# BEAM DESIGN

1. Calculation of initial constants and loads 1.1. Typical section 1.2. Material strengths and properties (for beam and slab concrete) 1.3. Effective flange width (interior and exterior) 1.4. Section properties 1.4.1. Non-composite 1.4.2. Composite 1.5. Dead loads 1.5.1. Non composite (DC) 1.5.2. Composite (DW) 1.6. LL distribution factor for moment 1.6.1. Interior 1.6.1.1. Range of applicibility 1.6.1.2. Factor by Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1 formula 1.6.1.3. Formula controlls 1.6.2. Exterior 1.7. LL distribution factor for shear 1.7.1. Interior - Check range of applicibility 1.7.2. Exterior 1.8. Summary of distribution factors Loads and load combinations and allowable stresses 2.1. Load combinations for strength I, service I, and service III. Note service III is only to be used for crack control in tension areas only. 2.2. Allowable stresses 2.3. Description of the design truck and other LL 2.4. Live load combinations 2.5. Loads 2.5.1. Service I moments 2.5.2. Service III moments 2.5.3. Strength I moments Beam design 3.1. Estimate number of strands 3.2. Loses 3.2.1. Elastic shortening 3.2.1.1. Modulus of strands and concrete 3.2.1.2. Eccentricity of strands at midspan 3.2.1.3. Stress in bottom of beam from strand force, and beam self weight 3.2.1.4. Stress in top of beam from strand force, and beam self weight 3.2.1.5. Interpolate to stress and c.g. of strands 3.2.1.6. Loss from elastic shortening 3.2.2. Shrinkage (based on relative humidity of 70) 3.2.3. Creep 3.2.3.1. Stress in top and bottom of beam from all permanent loads except those from prestressing force and self weight 3.2.3.2. Interpolate to stress at c.g. of strands 3.2.3.3. Loss from creep 3.2.4. Relaxation at transfer 3.2.5. Relaxation after transfer 3.2.6. Total initial loses 3.2.7. Total final loses 3.2.8. Initial stress in strands 3.2.9. Final stress in strands 3.3. Check initial stresses

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Required strength from reinforcing 3.8.2.1.2. Minimum shall be the lesser of 1. Compression limit = 4.7.5.2-1 3. Check minimum allowable transverse reinforcing 3. 6. Calculate allowable moment and compare it to actual moment 3.5. Maximum reinforcing 3.8.2.1.1. and final loses 3.1.10.8.8. Strain in the reinforcement 3.8. this force is not present because there are not any harped strands 3.8.4.2*Mcr then calculate the required based on 4/3 3. Check of all points Mathcad output of all the above Conspan output Details .7.8. compression limit = 2. Actual stress in pre-stressing strand under final conditions 3.8. self weight. Shear design 3.2. and therefore determine if rectangular section can be assumed. Code requirements 3. and initial loses 3. Calculate depth of compressive stress block. Use all final moments.8.2.10.6.1.4.3.4.10.2. or if “T” section can be used 3.2. Calculate the maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcing 3.9.7.6.8. Applied shear 3.2. Nominal resistance of concrete 3. List of all code requirements 3.2.2.2.5.4.2.7.200 ksi 3.6. Use final service III moments.3.3. Nominal shear resistance 3.2. That is to say if the allowable moment is < 1. Check positive envelope at service I (positive only. Interface shear (horizontal shear) 3. negative will be checked under service III) 3.10. Required spacing of transverse reinforcement 3.8. Required stirrup spacing at point of maximum shear 3. Resistance factor 3. Shear stress in the concrete 3.2.2.1.8.10.8. Tension limit = 0.2. Tension limit = 0. Minimum reinforcing 3.3. 3.2.6. Use pre-stress force.530 ksi. 5. 3. and final loses 3.8.3. Reinforcing limits 3.4. The LRFD code does not state a method to be used.4.8.2.800 ksi 3.2.5.33*the factored moment.2.7.1.480 ksi 3.1. Factors from table 5.8.11.2.530 ksi.8. Force “Vp”. Flexural strength 3.7. compression limit = 3.4.1.8.2. Check positive and negative envelope at service III 3.2. Bursting resistance 3.2*Mcr or 1. Calculate Mcr based on the AASHTO standard spec method. Factored moment 3.2. Calculate phi and beta factors 3. Effective shear depth “dv” 3.7.2.3.1.7.6.9.10.

2. Check for rectangular or “T” section 3.5. Case III 2.2*Mcr or 1.3.3.5. Stress for max steel 3.5.4.5.6.4.4.5.1.1.4.2.2. Output from mathcad 3. Calculation of depth of compressive stress block 3. Strength design 3.7. Check crack control 3.3. Transvese and distribution reinforcing using the emperical method Overhang design 2.3.4.2. Calculation of equivalent strip width 2.4. Code requirements 3.2. Fl.3.1. Design moment 2. Required reinforcing total over equivalent strip width 2.1. Applied moment for case II is < than that for Case I.1.6. Flexural strength formulas for rectangular section and “T” section.3. for max and min steel 3. Fv) 2. therefore case II does not control 2.2. Flexural strength approach formulas 3. The minimum shall be the lesser of 1.4. Cracking moment 3. 2.5. Tabulated output table of all points 3.2.4. Case II 2. therefore case II does not control 2. Design conditions for using the emperical method 1. Applied moment 2.1.3.2. Fatigue truck moments 3. The three cases that the LRFD code states to check 2.1. Case I 2.2.3.1. . Minimum reinforcing 3.3.7.5.2.5.1.6.3.33* the factored moment.5. 4.4.3.2. Spacing of bars 2. Stress range 3.3.4.2.1.5. Therefore if the allowable is < 1. Required reinforcing per foot 2.2. Revisit distribution reinforcement Main slab reinforcement (for negative moment) 3.3.1. Bar splice lengths Details 3. Calculate actual stress in bars 3.4.2.1.3.3.Slab design 1.1. Applied moments used will be those generated by Qcon 3.2.1.5.4.2.3.2. Applied moment 2. A description of the approach that I used for calculating the applied stress 3.2.1. Embedment length 3.5. Check actual against allowable 3. Applied moment for case II is < than that for Case I.5. Output table showing all the design values 3. Allowable stress 3.4. Design forces for test level 3 (Ft.4. Interior bay slab design 1.3. Stress for min steel 3. Description of the whitney (ACI) stress block 3.3. Given data 3. 3. Check fatigue in the bars.3.2.2*Mcr I shall provide 4/3*As 3. Section properties 3.2. Stress formulas for positive or negative sign moments 3. Allowable stress 3.

Stream pressure 2. Output from visual analysis 2.2.3.7. Loads 1.4. but I went through the calculations anyway just to show how they are done. Column DL 1. Centrifugal force. Calculate the design wind velocity 2.5.4.3.9.BENT LOADS 1. LL 1. Longitudinal wind 2. 2.1.10. Temperature 2.2.4. LL per foot of lane 1.4.8. Wind on sub-structure 2.1.1.4.6.4.2. DL per beam 1.5. Transverse wind 2. Summary 2.3. . Cap beam DL 1.3.5. Braking force 2. NOTE: my bridge does not have any centrifugal force over the bents.1. Correct output to be used 2. The different cases to be used 1.2.3. Wind on structures 2.2.5. Calculation of loads to be sent to structural analysis Other loads 2. Wind pressure on vehicles 2.1. Wind on super structure 2. Output from mathcad 2.4.

Group loading combinations 1.2.6. . Hand calculations for case I showing service I to III and strength I to V 1.5.COLUMN DESIGN 1. 3. Output from mathcad showing final values to be used for service and strength 1. Table from LRFD code showing different loading combinations 1. Preparation of output for column and footing design 1.3. Output from mathcad showing output for all cases 1. 4. Requirements for longitudinal direction Details 2.7.3. Calculation of slenderness ratio 1.4.1. LRFD minimum sectional area requirements 3.2. Requirements for transverse direction 3.1. Output from mathcad for column design Correct output from mathcad Confinement reinforcing for seismic category “B” 3.

5.3.2. Beta and phi factors 4.3. Service I loads shear and moment (input DC and DW loads here) 1. Sort LL shear and moment output from VA 1.1. and applied loads 2. Loads 1.1. . Cracking moment 2. Resistance provided by the concrete alone 4.2.3.2. Minimum reinforcing 2.2*Mcr or 1.2.4. 6. Required spacing 4. 3. Compare to shear design by AASHTO standard spec Output from mathcad Correct output Details 2. 4.6. 7.3. Max spacing of stirrups 4.3. SL stress in bars 3.CAP BEAM DESIGN 1.7.1.2.4. Strength I shear and moment Strength design 2. 5.1.33* the factored moment.3.2*Mcr I shall provide 4/3*As 2. The minimum shall be the lesser of 1. I shall try 2 rows of reinforcing 2. Therefore if the allowable is < 1. Calculation of effective shear depth 4. Allowable stress Shear design 4. LRFD code approach 3.1. Given values for material strengths. All the applicable code 4. Required reinforcement based on strength Crack control 3.

and the depth of seismic reinforcement.3.4.5. I shall use the presumptive mehtod of LRFD 10. Because I do not have any allowable bearing pressures. Transverse moment reinforcing 3.3.2. Transverse direction 3.2. and strength I governs for longitudinal moment 3.2. Bending moment 3. Effective shear depth 3.2. Code requirements 3.3.5.5. Preliminary footing dimensions 3. Required steel.2. One way shear 3.2. Constants for inertia.1. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 3. The code also states that if the presumptive method is used that the service limit state shall be used.3. . I shall do the hand calculations based on 15.2.1. 4.5.2.5. Check eccentricity of load 3. loaded area 3.5.5.1.2.3.1. Longitudinal moment reinforcing 3. Output from mathcad Pile footing 4. Approximate spacing to be used 3.5x15. Shear checks 3.4.2.5.2.2. Service limit state loads 2. Approximate spacing to be used 3.3.2.4.5.2. Strength limit state loads 2.2.2.2.1.1.2. Perimeter of shear plane 3.4. the allowable that I shall use is 10 ksf. but I shall use 10 ksf to be safe.4. Spread footing 3.1.1.5.4.5.5.4.2. Applied moment 3.1.1. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 3.4.3.5.2.1. Preliminary footing dimensions 3.2.1. Footing length and width 3. 2. Longitudinal direction 3. Footing depth.4.5. The code states that I can use 10 tons per sf.4.1. I cheated and did my iterations with my mathcad sheet. Applied shear 3.6.3. Location of critical section 3.2. Applied shear 3. Two way shear 3. Allowable shear 3.2.5x4.2.5.5.1.2.3.2.3.4.0 3. Minimum depths were figured based on development lengths for reinforcement from the column.6.3.5. Required steel. Average bearing pressure. Applied shear 3. Allowable shear 3.3. Applied moment 3.1. 3.FOOTING DESIGN 1.1.4.1.4.3.1.1. Location of critical section 3.4. Table showing when to use the strength limit state and when to use the service limit state Loads (allowable and applied) 2.3. Allowable shear 3.3.1.3. Effective shear depth 3.1. The mathcad output indicates that strength IV governs for transverse moment.3. and CL to outer edge 3.2.3. SL bearing pressure check 3.2.5.2.

3. and the depth of seismic reinforcement.3. 4. and additional load per pile from self weight.1.1.2.3.5. I cheated and did my iterations with my mathcad sheet.4. Applied moment 4.1. Applied shear 4.2. I shall use a depth that is 1 ft deeper than that of the spread footing 4. Perimeter of shear plane 4. Allowable shear 4.3. Two way shear 4.3. Transverse moment reinforcing 4.1.2.0x13. Approximate spacing to be used 4.3. and strength I governs for longitudinal moment 4.2.4.0 4.4.4.3. Longitudinal moment reinforcing 4. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 4.3.3.4.3.0x5.1.3.2.2.3. Footing length and width 4. SL bearing force on piles 4. Applied moment 4.4. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 4.2. Minimum depths were figured based on development lengths for reinforcement from the column.2.1. The mathcad output indicates that strength V governs for transverse moment.3.1. Output from mathcad Correct output from mathcad Details . Code requirements 4.4.3.4. Bending moment 4. Constants for inertia of pile group.1.2.1. I shall do the hand calculations based on 13.1. 6.3. Required steel.2.2.2.3.4.3. Shear checks 4.3. Number of effective piles 4.4. One way shear 4.4.3.1. Footing depth. Approximate spacing to be used 4.4. distance to outer pile.3.3.5. 4.3. Transverse direction – shear plane is off the footing 4.2. Longitudinal direction – shear plane is off the footing 4.3. Required steel.