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Set No. 1

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. (b) Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic point of view of thermodynamics. [8+8] 2. (a) Show that the internal energy is a property of the system. (b) Air at a pressure of 50 bar and a volume of 0.2m3 is expanded at constant pressure until the volume is doubled. It is then expanded according to P V 1.3 = constant until the volume is 0.8m3 . Calculate the work done in each process. [6+10] 3. Air is compressed from a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 210 C to a pressure of 2 bar and temperature of 380 C. For this process determine (a) determine change in entropy (b) determine whether heat is added or removed or is it zero (c) Also calculate the ﬁnal temperature if the process were isentropic (d) Sketch process for part (c) on a T-s plane 4. (a) Using Maxwell’s relations deduce the two Tds equations. (b) Derive the equation (∂V /∂T )s 1 = (∂V /∂T )p γ−1 [8+8] 5. (a) What do you mean by a perfect gas? Give the equation of state of perfect gas. (b) Enunciate the Boyle’s law and Charle’s law and deduce the equation of a perfect gases. [6+10] 6. (a) A gas mixture consists of 0.5 Kg of carbon monoxide,1kg of carbon dioxide and 1.5 Kg of nitrogen .Determine i. ii. iii. iv. Mass fraction of each component Mole fraction of each component Average molar mass of the mixture and Gas constant of the mixture. [16]

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Code No: RR222102

Set No. 1

(b) State Daltons law of additive pressure and Amagats law of additive volumes. [10+6] 7. An air standard duel cycle has a compression ratio of 16, and compression begins at 1 bar, 500 C. The maximum pressure is 70 bar. The heat transferred to air at constant pressure is equal to that at constant volume. Estimate (a) The pressure and temperature at the cardinal points of the cycle. (b) The cycle eﬃciency and (c) The mean eﬀective pressure of the cycle. Take Cv = 0.718KJ/KgK and Cp = 1.005 KJ/KgK. [16] 8. (a) Explain the important components of a simple vapour compression refrigeration system. Also discuss the functions of each component. (b) Discuss the eﬀect of sub cooling on c.o.p. of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Would you derive large sub cooling and why? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR222102

Set No. 2

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the concept of continuum and under what circumstances it is invalid. (b) Diﬀerentiate between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous systems. (c) What is thermodynamic equilibrium? Explain the signiﬁcance of it in quasistatic process? [6+4+6] 2. Write down SFEE and assumptions you make for the following cases. (a) Boiler (b) Compressor (c) Nozzle (d) Turbine. [4x4=16]

3. (a) What is thermodynamic temperature scale? Also explain how constant volume gas thermometer could be used to measure absolute temperature (b) An insulated tank contains 0.60 kg of air initially at 200 kPa, 200 C. An impeller inside the tank is turned by an external motor until the pressure is 230 kPa. Ambient conditions are 95 kPa, 200 C. Assuming Cv = 0.719 kJ/kg.K for air, determine the irreversibility of the process. [8+8] 4. (a) Using Maxwell’s relations deduce the two Tds equations. (b) Derive the equation 1 (∂V /∂T )s = (∂V /∂T )p γ−1 [8+8] 5. (a) Derive expression for change of internal energy and enthalpy during a process with variable speciﬁc heat. (b) An Otto cycle engine with a compression ratio of 10 uses a petroleum fuel of Caloriﬁc value 48000KJ/Kg. The air fuel ratio is 15:1. The temperature and pressure of the charge at the end of suction are 570 C and 1 bar respectively. Determine the maximum pressure in the cycle with the mean index of compression is expressed as : Cv = 0.7117 + 2.1x10−4 KJ/Kg K, where T is the mean temperature. If the value of cv remains constant at 0.7117kJ/Kg K, and also compression index is unaltered, how will the maximum pressure be aﬀected? [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR222102

Set No. 2

6. A gas mixture in an engine cylinder has 12% CO2 , 11.2% O2 and 76.5% N2 by volume .The mixture at 10000 C expands reversibly, according to pV 1.2 =constant to 7 times its initial volume. Determine the work done and heat transfer per unit mass of the mixture. the average cp values for CO2 , O2 and N2 are 1.27 kJ/kgK , 1.11 kJ/kgK and 1.196 kJ/kgK respectively. [16] 7. Explain the diﬀerence between Otto cycle and diesel cycle. Derive an expression for the air standard eﬃciency of diesel cycle. Hence show that eﬃciency of diesel cycle is always lower than eﬃciency of Otto cycle for the same compression ratio. [16] 8. A refrigerant R-12 vapour compression system operating at a condenser temperature of 400 C and an evaporator temperature of -50 C develops 15 tons of refrigeration. Using p-h chart for R-12, determine: (a) The mass low rate of refrigerant circulated (b) The theoretical piston displacement of compressor and piston displacement per ton of refrigeration. (c) The theoretical horsepower of the compressor and horsepower per ton of refrigeration. (d) The heat rejected in the condenser and (e) The car not C.O.P. and actual C.O.P. of the cycle. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR222102

Set No. 3

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Diﬀerentiate between Microscopic and Macroscopic point of view. (b) Prove that the diﬀerence between speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and speciﬁc heat at constant volume is gas constant. (c) Explain what do you mean by thermal equilibrium. [4+6+6]

2. In a vessel 10 kg of oxygen is heated in a reversible, non ﬂow, constant volume process so that the pressure of oxygen is increased two times that of the initial value. The initial temperature is 20o C. Calculate (a) the ﬁnal temperature, (b) the change in internal energy, (c) the change in enthalpy and (d) the heat transfer. Take R = 0.259 kj / kg K and Cv = 0.652 kj / kg K for oxygen. [16] 3. (a) Prove the statement “Of all engines which operate between given two thermal reservoirs the reversible engine possesses the maximum thermal eﬃciency”. (b) A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfer from the heat engine and from the heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiators of a building. The eﬃciency of the heat engine is 27% and C.O.P. of the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio of heat transfer to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the heat engine. [8+8] 4. (a) Distinguish between available energy and availability. (b) Air at 1 bar and 300 C is heated in a reversible manner at constant pressure until its temperature reaches 2050 C. How much of the heat added is available energy (per kg of air heated ) if the lowest sink temperature is 40 C. Also prove the formula used in this calculation. [6+10] 5. A mass of air is initially at 2600 C and 7 bar, and occupies 0.028m3 . The air is expanded at constant pressure to 0.084m3 . A polytropic process with n=1.5 is then carried out, followed by a constant temperature process which completes a cycle. All the processes are reversible. (a) Sketch the cycle in a p-v & T-s planes, (b) ﬁnd the heat received and the heat rejected in the cycle, and (c) ﬁnd the eﬃciency of the cycle. 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: RR222102

Set No. 3

6. (a) Deﬁne humidity ratio and degree of saturation of moist air . (b) A moist air has a dry bulb temperature of 300 C and relative humidity of 60%. The total pressure is 100kpa. Determine the partial pressure of the water vapour, humidity ratio and the dew point temperature. [6+10] 7. (a) What do you mean by air standard cycles? What are the assumptions for air standard cycles. (b) An air standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8. At the start of the compression process, the temperature is 260 C and the pressure is 1 bar. If the maximum temperature of the cycle is 10800 C calculate i. The heat supplied per kg of air ii. The network done per kg of air iii. The thermal eﬃciency of the cycle.

[6+10]

8. Draw the line diagram of the Bell-Coleman refrigeration cycle retrigesetion. Explain with the help of a P-V diagram, diﬀerent processes in the cycle. Explain its advantages and disadvantages. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR222102

Set No. 4

II B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Diﬀerentiate between Microscopic and Macroscopic point of view. (b) Prove that the diﬀerence between speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and speciﬁc heat at constant volume is gas constant. (c) Explain what do you mean by thermal equilibrium. [4+6+6]

2. In a steady ﬂow apparatus 140kJ of work is done by each kg of ﬂuid. The speciﬁc volume of the ﬂuid, pressure and velocity at the inlet are 0.37m3 /kg, 600 kpa and 16 m/s. The inlet is 32 m above the ﬂoor and the discharge pipe is at the ﬂoor level. The discharge conditions are 0.62m3 /kg, 100kpa and 300m/s. The total heat loss between the inlet and discharge is 9kJ per kg of ﬂuid. Find whether speciﬁc internal energy increase or decrease. [16] 3. (a) Explain the signiﬁcance of Clausius inequality (b) A cylinder contains 0.5m3 of a gas at 0.1 MPa and 900 C,. The gas is compressed to a volume of 0.125m3 . The ﬁnal pressure is 600 kPa. Determine the work done and the change in entropy of the gas during the process. Assume R = 0.287 kJ/kgK and Cv = 0.713 kJ/kgK [6+10] 4. (a) Explain : “Available energy” and “Availability” and Irreversibility. (b) Deﬁne Melmholtz and Gibbs free energy function. 5. (a) Explain the principle of throttling process with a neat sketch. (b) 0.2Kg of air at a temperature of 1650 C expands reversible at a constant pressure of 7 bar until volume is doubled. Find the ﬁnal temperature, work done and heat transferred. (c) An ideal gas at 300 C and 1 bar is compressed adiabatically from 5m3 to 1m3 . Find the temperature, pressure and the work done. [6+6+4] 6. Two kg mole of Carbon di oxide at a pressure of 1.8 bar, 800 C is mixed in a thermally insulated vessel with 3 kg-mole of Nitrogen is at equilibrium, Determine the ﬁnal temperature and pressure and the change in entropy of the mixture. [16] 7. An air standard limited pressure cycle has a compression ratio of 15 and compression begins at 0.1Mpa, 400 c. The maximum pressure is limited to 6Mpa and the heat added is 1.675MJ/Kg. Compute (a) The heat supplied at constant volume per Kg of air. (b) The heat supplied at constant pressure per kg of air. 1 of 2 [9+7]

Code No: RR222102 (c) The work done per Kg of air (d) The cycle eﬃciency.

Set No. 4

(e) The temperature at the end of the constant volume heating process. (f) The cut oﬀ ratio and (g) The mean eﬀective pressure of the cycle. [16]

8. (a) How does the increase in condenser temperature aﬀect C.O.P. Also explain the inﬂuence of evaporator temperature on C.O.P. Which of the two temperatures have more inﬂuence on C.O.P? (b) Explain the actual vapour compression system on P-H chart clearly showing the typical variation from theoretical systems. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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