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Well Stimulation

Fluid Selection Criteria

Spent Acid Iron Content High Temperature Temperature Low Temperature Chlorite In SS

H2S Wells

Acid Systems

Well Stimulation

Chemicals & Compatibility

Sandstone Lithology Limestone Permeability

High Permeability

Low Permeability

Low Temperature Environment


Acid reaction with formation is Surface Reaction Limited (low reaction rate). Use high concentration acid system for high permeability formation. Use 15%-20% HCL base fluids for limestones Use 10-13% HCl - 1.5-3% HF base fluid for sandstones if silt and clays are less then 8-10% If high clays (10% to 20%), use 1%-1.5% HF with overflush of HCL 7.5%

High Temperature Environment


Very Fast Reaction between acid and formation Mass Transfer Limited reaction. Potential reaction by-product precipitation if ph>4 Use reduced acid concentration systems. 7.5%-15% HCL base fluids for LS and 7.5%-10% HCL-1% to 1.5% HF for SS depending on silt and clay%. Retarded Acid is recommended at very high temperatures > 250 deg F. Post flush of 7.5% HCL is required for all HF treatment

High Permeability Environment


Deep Damage is expected and treatment shall cover min 2 ft depth Check permeability contrast. If contrast is high use diverter. if low end of permeability is tight use NDA-S. If perforated section is long use a batch of diverter for each 25 ft of perf height.

Likely to have shallow damage invasion however, minor precipitation can cause a very high impairment to permeability. Ensure reaction rate is controlled and ph remain < 3 highly volatile fluid is recommended to improve cleanup Check closely emulsion and sludge creation due to Iron in Acid, surfactant and Inhibitor used. Treatment including mutual Solvent is preferred(Decrease injection P)

Low Permeability Environment

Sandstones and Cementitious Material


Silt and Clays

HF concentration should not cause formation to disintegrate


causing sand production

Formation pressure vs initial formation pressure and formation


temperature should be checked

amount of clays and water sensitive/migrating clays (illite and


kaolinite) needs to be known and acid conc. to be reduced in case of it presence.

Calcareous

If percent is higher then 15%-18% use HCL base fluids

Excercise
calculate amount of 7.5% HCL preflush per foot required to remove CaCO3 from a SS formation with 7% limestone and 15% porosity.

OH size 8 in Acid penetration 2 feet Limestone density = 22.53 lb/gal 1.0 lb of CaCO3 is dissolved by 1 gal of 7.5% HCL
Time 10 minutes

Excercise (Continued)
Vol of CaCO3 in cuft = 22/7(((2.333)^2)(0.333)^2))x0.15x0.07= 0.1759 cuft/ft Limestone density in lb/cuft = 22.53*7.48=168.52 lb/cuft Wt of CaCO3 per foot = 168.52*0.1759 = 191.944 lb/ft gallons of 7.5% HCL required = 191.944/1.0= 192 gal

SS with Fine Migration and High Clay Content


If fine migration is the main impairment to the producing well, HBF Acid should be used as a main treatment at 125-150 gal/ft. A shut-in period shall always follow the placement of HBF acid 4% HBF equal approx 1% HF HBF acid has an HF acid Base with the addition of Boron H3BO3 Agent as a reaction control agent.

A full strength HBF has 8% HBF4+0.6%HF+0.3%HCL A Half Strength HBF has 4% HBF4+0.3%HF+0.15%HCL

HBF Acid can be used as a post-flush after HF acid

Hydrofluoric Acid Cleanup Flowback


Natural flow back N2 kickoff Swabing
Pre Flush/Overflush

NH4Cl/HCl, Xylene and Mutual Solvent (Pre Flush). NH4Cl/HCl or Diesel or Nitrogen (Over flush- 4 ft) Mutual solvent /Surfactant (To make Water wet formation).

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Silt & Particle Removal Acid System(SRA) HCl/HF Mixture (Mud Acid) Volatile Acid System (VAS) Organic Retarded Acid System (ORA) Deep Penetrating Gelled Acid (DPGA) Non Damaging Diverting Acid (NDA/NDA-s) MaxOil (MOA-L/MOA-S) Non Damaging Pill (NDP) Carbo/Sulfo Clean

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Silt & Particle Removal Acid System (SRA)

SRA-15, SRA-7.5, SRA123 Remove Drilling Damage/Formation Silt in SS Restore Fracture Density Restore Permeability/ Open Clogged Perforation Suspending & easy flow back of Silt & Particles Special Additives S281, S260

Sprint Stimulation Systems


HCl/HF Mixture (Mud Acid)

Frequently Used in SandStone Ratio 12:3, 6:1.5 (depends upon Clay %) HF Partially Dissolve Siliceous Materials (Bentonite) HCl Base fluid as a Pre/Post Flush. HF can cause Precipitation. Early flow back Required. Special additive Ammonium Bi fluoride. (ABF)

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Volatile Acid System (VAS)

Alcoholic Acid is a mixture of Methanol or Isopropanol and


Hydrochloric Acid (HCI) or HCL:HF Acid

Lowers the surface tension, increases the vapor pressure and


improves the spent acid cleanup.

Improve success in acidizing low- to moderate permeability


Reservoir.

Reduce Water saturation (Gasification) S2000 Volatile Agent (Use as 300gal/1000gal)

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Organic Retarded Acid System (ORA)

High Temp. Environment above 250F Preferred in Low Permeability formations Deeper Penetration Less Corrosive than HCl. Blend with other Mineral Acids 9% Formic or 10% Acetic Acid

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Organic Retarded Acid System (ORA)

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Deep Penetrating Gelled Acid (DPGA)

Mainly Used for limestone. For Deeper Penetration Reduce wormhole effect/ Increase Acid Spending Time Temp. Range 200-300F. Special Additive S301 (Acid Gelling Agent)

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Deep Penetrating Gelled Acid (DPGA)

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Non Damaging Diverting Acid (NDA/NDA-s)

Self diverting acid system for stimulating Limestone and high


permeability Sandstone formations.

Non polymer based gelling system 95% retained permeability Excellent post job clean-out and biodegradable or in contact
with Isopropanol/Hydrocarbon.

While pumping and under high shear, rheology is very low.


Once in the formation, high gel network is created and remaining fluids are diverted to other zones

S1000 Special Additive.

Sprint Stimulation Systems


MaxOil Acid System (MOA-L/MOA-S)

MOA Max-Oil Acid is a sequence of fluids pumped to


maximize stimulation of oil and gas zone and minimize acid to get to water zone.

MOA is a non damaging fluid that temporarily divert acid of the


water zone.

The system is fully degradable and brakes down by


hydrocarbons.

The system works for saline water zone for both gas and oil
wells.

Temperature up to 140 deg C. (285 deg F) Recommended for formation permeability > 20 md

Sprint Stimulation Systems

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Non Damaging Pill (NDP)

Commonly used Pill / gel plugs are polymer based and thus they are
damaging to formation. Sprint NDP pill a unique carrier which includes ZERO polymer yet very efficiently viscosifying water base fluids and brines for temperatures up to 285 deg F (148 deg C).

NDP base fluid allows loading fluids with medium to coarse graded particles
such as calcium carbonate / frac gravel / LCM material for different oilfield applications.

The gel is non-Newtonian; under high shear rates the solution has a low
viscosity, but a high viscosity gel forms rapidly under low shear rate conditions. The gel provides the fluid with good solid carrying capability.

The Pill can be washed/cleaned later, meanwhile the gel entering the
formation breaks at the contact with hydrocarbons producing a solid-less fluid.

Sprint Stimulation Systems


Carbo/Sulfo Clean

High dissolution capacity for common carbonates scales


(CaCO3,Ca, Ba, Sr Sulphate with Soaking Time 24 hr at 150F.

Non corrosive to 13%Cr and Duplex steel and Very low


corrosion on N80,J55,P105 (<10mpy)

No re-precipitation of reaction products Recommended for tubulars where HCl is not recommended Can be used for the near wellbore matrix, perforations,
slotted/perforated liner, gravel pack, pre-packed screen and/or open hole

Remove Drill-in fluid filter cake uniformly(Avoid Worm hole)

Sprint Stimulation Systems

Selection Flow Chart