasters .A union made by welding. Wavy .Sheets that have prohibitive defects. Wedge . requires that the parent metals be melted. Welding . In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the http://www.html 31/05/2011 .A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Virgin Metal .Not flat. Weld . Vibrator Reed Steel . Veining .

excited usually by the impact of cathode rays on matter. in hardness) produced by cold working. Wustite . WMB. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding. but now largely replaced by Cartridge Brass. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment.The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. giving the iron a characteristic grain.The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions the do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO.Glossary Página 72 de 73 use of heat and pressure without melting.html 31/05/2011 . The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously. a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. Wootz . The deviation is expressed in terms of strain. Same as strain hardening. will have a thin continuous layer of liquid adhering to it. Also known as High Brass. but containing 13% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction. and 10-9 cm.65% copper and 35% zinc. such as detergents. usually less than the maximum attainable stress. Yield Point .Increase in resistance to deformation (i. so that recrystallization occurs across the interface.The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes.A phenomenon involving a solid and a liquid in such intimate contact that the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid.lincolnmachine. Wetting . Also known as http://www. Addition agents. on being removed from the liquid bath. X-Rays .D. may induce wetting by lowering the surface tension of the liquid.Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements. which have wave lengths between about 10-6 rays.A surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the cohesion within the liquid. Thus a solid that is wetted. Foreign substances such as grease may prevent wetting. WHB and Extra WHB Grades . The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A. Yield Strength .Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels.The first stress in a material. named for its yellow hue. also written X-rays. Yellow Brass .6% C produced by melting a bloomery iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced. Widmanstatten Structure . Wetting Agent .e. The iron has a low carbon content.A carbon steel containing 1 to 1. Formerly a very popular alloy. Work Hardening . Wrought Iron . Only certain metals exhibit a yield point. Workability . same as Roentgen rays. A copper-zinc alloy.A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution.

http://www.html 31/05/2011 . such as dry batteries.68 K (419. Its most important alloy is brass. Can be electrodeposited. ZIRCONIUM – Zr Atomic Number: 40 Atomic Weight: 91. The values of Young's Modulus for metals are of the order 10(12) dynes per square cm.15°F) Boiling Point: 1180 K (907°C or 1665°F) Density: 7.lincolnmachine.134 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Blue-white metal. Zinc – Zn Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Weight: 65. it is extensively used as a coating for steel and sheet zinc finds many outlets. etc.52 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Because of its great affinity for oxygen and combines readily with nitrogen and sulfur it is used as a deoxidizer and scavenger in steel making. Young's Modulus .The coefficient of elasticity of stretching.224 Melting Point: 2128 K (1855°C or 3371°F) Boiling Point: 4682 K (4409°C or 7968°F) Density: Zinc-base alloys are of great importance in die casting. malleable and ductile even at ordinary temperatures. It is used as an alloy with nickel for cutting tools and is used in copper alloys. For a stretched wire.409 Melting Point: 692. when pure.Glossary Página 73 de 73 proof stress. Young's Modulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to the elongation per unit length.53°C or 787.

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