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Set No. 1

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne the term property. State the diﬀerences between extensive, intensive and speciﬁc properties of a thermodynamic system. Give few example for each. (b) A mass of 2.5 kg of air is compressed in a quasi static process from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa for which PV = constant. The initial speciﬁc volume is 0.80 m3 /kg. Find the work done by the piston to compress the air. [8+8] 2. (a) What are the practical diﬃculties associated with the use of ideal gas thermometer? (b) A new temperature scale in Degree N is desired with freezing point at 1000 N and the boiling point at 4000 N. Establish a correlation between degrees Centigrade and degrees N. What will be the absolute temperature at 00 N? [6+10] 3. (a) State the limitations of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. (b) What is a thermal energy reservoir? (c) An engine operating on a Carnot cycle works with in temperature limits of 600 K and 300 K. If the engine receives 2000 KJ of heat, evaluate the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Describe the process of formation of steam and give its graphical representation (b) Steam enters an engine at a pressure 10 bar absolute and 2500 C. It is exhausted at 0.2 bar. The steam at exhaust is 0.9 dry. Find i. Drop in enthalpy ii. Change in enthalpy. [7+9]

5. (a) Deduce the relationship between absolute temperature and absolute pressure in an adiabatic process. [7] (b) 1.5 kg of air at pressure 6 bar occupies a volume of 0.2m3 .If this air is expanded to a volume of 1.1m3 . Find the work done and heat absorbed or rejected by the air for each of the following methods of trying one the process. i. isothermally ii. Adiabatic ally [9]

6. (a) 200m3 of air per minute at 150 C DBT and 75%RH.If heated until its temperature is 250 C, ﬁnd 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103 i. RH of heated air ii. WBT of heated air iii. Heat added to air per minute.

Set No. 1

(b) A vessel of 5 m3 capacity contains two gases A and B in proportion of 40% and 60% respectively at 250 C .If the value of R for the gases is 0.288 KJ/kg K and 0.295 KJ/KgK and if the total weight of the mixture is 2 kg, calculate i. Partial pressure ii. Total pressure iii. The mean value of the R for the mixture.

[8+8]

7. (a) Show that the eﬃciency of the Diesel cycle is lower than that of Otto cycle for the same compression ratio. Comment why the higher eﬃciency of the Otto cycle compared to Diesel cycle for the same compression ratio is only for a academic interest and not practical importance. (b) A Diesel engine has a compression ratio of 18 and cut-oﬀ takes place at 6% of the stroke. Find the air-standard eﬃciency. Assume γ = 1.4. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the working of simple Rankine cycle and what are diﬀerent ways to improve the eﬃciency of a cycle? (b) Explain the functioning of vapour compression refrigeration system along with diagrams? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 2

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the diﬀerences between system and control volume. (b) A gas undergoes a reversible non-ﬂow process according to the relation P = (-3V+15)where V is the volume in m3 and P is the pressure in bar. Determine the work done when the volume changes from 3 to 6 m3 . [6+10] 2. (a) What are the practical diﬃculties associated with the use of ideal gas thermometer? (b) A new temperature scale in Degree N is desired with freezing point at 1000 N and the boiling point at 4000 N. Establish a correlation between degrees Centigrade and degrees N. What will be the absolute temperature at 00 N? [6+10] 3. (a) State the limitations of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. (b) What is a thermal energy reservoir? (c) An engine operating on a Carnot cycle works with in temperature limits of 600 K and 300 K. If the engine receives 2000 KJ of heat, evaluate the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Explain the diﬀerence between internal energy and enthalpy of wet and dry steam [7M] (b) 2 kg of steam initially at a pressure of 12 bar and a temperature of 2500 C expends polytropically to 1.2 bar. Find [9M] i. Final condition ii. Work done iii. Change in entropy ,assume the index of expansion as 1.25 5. (a) One kg-mol of oxygen under goes a reversible non-ﬂow isothermal compression and the volume decreases from 0.15m3 /kgto0.06m3 /kg and the initial temperature is 500 C. The gas obeys Vander waal’s equation during the compression. Find: i. The work done during the process ii. The ﬁnal pressure. T ake a = 139250N m4 /(kg−mole)2 ; b = 0.0314m3 /kg−mole; R = 8314J/kg mole K

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 2

(b) The volume of a high altitude chamber is 40m3 If is put into operation by reducing pressure from 1 bar to 0.4 bar and temperature from250 Cto50 C. How many kg of air must be removed from the chamber during the process? Express this mass as a volume measured at 1bar and 250 C. [8+8] 6. (a) .Air at 300 C and 1 bar has a relative humidity of 60 %. Using psychrometric chart partial pressure of steam i. Dew point ii. Humidity ratio iii. Wet bulb temperature (b) A mixture 6 kg of O2 and 9 kg of N2 has a pressure of 3 bar and a temperature of 200 C .Determine for the mixture i. ii. iii. iv. Mole faction of each component Molar mass Speciﬁc gas constant The volume.

[8+8]

7. (a) Deﬁne mean eﬀective pressure and comment its applications in internal combustion engines. (b) In an ideal diesel cycle, the pressure and temperature are 1.03 bar and 270 C respectively. The maximum pressure in the cycle is 50 bar and the heat supplied during the cycle is 645 kJ/kg. Determine (i) the compression ratio (ii) the temperature at the end of compression (iii) the temperature at the end of constant pressure combustion and (iv) the air standard eﬃciency. Assume γ = 1.4 and Cp = 1.004 kJ/kg K for air. [6+10] 8. (a) Enumerate the uses of joule cycle. (b) Show with the help of diagrams the diﬀerences between theoretical and actual vapour compression cycles. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 3

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A gas expands according to the equation PV=100, where P is the pressure in KPa and V is the speciﬁc volume in m3 /kg. The initial pressure of the gas is 1000 KPa and the ﬁnal pressure is 500 KPa. The gas is then heated at constant volume back to its original pressure of 1000 KPa. Determine the work of combined process. Also sketch the process on P-V coordinates. [16] 2. (a) State the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Explain how it forms the basis for temperature measurement? (b) A closed system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of four separate and distinct processes. The heat and work transferred in each process are as tabulated below. Process Heat Transfer in KJ/min Work transfer in KJ/min 1-2 20,000 0 2-3 -10,000 30,000 3-4 0 20,000 4-1 15,000 -25,000 Show that the data is consistent with the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. Also evaluate the net work output in KW and the change in internal energy. [6+10] 3. (a) State the limitations of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. (b) What is a thermal energy reservoir? (c) An engine operating on a Carnot cycle works with in temperature limits of 600 K and 300 K. If the engine receives 2000 KJ of heat, evaluate the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Explain pressure-temperature diagram for a pure substance? [7M]

(b) A vessel contains one kg of steam which contains 1/3 liquid and 2/3 vapour by volume The temperature of the steam is 151.860 C Find the quality, speciﬁc volume and speciﬁc enthalpy of the mixture. [9M] 5. (a) Deduce the relation ship between absolute temperature and pressure in an polytropic process. [7M] (b) 0.3m3 of air at pressure 8 bars expands to 1.5m3 . The ﬁnal pressure is 1.3 bar. Assuming the expansion to be polytropic, calculate the heat supplied and change of internal energy. Take γ= 1.4 [9] 6. (a) Explain psychometric chart . 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103

Set No. 3

(b) 100m3 of air per min at 400 DBT and 15% relative humidity is passed through adiabatic humidiﬁer. The air is coming but at 250 C DBT and 200 C WBT Find i. Dew point temperature ii. Relative humidity iii. Water carried by the air per min

[6+10]

7. An air standard Otto cycle has a volumetric compression ratio of 6, the lowest cycle pressure of 0.1 MPa and operates between temperature limits of 270 C and 15690 C. (i) Calculate the temperature and pressure after the isentropic expansion. (Take γ = 1.4.) ii) Since it is observed that values in (i) are well above the lowest cycle operating conditions, the expansion process was allowed to continue down to a pressure of 0.1 MPa. Which process is required to complete the cycle? Name the cycle so obtained. (iii) Determine by what percentage the cycle eﬃciency has been improved. [16] 8. (a) Explain the important components of a simple vapour compression refrigeration system. Also discuss the functions of each component. (b) Discuss the eﬀect of sub cooling on C.O.P.of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Would you derive large sub cooling and why? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05222103

Set No. 4

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is a thermodynamic system? What is the diﬀerence between a closed system and an open system? Give few examples for closed and open systems. (b) An engine cylinder has a piston of area 0.12 m2 and contains gas at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The gas expands according to a process which is represented by a straight line on a pressure-volume diagram. The ﬁnal pressure is 0.15 MPa. Calculate the work done by the gas on the piston if the stroke is 0.30 m.[8+8] 2. A cylinder closed at both ends is divided into two compartments by a frictionless and freely moveable piston; both the piston and cylinder are perfectly insulated regarding heat interactions. One compartment contains air and other contains nitrogen. Initially both air and nitrogen are at 1.0 bar pressure 298 K temperature and 0.02 m3 volume. An electric heater on the side of air compartment heats the air till the volume of nitrogen is reduced to 0.01 m3 . Evaluate the ﬁnal temperature of air and heat supplied to it. Take for air Cv = 715 J/kg-k, R = 287 J/kg-k and for nitrogen γ = 1.4. [16] 3. (a) State the limitations of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. (b) What is a thermal energy reservoir? (c) An engine operating on a Carnot cycle works with in temperature limits of 600 K and 300 K. If the engine receives 2000 KJ of heat, evaluate the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. [6+2+8] 4. In a closed vessel the 100 kg of steam at 100 KPa, 0.5 dry is to be brought to a pressure of 1000KPa inside the vessel. Determine the mass of dry saturated steam admitted at 2000 KPa for raising pressure. Also determine the ﬁnal quality. [16] 5. (a) Explain i. Thrott ling process ii. Free expansion process. (b) A steel ﬂask of 0.04m3 capacity is to be used to store nitrogen at 120 bar, 200 C. The ﬂask is to be protected against excessive pressure by a fusible plug. Which will melt and allow the gas to escape if the temperature rises too high. i. How many kg of nitrogen will the ﬂask hold at the designed condition? ii. At what temperature must the fusible plug melts in order to limit the pressure of a ﬁll ﬂask to a maximum of 150 bars. [6+10] 6. (a) Explain Avagadros laws of additive volumes. 1 of 2

Code No: R05222103

Set No. 4

(b) A psychrometric reads 360 C WBT and 400 C DBT. Find the humidity ratio, relative humidity, dew point temperature, speciﬁc volume and enthalpy of air. [7+9] 7. (a) For the same compression ratio, show that the eﬃciency of Otto cycle is greater thanthat of Diesel cycle. (b) What is meant by Hot air Engine? Which air-standard cycle is used in studying an Hot air engine? Explain it in detail. [6+10] 8. (a) Draw the line diagram of the Bell-Coleman refrigeration cycle. Explain with the help of a P-V diagram, diﬀerent processses in the cycle. (b) Explain its advantages and disadvantages of Bell-Coleman cycle. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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