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focusing on T&D systems
n The Synergy of Wildlife and Power Transmission n T&D Systems—When Does Automation Become “Smart”? n Reviewing Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers n NEMA Helps Flood Victims with Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment
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Integrating Wildlife with Power Transmission—A Win-Win Solution ................8
Care Act Builds on Manufacturing Industry Efforts to Ensure Safe Imaging Services ......................20 MITA Issues Statement on JACR Radiology Benefit Managers Study ..............................................20 Code Actions/Standardization Trends ............21 Standards Wars—Myth or Reality A Timely Discussion of an Old Issue.............................21 IEC Committees Abuzz with T&D Issues ......................22 New Tool Available to Electroindustry for Specifying Nanomaterials............................................23 ANSI C84.1—Just Right! ............................................24 3 TS Adds Standardized Controls to Flashing Yellow Arrows ..............................................................24 Roadside Lighting Systems & Transportation Management Centers—NTCIP Builds on Historical Developments in Street Lighting.................25 Progress of IEC-Based Standards Developed under CANENA Harmonization Process.......................26 U.S. Delegation to IEC TC Seeks Experts for Environmental Standards Development .....................27 IEC Considers Potential Surge Arrester Classification Changes .................................................27 Pennsylvania Repeals Sprinkler Requirement.............28 Idaho Begins Process of Adopting 2011 NEC® ............28 International Roundup ................................29 Energy Efficiency Collaboration Project Announced at COPANT 2011 General Assembly ............................29 Economic Spotlight ......................................31
T&D Systems—When Does Automation Become “Smart”?.........................................10 NEMA to Organize Power Solutions Division ...11 A Personal Journey—Discovering the High Flux Isotope Reactor at NEMA ...............12 Surge Arresters: Utility Surge Protection Upgrade Considerations ...............................14 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007—A Smart Grid Reality Check ............16
NEMA Officers ................................................................2 Comments from the C-Suite..........................................2 View from the Top ..........................................................3
Washington Report........................................4 Transmission Corridors—Getting Power from Point A to Point B ...........................................................4 DOE Reviewing Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers ..............................................6 e-KNOW Act Gives Consumers Control .........................7 DOE Awards $19 Billion in T&D Technologies ...............7 Electroindustry News ...................................17 Leading Technology Forecaster to be Featured at NEMA’s 2011 Annual Meeting .................17 Tune into ESFI for Safety Videos ...................................17 Midwest Flooding Prompts Warning about Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment........................18 Earthfest Earns a Thumbs Up.......................................18 Surveying the Future of Electric Heat ..........................19
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Publisher | Joseph Higbee Managing Editor / Editor in Chief | Pat Walsh Contributing Editors | William E. Green III Chrissy L. Skudera Economic Spotlight | Timothy Gill Standards | Al Scolnik Washington Report | Kyle Pitsor Art Director | Jennifer Tillmann Media Sales Team Leader | Stephanie Bunsick
electroindustry (ISSN 1066-2464) is published monthly by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1300 N. 17th Street, Suite 1752, Rosslyn, VA 22209; 703.841.3200. FAX: 703.841.5900. Periodicals postage paid at Rosslyn, VA, and York, PA, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to NEMA, 1300 N. 17th Street, Suite 1752, Rosslyn, VA 22209. The opinions or views expressed in electroindustry do not necessarily reflect the positions of NEMA or any of its subdivisions. Follow NEMA: www.nema.org/facebook, blog.nema.org, podcast.nema.org, twitter.com/NEMAupdates, www.youtube.com/NEMAvue, www.nema.org/linkedin
Chairman David J. FitzGibbon Vice Chairman & CEO ILSCO Corporation First Vice Chairman Dominic J. Pileggi Chairman of the Board & CEO Thomas & Betts Corporation Second Vice Chairman John Selldorff President & CEO Legrand North America Treasurer Christopher Curtis President & CEO Schneider Electric Immediate Past Chairman Charlie Jerabek Vice Chairman OSrAm Sylvania President & CEO Evan R. Gaddis Secretary Clark R. Silcox
COMMENTS FROM THE C-SUITE
At NEMA, we’re great at making progress and overcoming obstacles. This month’s electroindustry focuses on transmission and distribution. I’m sure most of you are aware of the hurdles associated with constructing new transmission lines. Although these challenges can be deflating, there is good news to share. We’ve illuminated the high cost and bureaucracy associated with opening new transmission corridors, and I have seen some headway in Washington, D.C. Our message is getting through—policymakers are beginning to understand that bureaucratic roadblocks deprive our citizenry of access to affordable, efficient electric energy. Unfortunately, the lack of new construction creates a negative effect on our country’s economy. Fewer projects mean fewer jobs, less investment, and lost opportunities to move renewable resources, such as wind and solar, to where they are needed most. I maintain that if our industry had a siting authority similar to that used by the natural gas industry, we would witness smashing successes. So we persevere. We continue to see growth within NEMA and the Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA), largely because of our members’ input and their involvement with legislative advocacy in both federal and state arenas. MITA’s recent addition of a radiopharmaceuticals group under its Molecular Imaging Section gives a voice to the companies that innovate, develop, manufacture, and distribute the drugs that are used with advanced nuclear medicine imaging. Likewise, the progress we are making in electric vehicle supply equipment, high performance buildings, and Smart Grid benefits both member companies and the public at large. There is even more good news. The NEMA Board of Governors has again shown flexibility and visionary leadership by working with staff to develop a strategic plan to provide guidance for NEMA activities through 2015. I continue to marvel at its commitment. It is encouraging and rewarding to see the dedication, enthusiasm, and hard work from industry leaders as they make the world safer through innovative, efficient, and affordable products. This is a great time to focus on our achievements and move forward.
Evan R. Gaddis President and CEO
View from the Top
Ű Connecting Renewables to the Grid
The electric utility industry is going through an exciting transformation with an increased focus on Smart Grid and all of the opportunities that surround it— opportunities for utilities to expand their service offerings, opportunities for consumers to better understand and manage their energy usage, and opportunities for suppliers to provide innovative new products and service solutions to an industry that may not have otherwise had the need to adopt such progressive technology. And while the term Smart Grid may, at times, seem a bit too overreaching or, some might even say “overused,” the increased awareness that Smart Grid initiatives have placed on the electric utility industry will have very powerful implications for electrical manufacturers. The concept of a Smart Grid will mean many things to many people, but most agree that it centers on increasing the intelligence of our transmission and distribution (T&D) infrastructure, whether that comes in the form of better controls, increased communications, or more effective monitoring of what the system is doing at any given time. This, along with $4.5 billion of government provisions that have been allocated to Smart Grid technologies, has no doubt created a surge in innovation. Moreover, it has forced traditional electrical manufacturers to work outside of their comfort zones and delve into more innovative technologies such as software solutions, communications, and digital electronics. Dominic J. Pileggi, Chairman and CEO, Thomas & Betts Corporation and NEMA Board of Governors First Vice Chairman This is a positive step toward bringing electrical manufacturing and electric utility industries up to speed with the most current national technological trends. It even propels us, in some cases, into the forefront of innovation. Powerful IMPlIcatIons Of course, Smart Grid doesn’t end with the grid itself—it also extends to anything that connects to it. Many utilities, in fact, have incorporated initiatives based on renewable energy and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into their Smart Grid programs because of the increased technological demand that these new resources will place on T&D. Within each of these areas, opportunities for innovation also abound, but sometimes in slightly less obvious applications. The unique design of wind towers, for example, has created a need for new types of compression lugs to connect to flexible vertical cables, and have also led to the design of space-saving solutions for fusing and switchgear. Similarly, solar farms have created the need for more advanced metal framing and grounding solutions. They have even presented electrical manufacturers with opportunities to provide pre-built solar tables and systems. Finally, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have led not only to the development of advanced charging systems, but also to less obvious opportunities of providing new types of plugs, receptacles, cables, and even battery disconnect switches to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and vehicle manufacturers. Innovation takes on many forms and, many times, is not focused purely on the product itself. The process of connecting renewable resources to the grid is often complicated by time constraints, coordination issues, and environmental concerns. From this process arises the need for innovation in project design, management, and installation in order to greatly improve installation time and minimize the impact to the environment. Thomas & Betts, for example, has developed a new approach to transmission tower installation that is air-centric, thereby eliminating the need for access roads and most ground-based equipment. Transmission systems can be installed faster, with lower cost, and leave as much as 98 percent of the land immediately below the line untouched— all without changing the actual product at all. With all of this innovation comes a renewed service and support model for electrical OEMs. More and more, utilities and contractors will be looking to their manufacturers to supply a level of expertise around all of these innovations that may not have been previously required. This, in turn, creates new higher-tech jobs within our industry, along with a new level of interest from potential recruits. The term “Smart Grid” has generated excitement outside of our traditional circles and has, in many ways, served as a form of marketing for the electrical industry as a whole. This will inevitably attract people who want to be a part of a growing and fast-paced environment, and who want to build the foundation of further innovation for years to come. This is a great opportunity for the electrical industry, for electrical manufacturers, and for our collective future. ei
Ű Transmission Corridors—Getting Power from Point A to Point B
Getting power from point A to point B sounds as simple as connecting the dots; however, development of electric transmission facilities faces an uncertain future. NEMA is supporting policies that will encourage the development of transmission facilities to improve reliability and incorporate more renewable energy into the electrical grid. Recent events at all government levels give credence to both the optimist and pessimist. favorable rulInG by blM The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the federal agency responsible for balancing multiple uses of 253 million acres of public land primarily in the western U.S., has made a decision that is positive for development of wind and solar energy on federal lands. The interim rule, effective April 26, 2011, seeks to reduce the conflicts between wind and solar developers and mining claimants. The conflict occurs when a mining claim is made on land which has already been identified by a wind or solar developer in its application to the BLM for a rightof-way (ROW) for a generation facility. Because the law states that the use of the land’s surface cannot interfere with a properly located mining claim, these claims can impede the BLM processing of a ROW application. Such dual claims have caused headaches for energy developers, sometimes requiring the developer to make a payment to have the mining claim relinquished, whether or not the claim was bona fide or merely speculative. The rule, which will stand for no more than two years, will allow areas of land identified in applications to BLM for wind or solar generation to be segregated temporarily while the BLM reviews the application, which protects it from mining claims under the Mining Law. BLM has also issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the same purposes as the interim rule. After a public comment period, BLM will finalize the rule which will take the place of the interim rule. ferc studyInG transMIssIon IncentIves The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has issued a Notice of Inquiry concerning a portfolio of incentives offered to developers of electric transmission facilities (Docket No. RM-11-26-000). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directed FERC to establish new incentives to encourage development of the highest priority and most challenging transmission lines. FERC complied through Order No. 679 in July 2006 and since that time, some have become concerned that these incentives are being added to projects less judiciously than intended. FERC is seeking comment on which factors should be considered in an application for incentives, how the incentives have helped to achieve the goals of EPAct 2005, what obstacles face transmission developers, what incentives address those obstacles, and how to balance the need for transmission investment with just and reasonable rates. Comments are due by July 26, 2011. courts Put reGIonal corrIdors on Ice This spring, the deadline passed for the federal government to appeal the February ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which invalidated the establishment of National
Interest Electric Transmission Corridors. These corridors were conceived in EPAct 2005 and designed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to streamline the regulatory landscape in two of the most congested regions of the country—the Southwest and the Mid-Atlantic. The court held that DOE had not conducted proper environmental reviews in establishing the corridors. The courts had previously overturned the federal backstop authority claimed by FERC when states fail to site an interstate transmission facility within one year. Given these setbacks, DOE’s next steps to address the nation’s inadequate electric infrastructure are unclear. What is clear is that energy demand is growing and what Americans are demanding is more renewable sources of energy. Both of these factors lend urgency to the need for major investments in electric transmission facilities. Yet regulatory barriers—and now court decisions— continue to stand in the way of progress. neMa charGes ahead Many in Congress, with NEMA’s strong backing, are still focused on getting more transmission lines built. NEMA has distributed Siting Transmission Corridors—A Real Life Game of Chutes and Ladders (www.nema.org/ TransmissionCorridorsGameboard) to members of Congress and several agencies. This foldout brochure highlights the numerous steps that are part of the arduous process of gaining approval for the construction of a transmission line. Siting Transmission Corridors continues to be well-received. Two proposals in the Senate, the BUILD Act (S 652 Building and Upgrading Infrastructure for Long-
Learn more about energy transmission obstacles:
Siting Transmission Corridors—A Real Life Game of Chutes and Ladders (www.nema.org/transmissionCorridorsGameboard) Project No Project (www.projectnoproject.com) WIRES (www.wiresgroup.com)
Term Development) and a Clean Energy Deployment Administration draft bill provide financial incentives and tools for transmission facilities. However, any financial tool needs to be accompanied by regulatory reform. To that end, NEMA promotes the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Project No Project (www.projectnoproject.com). The study highlights 21 transmission undertakings that have been delayed or stopped outright because of overly burdensome regulations and lawsuits. The irony of environmental challenges is that many proposed transmission projects are designed to deliver clean, American, renewable energy. Virtually everyone agrees that alternative sources of domestic energy are part of the solution to the dependence on foreign sources of energy and are necessary to diversify our energy portfolio. NEMA has also been touting a recent study by the WIRES Group (Working Group for Investment in Reliable and Economic Electric Systems). The study, Employment and Economic Benefits of
Transmission Infrastructure Investment in the U.S. and Canada, shows that investments in Smart Grid create jobs. Findings indicate that the annual investment in new electrical transmission facilities could reach $12 to $16 billion in the U.S in the coming years. According to the study, this this level of investment will stimulate $30 to $40 billion in annual economic activity and support 150,000 to 200,000 full-time jobs each year over a 20-year period. The study highlights what NEMA and the electroindustry has long known: regulatory challenges and other barriers are preventing investment in transmission and the Smart Grid, leaving huge numbers of new jobs on the table. NEMA will continue to advocate for policies that encourage development of our electric infrastructure to increase American competitiveness and stimulate job growth. ei Jim Creevy, Director of Government Relations | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű DOE Reviewing Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers
What’s 98 percent (or more) efficient and installed all over? Distribution transformers, of course. The NEMA Transformer Section is currently working with the Department of Energy (DOE) and its Building Technologies Program to evaluate the need and justification for updating the federal energy conservation standards for newly-manufactured distribution transformers. The Transformer Products Section provided feedback in April to DOE’s technical support document, the analysis that identifies the costs and benefits, along with underlying data and assumptions of updating efficiency standards. The existing standards for medium voltage dry-type and liquid-filled transformers went into effect in January 2010. Federal efficiency standards for low voltage dry-type distribution transformers became effective in 2007. DOE is considering even higher standards for some or all of the numerous models of distribution transformers, many of which are custom built to meet utility customer specifications. Manufacturers are eager to support conservation standards that are technologically feasible, economically justified, and that result in significant energy savings. For years, NEMA has been a partner with DOE in identifying standard levels that meet these criteria. Manufacturers are often willing to go further. The NEMA Premium efficiency transformer program was established for those manufacturers of low voltage dry-type transformers who sought to offer products to their customers with 30 percent fewer electrical losses than the federal efficiency standard allows. Over time, gains in energy efficiency have been beneficial to the customer and feasible for the manufacturer. As efficiency levels begin to approach 100 percent, however, there are significant additional costs associated with achieving the next marginal level of efficiency. These range from higher priced steel to the use of more material to higher transportation costs from a larger, heavier product. The challenge is to identify the levels that meet these objectives, but also those that do not (as a result of higher cost), and offer a perverse incentive to customers to repair less efficient transformers in their inventories rather than purchase new, more efficient products. NEMA believes maximum energy savings can be achieved through incentivizing utilities and other transformer owners to replace their decades old, less efficient models with new models that meet the current energy-efficiency standards of 98 or 99 percent. Under the current schedule, DOE will review comments in the coming months and by October 1, 2011, make a determination whether conservation standard levels should be raised. If DOE makes the determination that updated standards are warranted, a final rule with these standards would be due no later than October 1, 2012. NEMA will be fully engaged in providing recommendations to DOE and in working with various stakeholder organizations. ei Jim Creevy, Director of Government Relations | email@example.com
Ű e-KNOW Act Gives Consumers Control
To take advantage of ever-expanding communications capabilities in the electrical grid, Senators Mark Udall (DCO) and Scott Brown (R-MA) recently introduced S 1029 Electric Consumer Right to Know Act or e-KNOW Act. Designed to put more control into the hands of the consumers, the bill states that “consumers have a right of access to [their] energy usage information,” and that improving “understanding of and access to the electric energy usage information...will help consumers more effectively manage usage.” The bill also states that: • consumers should have access to unaudited usage directly from the electric meter • consumers retain a right of both privacy and security of the data • utilities should provide data based on the best capabilities of their current metering technologies • future capabilities should be based on the standards recognized by the National Institute of Technologies (NIST) Not only does the bill guarantee consumer access to electric usage information, but it also lays the groundwork for consumers to share their data with third-party service providers who may be able to assist them with demand response and energy-efficiency applications. Data must be provided in an electronic, machine-readable form, free of charge, and in the case of a smart meter (which is defined in the bill), it must be available “not more than 48 hours after consumption has occurred.” Utilities must also make the data available to the consumer online for 13 months after the date of consumption. As the publishers of the ANSI C.12 metering standards and an active leader and participant in the NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Panel, NEMA will be tracking this bill with keen interest. As electroindustry went to press, there was no House version, however; a version similar to the one authored by Senator Udall was submitted in the 111th Congress by Edward Markey (D-MA). ei Paul A. Molitor, Assistant Vice President, Strategic Initiatives and Special Projects | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű DOE Awards $19 Billion in T&D Technologies
The U.S. government continues to reward innovation with a number of recent grants aimed at improving the performance of the nation’s transmission and distribution operators. In a program announced by Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, DOE selected five programs designed to provide “cleaner and more efficient, reliable, resilient, and responsive” power transmission technologies. Among the awardees are three NEMA members: • Areva T&D to develop models and analytical tools to integrate distributed energy resources in the service areas for Commonwealth Edison • ABB Inc. to develop and demonstrate real-time monitoring, control, and distribution of “health management” to improve grid reliability and efficiency in the Xcel Energy service territory • S&C Electric to develop devices to better integrate renewable energy resources on the grid with Consolidated Edison Inc. “These awards reflect the cuttingedge nature of our members’ product development efforts,” said NEMA Vice President of Government Relations Kyle Pitsor, “and their dedication to realize the vision of Smart Grid.” ei Paul A. Molitor, Assistant Vice President, Strategic Initiatives and Special Projects | email@example.com
Yellow-breasted chats and turkey vultures are among the wildlife that benefit from integrated vegetation management. Photos courtesy of Ron Runkles
contributed more than $8 million to help mitigate the loss of habitat, while more than $23.5 million has been spent in Oklahoma in the past five years to protect the lesser prairiechicken. It costs an average of $600 per acre to restore bare dirt to suitable habitat for the lesser prairie-chicken. Meanwhile, wind farms are being sited in Texas and Kansas, and research is being done that may show wind farms are beneficial to lesser prairie-chickens. It seems that while lesser prairie-chickens fly low to the ground well under wind turbine blades, the hawks that prey upon them do not like the turbulence caused by the blades.
ould a chicken-like bird no larger than an America crow stop an industry in its tracks and potentially cost Oklahoma billions of dollars in lost revenues?
Integrating Power Lines and Wildlife
It is hard to imagine that a bird living in a short-grass, dry, wind-swept prairie habitat wields such power, but the lesser prairie-chicken may potentially do just that. It may cripple Oklahoma’s wind energy industry. But how can this be? The breeding populations of the lesser prairie-chicken have been drastically declining for decades to the point that it is being considered for listing as an endangered species. Conservation officials claim that wind turbine towers and their transmission lines contribute to the shrinking, natural breeding habitat of this species. There may be some truth to this. Using radio tagging, researchers at the University of Kansas recently found that lesser prairie-chickens avoid man-made structures, such as power lines, when nesting and raising broods. They stay as much as a quarter of a mile away from power lines. One thought on this behavior is that power lines provide a convenient perch for hawks hunting the lesser prairiechickens and other prey. Because of the shrinking habitat and declining breeding populations, Oklahoma Gas and Electric has
An increasing number of power companies practice what is called integrated vegetation management. According to this strategy, mice, voles, rabbits, and deer are encouraged to eat the plethora of tree seeds and seedlings beneath overhead transmission lines. Integrated vegetation management does several things. It removes trees that would otherwise grow tall and short-out power lines, it reduces herbicide use, and it reduces injuries from chain saws and hydraulic mowing machines. This strategy leaves desirable vegetation, such as low-growing shrubs and herbaceous plant communities, which attract migrating neo-tropical birds, such as Canada and magnolia warblers and veeries, in the spring and fall. The vegetation also provides breeding habitat for indigo buntings, yellow-breasted chats, and alder flycatchers, among many other species.
MIgRATION TO A MODERN gRID
with Power Transmission—A Win-Win Solution
ron runkles, neMa lighting Industry director
The symbiotic relationship of power lines and wildlife, especially birds, has created a niche industry. Companies now manufacture various types of perch deterrents and insulators for live conductors. IEEE has published two new standards: IEEE 1651 Guide to Reducing Bird-Related Deaths and IEEE 1656 Guide for Testing the Electrical, Mechanical, and Durability Performance of Wildlife Protective Devices on Overhead Power Distribution Systems Rated Up to 38 kV. The first standard covers methods, techniques, and designs that can be used to mitigate bird-related power outages and equipment damage due to birds interacting with electrical equipment. As with many things, there are risks and rewards. On the one hand, birds can cause problems for power companies along power line rights of ways. Lesser prairie-chickens may jeopardize the growth of the wind farm industry and its connection to the power grid. Ospreys build nests on power line poles, which occasionally cause short-circuits. Many power companies now erect special nesting structures for them. According to Delmarva Power, which provides electricity to 498,000 customers in Delaware and the Delmarva Peninsula, “electric utility rights-of-way have traditionally supported little more than poles, lines, and
towers.” By law, these companies must maintain the vegetation beneath power lines. By turning them into wildlife habitats, power companies can reduce long-term maintenance costs and create much needed habitats for migrating and breeding neotropical birds, which have been in serious decline, as well as other forms of wildlife. That’s a win-win solution.
Ron Runkles is the NEMA Lighting Industry Director and for more than 25 years has held a permit with the U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service to capture and mark wild birds. He has often captured birds in powerline right-of-ways for his various research projects. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Scott Shupe, Wildlife Management on Right-of-Ways Module: Power Line Wildlife. (www.esf.edu/rwls/ research/karnerblue/module20.pdf) Michael McNutt, “Lesser Prairie-Chickens May Cripple Oklahoma’s Wind Energy Industry.” NewsOK. (www. newsok.com/lesser-prairie-chicken-may-crippleoklahoma-wind-energy-industry/article/3493456) Lesser and Greater Prairie Chicken. (www.kdwp.state. ks.us/news/Hunting/Upland-Birds/Greater-and-LesserPrairie-Chicken) Delmarva Power. “Vegetation Management.” (webapps.delmarva.com/dp/our_environment/veg_ mgmt/index.cfm) IEEE Standards Association. “Power to the People and Protection for Wildlife!” Standards insight. (www. standardsinsight.com/announcements/power-to-thepeople-and-protection-for-wildlife)
G&W padmount automated switch
mart Grid. Renewable energy. Green power. These are the buzz words affecting transmission and distribution project planning throughout
When Does Automation Become “Smart”?
larry arends, Marketing Manager, G&w electric company
today’s power industry. For now, let’s leave renewable energy and green power to the next TV commercial or newspaper headline and focus on Smart Grid.
dIstrIbutIon autoMatIon It is difficult to talk “Smart Grid” without discussing distribution automation. The concept of automation is certainly not new. Utilities and other power providers have been “automating” their systems for many years. But what does this really mean? System designers can look at automating a distribution circuit in many ways.
There are varying degrees of automation. Some start with simply controlling their overhead or underground distribution switchgear remotely through a nearby control. There is also stand-alone automatic transfer controls which can read voltage and current values and automatically transfer from one source feeder to another based on programmed parameters. The next level may be a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system where system components relay real-time system information (typically voltage and current values) to a master station. Based on the information provided, operating personnel then decide their course of action and open or close circuits accordingly through a master computer. These types of systems can be relatively simple or extremely complex depending on the size and functional requirements of the system.
MIgRATION TO A MODERN gRID
Lastly, there are automatic power restoration systems where certain system components transfer real-time information from one control to another. Each control is able to read and automatically react to the data based on programmed parameters. These types of systems enable the controls to make certain decisions without the need for a master station or operator. It focuses on critical load installations to maximize service reliability. One example of this is G&W’s Lazer distribution automation solution, a protection and control package that features one or more protective relays equipped with distributed capabilities and peer-to-peer communication to make intelligent operating decisions and monitor field conditions. This technology focuses on critical load installations to maximize service reliability and specifically addresses loss of voltage, fault detection, isolation, and restoration (FDIR) requirements. Lazer continuously monitors the circuit. When it senses an electrical overload or short-circuit fault within its protection zone, it will issue a command to the appropriate switchgear to trip-open within a pre-determined time delay based on the severity of the fault. Communication with other upstream and downstream Lazer devices functions continually to determine what other actions are required to re-configure the circuits to automatically restore power to customers connected to the unfaulted lines. All of the levels of automation mentioned above provide some degree of operational benefits, associated cost savings, and improvements in service reliability. So how much automation does it take to be “smart?” sMart GrId A Smart Grid is one that takes distribution automation to the next level. It involves looking at all of the distribution system components, such as switches, re-closers, gauges, meters, etc., and determining how they can all talk to each other. Then, after all of these components have communicated, it must be determined how to program this data so that the controls can make decisions to open or close circuits automatically without dispatching crews to the job site. Controls can be programmed in different ways to perform different functions, such as isolating a fault or adjusting equipment to peak load demands during the summer when everyone uses their air conditioners. The goal of a Smart Grid is to minimize downtime in case of a problem, maximize the reliability to provide continuous power to the customer, and to optimize power consumption on the system. It is proven that a well-designed automated distribution system helps operation efficiency and reliability of service. System designers today, however, who have a desire to jump on the automation bandwagon are faced with the realities of high-cost and complexity of going from a manual to an automated system. Where do they start? What equipment is compatible? What are the application concerns? To what degree do they automate? The answers vary depending on specific customers’ requirements. Look at your system requirements, your critical loads and, of course, your budget. Do your homework and get help where you need it. That’s being smart. ei Larry Arends, a degreed engineer and long-time IEEE member, has more than 35 years of experience in marketing distribution and transmission products to the power industry.
Ű NEMA to Organize Power Solutions Division
NEMA is pleased to announce the organization of the Power Solutions Division 10, which will be made up of four new sections and three existing ones: Uninterruptable Power Systems (UPS) Section, Power Electronics Conversion Equipment Section, Power Quality Section, Battery Charger (Cycle Type) Section, Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment/Systems Section (existing), Energy Storage Council (existing), and Dry Cell Battery Section (existing). The division will provide NEMA and its sections with business opportunities, information, and direction. As the industry continues to grow and change, there are business opportunities that call for an industry approach for Smart Grid, solar and wind power, battery charging, etc. The new division will help member companies develop new business and markets. The division will identify and evaluate business opportunities around which to organize an industry consensus for such issues as: • marketing • business information • standardization policy • government affairs It is recommended that business strategists from NEMA member companies sign up for membership and participation in the division and its sections. A meeting of the new division will be called soon to establish priorities and goals. For more information on the Power Solution Division, contact Harry Massey (email@example.com).
A Personal Journey—
Discovering the High Flux Isotope Reactor at NEMA
John caskey, assistant vice President for Industry operations
e don’t actually have a reactor at NEMA, but NEMA’s work did allow me to visit Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee. It turned out to be a journey back to where I began—a physics major in college.
Few people at NEMA have degrees in physics. Physicists usually end up working in laboratories or universities. In my case, however, I worked for two different electric utilities and one electrical manufacturer before joining NEMA. I’m able to apply some of what I learned in college to my job, but like many science majors, I forgot most of the hard-core training.
Being the industry director for the Power Equipment Division gave me an opportunity to get back to my roots, thanks to the NEMA Metering Section. Meter and socket manufacturers realized that there were different meter-related standards that address temperature testing of meters in different ways. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Underwriters Laboratory (UL), and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and all cover meter temperature testing. ANSI C12.1 American National Standard for Electric Meters—Code for Electricity Metering addresses temperature rise inside the meter itself, while UL 414 Meter Sockets addresses temperature rise at the metal blade that slides into the meter socket. With the advent of solid state meters, it became important to evaluate the different approaches in these standards to see if temperature rise should be measured differently. In order to assess the situation, the meter and socket manufacturers decided to test the
ro o nt . th e c or y s it s a t John Ca skey orat l L ab a O a k R i d g e Na t i o n
f ls o
MIgRATION TO A MODERN gRID
temperature inside the meter and socket under a controlled laboratory environment. This project is named the Temperature Rise and Interface Issue Working Group project. After considering several different options, the manufacturers concluded that ORNL provided the best laboratory setting for conducting this research. Since I serve as the contract administrator between NEMA and the lab, it was important for me to actually meet the lab project manager and technicians. Little did I know that this administrative function would re-open the world of physics to me. According to ORNL’s website, it is the Department of Energy’s largest science and energy laboratory. Established in 1943 as part of the secret Manhattan Project to pioneer a method for producing and separating plutonium, it has become an international center for the study of nuclear energy and related research. Its mission now includes a variety of energy technologies and strategies. The visit enabled the working group to evaluate the testing apparatuses and review preliminary test results. The preliminary test results indicated that we need to work with various standards organizations to be certain we understand the different temperature tests specified in the standards. But I learned a lot more than that. My tour included the High Flux Isotope Reactor; the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; the Material Sciences Lab; the High Temperature Materials Laboratory; Energy and Environmental Sciences Building; and demonstrations of high temperature superconductive, energy storage, electric vehicles, super energy-efficient cooling systems, and other experiments and test equipment. I was most excited, however, to see the Graphite Reactor that was built as part of the Manhattan Project that ultimately ended World War II. It was built at ORNL to prove the feasibility of pilot-scale production of plutonium from uranium. It took only 11 months to build the reactor that went critical at 5:00 a.m. on November 4, 1943. The success at Oak Ridge led to the construction of the Hanford, Washington, reactor which produced plutonium used
in the atomic bomb. In addition to being the first nuclear reactor in the world, the Graphite Reactor was the first to produce electricity from nuclear energy. It became the world’s foremost source of radioisotopes for medicine, agriculture, and industry. The Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge was designated a national historic landmark by the U.S. Department of Interior in 1966. Overall, I felt like a kid playing with many of the toys I learned about in college. Who would have thought that working for an association would have brought me this opportunity? I’m looking forward to the next opportunity to put my physics training to work. ei
Surge Arresters: Utility Surge
Protection Upgrade Considerations
denny lenk, Principal engineer, hubbell Power systems
he earthquake and tsunami in Japan, along with the recent severe tornado activity in the U.S., were devastating to life and property. A secondary consequence was the damage sustained by the electrical grids. Critical to the rebuilding effort is repairing that damage.
The electrical grid consists of several important segments: • voltage generation at low voltage (LV) level (e.g., fossil fuel/nuclear generating plant, hydro dam, wind farm, or solar panels) • transforming from LV generation to high voltage (HV) transmission generation
• transmission of HV from generation to load (customer location) • voltage transformation back to LV distribution (for residential or commercial use) In each of these electrical grid segments, proper performance of installed electrical power equipment is critical to the reliable delivery of electricity to the end user. Under normal service operating conditions, excluding physical damage associated with natural disasters, the reliability of the electrical grid is enhanced by installation of surge arresters adjacent to each piece of power equipment. The sole purpose of the surge arrester is to protect the electrical insulation of the adjacent power system equipment from potentially damaging overvoltage surges. It does this by diverting the overvoltage surge away from the equipment through the adjacent surge arrester. If not diverted by the adjacent surge arrester, the overvoltage surge could damage the equipment. An example of an overvoltage surge is lightning striking a power line.
Modern Era Designs Improve Performance
Surge protective devices in the form of a simple rod gap installed across the power equipment were first used in the late 1800s. While these simple devices adequately protected equipment installed on the early low voltage distribution systems, they could not reliably protect the equipment installed on higher voltage systems that evolved as the electrical grid grew. The transition to higher system voltages was critical to efficiently transmitting electrical power to end users from an often remotely-located generating plant. As electrical grid system voltages increased from early LV distribution toward ultra high voltage (UHV) 800 kV of today, surge arrester designs continue to improve to assure that expensive, high voltage equipment is properly protected from damage by overvoltage surges. In the U.S., the post-WWII era marked the start of the “modern era” of surge arrester design, including the introduction of the gapped silicon-carbide (SiC) surge arrester designs.
Photos courtesy of Hubbell Power Systems
MIgRATION TO A MODERN gRID
This technology utilized internal spark gaps with a precisely controlled spark-over response characteristic. Connected in series with each gap assembly was a non-linear resistance element, called a SiC block. These critical components were assembled inside sealed porcelain housings to ensure electrical integrity in all environmental conditions. In this design, the gap performed the gap spark-over function while the non-linear resistance SiC block limited the arrester current, allowing the series-connected gap to reseal. Unlike a fuse which, by design, fails open when it operates properly (necessitating replacement), the surge arrester is designed to perform its protective function repeatedly without failure. The implementation of gapped SiC surge arresters was critical to assuring that the equipment installed on new, higher voltage systems were provided the best possible protection against potentially damaging overvoltage surges. The mid-1970s marked the introduction of the metal oxide varistor (MOV), which has a higher exponent of non-linearity when compared with the silicon-carbide blocks. Because of the excellent non-linearity of the MOV, this next generation surge arrester was designed without internal gaps. At system operating voltage, the MOV gapless surge arrester appears as a high resistance to ground. When exposed to an overvoltage surge (e.g., lightning strike), the MOV discs become highly conductive (turn on), bypassing the surge to ground and, in doing so, limits the equipment insulation to acceptable levels of voltage exposure. While the gapped SiC arresters provided state-of-the art protection when manufactured, recent testing has confirmed that the MOV gapless arresters, still being manufactured today, actually provide improved performance characteristics. The most important improvement provided by gapless MOV surge arresters is that they provide surge protection at lower voltage levels. This is particularly important for maximizing protection of the aging, possibly degraded, electrical insulation of power equipment that has been installed on the grid for many years. Gapless MOV surge arresters also have higher energy absorbing capability, minimizing the chance of failure when discharging an overvoltage surge.
Replacement of gapped SiC with gapless MOV surge arresters is a simple, cost effective way of extending the service life of expensive, aging equipment and, at the same time, minimizing unplanned power grid service outages. For example, replacement of a gapped SiC by a new gapless MOV surge arrester at an older 69 kV transformer location would be less than two percent of the cost of transformer replacement. Similarly, for an older 345 kV station, arrester replacement would be less than one percent of the cost of replacing the transformer. It should also be noted that all HV surge arresters, by design, dissipate power from the grid when operating at normal system voltage levels. For the gapped SiC arrester, the continuous power loss is a result of high-resistive current flowing through the arrester’s grading resistors. MOV gapless surge arresters do not require this resistive grading structure. Laboratory testing has confirmed that MOV arresters consume less continuous watts from the grid than comparably rated gapped SiC arresters. This energy-saving feature is consistent with the government’s mandate for utilities to reduce energy losses on the grid. As an example, replacement of one early 1960s vintage 120 kVrated gapped SiC arrester with a similarly rated MOV gapless arrester would result in an annual energy savings of more than 1000 kWtHr. It is estimated that a large quantity of gapped SiC high voltage surge arresters may still be installed in utility power systems. Some utilities understand the benefits of gapless MOV arresters and have initiated replacement programs. Others have little or no information on these 30–50 year old surge arresters. To address this concern, the NEMA 8LA Surge Arrester Section has developed a website, www.nemaarresters.com, which provides information on gapped SiC arresters, including an identification guide and detailed discussions of arrester replacement considerations. ei Denny Lenk has more than 40 years of experience in the design and testing of surge arresters. He is a past chair of the IEEE PES Surge Protective Devices Committee and has been actively involved in IEEE and IEC Standards writing efforts for 30 years.
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007—
A Smart Grid Reality Check
ne of the major drivers of Smart Grid is the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. EISA devotes an entire chapter (Title XIII) to Smart Grid and instructed the director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to:
• development of working group consensus process • creation of the Catalog of Standards (CoS)
John caskey, assistant vice President for Industry operations
There is, however, a lot of work still to be done. Some of the pending issues are: • What is the real definition of consensus? • Will the standards be mandatory or voluntary? • What is FERC’s role in the Smart Grid arena? • What is interoperability, how do we ensure it, and is it the same as plug and play? It appears that there has been consensus concerning several standards within the Smart Grid community; however, once FERC increased its visibility with a public meeting, talk quickly turned toward questions about rulemaking and potential mandatory standards. Even if FERC does not pursue any rulemaking now, state commissions may essentially make the standards mandatory by requiring utilities to use certain ones during the procurement process. Over the next few months, SGIP will address the definitions for consensus and interoperability. It will also place the first standards in the CoS and explain to state commissions and FERC that these documents are intended to be references and not mandatory. According to SGIP Governing Board Chair John D. McDonald, the next hurdles for SGIP include: • timely and effective international outreach • testing and certification framework • approval of standards for inclusion in its Catalog of Standards • inclusion of the Privacy Impact Assessment in the Cyber Security Working Group’s three-year plan “We were like pioneers in territory that had never been plowed. We had to mark the boundaries, clear the land, plow the earth, and build good relations with our neighbors,” McDonald said. ei John Caskey is the vice chair of the NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Panel Governing Board.
• coordinate a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve interoperability of Smart Grid devices and systems; • consider the use of voluntary uniform standards for certain classes of mass-produced electric appliances and equipment that enable customers to respond to an emergency or demand response signal; • provide and publish an initial report on progress toward recommended or consensus standards and protocols within one year after enactment. The legislation called for NEMA and others to support NIST in this effort. It also called on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to institute a rulemaking proceeding to adopt standards and protocols that are necessary to ensure Smart Grid functionality and interoperability. After almost four years, NIST has completed many of EISA’s requirements. It published the first release of the Smart Grid Framework in January 2010 and is developing the second edition. NIST also established the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) to help coordinate the development and modification of standards to support interoperability. Through SGIP, several standards-related projects were initiated. These projects are referred to as Priority Action Plans (PAPs), 19 of which have been created and a few already completed. NEMA completed PAP 0 on Smart Meter Upgradability in September 2009. Additional accomplishments of SGIP include: • formation of committees and working groups to support establishment of task forces (e.g., Home Area Network, International Outreach, and Intellectual Property Rights) • establishment of procedures and process flow charts for projects (Priority Action Plans) and committees • a joint meeting with National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
Ű Leading Technology Forecaster to be Featured at NEMA’s 2011 Annual Meeting
Daniel Burrus, one of the world’s leading technology forecasters and business strategists, will be featured at NEMA’s 2011 Annual Meeting, Illuminations Weekend: Where Leaders and Ideas Meet. He will be the Executive Leadership Workshop presenter on Saturday morning, October 29. Mr. Burrus, founder and CEO of Burrus Research, a research and consulting firm that monitors global advancement in technology driven trends, will be speaking on how to understand and use technological, social, and business forces to create untapped opportunities. He is the author of six books, including the Wall Street Journal bestseller, Flash Foresight: How to See the Invisible and Do the Impossible. The New York Times has referred to him as one of America’s top three business “gurus.” Illuminations Weekend is scheduled for Friday, October 28, and Saturday, October 29, at The Mayflower Renaissance Hotel in Washington, D.C. This year’s annual meeting will showcase George F. Will, Pulitzer-Prize winning journalist, as the keynote speaker. NEMA Vice President and Chief Economist Donald Leavens, PhD, will discuss the electroindustry economic outlook in an afternoon seminar. Register now at www.nema.org/ illuminations and take advantage of early bird registration rates, which end September 9. This is NEMA’s premiere networking event of the year. ei Francine Meyer, Meeting Manager | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű Tune into ESFI for Safety Videos
Are you looking for an easy way to equip your employees with tools to help them stay safe both on and off the job? Or maybe you need to brush up on your own electrical safety knowledge? The Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI) has developed a number of new multimedia resources to help you do just that. Gone are the days of dull safety pamphlets and boring safety briefings. Our Virtual Demonstrations are just what you need to jazz up safety meetings. These fast-paced, computer-animated videos add visual learning to safety awareness materials. Available in both English and Spanish language versions, these one- to three-minute videos provide simple guidelines for the safe use of common household items, such as extension cords, smoke alarms, and portable generators. You can also make sure your employees are up to date on the latest advances in electrical safety with video public service announcements (PSAs) from ESFI. Our newest PSAs provide 60-second introductions to two important electrical safety devices—tamper resistant receptacles (TRRs) and arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs). These technologies provide enhanced protection from serious electrical hazards, yet many people are unaware that they even exist. While the PSAs will air on television stations across the country, you may also use them as part of your safety program. All of ESFI’s Virtual Demonstrations and the new TRR and AFCI public service announcements can be viewed on our website at www.electrical-safety.org or on our YouTube channel at www.youtube. com/user/esfidotorg. ei Kate Janczyk, Program Manager, ESFI | email@example.com
Ű Midwest Flooding Prompts Warning about Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment
This year, the Midwest has experienced historic flooding, raising havoc on homes and farmlands along the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi rivers. The farming community has already begun to speak of the dismal outlook. As people flee to higher ground to seek refuge from the raising flood waters and leave their homes to possible destruction, they also face pending economic disaster. Once the waters recede, individuals and business owners will start to assess the damage and begin the process of rebuilding. When contractors are called to help with the reconstruction, it is important they understand what electrical products can or cannot be used after being submerged in contaminated flood waters. Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment is available at no charge at www.nema.org/stds/water-damaged.cfm. It provides advice on the safe handling of electrical equipment that has been exposed to water and outlines items that require complete replacement or that can be reconditioned by a trained professional. Equipment covered in the document includes electrical distribution equipment, motor circuits, power equipment, transformers, wire, cable and flexible cords, wiring devices, GFCIs and surge protectors, lighting fixtures and ballasts, motors, and electronic products. NEMA field representatives actively promote this document directly to contractors and building officials on-site during the clean-up, at official meetings, and electrical educational conferences to ensure that electrical safety remains top priority during the reconstruction of flooded communities. ei Don Iverson, Field Representative | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű Earthfest Earns a Thumbs Up
NEMA attended Earthfest this year in Boston, Massachusetts, to promote energy-efficient lighting technologies, demonstrate how easy it is to recycle fluorescent lamps, help residents understand the state’s lamp recycling law, and answer questions about the upcoming transition for more energyefficient lighting. The event drew a greater attendance than last year’s and with the support of Osram Sylvania, Waste Management, and Veolia Environmental Services, NEMA was able to educate more than 1,000 attendees. The hand-crank watt meter empowered children and their parents to see for themselves how much less energy CFLs (compact fluorescent lights) and LEDs (light emitting diodes) use than traditional incandescent lamps. To the chagrin of some parents, however, the hit of the day was temporary tattoos. ei
Mark Pitta and Amanda Poverchuk of Waste Management promote energy-efficient lighting technologies at Earthfest in Boston.
Ű Surveying the Future of Electric Heat
Over the past year, electric resistance heat has come under serious attack, first in proposals to the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and most recently at the International Code Council (ICC) Code Development Hearings for the inaugural International Green Construction Code (IgCC). The accusation is that electric heat is neither efficient nor green when compared with other forms of building heating systems. But is electric heat really guilty of the alleged crimes against nature, and should it be sent the way of the dinosaur? Opponents say electric heat is much less efficient than natural gas or heat pumps. But that depends on how efficiency is defined; where efficiency is measured; if the metrics used are old, traditional models or based on forward-looking technology; and how is the heating system configured and used. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, electric heat is the only one that is 100 percent efficient. That is, no appreciable energy is lost in delivering energy from the building’s panelboard to the heating equipment. But what happens when the entire energy distribution system is taken into consideration? Claims that the electrical grid is only about 25 to 30 percent efficient in generating and distributing energy to the end user are based on traditional generation, composed largely of non-renewable, fossil-fueled generation plants. Using this information, it’s not hard to see why electricity is seen as a polluting, depleting, and increasingly costly resource. The biggest problem with the traditional view of electrical distribution is that it does not account for modern and emerging technologies. While there are still transmission inefficiencies, they are less of a concern with the modernization of the grid. And what about areas in which the generation mix is primarily hydroelectric, as in the Northwest? Air pollution associated with hydro power is virtually non-existent. Wind and solar are contributing to the generation mix at an incredible pace. Onsite and near-site generating facilities are rapidly defusing the transmission inefficiency argument while offering the promise of nearly limitless clean power. Add in other emerging clean technologies, plus the promise of thermal energy storage, and it becomes clear that the old view of electricity as dirty or inefficient is less viable every day. dIssectInG the arGuMent We need to dissect the components of the argument that electric heat is less efficient than heat pumps or natural gas. Heat pumps are costly to install and are not efficient in extreme climates. They also share the same shortcoming as gas heat, that is, the inefficiency of ductwork to distribute heated air. Most estimates are that traditional ducts are not sealed properly, losing upwards of 30 percent of the heated air before it reaches its destination. Before that heated air is distributed, colder air sitting in the duct must be moved out of the way, resulting in it being blown into the space (and at the occupants) before warmer air is introduced. A further consideration is that, with a ducted system, the whole building must be heated even if only a portion is being used. Don’t ignore the issue of indoor air quality with ducts either, as dust, pollen, and even microscopic organisms are blown out of the ducts at every use. Registers can be closed in unused rooms and spaces, but some heated air leaks past the registers and is wasted; closing off a register increases the pressure in the rest of the system, exacerbating leakage. Newer split-system units overcome some of these drawbacks, but they are still relatively expensive and many object to the visual aesthetics. Properly designed electric heat offers advantages. It is easily and inexpensively installed; zoned to be used when and where it is needed; clean at the source of use; and efficiently controlled by modern, Energy Aware® compliant thermostats. It is often the only viable option where natural gas is unavailable or a large pressurized propane tank sitting on the property is unacceptable.
The biggest problem with the traditional view of electrical distribution is that it does not account for modern and emerging technologies.
In recent IECC and IgCC hearings, efforts to eliminate or severely restrict electric resistance heat were debated and ultimately rejected. Concerned manufacturers from both the U.S. and Canada educated code officials, hired a consultant to navigate the ICC process, testified at the IECC Final Action Hearings, and established a website dedicated to the industry (http://linkd.in/NAEHIC). While it is certain there will be additional challenges, it appears that this established, reliable technology will continue to be a viable option. ei Joe Andre, Field Representative | email@example.com
Ű Care Act Builds on Manufacturing Industry Efforts to Ensure Safe Imaging Services
The Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA) supports the Consistency, Accuracy, Responsibility, and Excellence in Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy Act of 2011, introduced by Representatives Ed Whitfield (R-KY) and John Barrow (DGA) on June 2. Also known as the CARE Act, the bill builds on the efforts of the medical imaging industry to ensure safe and effective patient care and promotes access to high quality medical imaging and radiation therapy services. Specifically, the CARE Act would work to further guarantee that the individuals performing medical imaging and radiation therapy are appropriately qualified by establishing standards for these personnel. MITA believes that high-quality patient care has always been the number one priority of the imaging industry. We fully support the steps that Representatives Whitfield and Barrow are taking to build on this commitment by establishing trainings and standards that safeguard effective diagnoses and therapies. Ensuring that operators are appropriately trained to use medical imaging and radiation therapy technologies is just one of the proactive steps the industry has taken to improve patient care and safety. Earlier this year, manufacturers released a Radiation Dose Reduction Plan, which supports mandatory reporting of medical errors associated with ionizing radiation, certification of imaging technologists, and accreditation of imaging facilities. Last year, computed tomography (CT) manufacturers released the CT Dose Check Initiative, a commitment to add new features to CT scanners. These features include dose notification to reduce dose levels associated with scans; dose alert to prevent medical errors; and dose recording to track dose and develop reference levels, which help providers understand how their facility compares to local and national standards. In addition, radiation therapy technology manufacturers released the Radiation Therapy Readiness Check Initiative to develop and implement additional patient protection features for radiation therapy equipment. These features will confirm that patient treatment plans are delivered as intended, and that radiation therapy equipment, accessories, and patients are properly positioned prior to delivery of therapy. The imaging and radiation therapy industries continue to innovate, revolutionizing healthcare through advanced technologies and higher standards of care. MITA looks forward to working with Congress on the passage and implementation of the CARE Act. ei Dave Fisher, Executive Director of MITA and Vice President of NEMA | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű MITA Issues Statement on JACR Radiology Benefit Managers Study
In response to the study “Radiology Benefit Managers (RBMs): Cost Saving or Cost Shifting,” published in the June 2011 Journal of the American College of Radiology, MITA has applauded the authors for uncovering the hidden costs of RBMs and contributing to the growing body of evidence surrounding the economic impact of prior-authorization programs. Relying on RBMs to conduct prior authorization for advanced imaging increases costs, places the burden on physicians, and creates instances where “red tape” becomes an issue. It can also cause delays in treatment. In light of ongoing threats to patient access, policymakers should not add barriers for patients who are in need of medical imaging services. Physicians should be equipped with tools, such as physician-developed appropriateness criteria, to guide them in making optimal medical decisions for their patients. ei Dave Fisher, Executive Director of MITA and Vice President of NEMA | email@example.com
Code Actions/Standardization Trends
Ű Standards Wars—Myth or Reality A Timely Discussion of an Old Issue
More than 130 standards development organizations (SDOs) are participating in the Smart Grid roadmap project that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is managing under the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. While some SDOs are working on similar and even overlapping standards, each has a unique perspective depending on the industry it represents. On May 12, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) convened a workshop to tackle this question: Is the customer better off with multiple standards to choose from? The workshop, Standards Wars: Myth or Reality, attracted more than 250 participants from government, academia, industry, and SDOs. When everyone was finished speaking and the dust had settled, the conclusion was “it depends on what you need.” “For years, the issues of competition, convergence, and coordination have been hotly debated within the standards and conformance community,” said ANSI Senior Vice President and COO, Fran Schrotter, in her opening comments. Jim Pauley, Schneider Electric Vice President of Industry and Government Relations, facilitated the workshop, saying, “I am sure that each of you brings to this session some thoughts and experiences related to conflict, duplication, coordination, and competition in the standards world.” Three panels based on users, developers, and specifiers presented alternative perspectives on how standardization should be carried out. users Bill Mays of Consumers Union said that it wants to see standards harmonized to the most rigorous requirements, while Amy Marasco of Microsoft disagreed, noting that customer needs vary. “In rapidly evolving industries, such as ICT (Information and Communications Technology), requiring one standard will interfere with competition,” she said. The ICT industry likes to let the marketplace pick winners and losers. In the European Union, standards competition is encouraged to reduce antitrust violations. Mary Saunders of NIST stated that multiple standards are useful if they help the government get what it needs at a lower cost and deploy technology. On the other hand, Jamie Carroll of JBC Law Group explained that from a legal perspective it’s hard to defend an action on the basis of compliance when there’s more than one standard a plaintiff can reference. sdos SDO panelists agreed that duplication should be avoided. Kathy Morgan of ASTM suggested that the proliferation of accredited standards organizations may be counterproductive. Of the 12,000 American National Standards, 80 percent are developed by 20 percent of the SDOs. The remaining 20 percent come from 80 percent of the SDOs. “Do we really need these organizations?” she asked. Clare Ramspeck of ASHRAE echoed her comments. “Conflicting or duplicate standards cause marketplace confusion. Duplication also increases the cost of standardization.” Andrew Updegrove of Gessner Updegrove LLP discussed the role of standards consortia, noting that this type of SDO encourages competition. He recommended that a national registry might be useful to collect and disseminate information about who is doing what standards. Lynne Gilbertson of the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs said that in her marketplace, various standards approaches appeal to different customer groups. Karen Higgenbottom of IEC/ISO Joint Technical Committee (JCT-1) explained that organizations are encouraged to submit ideas to JCT-1, which has produced 115 standards from different sources in 15 years. sPecIfIers The third panel offered the perspective of standards specifiers, including those involved in regulation and procurement. Aimee McKane of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory explained that she relies on accredited standards organizations to determine if suppliers are in conformance. Bill Dupler, a building official from Chesterfield County, Virginia, said sometimes one standard will do the job, but other times, multiple standards are preferred, depending on the installation. Scott Colburn of the Food and Drug Administration said it relies on some 600 standards for many purposes, including premarket review to expedite device approvals. Mary McKeil of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) said she doesn’t care how many standards are in the marketplace, or if they conflict, as long as they meet EPA’s needs. Today, “green” is a top priority in the government procurement supply chain, so EPA is looking for standards that cover sustainability. In addition to discussing the pros and cons of standards competition, Bob Hager of ANSI announced ANSI’s plans to roll out a new National Standards System Network in 2013 that will facilitate access to more records from more SDOs than the current system. ei Al Scolnik, Vice President of Technical Services | firstname.lastname@example.org
Code Actions/Standardization Trends
Ű IEC Committees Abuzz with T&D Issues
Smart Grid is the buzz in many venues these days, especially in transmission and distribution (T&D). For the full grid system to operate efficiently, considerations must be given to all factors involved in moving electrical power from the generators to the installations, homes, and factories where it will be used. Within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), T&D concepts are primarily addressed in Technical Committee (TC) 8: Systems aspects for electrical energy supply. TC8 is responsible for “preparing and coordinating, in co-operation with other TC/SCs, the development of international standards and other deliverables with emphasis on overall system aspects of electricity supply systems and acceptable balance between cost and quality for the users of electrical energy.” For more information, visit www.iec.ch/dyn/www/ f?p=103:7:0::::FSP_ORG_ID:1240. The emphasis on systems considerations is a significant expansion of the original scope that only addressed standardization of current and voltage for electrical networks. This expansion harmonizes with the concept that electrical systems are not just collections of independent equipment that happen to be connected by wires and produce, route, or use electrical energy. While TC8 addresses system aspects, numerous committees pursue standardization for the generation, transmission and distribution, control, protection, and utilization of electricity. IMPortance of standardIzatIon No one manufacturer produces every piece of equipment necessary to take electricity from generation to utilization. Equipment must be interoperable not only with directly associated devices in an assembly or installation, but also Technical Committees Involved with Equipment for T&D SMBSG3 TC7 TC11 SC17A SC17C SC32A TC33 TC36 SC36A SC36B SC36C TC37 TC99 Smart Grid Overhead electrical conductors Overhead lines High voltage switchgear and controlgear High voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies High voltage fuses Power capacitors and their applications Insulators Insulated bushings Insulators for overhead lines Insulators for substations Surge arresters System engineering and erection of electrical power installations in systems with nominal voltages above 1 kV ac and 1,5 kV dc, particularly concerning safety aspects High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission for dc voltages above 100 kV
Technical Committees Involved with Ancillary Aspects of T&D TC28 TC73 TC78 TC111 Insulation coordination Short-circuit currents Live working Environmental standardization for electrical and electronic products and systems similar equipment and help ensure that the language and cadence of communications can be understood by every device in the network. NEMA members and staff are very involved in many IEC committee activities, but more expertise, particularly from utilities and other users, is welcome. ei Ken Gettman, Director of International Standards | email@example.com
with the control room of the utility and other entities involved in the transport of electrical energy. For example, smart meters enable determination of real-time energy usage. Circuit breakers and switches, with connected control and monitoring devices, protect the power lines and other equipment as well as direct energy to where it is needed. Standards help establish minimum requirements common to all
Ű New Tool Available to Electroindustry for Specifying Nanomaterials
Recently, the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee (IEC TC) 113 Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and electronic products and systems approved IEC Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 62565-2-1 Nanomanufacturing— Material specifications—Part 2-1: Singlewall carbon nanotubes—Blank detail specification. IEC PAS 62565-2-1 serves as guidance for carbon nanotube (CNT) suppliers and customers by providing a common format for specifying, illustrating, and defining various characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for industrial use in electrical and electronic products, and illustrates how to incorporate these into a bilateral detail specification between vendor and user. When NEMA members begin incorporating nanomaterials into their products, the common formatting provided in blank detail specifications, such as IEC PAS 62565-1, will facilitate clear communication with material. A PAS, as defined by the IEC, is a publication responding to an urgent market need. It speeds up standardization in areas of rapidly evolving technology, such as nanoelectrotechnology. TC113 Working Group 3 Performance Assessments intends to work immediately toward publishing 62565-1 as a technical specification (TS), a document that approaches the status of a fully international standard in terms of detail and completeness, but has not reached international consensus because standardization of the subject matter is considered to be premature. The need for this specification arose because there are different modifications of CNTs. Subtle differences in physical structure lead to marked differences in electrical, optical, and chemical properties and require special attention.
In order to permit common processing equipment and common unit processes to be used in multiple fabrication lines with predictable and reproducible results, it is essential for CNT characteristics to be standardized, in particular the characterization methods for quality control of the CNT manufacturing processes. To enable low-cost mass production of CNTs, a reliable, affordable means of preparing one type of CNT (e.g., single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a certain specified length) is necessary. Information on characteristics such as length, diameter, purity, chirality, and conduction type are needed to facilitate a reliable source of CNTs with tailored properties, stating the specification limits and the characterization methods to prove conformance. IEC PAS 625652-1 provides a blank format for these essential electrical characteristics, as well as certain others, including dimensional, structural and mechanical. The success of IEC PAS 62565-2-1 will obviously be measured by the degree to
which it is accepted within the SWCNT industry. According to Brent Segal, PhD, U.S. National Committee Technical Advisor to IEC TC113, a wealth of feedback has already been received from a number of SWCNT vendors worldwide. “This was very instrumental in the final draft of the PAS. Input must continue to be sought as TC113 further develops the document in the form of a technical specification. This is the only way to ensure that the content will be useful in the production environment. That success can be a model for the successful development of blank specifications for a number of other nanoscale structures such as graphene, nanowires, and quantum dots,” he said. These well-developed blank specifications will be highly useful tools for NEMA members as they begin specifying nanomaterials as subassemblies for their end product applications. ei Mike Leibowitz, Program Manager | firstname.lastname@example.org
Code Actions/Standardization Trends
Ű ANSI C84.1—Just Right!
By Daniel Ward, Principal Engineer, Dominion Virginia Power If Goldilocks had been asked about voltages, there is no doubt that she would have told us what was too high or too low or just right. Unfortunately, she was never asked about that so we have to rely on ANSI C84.1 to provide that guidance. ANSI C84.1 American National Standard for Electric Power Systems and Equipment—Voltage Ratings (60 Hertz) is being revised this year. This is a bread and butter standard for most utilities because it establishes the acceptable ranges of service voltages to their customers (i.e., what is delivered at the meter). This in turn tells utilities how they should design and operate their system. Equally important, from a manufacturer’s standpoint, is that the window of satisfactory utilization voltages defines what the end-use equipment must be designed to cope with. Thus, ANSI C84.1 is a standard aimed at achieving a compatibility level between the power distribution system and the equipment that plugs into it. This standard establishes nominal voltage ratings and operating tolerances for 60-hertz electric power systems above 100 volts. It also makes recommendations to other standardizing groups with respect to voltage ratings for equipment used on power systems and for utilization devices connected to such systems. ANSI C84.1 includes preferred voltage ratings up to and including 1200 kV maximum system voltage. In defining maximum system voltage, voltage transients and temporary overvoltages caused by abnormal system conditions such as faults, loads, and rejections are excluded. However, voltage transients and temporary overvoltages may affect equipment operating performance and may be considered in the individual product standards. The contents and scope of ANSI C84.12006 may be downloaded at no charge or an electronic or hardcopy of the standard may be purchased for $56 at www.nema.org/stds/c84-1.cfm. ei Daniel Ward chairs the Accredited Standards Committee on Preferred Voltage Ratings Electric Power Systems and Equipment.
Ű ANSI Standard for Power
The ANSI C84.1-2006 committee is divided into three categories for ANSI accreditation—utility providers, end users, and general/consultants. The committee has determined that: • there will be no change in the range previously specified for voltage ranges of 100 volts to 1200 kV • a section will be added to further define steady state voltages • nominal system voltages of 12470, 13200, and 13800 are commonly used by utilities throughout the nation • it will review higher efficiency motors and whether the 460-volt rating is appropriate for 480-volt systems based on efficiency The committee has listed the Project Initiation Notification System Form (PINS) and Board of Standard Review (BSR) 8 for public review and comments and plans to finish the revisions to the standard by late summer, and obtain ANSI approval by the end of the year.
Chris Henderson, Program Manager | email@example.com
Ű 3TS Adds Standardized Controls to Flashing Yellow Arrows
The 3TS Transportation Product Section has finished the amendment to NEMA TS 2-2003 Traffic Controller Assemblies with NTCIP Requirements to add standardized control of flashing yellow arrow (FYA) displays. This time-tested signal control standard covers trafficsignaling equipment used to facilitate and expedite the safe movement of pedestrians and vehicular traffic. Since 2006, the Federal Highway Administration (FHA) has allowed departments of transportation to use FYAs for left-turn signals on certain roadway intersections. They allow drivers to make a left turn after yielding, even when the light is red for traffic going straight and opposing traffic has a green light. FHA estimates that more than 1,000 intersections employ FYA signals. Research shows that drivers making a left turn can too easily misinterpret a green signal as giving them the right of way, whereas an FYA cautions drivers to look for and yield to oncoming traffic. ei Bruce Schopp, Manager of Transportation Systems | bruce. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű Roadside Lighting Systems & Transportation Management Centers— NTCIP Builds on Historical Developments in Street Lighting
One of the earliest references to street lighting dates to fourth-century Antioch. In the U.S., Baltimore and Maryland introduced gas street lighting in 1816. In March 1880, Wabash, Indiana, was the first city to use Thomas Edison’s recentlycommercialized carbon filament lamp for street lighting. As Edison observed, each innovation built on its predecessor advanced the art and science of street lighting. luminaires from the TMC. They can then gather and analyze this data over time for predictive purposes. ELMS can also identify a change in luminaire pole condition (e.g., a pole is knocked down). • Maintenance Live or off-line data on the condition of ELMS devices allows an agency to optimize operations and maintenance resources. For example, after remotely detecting an ELMS fault condition, an agency can deploy maintenance personnel to the location where re-lamping is required with the equipment necessary to address the condition. An agency can also identify long-term ELMS maintenance trends and deploy maintenance personnel nearer the end of lamp life, but before failure. Determining lamp life can be accomplished by logging actual burn time for a lamp. • Energy Usage Optimizing energy consumption of ELMS devices can be achieved through automated monitoring and controlling of ELMS devices, and monitoring the status and condition of related power meters. An ELMS device may be controlled by turning it on or off from the TMC, controlling the electrical service, or controlling a group of ELMS devices in a zone. • Incident and Event Lighting Management ELMS provides flexible and timely control of roadside lighting devices to assist law enforcement officials and for other specific incident or event management purposes. NTCIP is a family of data protocol standards that specifies commands for communication between a traffic management center and field devices, such as signal control devices at an intersection. NTCIP-specified implementations provide command and control capabilities for more visible elements of transportation infrastructure, such as roadways, and both require ongoing maintenance. Since 1993, NEMA and member companies in the NEMA Transportation Management Devices Section have led the development and promotion of the NTCIP family of standards. For further information, see www.ntcip.org, www.its. dot.gov, and www.standards.its.dot.gov. ei Jean Johnson, Technical Program Manager | email@example.com
“I start where the last man left off.” – Thomas A. Edison
Now, building once again on historical developments in street lighting, NTCIP 1213 v02 Object Definitions for Electrical Lighting Management Systems (ELMS), provides a standardized way to control and monitor the status of street lighting from a traffic management center (TMC). NTCIP 1213 v02 provides standardized data elements that support communication between a TMC and an ELMS device (e.g., street lights). For transportation agencies, ELMS provides a number of benefits: • Remote Configuration of Lighting Plan ELMS allows configuration of a lighting plan to optimize illumination at different times in specific locations. Some configuration options include scheduled, manual, or staggered operation with specified dimming levels, or configured lighting in zones. • Remote Monitoring of Lamp/ Luminaire Status Operators receive data on the operating status of lamps and
Code Actions/Standardization Trends
Ű Progress of IEC-Based Standards Developed under CANENA Harmonization Process
NEMA’s Industrial Control Systems Section (Section 1IS) recently saw three IEC-based standards published under the Council for Harmonization of Electrotechnical Standardization of the Nations of the Americas (CANENA) development process: • UL 60947-7-1 Standard for Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear—Part 7-1: Ancillary Equipment—Terminal Blocks for Copper Conductors (Third Edition) • UL 60947-7-2 Standard for Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear—Part 7-2: Ancillary Equipment—Protective Conductor Terminal Blocks for Copper Conductors (Third Edition) • UL 60947-7-3 Standard for Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear—Part 7-3: Ancillary Equipment—Safety Requirements for Fuse Terminal Blocks (Second Edition) These projects were completed within five years of initial development and progressed relatively smoothly through the CANENA process. Much of the success can be attributed to UL (Underwriters Laboratories) and the industry’s earlier decision to adapt the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard to the U.S. market. The three standards published are bi-national in nature, and will be utilized for terminal block evaluations by UL (U.S.) and ANCE (Association of Standardization and Certification, Mexico). CSA (Canadian Standards Association) is another important standards developing organization. Kurt Boegli, Phoenix Contact Chief Standards Engineer and Chair of NEMA 1IS SC4 and CANENA THSC 17B WG5, said, “The publication of these standards by the U.S. and Mexico affords a major step toward the worldwide harmonization of technical requirements of not only terminal blocks, but for manufacturers of all industrial control system products.” The publication of the 60947-7 series standards bring the number of IECbased standards developed, published, and now being maintained under the CANENA process to five. ei William Buckson, Program Manager | firstname.lastname@example.org
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Ű U.S. Delegation to IEC TC Seeks Experts for Environmental Standards Development
Technical experts within NEMA member companies have a ground floor opportunity to influence international standards that directly affect how their companies comply with global environmental standards and regulations, including the European RoHS (Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directive. TC111 Environmental Standardization for Electrical and Electronic Products and Systems is a technical committee with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As most NEMA members know, IEC is the preeminent global standards organization for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and related technologies. Under TC111, delegations from numerous countries work together in coordination with IEC product committees to produce guidelines, basic and horizontal standards, and technical reports in response to environmental rules and regulations that affect manufacturers worldwide. U.S. input to the work of TC111 comes through the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG), which operates under the direction of the IEC U.S. National Committee (USNC), a part of the American National Standards Institute. TAG members include experts in global standards, regulatory affairs, product development, and other areas relevant to compliance with environmental design requirements under the EU RoHS and other regulations. Their efforts have contributed so far to the formulation of standards governing the environmental aspects of design of EEE (IEC 62430), as well as test methods for hazardous substances (IEC 62321 series) that are restricted under EU RoHS and elsewhere. The U.S. TAG to TC111 currently has 42 members, approximately one-third of whom are with NEMA companies. TAG officers are seeking additional participation from NEMA members to broaden representation within the U.S. electro-product industry and ensure that the U.S. brings the necessary depth of expertise to the various TC111 working groups that craft the standards. Vigorous U.S. engagement in these multinational working groups precludes the prospect that standards will fail to reflect U.S. company interests or will grant a competitive advantage to their foreign competitors who are actively engaged. According to TAG Secretary Richard LaLumondier,”The question a member should ask himself about joining the TAG is not ‘What will I gain from participation?’ but ‘What will I lose by not participating?’ The answer is, by not participating, it is possible that your company will someday be implementing a standard that was written by competitors and in which they had no voice.” Participation in the U.S. TAG requires an annual fee of $800 per member plus an annual membership in the USNC, which is $285. The hands-on involvement in formulating standards that directly affect one’s company provides a potentially significant return on this investment. NEMA members wishing to join or obtain more information about the IEC TC111 TAG should contact Richard H. LaLumondier at firstname.lastname@example.org. ei Mark A. Kohorst, Senior Manager of Environment, Health, & Safety | email@example.com
Ű IEC Considers Potential Surge Arrester Classification Changes
Among topics of discussion at the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee (TC) 37 Surge Arresters plenary meeting in May in Milan, Italy, was the need to change the classification methodology for surge arresters. A new classification system can provide the user with more useful information on real-life behavior of surge arresters. It should also provide data that is needed for new types of arrester applications and responds to needs of users who calculate energy requirements by system studies. Surge arresters are classified by their standard nominal discharge currents and line discharge current for station class arresters. Line discharge current may not be as useful as a parameter, while protection level and amount of energy an arrester can discharge are the pieces of information most important for a user of station class arresters. TC37 agreed to move to an energy handling approach as a replacement for the existing line discharge classification system. There are many issues to resolve including assessing the marketplace reaction to a change. A conversion table will be created to correlate the new and old classification systems. This change will be addressed in IEC 60099-4 Surge arresters—Part 4: Metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps for ac systems. Once accepted, this information will be added to IEC 60099-5 Surge arresters— Part 5: Selection and application recommendations. In the interest of harmonizing global standards, this change may also be incorporated into IEEE 62.11 Standard for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits (>1 kV). ei Scott Choinski, NEMA Program Manager | firstname.lastname@example.org
Code Actions/Standardization Trends
Ű Pennsylvania Repeals Sprinkler Requirement
On April 25, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett signed into law a measure repealing a requirement that sprinklers be included in new one- and two-family homes built in the state. The requirement was part of the triennial adoption of the International Code Council (ICC) codes. The Department of Labor and Industry (L&I), the promulgating agency for the Uniform Construction Code (UCC), acting on a recommendation of its Review and Advisory Council, adopted the 2009 ICC codes without amendment, including the sprinkler requirement, effective January 2011. During the ICC code development process, this topic was thoroughly vetted. The Pennsylvania Builders Association (PBA) unsuccessfully opposed the requirement. PBA later petitioned the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania to grant an injunction to enjoin the department from enforcing the newly adopted codes. The court ruled in favor of the department. Representative Garth Everett introduced a bill to remove the sprinkler requirement from the UCC and to make changes in the code adoption process. The amended bill passed on April 13. It will require builders to offer homeowners the option to install an automated fire sprinkler system and provide them information about the costs and benefits, provide fire floor protection, and provide “reasonable alternatives” for saving energy. In a report on WNEP-TV on April 25, Rep. Everett said, “The goal of the process change is to make it more difficult for special interests groups to push changes, like sprinklers, into the code solely for their own benefit, and to the detriment of the average person wanting to build or buy an affordable home in Pennsylvania.” It is not clear if during legislative deliberations any consideration was given to the ICC code development process or the state’s adoption process, both of which were open to the industry and public. In both forums, interested parties actively participated and judicious consideration was given to the cost benefit of sprinklers. The final determination was that they are worth the additional cost. The ICC, L&I, and Pennsylvania UCC Review and Advisory Council should be commended for their efforts to provide safer homes for new homebuyers. It is unfortunate that the governor and legislators did not recognize the legitimacy of the processes and the consequential empowerment of special interest. ei Gil Moniz, Field Representative | email@example.com
Ű Idaho Begins Process of Adopting 2011 NEC®
Idaho has posted a draft of proposed electrical rules that will adopt the 2011 National Electrical Code® (NEC), plus proposed statewide amendments. At its January meeting, the Idaho Electrical Board agreed to the proposed rules as submitted by the Electrical Bureau. The Electrical Board is expected to make a final decision at its July 19 meeting, with an expected implementation date of July 1, 2012. The most significant change proposed for the new rules is incorporating the expanded requirements for arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection for most branch circuits in a dwelling. Idaho currently enforces AFCI requirements as found in the 2005 NEC for circuits serving outlets in bedrooms. Bureau and board members are convinced that AFCI technology is reliable and will increase electrical safety. A major influence in the board’s decision regarding the expansion of arc-fault protection is information from the City of Pocatello, which has been enforcing the expanded requirement since 2009. There have been no complaints or reports of problems filed with the city regarding AFCIs in that time. There are few other proposed amendments to the Idaho code. The proposed new code is posted at http://dbs.idaho.gov/boards/EBboard/ considerations.html. Comments are being solicited. It is expected that the bureau will receive a large number of comments and testimony, particularly regarding the AFCI expansion. ei Joe Andre, Field Representative | firstname.lastname@example.org
Ű Energy Efficiency Collaboration Project Announced at COPANT 2011 General Assembly
The Pan American Standards Council (COPANT) returned to Santiago, Chile, for the first time in nearly 20 years to hold its annual general assembly in May. The council is a locus of activity regarding the development and adoption of standards throughout the Americas, particularly for the developing countries. It comprises 25 member countries, a half-dozen European-based adherent members, and memoranda of understanding with IEC (IEC International Electrotechnical Commission), ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization), and CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization), the Pacific Area Standards Council (PASC), and other entities. COPANT also serves as an excellent organization to launch capacity building programs. The COPANT annual general assembly provides members with an overview of local and regional efforts and insight into the impact of emerging global developments, which have included topics such as climate change, environmental stewardship, social responsibility, codes and standards developments, conformity assessment and product acceptance, and intellectual property. In addition to annual briefings provided by IEC, ISO, and ITU (the United Nations agency for information and communication technologies), the assembly featured presentations and discussions on calculating the value provided by standards, which was spearheaded by Brazil and Colombia. Germany’s Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, its national metrology
institute, announced a new energy efficiency initiative that focuses on • Renewable Energy: solar and thermal • Energy Efficiency: household appliances • Transmision and Distribution (Smart Grids): improving capabilities to reduce technical losses and prepare the grid to absorb renewable energy • Crosscutting: creating awareness, particularly within the political community, on the importance of a quality infrastructure, creating an Internet site, sharing best practices of the standards development organizations and conformity assessment bodies, and compiling a list of existing services of organizations within COPANT member countries
neMa’s Influence Products manufactured by NEMA members consistently lead the world in energy efficiency. NEMA is at the forefront of energy policy legislation in the U.S., and continues to advocate for increased levels of minimum efficiency. As a result of this position, NEMA is advising energy efficiency authorities throughout Central and South America about standards that can be adopted to ensure that efficiency regulations are rigorous and world-class. Referencing such standards also places members’ products on the list referenced by regulations. ei Gene Eckhart, Senior Director for International Operations | email@example.com
transMIssIon sItInG • Siting Transmission Corridors— A Real Life Game of Chutes and Ladders (www.nema.org/ TransmissionCorridorsGameboard) • Project No Project (www.projectnoproject.com) • WIRES (www.wiresgroup.com) neMa • Illuminations Weekend: www.nema.org/illuminations • ESFI: www.electrical-safety.org • Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment: www.nema. org/stds/water-damaged.cfm • Surge arresters: www.nemaarresters.com
assessInG the carbon footPrInt of electrIcal Products Learn about NEMA’s strategic initiative—Exploration into Environmental Assessment of Electrical Products • environmental effects of electrical products • green marketing • using building information modeling to meet requirements of green building programs • solid state lighting and its benefits to sustainability and renewability
InteGratInG wIldlIfe wIth Power transMIssIon A New Day in Renewable Energy Dawns with Sunrise Powerlink The San Diego region is rapidly growing and so is the demand for more energy options. Enter the Sunrise Powerlink project. This long-term energy plan incorporates renewables and wildlife protection a 117-mile transmission line from the Imperial Valley to San Diego. Learn more in eiXtra, NEMA’s biweekly electronic newsletter. www.nema.org/eiXtra_July2011
Registration is open for the premier international conference on efficiency in motor systems. Sixty-three peer reviewed papers have been accepted. ■ First time in the United States ■ September 12–14, 2011 ■ The Westin Alexandria in Alexandria, Virginia ■ Register at: www.eemods.org For more information contact: William Hoyt, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Exploration into Environmental Assessment of Electrical Products
Methodology for “Carbon Footprint” Estimation
Regulatory trends and market dynamics have steadily increased the need for manufacturers to measure the environmental impacts of their products. NEMA’s strategic initiative, “Exploration into Environmental Assessment of Electrical Products,” investigates the environmental effects of electrical products by focusing on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Benefits of this project include insight into the risks and opportunities for carbon mitigation within the industry. Accounting for innumerable variables and measuring all implications along a product’s supply chain make it challenging to measure a product’s carbon footprint. Although various approaches have been developed, no guideline for this process has emerged for the electroproduct industry. The outcome of this project will fill this void within the context of existing methodologies designed for other sectors and products.
Why assess the carbon footprint of electrical products?
To enhance the electrical industry’s understanding of and ability to influence its environmental impact
What is the project exploring?
A methodology that maps product characteristics to environmental impacts Methods of highlighting the value of representative NEMA products in mitigating the carbon footprint of key “downstream” applications
How will the project be conducted?
Collaborating with MIT in this area of research, NEMA is working to leverage existing data and input from member firms to create an electroindustry-based method for mapping the carbon footprint potential of electrical products
What are the expected results?
A tool that maps the attributes of electro-products to energy use and GHG emissions Broad applicability of the standardized methodology among NEMA sections and products Identification of “drivers” of carbon impact within a product and characterize the effect of changes in those factors For more information, please contact Mark Kohorst of NEMA Government Relations by email at email@example.com or by phone at 703-841-3249.
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Ű Business Conditions Lose Steam in June, But Six Month Ahead Outlook Remains Solid
Results from NEMA’s latest electroindustry confidence survey echo those of numerous other economic data releases of late, indicating the business environment facing the industry has hit a “soft patch”—but one that is expected to prove temporary. NEMA’s Electroindustry Business Confidence Index (EBCI) for current North American conditions slipped to 45.5 in June, dropping below the 50-point “growth threshold” for the first time since October 2010. The index had climbed as high as 69.6 as recently as February 2011, prior to a sharp run-up in oil prices and Japan’s earthquake and tsunami. Twenty-seven percent of panelists reported conditions improved in June, identical to May’s result. However, 36 percent saw conditions deteriorate in June, up from 23 percent in May. Another 36 percent claimed conditions were unchanged in June, down from 50 percent in May. The survey’s measure of the degree of change in current North American conditions also edged lower in June, declining to 0.0 from +0.1 in May. Panelists are asked to report intensity of change on a scale ranging from –5 (deteriorated significantly) through 0 (unchanged) to +5 (improved significantly). Despite receding in June, the EBCI for future North American conditions continues to suggest an improvement in conditions six months hence, topping the 50-point mark for a twenty-eighth consecutive month in June. The index measured 63.6 for the month, down from 81.8 in May. Thirty-six percent of June’s panelists said they expected conditions to improve during the next six months, while nine percent forecasted a deterioration during that time period. In May, 68 percent of panelists said they expected an improvement in conditions versus less than five percent who anticipated a decline. ei Tim Gill, Director of Economics | firstname.lastname@example.org
Electroindustry Business Confidence Index: June 2011
72.2 63.6 45.5 52.8 40.6 53.1 50.0 59.4
North American Current Conditions Magnitude: June 2011
Ű Available from NEMA/BIS—The Electroindustry Economic Outlook
Based on popular demand for up-to-date data and forwardlooking analysis of the electroindustry and the economic fundamentals that drive it, NEMA/BIS offers a subscriptionbased, regularly updated compendium of the information that industry professionals and executives most often request. The Electroindustry Economic Outlook is the preferred source for timely, comprehensive coverage of the economic trends and events shaping the U.S. electroindustry. • Extensive Coverage • Affordably Priced • Frequently Updated To find out how NEMA/BIS’s Electroindustry Economic Outlook can help your business, contact Tim Gill at 703-841-3298, or email@example.com.
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