m. rwBmimtrn HDIII XflE ■fllullIHi ll tll inifflllrnr ff ^HHiTOlf IIUI BT CAPTAIN WILLIAM JESSE.



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR, IRAVAN JOXmNEYS AND WANDBRINaS IN PERSIA, AFGHANISTAN, TDKKlsrAH, AND BEILOOCBISTAN, AND TEBODQH PABTS OF CENTRAL ASLA pntioiidr mniBilal, THE ' HAZARAH. COUNTRY, Qocb, HELMnXD, SxmAM, be. Tniulaled fixxn the ori^nal Jtrati HmoMiJpt, hj Ctftala Jinx. Seoond EdHtim, wmi oijgUui H^i, evo. au. Thia WoA omtalni InportaDt infbnnatiaa rcganUng Um apmiiv for Britiidi inn&ctuna throogfa the Indm, into the hmri of Cntnl Aili, X.Fsila'iDaiiclialaMulbiiM gf u tnlalllgCDt otaarm, lat Uht moixn u man «cUlT u oomlDK ftam ■ fimlgDflr, ud frnD'coB wbcm waan oitJUed toregiTdMui ^■uUcsl wlliKii. lltimoalinlaBMtalbiil IliitnicfamciltlooInirlDiUHiilniiliiko o HUdol rfit* Mcon team, that be Ii sbtIdchIU ' wUI IM US' egca il 11 be dm icked bj 107 Eunvteo ulico.' "— nuia.










The Translator, having accomplished his very interesting, though laborious, task of rendering into English the manuscripts of General Ferrier, is anxious to avail himself of this opportunity to congratulate that officer on having added these instructive volumes to the Eastern literature of this country. They can be more thoroughly appreciated here than in France ; and that they must prove of real value in England is evident when we consider how great are the interests involved in the development — commercial, social, and religious— of that vast continent which Providence has permitted to fall under our rule. As an old soldier also, the Translator wishes to mark his sense of the frank and generous manner in which General Ferrier has spoken of the arduous services of the Anglo-Indian army in Afghanistan ; more especially as at the period at which he gave expression to these sentiments — 1845 — the entente between his own nation and England was by no means so cordial as happily it is now. The Author's criticisms, when unfavour* able, are generally well-founded; and though, no doubt, inaccuracies are to be met with in some portions of the * History of the Afghans,' it is evident that they proceed from defective information, and not from any ignoble desire to write disparagingly of the British Empire or our gallant soldiers. As to his comments on the Indian poUcy of this country, or the manner in which that policy has been carried out, the Translator cannot, agreeing as he does with

VI PREFACE. the greater number of. them, feel at all surprised at their -severity ; indeed, he considers that we ought to accept these comments with gratitude, inasmuch as they present to us a more unprejudiced view of the subject than we have yet seen. At a very early period French travellers greatly distinguished themselves in the East, and the names of Tavemier, Bemier, and Thevenot justify the assertion ; but the travels of General Ferrier are even of a more interesting character than those of these pioneers in Asiatic adventure; moreover, . his sufferings were great while wending his weary way over the deserts of Central Asia, in some districts where European foot

had never before left its imprint on the burning sands. The cruelty and hardships he then endured entitle him to the commiseration of every feeling mind, and the industry and perseverance that enabled him to collect ^d i^'pr^seL the materiaU for hi. Hbtoy «.d Travels, imder circumstances so adverse, are worthy of all admiration. Important also are the opinions of one who is capable of giving ufl much sotind advice, and criticaUy examining the conduct of Great Britain, in connection with the countries which join her Indian frontiers on the north and north-west. Our information regarding these countries, their inhabitants, and their policy, has hitiierto come ahnost exclusively from officers or civibans in the East India Compatiy's service; it is profitable to see the same subjects treated by a foreigner and from another point of view, for reasons which must be apparent to many. General Ferrier has pointed out, in his chapter on the invasion of India, in * Caravan Journeys,* the probabiKty of the Sepoys joining the Russian army, and the princes and rajahs^ throwing off their alle-

PRBEAOB. vii giance ; opinions which, no doubt, elicited expressions of indignation from many of his readers, especially those who were the servants of the. East India Company — ^bnt how fearfully has his estimate of native fidelily been justified smce the publication of that volume I The reader will do well to consult the highly interesting notes and appendices of Sir H. tlawlinson, Sir John Lo^in, and Mr. Danby Seymour, in * Caravan Journeys,' JZj elucidate maiy i^ints i the History of the Afghans. The style of the author is rather severe, and there are several portions of the present work in which there was an opening for much touching writing and for appeals to the highest and best feelings of our nature ; even a few words only here and there would have considerably increased the interest of the subject, but the translator did not consider himself at liberty to do otherwise than adhere strictly to the text. When there was a duplication of thought, or want of arrangement, he has endeavoured to remedy these defects; but otherwise the reader is in possession of Q^neral Ferrier's work in its integrity. William Jesse.

, IngaUitoM, March 27, 1858.




Origin of the Af^^ians — Opinion of Monrienr Bnfifin, Eugene Bor^, uid others — Opinion* of Aighan authors — Afghans mentioned by Tamerlane in his Inititates — TKie probability of their Jewish origin — Their conversion to Islamism — A Hebrew Bible presented to Nadir Shah by the Tooeoofzyes — Afghans of Indian and Khorassian origin — Warlike and independent under Sebek-Taghee — Aborigines of Afghanistan — Afghans in India known as Patans and Bohlllas — First mentioned as Afghans in the reign of Aboo Seid — Classification of Afghan tribes — The author adopts that of Abdullah Khan — Persecution of the Afghans under Ghengis Khan — The Abdalees settle in the Sul^man mountains — Toosoofzyes established in Gashmeer — Afghanistan inhabited almost exclusively by Abdalees and Ghildjzyes — List of Afghan tribes and their branches — Schism amongst them on this subject — Makoohees and Ehaouganees — A singular reason for taking offence — Subdivision of the tribes and their bnuiohes .. .. .. Page 1

CHAPTER 11. Afghanistan conquered by Alexander — Reconquered by the jiboriginal inhabitants — Taken by the Tartars — Death of Mansoor — Success of SebekTaghee — GhaiBcter of the Afghans at this period — Concession of territory to the Abdalee tribe — Ghildjzyes opposed to the Tartar dominion — The first sovereign of Afghanistan — His son Mahmood — Cruelty of the Tartar princes — Expulsicm of Beiram — Khosroo Malek the last of the Ghazne vide dynasty — list of the monarohs of that race — Aighan princes of Gour — Mahmood Gouree — His conquests in India — Eldooz — Djellal Eddin — Afghanistan conquered by Ghengis Eban — Malek Kurt — Chems Eddin Gkmiee — Their suzerainty to the Tartars — Conquered by Tamerlane — Description of the Afghans by that invader — A%han rule in India — Mahmood in. — Ibrahim Khan defeats Belial and seizes Kabul and Kan.dahar — Mirza Baboor — Assisted by the Persians — Defeated by the Uzbeks, but suocessftd in India — Fall of Ibrahim Khan — Death of Mirza

Baboor — Succeeded by his son Humayoon — Protected by Shah Thamasp — Anecdote of the latter — Assists Humayoon with a Pereian army — The Loods defeated — Their attempts to retake Delhi — The prophetess Kiemid Eddin — Shah Jehan drives out the Loods — Aurongzebe finally annihilates them — Kandahar ceded to Persia by Humayoon — Taken and retaken by the Persians and Moguls — Afghan deputation to Shah Abbas — Extract

CX)NTENTB. I John Holcolm's ' History of Perma ' — Afghans quiet under Sh*h —Tyranny of Us grandBOii Shai BefEee — Eandahfti taken by Shah Q. in 1642 — SacoeM of the abildjzyes — Th«r revolt sapprrased by Lh Hooeein — Oonignin Khan — Deputation of the Afghani to the CoortinlTOe Page 18 CHAPTEB III. iter of Kandahar b sent priaoner to Tapahao — Hia intrignee agunat in Khan — He makea a pilgrimage to Mecca — Obtains a/efvo from )f moUah of Islam — Betnma t« Ispahan, and finally to Kandahar — itdon of Oouipiin Khan — Events consequent npon this — Ojsnion of ih Khan upon them — De*th of Qonrgnin Khan — Mir Wds entera lar — Statement of Uiiza Uehdee — The Qfaiidjzyes declare their denceand exterminate the Ferdantroope — The tribe of the Abdaleee h themaelTn in Herat — The Pereien gencrala attack the Kelanter beaten — Race Khosroo Khftn besieges Kandahar — He ia defeated ed with 80,000 of hia troofA — Moharaed Roostem snocceda hi'm , but beaten — Tie Afghans acknowledge Mir Weis as thdr soTctrign chief hoftheHtrin 1716 — His brother Hir Abdullah snoceeds him — jociations with Pema — Is put to death by the eldest eon of Hir rho incoeeds bim — Alayar Khan, Goremor of Hcnt — Zeman Khan edbythe Pensian monarch to succeed him — Hcjrat Bnltsn — He I against Kandahar — Attacked by Assad TTHah and defeated — Berat — PersiBii campugn gainst the nsheks — Befi Kooli Khan — ated by the Afghans — Independence of the Afghans estahlished — [niah Uys si^e to Fnnah — Is attacked by Uir Hahmood of Kan- A Belooch chief, Uir U<rfiBmed, seiEcs Herat 26

CHAPTEB IV. irf Persia in Afghanirfan — Prepaiatiotu of Hir Hahmood — He die Persan Court — Is appointed GoTonor^Jeneial of Kandahar — tations projecte — Seizes t^ fortreeses on tbe Helmund — State of dan army — Besiegea Eerman — It surrenden to his troop* — They at by the Perrian geneial Leuft Ali Khan — Uir Uahmood retnals dahar — Lenft All is disgraced — Berolt against Uir Hahmood at nr — The Hir marches with his army against the FetsiaDs — Prothe fortreaa of Bam — Koman nrreoden to him — He ia repulsed Tesd — HoTCB on Ispahan — State of Uir Ushmood's tioops — A r tedpe for oonrage — Pusjllanimity of the Persians — IHsmiDn t tiiem — The consequences — Their anny ia routed by the Afghans EthanadDoouletand the Walee of Oeorgfa — The chief ccanmand of

ny is giren to the latter — Propoeition of Shah Hooeein to Uir od — The siege is preesed cloeer — The Pernans endeavoni to leave — Clreat soard^ prevaih — The nault — Dreadful mfTeiingB of the mta — Shah Hooaein proceeds to the Afghan camp — He abdicates me— Mabmood'soondact after his victwy 38


CHAPTEB VThe Prinoe Thamasp — Mahmood sends an anny against hun — Kasbeen aorraadeni to the Afghana — Duplicity and cruelty of the victors — The inhabitants take their revenge — Defeat of the Afghans — Mahmood is furious at this — Beoonciliation with Aman Ullah Khan — Mahmood massacres the Persian nobles — Sanguinary scenes in IspahAi — State of the i»^>vinces — Prinoe Thamasp is proclaimed Shah — Assembles troops in the Azerbaidjan — The Turks and Russians seize upon Armenia and Georgia — State of the Ai^^ian anny — Desertions from Mir Mahmood^s ranks — Shiraz besieged — Tyranny of Mahmood — Mir Echreff appointed to the chief command — The Afjghan army march upon Tezd — Mahmood becomes deranged — Losses in the Afgiinn ranks — the troops return to Ispahan — Mahmood in a panuq^im of madness puts to death the sons of Shah Hoosein — Death of Mahmood — Mir Echreff succeeds him — He puts the Serdar Ullah Khan to death — Policy of Russia at this period — Echreff marches against the Turks — Battle of Kiemereh — Defeat of the Turks — Treaty with the Afghans — Events in Afg^ftniafaw — The Russians take possession of Guilan — Echreff fortifies the A^han quarter in Ispahan — Nadir joins the Shah Thamasp — He takes Nishapoor — Echreff seizes Yezd — Battle between Nadir and Echreff — Defeat of the Afghans — Battle of Bagh Mirane — The Afghans retire from Ispahan — Conflict at the Bend-emir — Retreat upon Shiraz — Destruction of the Afghan army — Death of Echreff — Reflections. Page 51 CHAPTEB VL Nadir takes Herat and Furrah — Marches upon Kandahar in 1737 — Admirable defence by the Ghildjzyes — Mir Hoosein capitulates — Nadir reduces Afghanistan — His policy in that country — Insurrection of the Afghans after the death of Nadir Shah — Expulsion of the Persians — Ahmed Khan Suddozye elected King — Hadji Djemal Khan — Revolt of the Serdars — Nasser Khan surrenders Kabul and Peshawur — Ahmed Shah mardies against Lahore — Hayat Ullah Khan obtains the assistance of the Mogul Emperor — Admirable tactics of Ahmed Shah — Passage of the Tchenab — Ahmed Shah takes Lahore — Makes a treaty with the Mogul Emperor — Revolt at Kandahar — Execution of the conspirators — Ahmed Shah advances into Khorassan — Siege of Herat — Defence of the citadel by Emir

Khan — limoor Mirza marches against Meshed — Defeat of the Khorassanee chiefs in that city — Meshed relieved by Shah Rokh — Defeat of Mir Alem — Ahmed Shah retires from Meshed — Besieges Nishapoor — Is obliged to retreat — Disasters of the Afghan army — Passage of the Heri-rood — The remainder of the army arrive at Herat — Ahmed Shah reaches Kandahftr 65 CHAPTEB VIL Second sieg^ of Nishapoor by the Afghans — Clemency of the victor — He invests Meshed— -Battle of Kakhak — Death of Ali Murad— Capture of Toon and Tubbus — An ambuscade — Treaty with Shah Rokh — Ahmed

Ml CONTENTS. Shah retires to Herat — OunpMgn agunst the Uzbeks — Be^iee IThMuwines Balk, Khnlm, &c. — Assad Khan Ghildjzye — His snooesses in Persia — Defeat of Kerym Khan — Assad Kbau is attacked in the mountains — Last attempt of the Afghans to annex Persia — Nasser Khan, Belooch, lerolts — l*he combats of Pringnea and Mestook — Siege of Kdat — FaTomaUe terms made by Nasser Khan — Ahmed Sbaih proceeds to India — Insurrection of the Mahrattas — Ahmed Shah Goorkanee deposed — Assassination of Alemgoir — Ghazi Khan aeiies the Uironeof the Moguls — Ahmed Shah, Soddoosye, readies Lahore — Marches on Delhi — Shooja ed Doonlet — Passage of the Bar — Desertion of Delayer Khan andZalBeg — ShahAkm cedes his rights to the English — Revest in Kandahar — Abdul Khalek Khan — Abdullah Khan sappreases the insurrection — Ahmed Shah marches on Peshawnr — Arrives at Kandahar — Zal B^ is execated — Delaver Khan flies to Herat — Timoor Ifirza is made Ticeroy — Ahmed Shah's reasons for this — Death of Ahmed Shah — Taghoot Khan — The Seidars declare for Suleiman Mirza — Character of Ahmed Shah . . Page 79 CHAPTEB VIIL Kabul becomes the capital — Sons of Ahmed Shah — Dervish Ali Khan — Afghan principles — Walee Khan and his sons put to death — Flight of Suleiman Mirza — Timoor Mirza enters Kandahar — Besides at Kabul — Kuzzilbash cavaky organised — Timoor marches against Scsnde — Conflicts between the Kaloras and Talpoqras — : Timoor Shah takes Bawalpoor — Establishes the Kaloras in Scinde — Fresh disturbances in Sdnde — Medad Khan is beaten at Djioond — Fethi Khan Talpoora succeeds to power — Timoor takes the field against the Emir of Bokhara — Balkh and Akhcheh become independent — Timoor returns to Kabul — Events in Khorassan — Afghan army marches on Meshed — Mamech Khan — Capture of Tchinaran — Death of Medad Khan — Fresh insurrection in Khorassan — Afj^ian army advances into that province — Conspiracy to take Timoor Shah*8 life — The plot fiedls — Arseleh Khan is put to death — Value of an oath in an Afghan sovereign — Death of Timoor Shah — Character of that monarch — Sons ofTimoor 96

CHAPTEB IX. Afghanistan at the death of Timoor — Intrigues for the succession — Payendeh Khan supports Zeman Mirza— Afghan tactics — Zeman is proclaimed Shah — He marches against his brother at Kandahar — Flight of Humayoon Mirza— Tyranny of Zeman Shah — His sanguinary acts — Gives up Balkh to Persia — Zeman marches against the Punjab — Humayoon seizes Kan* dahar — Zeman takes the city by treachery — Humayoon is made prisoner — His brother puts out his eyes — Zeman advances upon Scinde — Mahmood Mirza endeavours to intercept him — Battle of Gourrck — Zeman advances on Herat — Takes the city — Mahmood Mirza retires to Persia — Advances on Furrah — Battle of Emaret — Mahmood m vests Herat — Cunning of Zeman Shah — Mahmood quits his camp— His allies are beaten and dispersed


• •■

CONTENTS. xiii — Zeman Shah arriTee at Herat — Mahmood retiies to Bokhara and Khiva — Bevolt of the Sikhs — Zeman redacea Lahore — DiaaaterB of hia army — He readiea Kabul and Kandahar — Fatal tendencies of Shah Zeman — Discontent of the Afghans — The vizier Vefadar Khan — Conspiracy of the Serdars — Payendeh Khan and his accomplices executed — Flight of Fethi Elian — Revolts — Fethi Khan accompanied by Mahmood takes Furrah and Kfty^^lfthyr — The army deserts Zeman — Battle between the brothera — Zeman is beaten and his eyes put out — Ye&dar Khan is executed — Zeman retires to Bokhara — Character of the Shah Page 106 CHAPTER X. Mahmood ascends the throne — First acts of the Shah — Bevolt of the Ghildjzyes — KaiBsar Mirza is driven from Herat — Hadji FirooE Eddin made governor of that city — Kaissar Mirza attacks him, but is obliged to retire — KjuitTRTi, a son of Mahmood, and Kaissar alternately take possession of Kandahar — Disorders and conflict with the Kuazilbashes — Peace is restored at Kabul — Conspiracy against Shah Mahmood — He is dethroned — His brother Shooja succeeds him — Mahmood remains a prisoner — Kamran is expelled from Kandahar by Kaissar Mirza — The latter, defeated by the Heratees, evacuates the dty — The Persians besiege Herat — They are beaten and retire — Shah Shooja marches against the Talpooras — Betuins to Kabul — English embassy to Kabul — Difficulties of the reign of Shah Shooja — The Serdar Fethi Khan intrigues and flies from Kabul — He is arrested by

143 CHAPTER XII. 129 CHAPTER XT. and afterwards d^naed — Iji Flrcoz sncceeda him — Death of HenbTali Ehan — Hadji nroos re* to Ueabed — Honst^a Khan ctosa the f^tea of Heist agajnat Dram — He heaieges the d^. ..Kaissar Mirza — Dost Mohamed escapes and pillages Bakooa — Shere dil Khan assists Shah Mahmood to escape — The latter and the Mohamedzyes release Fethi Khan — Mahmood marches on Kabul — Seizes the dty — Battle of Neemla — Shooja is put to flight — Endeavours to keep the field — Retires to Loodiana . ijil Ehin labea Ejndohar — Eamrau proceeds there — Foot dil Klian kpea — Cruelties of KamnnBpon Fethi Khan — BroQiers of the ^Hser — tHohftmed Ehaa — Canoe of bis quarrel witli FetM Ehan — He adses nil — Fli^t of tlie Bo^ Family — Mabtnood and Earnnn meet at nmwi — Dost Utdiamed puts them to flight — Hutder of Fethi Kh&n — I Shih and his wo u« pnmud and amve at Herat — MisnudentaDdiug wen the prinoeo — They acknowledge the suienunlj of Peca& — Quairela ireen Mahmood and Kamraa — Hadji IHrooz and Kalech Ehon attack nian — The latter is killed and Hadji FirooBmade pruoner — Kamraa the Fernana at variance — Rerolt of Fiurah — Eamran proceeds to that 16 — Honatapha Khan and Mohamed Hooaein reTolt at Herat — Game of — Djehangmr Hirza is proclaimed king. Shere dil Khan and Kohendil Khan. hat retiree on the approach of fihere dil m — The latter also retJiea — Cruelty of Honstapha Ehan — Cooapiracy )yud Uir Bedik — Eamran enters Edrst — Hiserable end of Honstapha a — Veugeaoce of Eamran — Heflediona cm the Afghana Pitge 169 .. escape — Poor dil Khan remains a prisoner . Bumes' sketch of Shah Shooja — Fethi Khan is appointed Vizier — Shah Mahmood devoted to pleasure — Influence of the vizier — Kamran. the son of Shah Mahmood — His ferodous disposition — He kills his cousin Kaissar — Fethi Khan reduces the Belooches — Establishes order and security — Afghan alliance with the Sikhs — They unite and seize Caahmeer — Fethi Kban breaks his word to the Sikhs— The latter seize upon Attok — Brilliant exploit of Dost Mohamed — Panic of the Afghans — Runjeet Sing pillages C&shmeer — The pretensions of Persia on Herat — Hoosdn All Miiza inarches against that dty — Fethi Khan marches to the relief of Herat — The vizier arrests Hadji Firooz Eddin — The princess harem is violated and plundered by Dost Mohamed— Flight of Mir Efzel Khan to Meshed— Battle of Kiaffir Kaleh — Retreat of both parties — The Afghans obtain the plunder — Kamran conspires against Fethi Khsai — Shah Mahmood commands the vizier's eyes to be put out — Kamran arrives at Herat and executes the order — The brothers of the vizier.. .. Sir A.

marches against ibeSkhs — Defeats them at Djamrood — Sir A. XV CHAPTEB XV.chiefs — Character oS Dcet Midtamed — <A. Barnes at Eahul — The Engliah are hostUe to Dost Mohamed — Snmnei^s account of the Russians and the English in Asia — Mohamed Shah detennines to inyade Herat — He is supported by the Buasians Page 199 .CHAPTEB XIII. of Shah Hahmood — Eamran is sospectAd of murdering his bther — indulgea in every kind of excess — Death of Attah Etum — Yar Uo~ Led Ehan is made Tmer of Herat — Hostility of the Persians against prindpality — Intf^es of Abbas Mirea — Tar Hohamed arriTea at hed — He is put to the torture by the Persian prince — Is delivered by Alhar Baahi — Measures of Tar Hohamed — Revolt of the ^nd umedSedJk — He is betrayed by Eamran and executed — The Shah ia 9ly watched by Yor Hohamed — His sods are disgraced — Project of wmed Shah on Herat — The Barakzyea oonaent to the reetoiatioa of h Shooja — He plays the despot. Shall Shcx^a takes ap arms against the Barokzyes — Dost Mohamed marafaes to the relief of Kandahar — Shah 8hoq]a reoeives a That sDvereign is completely defeated — He retires to Eelat — Sultan arrires at Kabol — Machinations of that serdar against Dost Khan Ekhan check — Mohamed Mohamed — BesolutioQ of the latter — The Dost. nea's opinion of the gantifh. now elected Emir. Buniea's opinion of him 186 r CONTENTS. Bnmes's opiniva of him — Kandahar — r dil Ehan and Shore dil Ehan — Character of the latter— Sir A. and is overthrown — Eyoob sncooeda — Hohamed Asim Khan marches ag^nst the Skhs — Rmijeet Bing leasAil against the Af^^iaus — The bottle <tf Noocheio — The Afghans are ea — Death of Adm Ehaa — The character of that serdar — His son ib Ullah Ehaa soooeeds him 173 CHAPTEB XIV. diiiga of Haldb Ullah Ehan — IKvirions betwerat the eons of Paycndeh in — HaUbUUahKhan at war with his uncles — Poor dil EhaaiatcrI in Kabul — Union of Sultan Hohamed and Dost Hohamed Ehana — re dil Ehan and Poor dil Ehan establish peace between ttieir brothera — t Ucdiatned agun at Taiiance — His rivalry wiOt Sultan Mohamed — t priooe at Feahawnr — Sir A.i.

M'Neil — The Persians invade the principality of Herat — The minister of the Shah plays a double game — Captain Eldred Pottinger at Herat — Russian officers in the Persian camp — Samsoun Khan — Colonel BUiremberg — General BorofiEski — Colonel Bemineau — Siege of Gforian — Becrimination against the French officer — Russian and English agents in the Persian camp -^ Their hostility against Colonel Semineau — Operations at the siege of Gorian — Fall of the place — Shore Mohamed Khan — Tar Mohamed*s reply to his brother — Duration of the siege . Mr. Ellis is succeeded by Mr. 214 OHAPTBB XVIL Herat — Appearance and position of the dty — Its fortifications and environs — Attack of the Persians on the suburbs — Colonel Semineau's plan of attack — Absurdities of the Persians — Underhand intrigues and eccentricities of Hadji Mirza Agassee — Means adopted by him to prevent success — Conipracy in Herat in fiskvour of the Persians — The plot is discoveredMonster cannon — Treachery and death of Mirsa Naghi — Distinguished conduct of Colonel Semineau — Cowardice of Meuhbalee Khan — Colonel Semineau declines to take part in the operations — The Afghans sarprise Hadji Khan — Scarcity of provisions in the Afghan camp — Privations of the enemy in Herat — Difficulties of their position — Djellal Eddin Mirza and Cbems Eddin desert to the Persians — Mr. H'Neil's letter to the Muchteid of Ispahan — Lord Palmenton no longer ' continues his half measures — The English occupy the island of Karrack — Captain Yikovitch at Kandahar and Kabul — He letums to the Persian . . . 227 CHAPTEB XVIII... . .. . M'Neil breaks with the Persian government — His messengers are arrested — Mr.. ... M'NeQ arrives at the Persian camp — Prcweedings of that minister — Diplomatia notes between the Russians and the English — Mr. McNeil's conduct in the Persian camp — He leaves for Tauris . .CHAPTER XVL Tlrst dij^omatic discussions relative to the siege of Herat — Mr. .

H'Naght«n and Wade — Lord Auckland declares for Shah Shooja — ConateniaDoet at this intell^nce — B^e^ons on the English policy 268 CHAPTER XX. M'N^ten to Lahore— Treaty with the Sikha to of the Governor-General from Simla in justification of his eflections on this document — The possesaion of Sdnde adjourned ire are opposed to the advance of the British anny through thar . de Nesselrode — Beply of 1 calnnet — The last attempt of the Dost to aecnre the alliance of b — Efforts to defeat this on the part of Sir W. ad sends Sir W. the rank of Qeneral. and receives a ler — The English ultimatum arriTas at the Persian ounp — the Herateee during the assault Page 248 GHAPTEE XIX. D0t« to chapter — Character of the Afghans — Their phydcal do— Mental qualities — Indifferent Mnssulmsns — Their turbulent . who ia [Ted l^the Emir — The Dost makes frank explanations to the He is supported by Buroes at Calcutta — Barnes is ttinmphint Ltoh — Note of Lord PolmecBton to M.-^ CONTENTS.Hir Roustem of Khyrpoor — Averee to lending the fortress of the English. abandon the mege of Herat — The Serdars of Kandahar and ikovitcb — Desola^OD of Herat — Tar Hohamed implores tbo of the naghhoniing prindpalities — Yar Uobamed sells the tiie TuFoomans — The Snglish prepare to invade Afghanistan — anding between Dost Hohamed and Runjeet Sing — Intervention ish — Their want of good faith towaids Dost Mohamed — Their >r BuDJeet — N<^ociat3onH between the English and the Dost — jamrood — Barnes at Kabul — He meets with Vikovitch.. t accepted — Is promoted to. t^ envoTS of these prindp^lities — Trea^ betmen Peni& and -Violent declaration of Lord PalmeiBton to \he Ferdan goTemoeral Simonitch amvee in the Persian camp — The Perdaos take Sadji Mirza's opposition to Comit Simonitch — Colonel Semiof attack adopted — Siege operationa renewed — Tbe assault — if the Persian chiefs — General Borofistd is killed and the Perviana 1 — Colonel BetnineaD is wotmded — He sends in his resignation. but at length accedes to their request — The result limself and his family — Conduct of the British authorities in Itrengtb of the army when concentrated at Bhikapoor — Extract lumner'a work — Seizure of Kurrachee — English appliances to the invasion of Afghanistan — Proceedings of Shah Sbooja 276 CHAPTEE XXI.

. Government of the Afghan provinces — Power of the Emirs — Influence of the priests — Turbulence of the serdars — Ideas of government — Conduct of public affidrs — Stability of power unlikely to last — Mode of obtaining it — Character of the serdars — The producing classes — They cannot leave Kandahar — Clannish feelings — Meroenary qualities.. .. •• . unknown — Construction of their towns — Tribes of principality the south — Strength of the Afghan army in each — Yar Mohamed*s troops — Money — Prices of proTisions — Wine — Weights and measures — The Parsivans — Mechanical arts — European manu&ctnres — Taxation . Page 283 CHAPTER XXII. of the serdars — Fidelity of the troopa never certain — The result of their numerous wars — The sovereign and the serdars — Superiority of the Mohamedzyes — The power of the Barukzyes — Probabilities of their retaining it — English marriages in Afghanistan —The Afghan army — Manner in which it is composed — The contingents easily assembled — Ignorant of military discipline. 302 CHAPTEB XXIIL English anny leaves Shikapoor — March through the Bolan pass — Kohendil .. •• . ^... .. of individuals..)[drit of independence — Love of marauding — Their cupidity ' Insensible to good faith — The law a dead letter in their eyes — CONTENTS. and insensible to its advantages — War a necessity — Cavalry numerous — Mode of fighting — Rights. . xvu • The dtizeii and the nomade — Hospitality — Prandial habits of Tar Mohamed — The character of their food — Eooroot — Mode of eating — Ignorance of the Afghana — Their superstitions — Education — Costume — Dirty habits — Beligious feeling — Administration of the laws — The lex tcUiania — Punishments — Diseases — Remedies — Public buildings — Roads — PriTftte houses — The Eoology of Afghanistan — Domestic animals — Nature of the soil — Productions of it — Aridity of the country — Minerals — Geographical position — Climate — DifBculties of rapid communication — Popu:^ lation ..

.. ta negodate.Khan advances to meet it — Defection of the Afghan chiefs — Kohendil letiies into Persia — Kandahar capitulates. .. — Assault and fall of Ghuznee — Dost Mohamed endeavours.. of Kabul — Conflicts between the Dost and the English — Deserted by his countrymen — Surrenders to the English — He is sent to India . . Bumes's house — Assassination of that officer — The re driven from the city — Bad defensive position taken by them — riat stores pillaged — Death of Abdullah Khan — Zeman Khan 1 King — Contiiuial fighting — Weakness of Qeneral Elphinstone it of the 44th Regiment — Suapenaion of anna — Akhar Khan I Kabul — Indecision of the English — Events in the provinces — itreat abandoned — Embarraasment of Sir W. .. Fi^e341 CHAPTEE XXV.. — The priests are hostile to the invaders — Avaricious views of the English disappointed — Revenues of ^fghaniatftn moderate in amount — Means employed to raise them — Shah Sbooja demands the fulfilment of the treaty — Refusal of the English — Hatred against them augmented — Religious proselytism — English tonnexions with Afghan women — Revolts in the kingdom — The Dost at Bokhara — Persecutions to which he is subject — Combat at Karchy — Mohamed Shah threatens the XJsbek Emir — The Dost is released — His perilous position near the Oxus — He flies to Cher Sebz and Khulm — Betums to the province. .. 327 ^-^ CHAPTEE XXIV. . M'Na^ten — Susthe Afghans -~ Meeting between the Reddent and Akbar Khan — tioa of the former — Major Potljnger — Treaty withi Ahbar Khan Dglish retreat — . . .. demands the evacuation of bia country b.Akbar Khan unmasked — The English deliver np x> him — English army annilulated — Akbar Khan bedeges JeUalranaactions between Shah Shooja and Zemon Khan — The King lated— Charactwof that Sovereign .. Foi^ry of letters — The inyaders impose a vizier on Shah Shooja ifiable acts of this functionary — Complajnta of the Afghan Chiefs 3hooja — The King conspires with them against the Ei^lish — Ehan at the head of the conapiratora — Carelessness of the English ies to chiefs reduced — Bevolt of the Gluldjzyes — General Sale against them — Is obliged (a retire into Jellalabad — Feeling of a the English — Insurrectiou in the provinces — Revolt at Kabul on Sir A.. . the English — Their. . but without success — The Emir leaves Kabul — The English enter the city — Restoration of Shah Shooja — First disagreement between him and the British — The latter interfere in the' administration of the kingdom — Results of this.

XIX Also to join the Sikhs against the English — His rupture with the Dost — Marriage of Akhar with the daughter of Tar Mohamed Khan — Intrigues of Kohendil Ehan to prevent this union — Demonstration of Akhar Khan against Kandahar — He requests the assistance of the Shah of Persia — F&YOurable reply of that sovereign — Akhar ohliges his father to withdraw fit>m the direction of affairs — Death of Akhar Khan — Revolt of Mohamed Shah Khan — Dost Mohamed forces him to return to his duty — Alliance hetween Persia and Kahul — The English are alarmed — Emharrassment of the Emir — Sultan Mohamed Khan returns to Kahul — Reception hy the Dost — The Smir appoints his son Haidar Khan.throne of Kabul — The English give Dost MoI liberty — Akbar Khan returns to Kabul and seizes the sovereign Restoration of Dost Mohamed at Kabul — Beif der Djing is driven dahar by Kohendil Khan 364 CHAPTEE XXVI. ahul after the return of Dost Mohamed — Antagonistic feeling Jie Emir and his son Akbar Khan — Ambitions projects of the ^Tar between the Dost and the Walee of Khulm — Reasons for this ■ Akbar Khan wishes to dispossess Kohendil Khan of Kandahar — CONTENTS.Miraa sueeeeds Shah Shooja — Combat between that prince and lan — The former is beaten — Akbar Khan returns to Kabul and hi Djing to retire to the citadel — The former becomes his Tizier Tiiaes tum as King — Akbur plunders Fethi Djing — Flight of the Akbar remains master of Kabul — The English in spite of tixe w-maintoin themselves at Kandahar — Forewght of Major EawUnjunrences in the neighbourhood of that city — Peraan account of Lkter Khan. and vice vend — Dost Mohamed takes Attock — His cavalry is defeated by the English — Owes his escape to the fleetness of his horse • • Page 388 CHAPTEB XXVIL The English conquer the Punjab — Dost Mohamed loses Peshawur and Attock — He retires to Kabul — Policy of Kohendil Khan at Kandahar after his return from Persia — Retrospective view of uffidrs at Herat — Tar Mohamed Khan and the English — Major I^>ttinger and Colonel Stoddart — The latter leaves for Bokhara — Interview between Major Pottinger and Shere Dil . Alizye. vizier — The Dost joins the Sikhs against the English — Antipathy of the Afghans. beaten by the EngUsh — Plan of the Afghans [andahar — They are defeated — Seoocd expedition of the English — Akbar Khan is repulsed at Butkhak — Opinions of the press on d ezpe<£tion — What is true and what is false — Mistakes of the itt military matters — The English evacuate Afghanistan — Tbey IKior Uirxa on the. to the Sikhs.

... 1. . it's leoeptiOD at Bt.. Reaction against the English at Herat-^Ingratitude of the East India Company to Major Todd — Death of that ofiQcer — Russian expedition against Khiva — General Peroffski leaves Orenburg — Disasters and rgtreat of the Russian army — Aga Khan raises a revolt in Kerman — The Kazi of Herat at Khiva — ConverBation with the Khan — Disgrace of Taoooba Mehter — AJlah Kooli Khan accepts the English alliance — Snare laid for the Kazi — Captain Abbott at Khiva — His mission there — Intrigues of Taoooba Mehter — Captain Abbott leaves for Russia — The Usbeks take him prisoner — Akhood Zadeh leaves Khiva in search of him ^. .— The Tuss Bashi and Hassan Bahadoor — Fresh complication — Captain Abbott reaches Russia — Lieutenant Shakespear arrives at Khiva — Obtains the liberation of the Russian slaves and brings them to Astrakan — Lieut CONTENTS. FsgellS CHAPTEB XXIX. loUy iMvea Tm Eokan ~ Idbo^^ of that officer — War between LDd Eokaa — Colonel Stoddnrt requests ConoUf to oome to Bokhara [tanof KduiQ is averse to his going — Nasser TJllah sends a firman .. 401 CHAPTEB XXVIII.Meeting of Akhood and the captive . . .. Fetenbui^i — Captain Abbott not recompatued creates difficulties for Khiva — Tbe Shah douanda the Persian [^ptain C0110II7 arrives at Khiva — Ha fails in the object of bis -BequiiementBof tbeShsn . .Khan — Serious consequences resulting from this — Conduct of Tar Mohamed — Major Todd at Herat — Treaty concluded with Shah Kamran — Tar Mohamed all-powerful in the principality — A scene at Tar Mohamed's dinnertable — Intrigues of that chief — His treatment of Shah Kamran — Misunderstanding between Major Todd and the Tizier — ^^Dine Mohamed Khan — Approbation of Major Todd's conduct by the Directors of the East India Company — OfBcial instructions to that officer — Bad faith of Tar Mohamed — DifiBculties of Major Todd's position — Treachery of Tar Mohamed — Subsidy to Shah Kamran and his Court stopped — The vizier makes fresh demands upon Major Todd — Counter propositions by the latter — He leaves Herat and is escorted out of the city .

the British arriree at that dty — He bils in his nc^ociationa — Nasieli Neapolitmi. de Bout«niefi' leaves the city — Akhood Zadeh. r the Eazi of Herat.Tbej are both imprisoned — Allah Dad Khan.' a Greek. and ia nto prison there — The Nail^ Abdul Samut Ehui — Nasseli ia atb — Abdid Samut experieQces the same bte — Beaaons that led icntim— The watchmakei^ Oriando Qioranni — Hie Emir orders CONTENTS. r Conolly — Full of hope as to the result of his nc^odations — Tllah returns to Bokhara — His interviews with the English . XXI • liim to be put to death — Character of NaAser Ullah Khan — Measures taken in England to ascertain the fate of Stoddart and Conolly — Dr. Thompson. is executed — Paper and pens are Stoddart — He receives the bastinado — Execution of that offioR Uy — A renter of that event. Wolf ^' — Policy of Tar Mohamed after the English left Herat — The Shah Eamlan in anns against the Vizier -— Tar Mohamed besieges him in the citadel . the Afghan stums to Kabul — He is brought bebk to Bokhara — His inntriguss — M.1 Gonolly insuring his safety — Conollj leaves Eokan for the Emir'a kilonel Stoddart — Bad aus[Hoes under which lis arrives at Bokhara neeting between Colonel Stoddart and the Emir — Strange projf lihat officer when presented to Nasser UlUh — He treats him ilence — Stoddart ii arrested — Barfaarona treatment — The Mir toddsrt is confined in the Siah-tchah — He turns Uusenlmsn — iterrention in his favour — Stoical courage of Stoddart — The Emir is conduct towards him — Vicissitudes to which he is subjected — n interferes in his favour — Also the Bussian minister at Bokhara [ban of Khiva — Bepliee of the Emir to those who intercede for CHAPTEB XXX. aud other circumstanoea connected e officers 651 CHAPTEB XXXL Shah -of Persia threatens Ehiva — Ur. the Emir— Obstinate conduct of Stoddart irvants of the English officers are released from prison -y Akhood dk Allah Dad Khan are confined in the Si^h-lchab — They are subreleased — Joseph. and his 'brother H<dwmed Davood — Dangers the latter is exposed — Akhood Zadeb is nmested at the frontier of — He is imprisoned' b. comes to Teheran — Travels to Bokhara.

... attends to the welfiare of the Heratees — Strengthens his power.. . . tfUmin* HISTORY OF THE AFGHANS r » CHAPTER I.— The Serdar Dine Mohamed Ehan — ^Kamran is imprisoned by Tar Mohamed — Mohamed Toossoof — The diamond vest — tions regarding it — • Mohamed Toossoof Mirza the dupe He flies to Meshed — Revolt to set Eamran at liberty — his sovereign to death . and others—-.. now sovereign prince of Herat.Alliance of Tar Mohamed with the Shah of Persia 478 ■-4 3 ■J p. Eugene Bor^. . •• Page 461 CHAPTEB XXXIL and plundered Negociaof Tar Mohamed — Tar Mohamed puts Sons of Shah Eamran — Hadji Firooz Eddin — His sad end. and prepares to attack Qoxa — Dine Mohamed Khan plunders the caravans — Tar Mohamed takes possession of the province of Gour — Differences with Kandahar — Subjugates the Hazarah Zeidnats — Marches against the Usbek Khanats-:— He is recalled to the south — Privations suffered by his anny — Equilibrium between the states of Central Ada — Mohamed Shah of Persia supports Kohendil Khan in his quarrel with Tar Mohamed — The latter assists the Shah of Persia in his war with Khorassan — Death of the Persian numaich -r. and that of his son Malek Eassem Mirza — A%han princes in Persia — Conduct of Russia and England in regard to Herat — Tar Mohamed. Origin of the Afghans — Opinion of Monsieur Buffin.. .

for agvan is the Greek word HA'AB. Finally. and from some Greek colonists who. and driven into Khorassan . and even the Armenians. known under the name of Aghvan or Avghan^ and made themselves famous in the history of Persia. they were a very warlike people. under the kings that succeeded that emperor. and it is not easy to adopt any one in particular. in consequence of their numerous revolts.Opinion of Institutes — The Islamism -^ A Hebrew of. The following is taken from the work of that celebrated orientalist. M. the Chaldaeans. a few authors assure us that this nation is not of Jewish origin. but the majority of Eastern writers consider them to be the descendants of one of the ten tribes of Israel — ^and this is the opinion of the Afghans themselves. " had their ori^n from the Albanians of Asia.*' . but that those who introduced the Mahometan religion amongst them were converted Jews. Their Albanian origin is evident by the name itself. were their ancestors . Indian and Taghee Afghan authors — Afghans mentioned by Tamerlane in his probability of their Jewish origin — ^Their oonversion to Bible presented to Nadir Shah by the Yoosoofzyes — Afghans Khorassian origin — Warlike and independent under Sebek- — Aborigines of Afghanistan — Afghans in India known as Patans and Rohillaa — First mentioned as Afghans in the reign of Aboo Seid — Classification of Afghan tribes — The author adopts that of Abdullah Khan — Persecution of the Afghans under Qhengis Khan — The Abdalees settle in the Suleiman mountains — TooBoofsyes established in Cashmeer — Afghanistan inhabited almost exclusirely by Abdalees and Qhildjzyes — List of Afghan tribes and their branches — Schism amongst them on this subject — Makoohees and Khaouganees — A singular reason for taking offence — Subdivision of the tribes and their branches. Chap. B 2 ORIGIN OP THE AFGHANS. has given rise to a variety of opinions. who. whom he left in these countries after he had conquered them ." he says. The origin oi the Afghans. Some pretend that they are descended from the soldiers of Alexander the Great. Others affirm that the Copts of Egypt. I. subsequently joined these descendants of his victorious legions. which is inyolved in ohtourity. Ruffin : " The Afghans. were transported from one extremity of Persia to the other.

and who. the inhabitants of which. be considered as of Chaldaean origin — an opinion which is in direct contradiction to that of their historian. in the opinion of Sir William Jones. thus explains himself on the subject of these Albanians : — ^^ The Aghovans. who were governed by feudal laws similar to those which existed in Europe during the middle ages . affirms Chap. the remains of the language they speak. It is with less reason still that some of the learned. he put to death. which has been contradicted by several authors. viz. which now form the provinces of Daghestan and Shirvan. Ruffin is in opposition to that of another oriental scholar. a certain portion of territory. The Greeks and Latins. In short. they are neither of Jewish . Eugene Bore. also that of bestowing upon the Greeks. more than any other. they inhabited the high mountains and the valleys bordering on the Caspian Sea. who. The historians of Alexander have made us acquainted with one of these colonies. where they were allowed to establish themselves. MENTIONED BY TAMERLANE. led astray by a similarity of words.This opinion. ^' were an ancient and distinct people. M. merits nevertheless some attention. The language of this nation differed entirely from that of the Armenians. as a punishment for a crime committed by their ancestors — a most cruel and unjust act. we may say that the people mentioned by the Greek authors imder the denomination of Albanians cannot. descended from Milesian Greeks. with Moses of Chorenus." he remarks. Moses Galganderasti. I. first brought to our notice by Pompey at the time of his expedition into the Caucasus. of the Armenian race. The opinion of M. The Armenians were never able to subjugate this brave people. that of removing from the shores of the Mediterranean or the Black Sea any population that gave them the least uneasiness or apprehension . on account of their peculiar language. recall to our minds the ancient Parthians. he destroyed the town of the Brances. and we learn from them that. when that monarch advanced into Bactria in pursuit of Bessus. by an inaccurate transcription of their name. feudal trihes dispersed over the south of Persia. in his Letters on the East. because it is in accordance with the custom which the Persian monarchs are supposed to have followed. The language of the Afghans is analogous to that of the primitive Persian. who lived about the ninth century of the Christian era. and. as a reward for their services. general of the Sultan Seljookide Malek Shah. they were Christians before they adopted the faith of Mahomet. and who. have confounded the Aghovans with the Afghans. 3 that they are descended from Sisag. and it is known that they preserved their liberty up to the period of the arrival of Bouzan. called them Albanians . We hope to clear up this point after having collected from the mountainous district in which these pretended sons of the Aghovans lived. a considerable number of whom were at all times in the Persian armies.

without doubt tJiey would have preserved their faith. where they were defeated and taken captive by Tamerlane : this tribe now inhabit the country between Herat and Meimana. and gave him the title of Maiek • Abd-ul-rrahid. Besides. others affirm that he was the grandson of Saul . wrote at this time to his brethren in Gour to give notice of tlus happy event. hut they. and though far from their mother-country. A Jew. once formed. Matters remained in this state until Mahomet announced himself as the messenger of God. transported the whole of them into the mountains situated between India and Persia. the Tartar warrior and legislator mentions the Afghans. which was kept alive by the periodical reception of letters from their countrymen who. was lineally descended from Abraham and Hagar by Ishmael . had returned to the Holy Land. the Cyrus of the Greeks. Mahomet loaded him and his companions with favours. as a nation which had for many years inhabited the Suleiman mountains. has led to the conclusion that they were the descendants of Jews. who pretended to be descended in a direct line from Saul through forty-seven generations. I." Some persons have with reason affirmed that Tamerlane. before adopting Islaraism. and all think that Bakht ul Nasser * must have sent some Jewish prisoners into the mountains of Gour. south of the Caspian. increased . appeared to commentators to be the country watered by the Kour. and induce them to embrace the new fiiith . now Mussulmans. The Afghan authors who admit the Jewish origin of their nation thus account for the removal of their ancestors to Central Asia : some declare that Afghana. who gave his name to the Afghans. known under the appellation of Firooz Kohis. accompanied Mahomet in several of his wars. after the city of that name (situated about sixty-three miles fix)m Teheran). Cbap. for the posterity of the unfortunate people who were removed to these mountains by the Tartar conqueror form at the present time a small tribe of E'lmaks. The supposition that they were identified with the Aghovans. These prisoners would soon have considerably * Nebuchadnezzar. exasperated 'at the depredations committed by the people inhabiting Mazanderan. and distinguished themselves by many . These Afghan ambassadors. more fortunate than themselves. to which the Assyrians transported the captive tribes of Israel. in his Institutes. a rank to whicli he was entitled as the descendant of the Jewish king. Amongst these was Keia. b2 4 CONVERSION TO ISLAMISM. by name Khaled. But they erred in supposing that from this population are descended the A%hans of our own day.nor Chaldaean extraction. whom he converted. because the province of Kir. and Abraham through sixty-five. and was much given to pillage. 8ent several of their chiefs to the Prophet.

hut it does not follow. and after having received his benediction. arrived at Peshawur. are really those of so many distinct races now confounded in one. . nevertheless. and denies its A%han origin. others say he was contemporary with Solomon. accompanied by a few Arabs. their Jewish origin. and with their assistance succeeded. if affiirding evidence sufficiently convincing to some persons. we must also suppose that they would. This fact. — they are distinguished by marked characteristics. for we find the A%hans from the very first. as they do. and there is not the least sympathy between them. with the sanction of the Prophet. marching to the conquest of India. and leaving them whenever the smallest hope presented itself of seizing lands which they considered they had any right to — ^it is only a primitive race who could have remained so strongly attached to the soil. 5 the tribes are not all of the same origin. such as it was. and it is very natural to suppose that their race has . retiring to their moun*tain fastnesses to escape firom tyranny. that other Afghan tribes are branches from the same stem . supposing it to be one. humble and degenerate . that is to say from the reign of Sebek-Taghee. on the spot to which they were transferred. on the contrary. which serve at the present time to designate the Afghan nation. with a view of delivering themselves from slavery. and repulsing the common enemy. The Afghans of Kabul consider themselves as Indian Afghans. A%han. L ABORIGINES.however. the Pushtoo. These dlflerent versions. but such is not the case.remarkable deeds of valour . have developed all the characteristics of an enslaved people. which do not rest upon any sufficient proof. When Nadir Shah. No one has thought of the aboriginal people. the chieisof the tribe of the Yoosoofzyee presented him with a Bible written in Hebrew. being enemies in bygone ages. for. their union. whereas those of Herat say they are Khorassani Afghans . can only be considered as authority with respect to the Yoosoofzyes . The conquests of Alexander did not lead to their extermination . in completely converting their countrymen to Is) am ism. although they all speak a common language. If we could admit. these articles were at once recognised by the Jews who followed the camp. they returned to their own homes. the Arians. one tribe repudiates another. according to Quintus Curtius and Arrian. progressed only by degrees. Chap. are very difficult to admit. We may believe that. therefore. and others. and animated by a love of independence — always warlike and energetic. were both numerous and brave. The names of Patau. Arrachosians. moral as well as physical. the Afghans. think that they have evidence of their Jewish origin in the following tradition. courageous. ' Some authors affirm that Afghana was the son of Khaled . and assert that he was one of the principal officers of that monarch. nevertheless they must not be lost sight of. in the space of forty years. and several articles that had been used in their ancient worship which they had preserved . Rohilla. everything leads to the conclusion that.

moral as well as physical. with whom they have many points of resemblance.* a designation which they now apply to them . that of aoughan from the Persian. Chap. ordered them henceforward to be called by that designation only. and we will precede it by giving his view of the manner in which the Afghans were brought to Afghanistan. There are almost as many classifications of the Afghan tribes as there are Eastern authors who have written on the subject . \ This was applied to them because they were always in a disunited state amongst themselves. which is only the plural of the Arab word feghan. Being incompetent to decide which is right. In spite of the foreign domination which has weighed upon the Afghans for so many generations. and after destroying that city led the surviving inhabitants captives to Babylon. under all circumstances.descended to the present day through intermarriages. though in small proportions. Afghan and Djalut — the first was the father of the Afghan nation and gave his name to it After the reigns of David and Solomon. inhabit Afghanistan properly so called. but they have called each other very hard names to prove their accuracy. not only are they not agreed. of the race of Ghengis Khan. for those disseminated through India connect themselves without distinction with all Mahomedan nations. with the Greeks who remained amongst them. ^' M alek Thalut (Saul) king of the Jews had two sons. The following is a translation of his manuscript : — " The word Afghan is derived from the Arab. massacred 70. is a remark which in a strict sense applies only to those tribes that 6 ABDULLAH KHAN'S ACCOUNT. who. that certain Eastern writers speak of them under the name of Afghan. fled from Judea and settled in . they also call them Pushtoonees. and continually addressing their complaints to the sovereigns on whom they were dependent . nevertheless the name was but little used till the reign of Shah Abbas the Great. and this continued to the period at which Bouktun Nasr % took Jerusalem. it is not thus with the Beloochees. however. from the language they still speak .000 Jews. this. and both one and the other are used in Hebrew. and the Afghan who should give his daughter in marriage to a stranger would dishonour himself . and it is not till the reign of the Sultan Abouseid. Subsequently to this disaster the Afghan tribe. we shall adopt the opinion of Abdullah Khan of Herat as the one most deserving of credit. we ought to believe them when they state that their race has never mixed with any other. who succeeded Saul. The natives of India have known the Afghans for centuries under the name of Patans and Rohillas. I. tired with their incessant lamentations. for in our day they make no alliances except amongst themselves . struck with terror. there is little affinity between them and these two nations . and afterwards with the Tartar and Persian conquerors who invaded themHowever. anarchy divided the Jewish tribes.

Baboor Baboorees. but as pasturage and water were scarce. nm Chap. and Mooltan. some of the tribe determined to emigrate to * Roh in Pushtoo signifies mountain. { Nebuchadnezzar. establishing themselves in the provinces of Fars and Kerman. of the tribe of Korech. and BohUla an inhabitant of motmtains. arrived in India . that the Abdalees quitted Persia and. Scmde. passing by the Mekrane. and each of them was the father of eight sons. and both man and beast suffered extreme privation. YooAoof Yoosoofzyea. was the father : this prince had three sons.Arabia : here they remained some considerable time. The position and condition of the Abdalees was sensibly ameliorated in consequence of the assistance which they obtained from Khaled. . the son of Saul. and Kerlen. f Noise. '* The following is the manner in which they are classed : — "Sods of Tsen-BendL Names of the Ti1l«8. The brandi of the Abdalees continued to reside in Arabia. and then consisted of twenty-four tribes. named TseraBend. I. for they were scarcely settled here when their neighbours made war upon.xiught together by the arrival of the Abdalees in the Suleiman mountains. and here they remained until Ghengis Khan invaded those districts. tumult. and forced them to leave the plains and inhabit the rugged mountains of Suleiman. but the results of this new migration were not more fortunate. and called by them Kooh-Khasseh. Argoutch.* The whole Afghan nation was b. of which. by name Khaled ibn Yelid. Afghan. Abdal Abdalees. considered as the cradle of the tribe. as it has been abready observed. The tyrannical proceedings of this conqueror weighed with such terrible efiect on the population. CLASSIFICATION. but at the period when the Arabs subjugated Persia the Abdalees left Arabia and settied in this new conquest. and during the caliphat of Aboo Bekr their chiefe allied themeelyes to a powerful sheikh. Hindostan. who gave their names to the twenty-four tribes.

Kames of the Tribea... Lobooan Lohooanees. Lendeb-poorees. Lendeb-poor . Afreed Afreedees. Khoogtiiaa . Pen Penees. . Bab Babeea. . .. Beritcb Beritcheee. Ghildj Gbildjsyee. Khooguianees.Werir Weripeee. Benguecb Benguecbeea. . Naaaarees. Naasar . Takan Takanees.. Soor Soorees. Storian Storianees. Names of the TribeSi Zaz Skizees. Ebattak Khattakeed. Djumourianees.. Gliinn Chiraaees... .. Djumourian . 'Sons of Kerlen. Toor Toorees. * Aden and tbe aurrounding country . Sons of Kerlen. Sons of ATgoQtch. NaoMa of the Tribea. Kasa Eaaaeea. . Ranker Eaukerees.

the Ghildjzyes are established in the last-mentJoned princapalitj and Kabul . which was given to them by Ahmed Shah Suddozye on the occasion of his ascending the throne in 1747. The only exceptioD to this remark is the tribe of Yoosoo^es settled in Casbmeer. " The greater number of these tribes were scattered over India . Chaloozanee. 8 TRIBES AND THEIR BRANCHES. " The powerful tribe of the Abdalees is known at the present time under the name of Dooranee. the Baboorees. de^rous of ascert^ning their numbers. as an Afgban author has stated ? I do not think we should: a similarity of name and the alliance of the Afghan Abdalees with the Arab tribe of Korech are not sufficient proofs in the affirmative. I will now give more dettuled information respecting the Abdalees and the Ghildjzyes. and from these he raised 12.000 : at the present time there would not be half that number. Djajee. Nadir Shah. ia inhabited almost exclusively by Abdalees and Ghildjzyes.000 excellent cavalry . tliough in small numbers : the remaining tribes are in India. When Nadir Shah ordered a census to be made of the Abdalee tribe. there were 195. finally. as well as tbe principal Afghan tribe. the Benguechees (Shiahs) between the last-mentioned town and the country of the Hazarahs.000 families.ia at tbe present time inbabited by an Arab tribe. Afghanistan. the Chiranees and the Mohmundstothe north-east of Kabul . the Chiranees are to be found everywhere. wbicb. or have become extinct " Having only to consider Afghanistan Proper. where they are profitably occupied in commercial pursuits . but there. although inhabiting every part of A^hanistan. and as the offiihoots in which they are subdivided are tolerably numerous. Lohooanees. Are we to conclude that they haive one and the same origin. in Kandahar and Scinde. Chap. and Babees. I. the Kaukerees near the Bolan Pass . properly so called. which form the bulk of the population of this country . it will be useful to give here a tabular statement. This tribe has for more than thirty years been under the dominion of the Sikhs. — Ferrier. and Bertedjee . and of these we shall speak more especially. and when these were counted they were found to amount to 600. issued a decree that each family should bring a spear to his camp. which I have endeavoured to render as accurate as possible. the Bede-kheelee. viz. instead of increa^ng. is known by the name of Abdalee. Nassarees. are principally resident in Herat and Kandahar . — these are divided into four branches. they so diininished that scarcely a trace of any of them is to be found in these days. The first. the Beritcheea are in the neighbourhood of Pisheen . but the Abdalees have decreased .

3rd. " 3rd. of Herat. ** The tribes that descended from Zirek are. 3rd. — "Ist Koofelzye. is of this tribe and the Djaloozye branch.000 feinilies. Ayoobzje . the Hussenzalee . Sefretzye. Alizye. 6th. Badoozye . 2nd.000 families and divided into four branches. Sebzalee. Serkanee. Barukyze. Makoobee. 2nd. The legitimate sovereigns who have reigned over the Afghans during the 17th and 18th centuries were of the branch of the Suddozyes. who had two sons.000 families. 3rd. •* 3rd. Firoozye . Etchekzye. 2nd. numbering 30. " Abdal. Gurjizye. from which sprung Mir Weis. — 1st. to which belonged the chiefs of the Alikiouzye tribe .000 families and divided into three branches — Ist. The actual sovereigns of Kandahar and Kabul are of the branch of Mohamedzye. Khaouganee Kelan . *' 2nd. 5th. ** The tribe of the Ghildjzyes. The tribe of the Koofelzyes numbered 20. 1st. which is divided into three branches — 1st. Merdinzye . 4th.000 families and divided into three branches — 1st. Biroozye. named Teryn. the Mohamedzye . Yar Mohamed Khan. 4th. numbering 10. The Alikiouzyes number 20. divided into five branches. 2nd. Khaouganee Kitchik. 2nd. '^ 5th. and from the second five. Inguizye. 6th. Derzakee. 2nd. the sonofTsera-Bend. Alikiouzye. Alekzye . Khaouganee. Avazye . 3rd. Noorzye. viz.000 families and divided into three branches — 1st. Isakzye. Suddozye. 2nd.in number since Nadir's time. Tchalakzye . 3rd. I Chap..000 families. 3rd. numbering 6000 families and divided into two branches — 1st. Kalenderzye . Guerazye. 2nd. the Djaloozye. Melazye . it is divided into six branches — 1st. TRIBES AND THEIR BRANCHES. Bahaderzye . the founder of this tribe. Kharzye. Bedelzye . more generally known under the name of Popolzye. 3rd. numbering 10. Hassanzalee. Mir . ^* 4th. ** The tribes descended from Pindjpa are — '* 1st. The Barukzyes numbered 40. had only one son. namely. I. Zirek and Findjpa : &om the first originated three tribes. numbering 10. " 2nd. 4th. Ahmedzye . This was in very ancient times one of the most distinguished offshoots of the Abdalees . to which the chiefe of the Alizye tribe belong .

viz. Popolzye Barukzye . from whom sprung the six tribes that follow. Euderee. 3rd. Foanden. 10 TRIBES AND THEIR BRANCHES. Ghildj had two sons.Hahmood his son. for its founder. Zirek Abdftl and hie son Teryn ^ founders of the Tribe. 6th. 2nd. had Ghildj. Ist. 5th. A Tablb of the Tribe of the Abdalebs. Tribes. Khaleelee. Outekee . Toorkee. Ibrahim and Thooran. Stock.. and the three last from Thooran. Tookhee — from this came the branch of the Loods. The three first descended from Ibrahim. the son of Argoutch. I. which gave India its sovereigns . and Mir Echreff his nephew. 4th. Chap. Suleiman-Kheilee .

Serkanee.. Badoosye. Suddozye. Alizye . Avazye. Isakzye . Kalenderzye. . .. Ayoobzye. Pindjpa . Djaloozye.Branobes. Melazye. . Quijizye. . Merdinzye. Hasaanzalee. Ahmedzye. Inguizye. ' Mohamedzye.. . Sefretzye. Noorzye Khaouganee Makoohee .. Biroozye. Etcbekzye. Kharzye. / Alikiouzye . Hussenzalee.

and the subdivisions of these (see the above table) are called the THreh^ branches. Guerazye. Toorkee. Ibrahim. such as the Popolzyes. those which descend from these last. tirehs or branches. &c. Firoozye. the Ghildjzyes. iBedelzye. form the Taifeh^ nation . Tchalakzye." The primitiye tribe of the Afghans was called taifeh^ a word which corresponds with that of nation : the first divisions of this primitive tribe are called ferguek^ tribe . Tookbee. Thooran Outekee. Argoutch. the subdivisions of this. Sebzalee. \ KhEU)uganee Eitchik. ' ^ Suleiman-Eheilee. The Abdalees and Ghildjzyes. Ghildj Tribe of the Child jzye.Alekzye. and Kerlen — ^as the Abdalees. Khaouganee Kelan. Enderee. are called Fergueh^ tribes. Baruk* zyes. the Kaukerees. < Ibrahim . .. Bahaderzye. Derzakee. Thus the families which are descended from the first generation — ^Tsera-Bend. Thooran. Khaleelee. by reason of their numerical .

their fault was of less magnitude. not being Abdalees by descent. and continue to exerdse. On the other hand. and also from the power they have Chap. Obliged to employ severe measures to repress the evil-disposed. they say. It is more especially the Abdalee tribe that has put forth. An explanation naturally followed. in Afghanistan at the present daj. were not at the outset of the Abdalee tribe. the tribes of Makoohee and Khaouganee. this pretension. upon which itely returned to their duty. proved by the name which was given him. for they considered themby the exception that had been made in their favour. afironted at the exception. This scornful assumption haa often given rise to sanguinary conflicts between them. have arrogated to themselves a certain kind of supremacy over the other tribes. MAKOOHEES AND KHAOUGANEES. I. Chap. for the A%hans talked of avenging themselves and retaliating upon the Shah and his family . and consider themselves of an origin more noble than theirs : they even refuse to acknowledge their right to the title of A%han. the Abdalees adopted them and classed them amongst the Pindjpas.superiority over tiie others. he ordered that ten persons of each tribe taken from amongst the most guilty should be put to death. J. which is. though of Afghan origin. . but the sovereign authority triumphed. ntly of the tribes and branches that we have clarified. □d ten Khaouganees to be put to de&tb. but. and in the most positive manner. to satisfy them. for Ghildj in Pushtoo signifies bastard. withdrew firom the Shah's camp. and trom that moment it was admitted by the tribes that the king had the right of shedding blood without any one having the power to question it The Makoohees and Khaouganees had not been included in these acts of severity. and the Zireks affirm that they are of a more noble extraction than the Pindjpas. by reason of the perfect friendship which always existed between them. and Ahmed Shah. whereas the mother of Ghildj was a concubine. and the experiment was not without danger. It was the first time he had shed the blood of his subjects. ordered ten SUBDIVISION OF TBIBES. Ahmed Shah had scarcely founded the dynasty of the Suddozyes when it ifras nearly overthrown by an intrigue fomented against him by the Serdar Noor Mohamed Khan. 11 exercised. but these tribes. Not only do they refuse the title of Afghans — and this even to the Ghildjzyes — but also there is a schism on the subject amongst themselves. on the ground that. After the death of Nadir Shah an occurrence took place which will give some idea of the importance the Afghans attach to their belonging to the most noble tribe. and they have ever since been considered as belonging to that family. and therefore it was posable to pardon them . and is based upon the fact that the mother of Abdal was a legitimate wife.

the district they then inhabited lellatioQ of Tobeh-Maharoof. each subdivision then took the new chief whose fortunes it followed. At other times some successful conqueror broke render it less powerful . These have been formed time when the surplus population of a tribe has been . — Ibrahim Khan defeats Belial .Vbdalees and the Ghildjzyes are again subdivided into imber of tireh. and there is bo much course subdivisions. besides having the name of Dooranees. he carried a etages with him to Ispahan. These re also to be attributed to the fear entertained by the ' the numerical foree of some of the tribes. though xl by considerable distances from each other. U. that it would be impos^ble for an I the best informed upon the subject. from 18 whence they came . which 1 from Ahmed Shah. ilees. CONQUESTS OP THE COUNTRY. with those who were attadied srson. 13 CHAPTER II. Afghanistan conquered by Alexander — Reconquered by the aboriginal inhabitants — Taken by the Tartars — Death of ICansoor — Success of Sebek-Taghee — Character of the Afghans at this period — Concession of territory to the Abdalee tribe — Qhil4jzyes opposed to the Tartar dominion — The first sovereign of Afghanistan — His son Mahmood — Cruelty of the Tartar princes — Expulsion of Beiram — Khoeroo ICalek the last of the QhaxneTide dynasty — List of the monarchs of that race — Afghan princes of Qour — Hahmood Gouree — His conquests in India — Eldooz — Djellal Eddin — Afghanistan conquered by Qhengis Khan — Malek Kurt — Chems Eddin Qouree — Their suzerainty to the Tartars — Conquered by Tamerlane — Description of the Afghans by that invader — Afghan rule in India — Mahmood III. Chap. Shah reat was the last who adopted this measure on a large I secure the permanent tranquillity and stability of the which he had asdgned a new territory.parate from it and seek a fresh district. or when an lative of the chief had some misunderstanding with drew from his authority. to give a perfect There would be no exaggeration in stating their nore than three hundred. or famihes. are still called Suleimaneea. but they always themselves as members of the original tribe.

in 1642 — Success of the Qhildjzyes — Their revolt suppressed by the Shah Hoosein — Qourguin Khan — Deputation of the Afghans to the Persian Court in 1706. and appear to have held possession of it up to the tenth century. but successful in India — Fall of Ibrahim Khan — Death of Mirza Baboor — Succeeded by his son Humayoon — Protected by Shah Thamasp —' Anecdote of the latter — Assists Humayoon with a Persian army — The Loods defeated — Their attempts to retake Delhi — The prophetess Kiemal Eddin — Shah Jehan drives out the Loods— Aurungzebe finally annihilates them — Kandahar ceded to Persia by Humayoon — Taken and retaken by the Persians and Moguls — Afghan deputation to Shah Abbas — Extract from Sir John Malcolm's ' History of Persia'— Afghans quiet under Shah Abbas — Tyranny of his grandson Shah SefTee — Kandahar taken by Shah Abbas 11. U. but history does not inform us how or why. After the lapse of that period the Tartars made tliemselves masters of the country. like true Condottieri. and at the death of this invader his lieutenant. and soon formed. he owed to his successor. who were almost always at enmity with each other. they fought against one another without the least scruple. an independent state. while another was opposed to it in that of the enemies. Afghanistan was taken from the Seleukides by the aboriginal chiefs. living by plunder and rapine.and seizes Kabul and Kandahar — Mirza Baboor — Assisted by the Persians — Defeated by the Uzbeks. Amongst the conquests of Alexander the Great was that of Af^lanistan.D. The Afghan tribes at this period were for the most part a nomade and barbarous people. and when he died an officer of rank. succeeded to the sovereignty of the greater portion of his dominions in Asia. and. Seleucus. It is presumed that his son and grandson followed him . Chap. established his dominion over all the southern part of Afghanistan. under the reign of the last-mentioned monarch. with Bactria. At that time Mansoor reigned in Tartary. Thence it often happened that a part of the nation was to be found in one camp. and it is only from about the year A. and ready to sell their services to the highest bidder. and it is not surprising that . and under a host of chie& very careful of their independence. This blank remains in profound obscurity. 997 that we have any information which can elucidate the history of the Afghans. The disunion existing amongst the Afghan tribes in the present day may be traced back to the most remote times. which existed with some degree of splendour during one hundred and fifty years. and made Ghuznee his capital. named Sebek-Taghee. threw off the allegiance 14 SEBEK-TAGHEE.

and thought little of his good deeds and the benefits he conferred upon them. their dominion was soon reduced to the Afghan proyinces. carried his arms into Persia and India. and they were for a long time a wild race dispersed over Persia. next to that of the Abdalees. one of the most beautiful cities in Asia. in which their authority was not always respected . after the death of his father. Mahmood. the most numerous and the most powerful in Afghanistan. and put him to a cruel death to punish him for Ae resolution with which he had opposed him. But succeeding centuries have enabled the Ghildjzyes to recover from this disaster. of the name of Sooree. but everywhere and at all periods turbulent and difficult to govern. and insulted him by every species of outrage. one of these princes. on the contrary. The consequence was. which was so much the more dangerous for them. Beiram. they owed this circumstance much more to the difficulties in which their neighbours were involved than to any fear they entertained of the Tartar dynasty. and the tribe is now. who succeeded him on the throne of Ghuznee. little worthy of succeeding him. Sebek-Taghee may be considered as the first sovereign who ruled over Afghanistan properly so called . brother of this unfortunate Afghan and his successor . and made Ghuznee. AUah-Eddin. The tribe of the Abdalees. because their tribe was at that time exceedingly numerous. were always strongly opposed to the Tartar dominion over their country. seized upon an Afghan chief. and the mountains of Afghanistan. and if they preseryed these during two centuries. and with the spoils of war obtained in these countries enriched Afghanistan. who about the year 1151 commanded in the province of Gour. he made him suffer a thousand tortures. was obliged almost entirely to exterminate them. the most powerful now existing. His descendants. They carried their malpractices to such an extent. son of Sebek-Taghee. but the Afghans. that on very many occasions quarrels arose in which many of the tribes were decimated without pity. Their migratory habits also contributed to this result. in consequence of his Tartar origin. while the remainder were obliged to seek refuge in the mountains where they are to be met with in the present day. looked upon him and his descendants Chap. His death took place in 1028.with this sentiment they have so long delayed to organize themselves as a nation. 15 as tyrants and usurpers. soon lost the territory which he had added to the kingdom founded by Sebek-Taghee . The barbarity of the Tartar prince on this occasion exceeded anything that can be imagined . adapting themselves very little to the habits of those of a different origin within whose territory they estabhshed themselves. did not fix itself in the Suleiman range till it had received authority to do so from Sebek-Taghee. India. CRUELTY OF TARTARS. his capital. H. that Mahmood. The Ghildjzyes. who was desirous of recompensing them by this concession of territory for the support they had afforded him in his Indian campaigns.

.... and his son Khosroo Shah inherited the reduced territory he had preserved . cousin and successor of Allah Eddin... 433 Maasood 1049 . . 387 Hahmood . Attacked in 1160 by Mahmood Gouree.. War was declared on several other occasions between these two princes..in the sovereignty of Gour. and completely succeeded. and continued to reign in the Punjab. 976 365 Ismael 997 . . H^ira. ... Khosroo Malek was overthrown. Sebek-Taghee . thus vanquished. .. 443 Ferakh-zad .. 508 . retired beyond the Indus. when Beiram was less unfortunate.. Chap... The following is a list of the Ghaznevide princes who reigned over the last-mentioned country : — 16 AFGHAN PRINCES OF GOUR.. He seized the town of Ghuznee..... . 1052 ... 1053 444 Ibrahim 1059 450 Masaood 1098 492 Areelane Shah . and who carried the spirit of a savage temperament 80 far as to mix the blood of the vanquished with the mortar destined to repair the walls of the city. but the dynasty of the Ghaznevides was brought to a close during the lifetime of his grandson Khosroo Malek. 422 Madood 1041 . and his kingdom annexed to that of Afghanistan. . 1104 ... All 1049 . abandoned it during seven days to the fury and excesses of an army burning with vengeance and possessed with an inherent passion for plunder. 441 Abd-ul-Reschid .. 1030 421 Maasood 1031 . H.. determined to revenge himself by force of arms. Beiram. abandoning the western provinces of his kingdom to his victorious adversary..D. 997 387 Mohamed . 441 A.

Malek Hafez. to which they soon added divers principalities of India. Rookn-Eddin and Fakhr-Eddin. added to their feelings of nationality. which is synonymous. which western authors mention under the name of Malek Kurt. but the third. nevertheless the latter claimed the support of the Tartars to main- . Mahmood Gouree carried his arms into the interior of India and seized Benares.* established itself in the province of Gour and extended its dominion over Kandahar and Herat from a.d. Chems-Eddin Gouree. AFGHAN RULE IN INDIA. Moez Eddin Hoosein. Afghanistan proper fell to Eldooz.. The humiliation which the Afghans experienced in being treated as a conquered people. must have excited heroic sentiments in their breasts. 1108 512 The Afghan princes of Gour. but poesesang none of those means of aggression which could enable the Afghans to hope for victory against one so powerful as that of Ghuznee. in which city he committed a thousand atrocities. 1336 (Hejira 736) to a. was in like manner obliged to retire before the victorious armies of Ghengis Khan. Ferishteh informs us that the descendants of this conqueror were in possession of Afghanistan up to the year 1251 — the period at which an Afghan or Patau King. Djellal Eddin. were thus raised to the sovereign power in Afghanistan. — the word Gour. Gour is a little province. preserved their independence .. and Malek Bagher. acknowledged the suzerainty of the Tartar monarchs . signifies Prince of Qour. was divided between his favourites and his freedmen. which. The first sovereign of this dynasty. and annexed them to the Indian empire. well situated for defence. ♦ The word Kurt ia a corruption of dynasty was of the Afghan race. Chems-Eddin. and died in 1205. threw off the vassalage which had been laid upon him by the descendants of Ghengis Khan. It may be supposed that Allah Eddin found a ready support in the other tribes of his nation. whose successor. His empire. 17 nerertheless. .Beiram Shah . in accordance with his desire. H. who succeeded him.d. but he was soon despoiled of it by a prince of Kharism. and made them triumph over the foreign race that oppressed them. 1383 (Hejira 785). Less than a century later a new dynasty. Ghyaz-Eddin. of Malek. who submitted with regret to the dominion of the Tartars. This Chap. united with that Ferrier. This prince left no heirs. and in the heart of the most rugged mountains of the Paropamisus. seized upon Ghuznee and Kabul. from being simple chie& of a small principality. this was the case also with his sons and successors.

with Delhi for its capital. This circumstance is therefore confirmatory of the opinion we have already set fbrth on the uncertainty of the origin of the A%hans. as we have already stated above. where. protected and favom^d by the monarch.tain him in the position he had usurped. c 18 AFGHAN RULE IN INDIA. devoted to pillage. This prince was made prisoner by the Emir Tamerlane. died in 1450. for his brother Moez-Eddin overthrew him. named Belial.IT. they with little difficulty obt^Ded an ascendaocy over the nativeB of India. Tamerlane speaks of the Afghans in his Institutes as a barbarous people. when Tamerlane conquered it Mahmood III. also of the tribe of Lood. the ninth and last sovereign of this dynasty. since the days of Sebek-Taghee. seeing its chief the sovereign of a vast empire. left Afghanistan and settled themselves in India. but a portion of the fiicts which relate to it occurred in India. who. for want of a direct heir. and the fear with which they infipired them resulted in their accepting with re^gnation the yoke of the Afghan dynasty. TliiB new sovereign made Agra his capital. Accustomed from their in&ncy to a life spent in camps. but he limits the country they then occupied to the Suleiman mountains. from which we are left to conclude that he understood by the name Afghan or Aoughan only the tribe of the Abdalees. they increased rapidly. Ceap. was then on the throne. and beyond the territory the history of which we are endeavouring to sketch : we shall therefore pass on very rapidly. and of rude and simple habits. one of his generals of the Afghan tribe of Lood. divided between his fevourites and freedmen. which took place in 1205. This tribe. From the conquest of A%hani8tan by Tamerlane up to the commencement of the sixteenth century the information respecting them is exceedingly vague. and by no means so &r advanced in civilization as the Tartars. and only have recourse to the manuscript from which we have already given sonie passages. and yet this epoch ought to have been one of the most honourable in the annals of Afghan history . were in possession of the country mentioned in the Institutes. the dominions of this Mahmood were. During his reign the empire was a prey to continual agitation . overthrew the reigning fiunily. a period at which an Afghan lord. the revolts . who seized his territory as well as that of Ghuznee and Kabul. The A%han rule in India commenced at the death of Mahmood Gouree. and the inrader allowed him to retun the supreme pow^ as a recompense for the assistance which he gave him during thoae bloody masaacree that obtuned for him the title of the destroyer of humanity. Hahmood III. but his reign was of brief duration. This dynasty still held poeseseion of that country in 1398. thus. and left the reins of power to his son Ghyaz-Eddin. The Indian provinces fell to Koutoob.

amongst the Loods were incessant. of the tribe of Gurkani. and menaced on the south by Ibrahim Khan. and he resolved to march upon the Tartar kingdom of Ferghana. with whom he concluded a treaty offensive and defensive. reinforced by the troops which Ibrahim Khau had sent to his support. stipulating that the conquered countries should be divided between them. Mirza Baboor also took the field. wrote to him in 1511 (Hejira 916). defeated him. The natives of India had little reason to congratulate themselves in having requested another monarch to come and govern them. and besought his assistance in throwing off the tyranny of Ibrahim Khan. already despoiled of some of the best parte of his territory by Chahee Beg. the manuscript of Abdullah Khan of Herat proceeds thus. therefore. fled from his kingdom. and placed himself under the protection of the King of Persia. routed them. he invaded Bucceaavely Kandahar and Kabul. He marched. and Belial was at length driven out and succeeded by Ibrahim Khan. This occurred in 1505 (Ilejira 911). and commenced operations against the Uzbeks . but be bad scarcely laid dege to Bokhara ^hen the inhabitants. attacked the Persians during the night. against that monarch in 1525. commanded by Mir Nadjm. and he accepted it with readiness. At the istan. In 1508 (Hejira 913) he seized upon Kandahar. This took place in the year 1498 (Hejira 904!). Shah Ismael Seflavye received him in tlie most gracious manner. and took possession of the whole of the Indian territories of which Ibrahim had usurped the sovereignty. seeing his success. and soon after gave him a force of 20. for Mirza Baboor oppressed and plundered. sovereign of India and Afghanwhich took place in 1530 (Hejira 937).* was at this time sovereign of Ferghana. another Afghan chief of the same tribe. and made them almost regret Ibrahim Khan the Lood. and fifth in descent from Tamerlane.000 horsemen. and not long after the Punjab. desp^red of being able to resist this combination of his enemies. After this brief description of the transient power which the Afghans possessed in this part of India. ceeded vizier death of Mirza Baboor. who subdued each of his competitors in turn . Chap. king of Bokhara. MIRZA BABOOR. revolted . and his Shere Khan. and killed their leader. and within a brief space he had made numerous partisans in that country. his eldest son sucto all his dominions. The natives of India. with which to recover his Idngdom. who. an Afghan of the tribe of Lood. which he entirely subdued. promising to act with vigour the moment he should appear at the head of his army. H. Mir Nadjm. This request consorted with the projects of vengeance that Mirza Baboor cherished against Ibrahim Khan. already attacked in the rear by Cbahee Beg. Successes so easily obtained inoreased his ambition. fiivoured as he was by the Afghan tribes. the road to which city remained open : he was fortunate enough to be able to take Kabul. 19 After this disaster Mirza Baboor retreated by the way of Balkh. but his brother Kamran. Mirza Baboor. meeting with scarcely any resistance.

came to a c2 20 HUMAYOON. having been in< formed that the fugitive prince was approaching his territory. and turning to one of his officers he said. Humayoon. in a manner worthy of his rank and with a splendour truly regal. as the following anecdote will show : — Humayoon. Chap. He also forbade any of his servants from mentioning the circumstance. commanded by Beyram Ehan. to whom no intimation on the subject had been given. In six months the beautiful mosque was finished. ^* If I had the means of doing so. H. Humayoon did as his father had done — ^he retired to the court of Persia and sought the protection of the Shah Thamasp. I would here build a magnificent mosque. having been called into his presence. sent an order to the governor of Herat to receive him with every mark of respect. became at length sensible that the state of his affidrs in India would never improve if he continued to pass his time amidst the festivities of the court at Easbeen . and gave strict injunctions that Humayoon should never be permitted to walk near the spot until the edifice was completed. walking one day in the streets of Kasbeen. This officer had riesided many years in India.ade as having been the founder." A Persian nobleman who heard these words repeated them to the Shah Thamasp. who swore that the wish of Humayoon should not remain ungratified. was ordered to construct a magnificent mosque. was well acquainted with the habits and feelings of the people of that country. Humayoon. and his architect. and within the space of six months. at his disposal. and the Smh charged him to re-establish Humayoon in all his rights. This monarch.000 cavalry. the capital. and the name of the Shah's guest inscribed over the portal in the &. had some time before attacked Kandahar and taken it from the Moguls. the spot pleased him greatly. nevertheless. the dear and limpid waters of which ran with a rajnd course between banks covered with flowers and verdure . on the other hand. The march of this army upon Delhi was soon known. the Persians. After their meeting the two monarchs felt a lively interest in each other. upon the site indicated by the exiled prince. and placed 12. assisted by those devoted to their interests. and the Loods at once made every preparation for defence. obliged him to fly. The King of Persia received this new request as he had done every other. and. Subsequently the Shah gave him frurther proo& of his attachment . and his gratitude to the Shah Thamasp for this delicate mark of his friendship not less. was conducted to it. he therefore begged the Shah to give him some troops with which he might hope to regain his crown and punish the usurpers of his throne. Humayoon had scarcely arrived at Kabul when his .against him. Notwithstanding this act of hostility. but in vain. eanal. The Shah Thamasp not only acceded to the wishes of his royal guest. and to escort him to Kasbeen. indeed he was prodigal of them. His astonishment on seeing it was great indeed. but did everything in his power to anticipate them.

they showed themselves in arms at various points and again threatened the Emperor of the Moguls. were not thoroughly put down until the close of the reign of Aurungzebe. sumamed Djellal Eddin Akbar. These instructions were rigorously executed. but without being able to grasp a second time the Indian sceptre. which had been excited by this religious schism. who again persecuted the Afghan Loods. second son of Humayoon. Roeuchen Bayazid. which took place in 1555. a young maiden of the tribe of Lood. suffered new misfortunes. for death surprised him in the midst of it. endeavoured to create a schism in the Mahomedan religion as professed by the Afghans. On hearing this Humayoon travelled night and day to reach his dominions. and declared his pretensions to the throng of Delhi.Indian subjects revolted against Shere Khan. and owed the success which he obtained. A LOOD PROPHETESS. Omar Sheikh Kiemal Eddin. These troubles were rife up to the commencement of the reign of Shah Abedin Mohamed Shah. Neverdieless they did not attempt any* thing in the lifetime of Humayoon. and in 1632 (Hejira 1042) drove them out of India. the Moguls. her preaching and that of her disciples was the cause of great commotions in the empire : the Loods. . His son. who passed amongst them as inspired. sumiCmed Shah Jehan. The Loods continued to carry on this party warfare for a considerable time. in short almost a prophet. with a crowd of Tartars and Parsivans that soon joined him. they made no further attempts to obtain power . for the Moguls were too powerful. but the revolts. who had also raised the standard of revolt against Akbar. and fresh massacres considerably reduced their numbers. 21 with orders to massacre the Afghan Loods wherever they were met with and not leave one alive. who succeeded him. This numerous and well-trained army was broken into divisions on its arrival in India. one of the chiefs of the Loods. plaxsed himself at tiieir head. but after his death. and those who were fortunate enough to escape were reduced to a pitiable condition. and a few Indian tribes . and Humayoon sent them in various directions ^rr- Chap. who were always at the head of every disturbance. as his father had done. but without obtaining any positive result. and we shall in future become further acquainted with their history in that of Afghanistan Proper. to the co-operation of the Prince Noor Eddin Jehanghir. From this period the Lood tribe ceased to have any influence in India . united the scattered warriors of the tribe. H. For several years he kept up a desultory warfare against the Moguls. named Eiemal Ehatoon. Afi^r the death of Omar Sheikh Eiemal Eddin. to follow. leaving Beyram Khan and his Persians. continued the strife. but when they recovered from ihe terror into which they had been thrown. and after having killed a large proportion of his Afghans obliged him to fly fix>m the country. and in the reign of his son Mohamed Akim Mirza.

. in his excellent work on Persia. Chap. the information is taken from the Persian manuscript of Mirza Syud Mohamed of Ispahan : — '' In the time of the Saffavean kings of Persia the Affghans were often oppressed . he ceded it to him by treaty in 1545 . and on one occasion they were so discontented with their Persian governor. and two of the tribe of Abdallee were raised to the office of Reish Saffeed. enabled to hold possession of Kabul. was 22 EMBASSY TO SHAH ABBAS. to mark his gratitude for the services which he had received from the Shah of Persia.Mirza Baboor. which he left to his suooessors . Tbe AflFghans were delighted with this arrangement. The following are the terms in which Sir John Malcolm. from whom the present Affghan chiefs. are Chap. AFGHANS UNDER SHAH ABBAS. the successor to Baboor. who carried Kandahar by assault This was the last time but one that the Moguls were enabled to take this fortress. is lineally descended. speaks of this embassy . of the family of Bameeyehi. that they sent a secret deputation to Ispahan to solicit his removal and the appointment of one of their own tribe. but. The race of Seedoo obtained sovereignty. seized upon it once more. and the efforts which Aurungzebe made to retake it at a later period completely failed. Their request was granted . the founder of the present royal family of Cabul. Seffavye Humayoon. Subsequently^ however. and the superiority of the chiefe so selected has become an inheritance to their family. The officers appointed by the Persian monarch to govern Kandahar so oppressed the Afghans that they sent two of their principal Serdars to the Shah to obtain a relaxation of the rigorous measures to which they were subjected. The name of the other was Ahmed. and requested that the governor might henceforth be chosen from the chiefs of the A%han tribes. in 1609 (Hejira 1018). Serafray Khan and Futteh Khan. after which his son Akbar retook it It fell. into the hands of the great Shah Abbas Seflavye. H. the founder of the dynasty of the Moguls. from whom Ahmed Shah. promising that their fidelity should be' proof against every temptation. H. and granted their entire and respectful obedience to the chief appointed by the Persian Government Time has confirmed this respect . but only to revert to the Emperor Jehangir. the advantageous position of which on the frontiers of the two states made them dispute its possession with so much tenacity against the Persians. against which he sent his son Kamran Mirza. 23 desoended. of the family of Bareekzehi. but soon after it was again in the power of the Shah Thamasp. or Kutkhodah of the tribes. The contest for it was again renewed in 1620 by Shah Abbas. but he lost Kandahar. and their authority was confirmed by a royal patent The name of one of these two persons was Seedoo. it continued in the possession of Persia during the lifetime of Humayoon. he retook Kandahar. however. and this as well as the principalities of Herat and Gour fell into the hands of the Persians.

which had belonged to them from the time of Baber. but a Per^an ^vemor. even to the Ahmedzehis." This respect for the Suddozyes amongst the Afghans has disappeared in our days . So long as Shah Abbas lived the Afghans settled in Herat and Kandahar remained perfectly tranquil under his dominion . they revolted. . are persecuted and often plundered by the Mohamedzyes actually in power. who were always more anxious to be under the dominion of the Great Mogul. so that. n. and since they have been dispossessed of the throne. ' The Persians retained Herat and Kandahar in spite of the adverse feelmg of the Afghans. passed over to the camp of the Mogul Emperor with the Persian troops under his orders. that. surnamed Shah Nawaz Khan. but a great number of the Affghans deny this privilege. and with a view to effect this object he selected as their governor the Walee of Georgia. however. the most restless and the most constant enemies of Persia. during the reign of Shah Abbas the Second. the Shah. and the Ahmedzehis may without sacrilege slay a Seedoozehi . but in vain. a traitor to his duty. however. Gourguin Khan. which they considered less burdensome than that of the Persians. from which it was derived. If an Affghan acted otherwise he would be deemed an outcast in his own class or tribe. and instructions to take severe measures with the Afghans. In 1698. or lord of another tribe. appointed by his grandson and successor Shah Seffee. were. but also all the members of the tribe of Popolzye. and derived their fortunes from that fountain of dignity and splendour.while that of Ahmed has only gained high station and command. dispersed over the province of Kandahar. This sovereign managed to keep the Heratees in check. The Seedoozehis (or descendants of Seedoo) are held in such veneration. an exception to this rule in favour of the descendants of Ahmed. it would be considered wrong to obtain safety by assaulting the Seedoozehis. and gave up the fortress to the Shah in 1634. Kandahar was taken from the Moguls by the Persians in 1642. Chap. but his governor in Kandahar. having maltreated them. The Afghans of the tribe of Ghildjzyes. Seedoo and Ahmed (this author adds) were raised to rank by Shah Abbas the Great. felt that it was absolutely necessary that they should be put down. they had pretty nearly rendered themselves masters of the principality. not only those who belonged to this branch. to recapture the city. 24 DEPUTATION TO PERSIAN COURT. and were obliged to remain satisfied with the possession of Kabul. and sent with him a well-appointed and numerous army. a little before his accession to the throne. if one of them was to attempt the murder of an ameer. a clever and energetic man. Sultan Hoosein. The conquerors of Delhi subsequently made every efibrt. There is. towards the close of the seventeenth century.

flight being impossible and complaint useless. but is also beaten — The Afghans acknowledge Mir Weis as their sovereign chief— Death of the Mir in 1715 — HiB brother Mir Abdullah succeeds him — His negotiations with Persia . and seeing no other mode by which they could put a stop to the cruelties that were practised upon them. Disappointed in their hopes. age. and the individuals who composed the deputation returned to their countrymen to share with them the despair they also fel . reduced the women and girls to a state of slavery. Chap. for an act on the part of Gourguin Khan soon presented them with an opportunity. bewildered and alarmed at this state of things. nor sex was any protection . as a conquered but rebellious people . surfeited with murders and pillage. and bowed down with grief. the Afghans could not dream of emancipating themselves by force of arms from the heavy yoke of Gourguin Khan. sent a deputation to Ispahan. 25 CHAPTER III. they awaited in silence. The Afghans. for his vigilance was equal to his severity . and exterminate the Persian troops — The tribe of the Abdalees establish themselves in Herat — The Persian generals attack the Kelauter and are beaten — Kaee Khoeroo Khan besieges Kandahar — He is defeated and killed with 80. and finally to Kandahar — Indignation of Gtotu-guin Khan — Events consequent upon this — Opinion of Abdullah Khan upon them — Death of Qourguin Khan — Mir Weis enters Kandahar — Statement of Mirza Mehdee — The Ghilcyzyes declare their independence. IIL ABBEST OF MIR WEI8. and made them the unhappy victims of their base violence. nothing could escape his inflexible and harsh proceedings — neither rank. his troops. in 1706.000 of lus troope — Mohamed Roostem succeeds him. the moment when they should be able to take vengeance upon their oppressors for so many outrages . and treated the Afghans without pity. for their delegates were received with haughty and harsh indifference . to entreat the King to put a stop to the calamities which weighed upon them . but this embassy did not succeed as a similar one had done in the reign of Shah Abbas. and this was not tax distant. The Kelanter of Kandahar is sent prisoner to Ispahan— -His intrigae« against Goniguin Khan — He makes a pilgrimage to Mecca — Obtains a/rtvo fi^>m the chief mollah of Islam — Returns to Ispahan.Shah Nawaz Khan arrived at Kandahar in 1702.

chief. at Kandahar. seizes Herat. but in this the office must have been Qovemor in instance eminent. And he had probably amongst 26 PILGRIMAGE OF MIB WEIS. with several other rich Sefid^ A%han8. and chief of a branch of the tribe of Ghildjzyes. in the case of Mir Weis. liberality. by his amiable manners. — Fsrner. f Literally whUe beard. III. under the pretext that he was coDspring against the government. the Kelauter* of Kandahar. Governor of Herat — Zeman Khan appointed by the Persian monarch to succeed him — Heyat Sultan — He marches against Kandahar — Attacked by Aaaad Ullah and defeated — Enters Herat — Persian campaign against the Usbeks — Sefi Kooli Khan — Is defeated by the Afghans — Independence of the Afghans established — Assad Qllah lays siege to Furrah — Is attacked by Mir Kahmood of Kandahar — A Belooch chief. made himself much beloved by his countrymen. and the ductile character of his mind. — Ferrier. This Serdar had. he therefore ordered the Kelauter to be arrested. and sent him. to Ispahan. and the friend of all the great nobles of his court Assured of having for the future an influence over the degraded courtiers of the Persian King. there to explain his conduct to the Shah. but with they are more or lees important: but very extensive powers. Mir Weis did not on this occasion belie his reputation for ability* On his arrival at the court of the Sefiavyes. Amongst the Afghan nohles who had signed the petition to the Shah against Nawaz Khan was Mir Weis. Mir Mohamed. that in the course of a few days he became one of the principal favourites of Shah Sultan Hooeein. and scattering a little gold about him.— Is put to death by the eldest son of Mir Weis. Gourguin Khan feared him. persuasiye powers^ and great intelligence. and knew that he was the principal instigator of the hatred which the Afghans bore him . and such was his tact. he at once perceived the corruption which reigned on all sides . who succeeds him — Alayar Khsn. In different towns administration of the police. solemn audience granted him by the King he succeeded in obtaining from the sovereign an acknowledgment that he was innocent of the accusations which had been brought against him . the views of Mir Weis took a wider . Caap. he endeavoured to turn his captivity to account In a * The dutiee of superintend the kelauter in Persia are his other functions to not exactly defined.

27 personage intended to compass the ruin of both uncle and nephew by prejudicing the mind of the Shah against them whenever an occasion should present itself. who could not forgive Gourguin Khan and his nephew. were Soonees. he found no difficulty in obtaining from them a f^o^ in which they declared that his countrymen were bound by every means in their power to throw off the thraldom of the Shiah heretics. Strong in the power of his own genius. Amongst these enemies was the vizier of Shah Sultan Hoosein. fanaticism. and declare themselves independent This . he deeply reflected upon the mode in which. and solicited the Shah's permission for 3fir Weis to return to Kandahar. HI. like all Persian nobles in high situations. Instead of evincing a desire to return to his country. having enlisted the sympathies of the chief moUahs of Islam. to give himself the best chance of success. he had set on foot before his departure. This feeble prince had been persuaded that Gourguin Khan and his nephew. therefore. A few days after their departure Mir Weis was on his way to the Holy City. he solicited and obtained the Shah's permiaeion to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca. well convinced of the bad feeling which the A%han chief entertained against Shah Nawaz Khan. and. Mir Weis. and also his consent that the rich sefids who had accompanied him should return to Kandahar . for he concluded that a country thus delivcired up to men so worthless and corrupt might become an ea£y conquest if attacked by some brave men well led. where. secret advances to the Vizier with the hope of inducing him to associate himself in his deedgn. but before they left Ispahan he instructed them secretly to prepare the Afghans for revolt. with no littie ingenuity. the Sipahee Salar Kaee Khosroo Khan. and believing him to be entirely devoted to the interests of the Shah. mS RETURN TO KANDAHAR. wished to raise the standard of revolt in Georgia. and became one of Mir Weis's warmest protectors. he might carry out so gigantic an enterprise as an invasion of Persia . and occupied himself in carrying out the intrigue which. secretly supported by the Tzar of Russia. Gourguin Khan had enemies at court anxious for his downfall. Mir Weis returned to Ispahan as soon as he had performed his pilgrimage. the Vizier made every effort to support the Afghan chief against him. he determined to work upon his countrymen by that most poweritd of agents.range than they had hitherto done. with considerable penetration. who. like the Afghans. the estimation in which they were held by the Shah. or replacing him by one of their own creatures. entered into his views. as much from jealousy as in the hope of succeeding to the government of Kandahar. saw that this W Chap. and the influence which they had always employed against him. he made. In order the more rapidly to bring about the CeJI of Gourguin. The Vizier.

conformed to the orders of his sovereign. well assured that every one would be in his fiivour. but instead of sending him his own daughter. really desirous of an alliance with the — Ftrrier. he ordered him to send one of his daughters. but Mir Weis. and given rise to some apprehensions. but hb concubine.* The A%hans^ informed of the affiront which had been put upon their chie^ and eager * The mannacript of Abdullah Khaa Mir^ with whoee talents and influence is here atvarianoe with that of Miraa he was well acquainted. to avenge it. and at the same time serve as a counterpoise to his power. to humiliate him in the eyes of the people. returned to Kandahar by Kerman and the Seistan. observing attentively on his journey the state of things in each locality. his slave accepted. and those who have sufficient faith iu me to place their destiny in my hands may be convinced that the most profound secresy is the first condition of Buccess. but the prudence of the serpent that watches overcomes the strength of the lion who permits himself to slumber. " l^e time which must prove our courage. and they decided upon temporising in order that thej might take measures which should better ensure the success of their plans. with orders to resume the important functions of Kelauter. UI. and thought that his adversary might refuse to recognise the firman which conferred on him the functions of Kelauter. who. and reinstated the Mir in his post NeverthelesB. satisfied that his fidelity and vigilance would enable him to penetrate the real sentiments of Grourguin. 28 MURDER OP GOURGUIN KHAN. " is arrived. fae substituted one of his slaves. a girl of great personal beauty. secrrtly assembling the principal chie&.was sufficient to induce the Shah to give Mir Weis permisfflon to return to his native city. and that he Ali Mohamed. Not less animated than Mir Weis against the oppressors of her country. . ruahed immediately to anna . arrested their ardour." sfud he to them. though indignant at his return. whose account of the wished bj means of this marriage to transaction I have followed. Mir Weis. and with delight. But the Governor. Chap. was conducted in great state to the harem of the Shah Nawaz Khan. which had conaderably increased. dressed in the richest attire. Abdullah put an end to the differences that Khan states that Qourguin Khan was existed between himself and that chief." After this conference Mir Weis affected to submit to the governor's wishes . On his arrival he saw that the power and tyranny of Gourguin Khan had attained their utmost limits. to his harem without delay — ^his intention being not to make her his wife. and to prove that he himself was absolute in his own government. we must conceal our swords in a bed of roses. also a very beautiful girl.

who fell upon the Georgian Walee at Dehchir. after which the Kelauter dressed himself in the robes of Gourguin. and entered the dty without being recognised. defeated and took him prisoner.' gives a different account of the death of Nawaz Khan. Mir Weis assembled them together with a view to their reconciliation. he therefore trusted him implicitly. to he inaccurate. and without suspidon. and such was the security felt by Gourguin after he had arrived there. that he decided on sending his best Georgian troops to put it down. however. the conspirators slaughtered all the inebriated sleepers. worked well for Mir Weis . and. who had indulged to an equal extent in their libations.the part she was called upon to perform. after this tragedy was over. that not one soldier was left alive. at the same time he secured the co-operation of the officers of the palace. He states that the governor had quitted Kandahar to chastise some rebels of the Kaukeree tribe. and author of the ^ Life of Nadir Shah. Qourguin Khan. and excited the turbulent Abdalec and Kaukeree tribes to commence a revolt. that he quafied immoderate quantities of wine during the repast. a Persian. they returned to Kandahar in the middle of the night. Mir Weis profited by the favour which he now enjoyed witi the governor to bring about his fall with greater cert^nty . 29 and ordered the Afghans in his own service to put on those of the Georgians who had accompanied their Walee. DESTRUCTION OF GEORGIAN TROOPS. The insurgents. This he accepted. This rising occa^oned Gourguin so much anxiety. and retained only twelve or fif^n hundred men near him to defend the citadel. believed the A^an was really desirous of forgetting the past and being on finendly terras with lum for the future . and with his suite. imt* Chap. put to death the Peisian troops on guard at the gate. at first but few in number. in short. In his usual persuasive style of eloquence he showed them the advantages they might obtain from the liberty which had . who had previously been prepared for the movement. The natives of different countries residing at Kandahar were at that time at variance with each other. when Mir Weis arrived. Mirza Mehdee. and sent Shah Nawaz an invitation to a feast which he had prepared at one of his country houses. m. situated about half an hour's ride from the city. and the Persian garrison was so completely exterminated. Thus disguised. which soon spread its ramifications over all the southern part of the province of Kandahar. and subsequently put him to death by the hands of Murad Khan. Everything. a low Afghan* This statement seems. not in the least suspecting tiie plot. were soon reinforced by the Afghans from the environs. eventually fell asleep. Mir Weia took advantage of the absence of these troops to put the projects he had so long meditated into execution.

and Kaukeree tribes then in Kandahar. and though they fought with a heroism wwthy of a better cause. from whom Abdullah Khan ^in differs. Gourgiun Khan was scaicely ten cules from the dty. refusing to pay the taxes. followed rapidly in the rear of Gourguin Khan. and there in the course of a very few years they greatly increased in numbers and became very rich. or who held an appointment under the late governor. comnumded by Mir Weis . and swore that they would obey the Mir. and respect his person. and swords were drawn. After this coup-de-mun Mir Weis returned immediately with his men to Kandahar. whose warlike instincts. arrived under the walls of Kandahar. required only to be cleverly directed. and finally obliged to submit. It was the habit of tbe governor and his Georgians to get drunk regularly every day after sunset. Gluldjzye. vbo had taken up a portion about twenty leagues from Kandahar. by virtue of a fresh a^^reement with the Ghildjzyes. which had an irresistible effect upon the feelings of this fanatical people. and invited them to form that bond of union which alone could emancipate them. These he put to death. having quickly assembled the principal chie& and all the fighting men of the Abdalee. and for ever. but now. and fell upon them during the night : it was a massacre rather than a combat. and many of them settled amongst the mountains of the Siah-bend. the Georgians who had been despatched against the rebels in the south. Three days aftier this unlooked-for event. they were enabled to do so. uardied at tbe bead of bis troops agwnst tbe Abdalees and Kankerees. when Mir Weis. having been powerfelly excited. and succeeded in their mission. IXsoord ensued when the plunder was to be divided. situated between Kandahar and the principality of Gour. The emigration of the Abdalees into the principality of Herat dates fr^im this period. and no precautions were ever taken to guard a camp in which every one was plunged in debauch.thus been given them. but the Abdalees and Kaukerees were beaten by the Ghildjzyes. Mir Weis fcnew this. HI. inviolably attach themselves to his fortunes. and after a few days obtained an easy victory over the remaining half-starved Persians that defended tbe place. as well as those individuals who were not of Afghan origin. Here they vere suddenly attacked by five thousand Afghan horse. to which he laid ^ege. nor could they have remained in Kandahar without their pennisaioQ. They were not long in deciding what course to take. they were unable to stand the unexpected shock or make good their retreat : only eighteen escaped and retomed with the disastrous intelligence to Persia. maasacred without pity ereiy Peraan they came in contact with. The latter states ^'that Gourguin Khan himself so ABDALEES ESTABUSHBD TS HBBAT. and. The Abdalees up to this time had always inhabited the country to the south of the Urghendab and the Hehnund without having ever obt^ed tbe consent of the Mogul or Perman kings to pass those rivers . Such is the Account given by Mirza Ali Mohamed. from the Persian yoke. He then drew forth the fetvo he had obtained from the chief moUahs at Mecca. fv' the Shah Nawaz and his troops were put to death almost without resistance. Cur. .

These events took place in 1718. he put to death all the Afghans who fell into his power. having driven out the opprewora of his country. demanded the uncon- . SIEGE OF KANDAHAR. As a reprisal for the acts which the Abdalees and Kaukerees had committed. completely beaten by Mir Weisin three sucoessive battles. and. With this view the chie& who commanded in Khorassan were ordered to unite their forces and attack the rebels.000 men to take the field. This they did. two years elapsed before he ordered his army of 30. became a complete desert. was completely defeated by Kaee Khosroo between the Helmund and the Urghendab. and. but Mir Weis. ere many days had passed. instead of putting down this rebellion with yigour. retiring from thence. The Court of Persia. and Abdalee Afghans. and. and commanded by Sipahee Salar E^aee Khosroo Khan. the Shah at length determined to march an army upon Kandahar. which. at enmity with the Ghildjzyes. estaUished a kind of discipline amongst them. adopted a system which exposed all its weakness. Finally. This the Sipahee Salar pushed forward with great activity and perseverance. and ravaged all the environs of the city. In this campaign Mir Weis was not successful. and did not even spare the women and children. on receiving information of this catastrophe." Mir Weis. He lost all the territory he had taken from the chie& of Khorassan. turned his attention to the manner in which he might best consolidate his work : he restored union between the different tribes. they were. alarmed at the terrible consequences that might befall them if the city was taken by assault. Arabs. saw at once the imminence of the danger. thinking himself sure of success. and released them from the heavy Chat. 31 impostB whidi had till then weighed heayily upon their ezertioDS. in 1713. to which city his adversary soon laid siege. The Shah. though 'outnumbering the A%han troops in the proportion of eight to one. It was com* posed of Persians. was obliged to seek refuge within the walls of Kandahar. in which alarming indications had manifested themselves . m. the principal fiimilies acknowledged him as the Sovereign Prince of Kandahar. But Kaee Khosroo Khan. It commenced by n^otiating . however. The revolt might gain ground in other provinces of his empire. Walee of Georgia. haying detained the ambassadors who were sent to advise him to return to his duty. and eager to avenge the death of his uncle by that of his murderers. they insisted that Mir Weis should o£Per terms of accommodation to the Persian general. in consequence of the want of co-operation between the Persian diiefe.Nevertheless the Afghans agree in stating that a brandi of tbe Noorzyes had been established in tbe plains of Obeh and Qtehrak fijT more than one hundred years before the bulk of that tribe came to reade in tbe principality. and nephew of the unfortunate Goui^in Khan. The besieged were soon reduced to the greatest extremity.

these hopes were not extinguished. The garrison saw by this reply that «2 DEATH OF MIB WEIS. who. Khosroo Khan. of which he stood greatly in need . Chap. as the inhabitants of the capita) had done after the death of Goui^^uin Khan. guning courage from despair. and there sought an honourable death. was subsequendy sent with a third army to subdue Mir Weis. but constantiy molested on his march. but he was not more fortunate than his predecessor. This new danger induced him to offer battie to the Afghans. Unfortunately. and in the succeeding one to that in which he obtained his last victory over the Persians. he found it impossible to secure a moment's repoee for his troops. however. DT. borne down with desp^r. which left the Mir absolute master of the whole province of Kandahar. and acknowledged Mir Weis for their sovereign chief. threw himself at the head of a few brave companions into the thickest of the light.AH— MIR MAHMOOD. the. Mir Weia. 33 those measures received a fresh impulse under the government of his son Mahmood. assembled several thousand A%han cavalry. had nothing to hope for. and harassed the Peraans day and night The result was obvious. he owed his own safety only to a rapid retreat. Mohamed Rooetem. for he died towards the close of 1715. The . and they so completely annihilated the Per^an army. Mir Weis lefl two sons. Defeated by the Afghans in several encounters. but that they surprised and defeated him in a night attack. JH. Abdullah Khan assures us that Khosroo did not attack the Afghans. though checked for a time. deomated and discouraged. Mir Mahmood and Mir Hoosein. which defeat had made more welcome to hira than life. This narrative is also frwn the text of Mirza Ali Mohamed. MIR ABDUIi. and. for Chap. the abilities of their chief rising with the difficulties whidi he had to contend with.ditional surrender of the place. continued the defence with renewed energy. another Persian general of some repute. ravaged the localities Khosroo had spared for the purpose of supplying his own camp. this adroit and courageous man could not continue the great work which he had up to this time so cleverly conducted. but. The Sipahee Salar wag obliged to raise the siege to obtain provisions. in the eighth year of his rule over the A^hans. Afler this fresh success all the Afghan tribes gave in their adhesion to him. began to disband. It was also the very moment at which the measures he had taken with a view of insuring the independence of his country and ameliorating the condition of the people afforded every hope that they would be realised. having succeeded in baffling the vigilance of the beaiegera and escaped from Kandahar. who accepted it on the 26th of Ramazan 1714 (Hejira 1126). that only one hundred out of thirty thousand men escaped with their lives.

and withdraw the Persian garrisons firom the principality. they were in the highest degree indignant The eldest son of Mir Weis. the seeds of much diaocrd had also been BOTD amongst the tribes. Chap. and who. and also to pay a tribute. less impetuous. was not agreeable to a few ambitious Serdars . Abdullah. The fiery Afghans could not understand the wisdom of this Hystem. The unpopularity of Mir Abdullah made his success easy. who in so doing hoped to sow the seeds of dissension amongst them. if the Shah would give him the government of Kandahar. observes that historian. but when these projects came to be revealed to them by the Persians. HI. and in consequence of this the Afghan chiefe declared that he was not competent to succeed him. whose suzerainty he agreed to admit. make it hereditary in his family. took advantage of the discontent which the interested conduct of his uncle had given rise to in the minds of his countrymen. which. but when they saw the young chief had obtained the general support of the nation. and there is no doubt that whenever he had found himself able to do so he would have thrown off a vassalage the light fetters of which he now consented to wear. who was already distinguished by many of the qualities the Afghans had admired in his father.former. Two years were consumed in these disgraceful negotiations. and seized the sovereign power of which he thought he had been unjustly deprived. and opposed him as best they could . they were mistrustful of his intentions. had displayed daring acts of courage bordering on rashness when engaged with the Persians. After the death of D 34 ALATAK KHAN. and Mir Abdullah was perfectly aware that be could not expect to retain the sovereigQ authority in any degfree of tranquillity unless he could prevent new hoeUIities on the part of Persia. who was the elder. The negotiations therefore which he had entered into with the Shah had only that object in view. Their uncle. . he attacked his house with only fifty men. had scarcely attained his eighteenth year at the time of his father's death. killed him with his own hand. and made the Afghan chiefs then at Kandahar elect him governor in the room of his murdered relative. they adhered to the new order of things. was therefore placed at the head of aflhirs. Mir Abdullah. though so young. The people themeelves demanded his election. but the expectations which had been raised by the bold and characteristic conduct of his brother were not realised by him : his first act was to open a conference with the Persian government. gives a different account of the motives which led to this murder of the Mir. though the projects of Mir Abdullah were but imperfectly known to the Afghans. but not less intelligent and prudent than his brother Mir Weis. Abdullah Khan. however. was less active. the latter Bereral Ghildjzye chiefa talked openly of thdr iotentjoi to dictate to those in power . and. the Heratee.

have prevented Mir Mah* mood from undertaking the expedition which he made some time after in Persia . At about the period when Mir Weis died. The Abdalee tribe. had obt^ed from Xadir Shah the privilege t^ being governed by their own cbiefe. stUl inspired him with awe. died before he could put into execution the plans which he had conceived. he might have hoped. Kowftdiee Chap. This officer. HI. he thought the monarch might posubly lo<A upon these feint proofe of hie obedience as submissioa Alayar Khan. be continued to keep up appearances. 35 Bashee. were the hereditary enemies of the Ghildjzyes. and was obliged to take the field with a weak corps-d'armee composed almost entirely of Pernans. and observe a respectful bearing towards the Shah Hoosein . with whom he had secretly allied himself in & common determination to resist the Shah. and as anarchy reigned in several Pennan provinces. Alayar Khan. they again fell iinder the Feraan yoke. at least some advantages which would. who commanded the troops quartered in the proyince of Herat. nor the burden of the responsibility which rested upon him. but whether the Persian garrison of Herat. of whom it was for the most part composed. Tba Mir's death was as unjust as it was to be regretted. The Khorassians. though very small. as his successor displayed warlike qualities only. almost the whole of which was settled in his government. If this chief had been as prudent as his predecessor. as well as Mir Weis. and the mwe to be deplored. and had not the tact to foment the elements of discord which existed amongst the Afghans. if not to obtain a positire and complete success against the rebels in the south. and might have been led against them with success . operated as any restraint upon his conduct. and his excesses were ■uch that they effected his ruin even before he was in presence of the enemy. and weakened them to such a degree that. who was governor of the province at the time of Boostem Khan's defeat. the population of Herat tried also to withdraw from their allegiance to the Setfeveans. but he had affronted them. his sucoeasor. acknowledged only from that time a nominal submismon to the Pei«an court. ZEMAN KHAN^HEYAT SULTAN. The power also after Mahmood's time passed into the hands of the Abdalee tribe— to the injury of the Ghildjzyes. under the reign of Nadir Shah. but Zeman was a dull and dissipated man. Neither the importance of the undertaking he had to carry out. was instructed to reinforce his diviaon by enlisting all the volunteers in the locality and march against Mir Abdullah. or whether he hoped by cunning and tempori^ng finally to become completely independent. who had been the first to proclaim and establish the independence of the Afghan nation.and the canetant oppouUoa of his nephew Mahnwod finished by lowering his influence with the Serdars. which led to the decimation of the tribes. The court of Persia appointed Zeman Khan. though not declaring himself independent as Mir Weis bad done. several of whom hoped and were desirous of occupying his portion themselves. without doubt. .

and their chie^ Heyat Sultan. Neveithethe Persian monarch made a last effort. the unfortunate youth took the first opportunity of making his escape from the Persian camp. before he had received the slightest intimation of his being in arms. anxious to obtain certain &vours from Zeman Khan^ committed a most fearful outrage against his own son. the Shah Sultan Hoosein was under the necessity of relinling his project for brining that country agiun under his inion. Chjip. AAer this he a^in took the field. which he 3d under the orders of Sefi Kooli Khan. and in 1719 raised irmy of 35. on the 26th of Rttmazan. and such was the rapidity of his movements.. All the government could do to induce them to return to A^V^i" I under a new general was ineffectual . Incredible as it may appear. which shared with him the feelings of fiury that animated their young chief. ravaged by the Uzbeks.A short time before this a branch of the Suddozye tribe had established itself in the neighbourhood of Sukkur. they determined upon taking a deep revenge. and governed by a degraded and snperlus court who ruled the feeble Sultan Hoosein. alter which. which. IIL having obtained an entraDce to the city.000 men. 8 to the Persian troops which bad succeeded in effecting thtar pe Iram the massacre at ZemindaTar. had no little ulty in making a stand against so many disasters. Assad's first step was to seize his vile and unnatural parent and imprison him in a fortress. returning to his tribe. menaced ^lrkey and Russia. The villain who had so deeply injured him was the first that fell. and then of reducing Herat and . they disbanded. Assad UUah Khan r^sed himself to power about a before the period at which Mir Mabmood became by the ]er of bis uncle Prince of Kandahar. he started in pursuit of Zeman Khan. 1716. and by the hand of Assad . already so much weakened by the loss of two of bei t provinces and three armies. and put them nearly all to the sword. almost without opposition. and. a young and beautiful lad. d2 PERSIAN CAMPAIGN AGAINST UZBEKS. be constituted an bndent principality. to this wretch in human shape for an infamous purpose. he sent Assad Ullah. and returned to Ispahan. a general of red talent. master of the whole pro. after which the victorious youth marched on Herat. finding tbemselree witha commander. The crime accomplished. attacked with great bravery and impetuosity the weary and sleeping troops. ersia. well provided with artillery. that he sm^yrised the Persian commander at midnight in the district of Zemindavar. accompanied by a few thousand horsemen. exterminated the few ians he found there. to whom he allotted the task of driving back in first instance the Uzbeks. and e himself. they refused to mardi .

^i^S!«avwii._ji Chap. Puffed up pride at a success thus easily obtained. its capital. ASSAD ULLAH KHAN. but half-established. and the power. upon Subzawar. the rival of his own. and they took to flight. and afterwards moved on Furrah. to which place he laid siege. to flight at the first shock of the Persian army. were slain in this battle fought near the village of Kariz.000 Afgham Hazarahs. in spite of the disproportion of the two armies. of Assad Ullah Khan was consolidated. This victory decided the fortunes of the Afghans. to whom he sent an imperious order to come to his camp and ore his mercy. discouraged. and belonged to the tribe of the Abdalees. badly armed and badly led. Assad Uilah o moved forward to meet him at the head of 12. On the receipt of this message. retired to Herat. in order to extend them in that direction. of which he took possession. who. and marched to the south of his territories. . and not the permanent occupation of KhorassBB. . Independence was henceforward theirs. his troops._^«ii ■«_^K^=^^^»?. but also through the greatest part of Khorassan. and that resisted all his attacks. hut they did not hesitate to face the )f the formidable Persian artillery.dahar. Sefi Kooli Khan and several members of his family. more particularly as Assad Ullah exhibited the courage and capacity of a good general. This caused an instantaneous panic in their army.ked him directly.. Se6 Kooli Khao [tously announced his intention to exterminate the rebel A'tB. The Afghans were armed only with bad ds and worse matchlocks. in the first instance. The yictory was still undecided at sunset. in which 3000 of tb«r bat ». . he was satisfied with keeping a watch upon it._1L. and. when he was attacked by Mir Mahmood of Kandahar. 37 troops lost their liyes. where anarchy reigned during several months.J| ^" e-~BP~'^l^ ". leaving on the field of battle all their baggage and the greater part of their guns. seized the power and established order in the city. who thought these proceedings might be detrimental to his own interest. HI. not only in Herat. a ball having struck him in the middle of the forehead. he Khan obtained an easy victory over the undisciplined es of Uzbeks. when by some accident nerer accounted for a dreadful explosion took place amongst the Persian artillery. Seeing that his e£Forts to reduce it were ineflectual.«I. one Mir Mohamed. with the exception of Meshed. together with a large number of chiefe as well as 10. until a Belooch chief of the Seistan. But Assad Ullah Khan was unfortunately killed at the commencement of the battle. having pillage in prospect. and niMntained during » e day a most obstinate combat. He seized.000 Persian soldiers.

PROJECTS OF MIR MAHMOOD. and jm to march one of their everlasting armies upon him. But tfaese I not fall into the snare prepared for them : nevertheless mood. Instead of enli^tening r on the manifest ambition of the Afghan prince. however. As the victory over llah Khan might awaken the fears of the Persians. to inform Shah that he had attacked the Abdalees only to prevent them ng the town from him. wbile sending armies to subdue Kandahar. le was afrud of the Shah of Persia. IV. and adopted it himself. agaiciat tlie Peraiana — ProTiaions the fortraea of Bus _ urreudera to him — He is repulsed before Yeid — Moves on Ispahan if Mir Mahmood's troops — A aingaUr recipe for courage — Piinll»the Persiaiu — Disunion amonf^t them — The consequenoae — Thar routed by the Afghans — The Ethemad Dooulet and the Walee of -The chief command of the army is given to the latter — PropooitJon [ooaein to Mir Mohmood — The siege is pressed closer — The Feniani r to leave the city — Qreat scarcity prevails — The result — Draadful of the inhabitant* — Shah Hooaein procee<ls to the Afghan camp — ktes the throne — Mahmood's conduct after his victory. 39 . CHAPTEH IV. Peraia in Arghuustan — Preparations of Hir Malimood — Rs outwitB in court — la appointed OoTflmoivOsneral of Kandahar — Hia ambiecta — SeiieB the fortroMes on the Helmund— Slate of the Paraian lesiegea Kerman — It suireoderB t« hiB troops — They are beaten bj u general Leuft Ali Khan — Mir Mahmood relreata to Kandahu — ig dUgraoed — Revolt Bgainnt Ifir Mahmood at Kandahar — Tha Hir ■lith hia arm. and tried to decare sacMir Wcis. and his son. and that it was now entirely at the a of the Shah. oyed the arts of negotiation. with intrigues aod of which Eastern nations are so prodigal. than because he refew years of repose to prepare himself for the invaaion had projected against that kingdom. he immediately he had relieved Furrah. found somewhat later that this a good one. less. The letter which Mir Mahmood sent to was placed in his hands by the same minister who had accomplice of Mir Weis. his brother. he did ly in his power to convince him that the Ghildjayes were Chap. who put his uncle to death because he bad reoeiTed opositioDs from the Shah. Ian Government. and on this occasion he did not ie to his own base antecedents.lATKIGUES OF PEBSIA.

By such representations he sought not only to revenge himself on the Georgians. . and prepared for any eventuality that might vise. and this good understanding between the Mur and the Court of Ispahan enabled him to augment in all security the force which he intended to employ in carrying out his ambitious projects. whose preparations for this invasion were prolonged up to 1720. his nephew. deceived once more. and s^it him a firman appointing him GovernorGeneral of Kandahar. and he solicited the Shah's permission to subdue them. Coap. on account of the excesses they had committed.excellent yassals. while he himself marched with the mass of his j army along the banks of the Helmund and seized all the fortresses \ CD that river. for they commanded the principal roads of the Seistan 4 leading into Persia. he sent there a snuJl flying detachment. but his secret purpose was to fortify himself and to collect provisions. and tiie only emula- r 40 MIR MAHMOOD TAKES KERMAN. in consequence of the efforts he had made to induce him to give Mir Weis permission to return to Kandahar. who had renda^ him a very great service. everything was in disorder . and y the invaluable information which he then collected was now to be utilized by his son. and the Georgians. instead of directing his steps to the north. they w&e all picked men. The poor feeble-minded sovereign. on the contrary. IV. whose chie& were his most dangerous antagonists. but also to endeavour to calm the resentment the Shah had always felt against him. and furthermore that they had only exterminated Gourghin Khan. Mir Mahmood accepted these honours with apparent gratitude and respect. inured to war and hardships of every kind. however. and to deliver themselves from a most odious tyranny. Persia. but. which Mir Mahmood at once undertook. bestowed upon Mir Mahmood the surname of Hoosein Kooli Khan (the slave of Hoosein).000 men . all difficulties. and at a future time with little difficulty j invade the Persian territory. was at this time in a most deplorable condition . It will be remembered that his &ther had travelled through them on his return firom Kandahar. Sultan Hoosein was foolish enough to consent to this expedition. and making that high office hereditary in his fiunily. To clear away. he also wrote to the Shah and represented that the Abdalees recently established in Herat had been in revolt for the last two years and paid no taxes. It is true he took possession in the name of the Shah. in order tiiat he might command an easy passage to ibe southern provinces. But even then his army numbered only 12. however.

pillaged the villages and the caravans.--i. and thus repay him the expense of moving his army in the interest and for the benefit of the Shah of Perm. the troops. knowing they could do so with impunity. The towns were infested with thieves. The ^rr^»si^wB**"^niF^^^^^"'*^'""^^^ ' ^■i"^— . a Belooch chief. who was the first that engaged in this difficult enterprise. who openly followed their villanous profession with the utmost assurance. to which he wrote stating that be had besieged Kerman merely to force the Governor to fiimisb his troops with provisions. at the expiration of which time they were attacked and put to flight by the Persian General Leuft Ali Khan. taking with him only a miserable remnant of that army which had followed him with so much enthusiasm to the conquest of Persia I Not one man would perhaps have survived if the evil genius which presided over the .. and not only them but those of the whole district During foiu* months his soldiers. which. gorged vrith plunder. by the Afghans. received neither instruction nor pay. seemed likely to become an easy conquest to the first who should attempt to invade it It was the young Mahmood. the Tartars. breathing vengeance for the miseries which his country had su&ered under the Persian rule. iustead of being a prinl^^ belonging to high birth or a recompense for meritorious services. attacked on all its frontiers. In short.^-- Chap. and traversed amidst unheard of difficulties the arid and desert countries of the south of Fersa. held out only for a few days. and the Arabs. who marched totlie astdstance of the invaded province with a very superior force. Simultaneously with these operations he again endeavoured to put the Shah Hoosein on the wrong scent and lull the vigilance of his government. to which he Imd siege with a courage and determination utterly disproportioned to the means of a^^ressoD at his command. they had offered. 41 defeat of Mir Mahmood was so complete that he was obliged to make a rapid retreat to Kandahar. who soon filled up the casualties in his aimy. committed every imagmable excess.000 men who set out with him only 7000 arrived under the walls of Kerman. On this march his soldiers were soon decimated by privations and fatigue. Mahmood was joined by a great number of Persian malcontents. Mahmood placed himself at the head of his small army. frequently disbanding themselves. everything announced the complete decadence of this great monarchy. under the pretext of attacking Cliedad Khan.tion that could be said to exist at that court was who should exhibit the greatest weakness and degradation.■— 1 HI' . without discipline. nevertheless the victor thought it necessary to punish the inhabitants for the feeble resistance. and of the 12. The right of holding the appointments of the public service. the Russians. In 1720.« "^ '*-T. and. and then surrendered at discretion . The town. who with bis nomades was ravaging the province of Kerman. hard pressed. Was Bold to the highest bidder . IV. REVOLT AT KANDAHAR.

000 men. one not less enthusiastic than the first The Afghans of every tribe. 1722. hastened witJi alacrity to the standard of a chief who promised to enrich them with the spoils of their ancient oppreasors.destinies of that empire had not arrested the progress of her victorious commander. and wisely. which enabled him with little trouble to raise another and a larger army. at the head of an army of 28. brought about this unjustifiable result. on all that had passed. Mir Idahmood opened this campaign by rapidly croaeing the Seiedaa. for the letter of Mir Mdhmood had been perfidiously misinterpreted by him to the Shah Sultan Hoosein. they had even seized upon the city in the name of Shah Hoosein. Chap. Leuft Ali Khan. Supported by a few thousand men. TioB fortreas he repaired and strengthened with great care. and had seen his own faults. by way of recompense for the brilliant success whidi he had just obtained. more im])ortant interests would have obliged him to abandon the province he had just conquered^ for he received intelligence that his rear was seriously menaced. and also to keep numerous beasts of burden ready to take the road whenever instructions were given to that effect The command of this important place was confided by Mir Mahmood to his relative Noor Ullah Khan. a brave and energetic man. brother of Mir Mahmood. he again entered Persia. and he determined to take an ample revenge for the disasters inflicted upon him by Leuft Ali Khan. and made it an immense dep6t of provisions and munitions of war. The garrison was ordered to cdlect within its walls all the com which the inhabitants of the surrounding country could supply above what they requited for their own use. carrying with him 42 SECOND CAPTURE OF KERHAN. immenfle storee of proviaionB id order to guard against the piivaticMiB his troops had suffered on his first eipedition from the scarcity of food and forage. and his presence soon restored order. the only good general the Shah then had. deprived of his command and thrown into prison. having formed an alliance. These had arisen rather from ignorance than want of courage — they appeared to him therefore easy of correction : and the bravery and intelligence which he had shown in his fatal expedition of 1720 eecured for him the obedience and admiration of his soldiers. on whose fidelity he could rely . was. but were driven from it by Mir Hoosein. for he had reflected. and without encountering any obstacle he reached the fortress of Bam. Afiier having installed his brother Mir Hoosein as Regent of Kandahar during his absence. where he remained for a few days. originating in the Vizier. A court intrigue. even those living in the provinces of Herat and Kabul as well as the Hazarahs. and having thus . succeeded in cxdting a portion of the province of Kandahar to revolt against his authority. IT. But if Mir Mahmood had not been defeated. The Belooches settled to the south of the Helmund also furnished him with a contingent of several thousand men. His resolution had not been shaken for one instant. and Malek DjafFer Khan Sistanee. Beiram Sultan Lakzee. The latter therefore hastened his return. in January. governor of Furrah.

been vigorously repulsed. and the defenders of which were determined to bury themselves beneath its ashes rather than capitulate . he would lose hb time and uselessly exhaust his resources in undertaking the «ege of a place that was provisioned for ten years. MAHMOOD ADVANCES ON ISPAHAN. which had been somewhat reduced since its departure from Kandahar by privation and £Ettigue. those called in Persia firphoorek. and he carried with him a pretty large supply. but this debased people learnt from their weak monarch only how to lament their misfortunes. that they decided upon defending the capital .completed his preparations. but the inhabitants opened the gates almost without ofiering any resistance : the garrison. each idmboorek being carried by a camel with the artilleryman who served it Directly Mahmood had received the sum agreed upon he moved upon Ispahan by Yezd. be abandoned this siege also. intending to besiege it once more. as well as in the combats before Kerman and Yezd . but. they could have been easily exterminated if the Persians had poss^sed the least sentiment of national feeling. but these losses he had repaired by a few thousand Gheber recruits. for the country was too denuded of the enemy's troops to give him any anxiety on that subject As to his line of op^ations. without having met one Persian who attempted to oppose his passage. Mahmood had still 23. IY. the direct road. and been animated by the rememlHunoe of the ancient grandeur of their country . in the citadel. so he oontinned his march upon Ispahan without troubling himself about his rear.000 tomauns towards the expenses of the campaign. composed of picked men. Mahmood accepted these conditions. being wholly inefiicieiit for this purpose. which was renewed from time to time in the villages on his road. however. Here he entrenched his army. if he would raise the sie^. 43 a lingering affiiir and oocasion him the loss of much precious time. it saved the hooour of his arms. and it was not till the last moment. instead of warding them off by fighting manfully to prevent them. according to the custom of bis country. but he added that if the Mir choee to march on Ispahan he might accomplish hia purpose. refused to surrender. if his object was to amass great riches and become Sbab of Peima. and made an attempt to take the latter town by assault as he passed .000 combatants under his command when he arrived at Guluabad. The commander wrote to the A%faan chief that. than because be had no heavy artillery to battu* the place — ^the only guns at his disposal. in spite of dieir courage and the advantage they derived from the reputation of their arms. who were not less desirous than the Afghans to revenge themselves <m their common oppressors the Persians. In this manner he arrived at Gulnabad. Of these he had an hundred carrying a ball of from one to two pounds. a village situated ten miles from Ispahan. in spite of the brilliant courage of his soldiers. he again advanced and arrived before Herman. fiir less because. wh«i money and arms were distributed amcHigst them. and he offered to ^ve him 18. It was likely to prove Chap. but several attacks having. that lay wherever provisions could be obtained.

first minister of the Shah. their sabres were the only arm of which they could make any use."* made a broth which wooldreoder inviable the men who drank it : the superstitjoua monarch therefore wdered that his troops should be daily supplied with goat-soup thus prepared. it was at length decided that a general attack ^ould be made upon the Afghans. who •U DISUNION OP THE PEBSIANS. boiled with 325 peapoda in water over which a young rir^ had repeated 1200 times " La illah. stimulated by the calamitous state of aflhlrs. and folly. and went out nearly every day skirmishing round the enemy's camp. tliat two legs of a he goat. that frequently ended in bloodshed.of the empire. than to do his duty. they were destitute of warlike stores . however. and they daily accumulated acts of cowardice. while tfae rivalry esisting amongst the commanders produced djuly cotlifflma in their army. and then* light artillery was unfit fcHT siege purposes. that appeared to be much more in the interests of Mir Mahmood than in those of his sovereign. on the contrary. Ispahan. had a garrison of 60. and there were only one or two bi^minded men who. The first asserted that. and the besieged in possession of a formidable artillery. His subordinate officers committed similar &ults . who presided in person. A coundl of war having been summoned by the King. endeavoured to raise the drooping Bpirits of the garrison . treason. besides its population. but owing to the weakness of the monarch. the power of this fbree was increased three-fold by . Mir Mahmood's troops arrived at Guluabad in wretched condition : the rags they wore scarcely covered them . and it was in those days more advantageous for a minister to deceive and betray the monarch. moreover. the city walls were strong. or flatter his predilection for theological discussions. IV. and the Walee of Arabia. but had allowed the Afghans to arrive under the walls of Ispahan. Fath Ali Khan Kadjar. Unfortunately. the spirit of the army was cowardly and superstitious. The EUiemad Dooulet. Traitors alone were listened to and intrusted with the command of the troops . assured Shah Hoosein he had heard from an old woman of Asterabad. it would be better to remain on the defensive. was said to be insjnred. A thousand absurditjee equally efficacious were decreed for a like purpose . but the ^Va]ee made lig^it of the opinion of that eminent personage. sorties were made without judgment or disdplioe. but. who was General in Chiefi were always of opposite opinions. Chap. with rare exception. as they had hitherto done nothing. there was no mutual understanding between them. one upon the other. in a manner. they and the few followers who adhered to them soon fell victims to his imbecile conduct. illahla. Mahmood had only twenty thousand fighting men to withstand the Persians. which was at this time estimated at more than 600. and the Persian troops gave ground at the first onset. accustomed to conquer.000 souls. and let them wear themselves out in useless eflbrts .000 soldiers. One of his favourite generals.

Chap. 46 the other. and who had the command entirely in his own hands . then suddenly halting. all independent one of * Ood b Ood. fell upon the fugitives with his cavalry. thus each of them commenced with the corps-d'armee under his command. he opened his squadrons and unmasked his one hundred zimbooreks. " We are not here to deliberate. It now required a slight effort only to turn the Afghans and put them to a complete rout . who commanded this wing.their own courage : they heeded not the numbers of the enemy. but Aman UUah Khan. rushed into the camp of Mir Mahmood and began the work of pillage. who poured down upon the left flank. in which 25. But the Walee. Aman UUah. and for some time retired before the Persians . without listening to the advice of his colleagues. and reoeiying different orders. the chief elements of military success. and made a terrific carnage . which instantly sent forth a hail of balls into their ranks. observing the Walee thus engaged. IV. At first the Ethemad Dooulet remained inactive. and were no better agreed in opinioD as to the attack . regained each his own province. fell upon the Afghan right. The Ethemad Dooulet. while the Fersiaiis. and. which could not have been reloaded in time for another discharge. seizing the propitious moment without hesitation. ind tbera ii no Qod bnt lum. the most talented of Mir Mahmood's lieute* nants. and finally decamped. and the soldiers. exclmmed. suddenly halted. were also captured. faced about. were essentially deficient in combination and resolution. and this plan was approved by the majority of the other generals. which they had placed in their rear. and blindly obeyed a prince who possessed all their sympathies. waited for the Afghans to advance.'* With these words he galloped forward to his men.000 Persians remained upon the field : amongst them was Roostem Khan Gooulaye Agassee. which was moving up to attack the Arabs . looked upon this inaction as disgracefiil. a man of little reflection and of an ardent temper. which gave way at the first onset. The A%hans obtained an immense booty in this battle. being formed into several diviaons. instead of entering Ispahan. advantageously posted on the defensive. 1721. From that moment the rout of the Persians was complete. The Ethemad Dooulet and the Walee of Arabia had not been able to come to an miderstanding as to the order of battle. without dreaming of the mutual support they ought to afford to each other when required. their artillery. DEFEATED BY THE AFGHANS. instead of rushing at once upon the guns. far more anxious for plunder than for glory. At daybreak on the 8th of April. and. and there waited the issue of events. and in accordance with his own individual ideas. The enemy. but to fight. . and turned against the royal army. consbting of twentyfour pieces of large calibre. but the Arabs. the Persians left the city in great confusion to attack the A%han camp. perceiving his intention.

again held a different t^inioa. thoiigh a conqueror. influenced by traitors and cowards. raise a powerfiil army. He hourly saw the Persian generals committing the grossest fiiults. two of the most important officers in the army. and had been the cause of the defeat. and retire to Kasbeen. the Shah Sultan Hoosein was seen to drag the imperial purple through the mire. instead of energetically battling widi bis enemy. which always ended in partial defeats. but in thus concentrating the powo. a turn of fcH-tune in favour of the Perraans might place him in a most critical position . served only to increase hie aheurd caprices._J Chap.ioto one hand he ^d not succeed in imparting greater unity to the subsequent operations. following the example of his governor of Kerman.46 PEOPOSITIONS OP THE SHAH TO MAHMOOD. and that proviaoos were running short. SIEGE OR ISPAHAN. his hopes again revived. from whence he could make an appeal to his &ithful subjects. and eventually so decimated and discouraged hia army. and another motive arose to dissuade him from fulfilling his intentioii of retreating. returning. 47 Mir Mahmood was convinced that he should soon be master of the dtj if he perserered in the investment of the place. and Ahmed Khan. Chip. He gave the Walee the suprenw command of his anny . who. was a prey to the most cruel anxiety. beseech his enemy to accept immense sums of money to evacuate the Persian territory. General in Chief of the Artillety. Instead ot preserving that firmness of demeanour. The BuccesBive reverses which overwiielmed the Pereiaiis. Uindly coDsented to his own ruin. chief of the slaves. and. and at one moment such was bis indecision that he ceased to give any orders to his generals. and the Shah held anodier council of war. Finding that Ispahan did not surrender after the victory he had guned. which obtMned with the feeble monarch. and . which will frequently sustain a droopiDg cause. Mir Mahmood. at which the Ethemad Dooulet proposed that the King should leave the capital without delay. IT. instead of tuning the eyes of the Shah to the incapadty rf his general. While the Shah Hooeein confided the destinies of his empire to a man so little worthy of this trust. but having been informed of the alarm which reigned in the city. IV. for the number of his troops diminished without his having the power to recruit them . whose troops bad behaved so ill in the last battle. This ewit spread the greatest coiuteniation in Ispahan. rescue Ispahan from the Afg^ian invaders. he was on the point of retiring to Kernuui to reorganize his army . It was evident that his propceitMo ori^nated in fear and diacuuragement . and. that the troops were afrfud to expose themselves beyond the walls of the city. The Walee of Aratna. and n^ecting to take the most simple measures for their pre- .

but always remained in a state of inaction when he ought to have shown energy and determination. which it would have been impossible to defend with his small army if the Walee had made the least effort to dislodge him . became an arid desert on which nothing could be seen but the bleached skeletons of men and horses. He knew that imprudent and ignorant counsellors gave the Shah advice which must infallibly lead to his destruction . preserving only what was necessary for themselves. the defence. which. the Walee and his troops always moved in the direction where the enemy was not . but he sent a succession of feeble detachments against the Afghans. whit^ socHQ became extreme. regardless of the heroic resistance of their inhabitants. elated by their success. were now taken by assault. harassed And plundered. The errors^ or rather the treachery. Ferahabad and D]ul£E^ abandoned by the Walee. he was sure to retreat under some frivolous pretext or other . badly directed. Mahmood drew closer the line of circumvallation in which he held the Persians. and all these circumstances determined him to abandon his project of retreat and press the Persians with additional vigour. debased by the tyranny and superstitions bigotry of the court. they became utterly helpless . slaughtered them without remorse. and laid waste the environs with fire and sword.seryation. where they were of no use in r 48 SUFFERINGS OP THE PEOPLE OF ISPAHAN'. flocked to the capital. who closely watched their movements. of the Persian nobles. and if he did meet the Afghans. Crap. he boasted in loud terms. and many thousands of the &mished citizens of Ispahan let themselves dowa from the ramparts and fled from the city. when in presence of the Shah. Feeling that he was victorious on all points. nevertheless the bare possi' bility of doing eo induced crowds of them daily to make the hazardous attempL Heaps (^ human bodies were seen here and . and the charred ruins of forsaken villages. who made not the least attempt to check bis operations . while the Afghans. intercepted the convoys of provisions that endeavoured to enter the capital. ttud their |H%8eiice only increased the scardty. In short. enabled Mahmood to surround the city by a tine of circumvallation. hoping to reach some other prorince where food was in abimdance. and possesnng all the Slan of a people who had recovered their liberty^ fought with the greatest enthusiasm. it was supposed that the fanaticism of this barbarian was gratified by the rain of Djul£E^ for it was inhabited by Armenian Christians. the general in chief made not the least demonstration in their favour . hitherto so fertile. until this country. IV. At the commenceroent of the war the rural population. and. and but a very fewsucceeded in efiecting their escape. They carefully guarded the n)ad8. failed in every attack. But the Afghans.

and eaten with avidity . Amidst all this appalling misery the people evinced to the last their devotion to their King. who assured them of the speedy arrival of his son Thamasp. more weak than ill-intentioned. \ Chap. horrible to relate. Old pieces of leatbnwere soaked. searching the very dunghills and common sewers. and the people were reduced to such extremities that they were compelled to give chase to the most unclean animals.there wanting the common rights of sepulture. This prince had succeeded in eluding the vi^lance of the Afghans. which they found there. also offered them another species of food which was sometimes the object of angry dispute even to the death. Many put an end to their own existence to avoid these sufferings. and the trees were stripped of their leaves and bark to satisfy the cravings of the^e miserable beings. now presented the spectacle of a mob of attenuated creatures. This prince. and at length even these did not reach tbe capital. the tanks were insufficient to meet the general consumption. all affection was bfuiished amongst the members of the same family . Provisions of all kimts were soon exhausted . All his armies had been destroyed. afflicted with the fearful condition of his subjects. so healthy. determined to put an end to it . were sometimes eaten to alleviate the terrible pangs of hunger. for here the father was often found armed against his son. and foug'ht for the wretched scraps of food they had perchance procured. where he expected to raise an army and march to the relief of Ispahan . its inhabitants despaired of his return. whatever it might happen to be. mixed with sawdust. The population of Ispahan. it was utterly impossible that he could prolong the defence. lighthearted. which by their religion they were fwhidden not only to eat. lived upon any soft substance. while many more floated on the sur&ce of the Zendehrood. At night the inhabitants of one quarter made incursions into other parts of the city to search for provi^ons supposed to be concealed. that were covered with the corpses of their countrymen. and rich a few months before. besides. At length meat of every kind disappeared. but even to touch. and frequent scenes of violence and bloodshed were the result . and besought the Shah to bring their calamities to a close. but five months having elapsed without any tidings of him reaching the capital. and gone to the north of the empire. the . and thirst was superadded to the pangs of hunger. they looked upon each other as deadly enemies. 49 scarcely able to drag themselves along the streets and public places. IV. and which. who. the few camels and other beasts of burden which remained were sold at BO high a price that the great men about the court could alone purchase any animal food . for the Afghans cut off the canals which supplied the city . wan and oS a anister 8Ef)ect. tbe plaster bmn the walls. the tainted waters of whidi were no longer fit for the ordinaiy purposes of life . boiled. ABDICATION OF SHAH HOOSEIN. and brother against brother.

1135 of the Hejira. Having very little confidence in the administrative powers of the Afghans. who. not so much with a view of taking revenge upon them for the resistance they had made. might be tempted to renew the contest. The Prince Thamasp — Mahmood sends an aimy against him — Kasbeen surrenders to the Afghans — Duplicity and cruelty of the victors — The inhabitants take their reVenge — Defeat of the Afghans — Mahmood is foiious at this — Beoonciliation with Aman Ullah Khan — Mahmood massacres the Persian nobles — Sanguinary scenes in Ispahan — State of the provinces — Prince Thamaop is proclaimed Shah — Assembles troops in the Azerbaidjan — The -^ Turks and Russians seize upon Armenia and Ghdorgia — State of the Afghan . and occupied himself in restoring tranquillity and security in the capital. united with each other to create an independent power. and a sufficient pension to meet his requirements . on the 14th of Sefer. the Shah Sultan Hoosein left the city. SURRENDER OF KASBEEN. Eight months had elapsed from the commencement of the siege. when. The same day the invader took military possession of the arsenals and other public establishments. after which Mir Mah* mood ordered it should cease. but it was not till five days after that he made his triumphant entry into Ispahan. escorted by the great officers of his court. 61 CHAPTER V. profiting by the miserable state of their coimtry. as to strike terror into those who. up to this r^ rrnr- Chap. His first act was to assign a place of residence to the £Edleh Shah. the attributes of his power as monarch of the Persian empire. his second. This massacre continued during three days. and 23rd October. in whose favour he publicly abdicated the throne. 1722.few soldiers that remained in Persia were in distant provinces. who. and many of them in the interest of ambitious chiefe. under the command of the Prince Thamasp. to order a general massacre of the troops remaining within the city. and arrived at the camp of Mir Mahmood. T. and with all solemnity delivered to him the sword and crown of the Seflaveans.

but Mahmood. to whom they gave a most friendly reception. and retired into the Azerbaidjan* The inhabitants of Kasbeen. but when Mir Mahmood despatched an army against him. the couan of Mahmood. but. the prince fled at its approach.^ Nadir joins the Shah Thamasp — Retakes Nishapoor — Echreff seizes Yezd — Battle between Nadir and Echreff •— Defeat of the Afghans — Battle of Bagh Miiane — The Afghans retire from Ispahan — Conflict at the Bend-emir — Retreat upon Shiraz — Destruction of the Afghan army — Death of Echreff — Reflections. and during three days gave the reins to their passion for murder and pillage. V>f Mir Weia . massacred in their turn nearly half the A%hans. The Kasbeenians. immediately made their submission to the Afghans. Chap. renewed the scenes of carnage which took place at Ispahan. These two A%han chiefe had. more than any others. . assembled in arms after the first moment of surprise. contributed to e2 X3ITIES. some of them regaining Ispahan. the Prince Thamasp Mirza assumed the title of Shah at Kasbeen . and drove the remainder from the city. after they had been some time in the town. while others followed the Serdar Aman Ullah Khan. seeing themselyes thus abandoned. and appeared desirous of being on the best terms with them . After the abdication of his fether in 1722. The survivors at once dispersed . and Mir Echreff. finding that submission had not disarmed the vengeance of their conquerors. The invaders reciprocated this feeling.army — Desertions from Mir Mahmood's ranks — Shiras besieged — Tyranny of ^ Mahmood — Mir Echreff appointed to the chief command — The Afghan army ( march upon Tezd — Mahmood becomes deranged — Losses in the Afghan ranks * — The troops return to Ispahan — Malftiood in a paroxysm of madness puts to death the sons of Shah Hooeein — Death of Mahmood — Mir Echreff suoceeds him — He puts the Serdar Ullah Khan to death — Policy of Russia at this period — Echreff marches against the Turks — Battle of Kiemereh — Defeat of the Turks — Treaty with the Afghans — Events in A%hanistan — The Russians take poBseesion of Guilan — Echreff fortifies the Afghan quarter in Ispahan — .

by making it the opportu* this he invited all the Persian 03 of note in Ispahan. and slaughtered. a son. but. were nd hunted down lite deer. At length the cruelties of Mir Mahmood became a species of madness. but the Persians. ind ulemas of the capital. in the kingdom. Well convinced of nost barbarous measures. and murder. pillage. and on . terror ledience. did not attempt to deliver themselves from his frightful tyranny. and who escaped this massacre. Two days after. and arrived at the and fourteen. having merely a small iinst a general revolt. they found Afghan troops mformity with the orders tbey This horrible butchery accomover the city. instead of d. at the defeat his troops susat the defectipQ of the two at the Persian nobles whom attempt to overthrow him or that. three thousand be tyrant's army. five . 53 extended itself to the provinces. self with Aman Ullah Khan. V. who. and. e near relatives of the victims. the carnage subeeguently Chap. In the midst of these sanguinary scenes they lay prostrate at the feet of him who had but yesterday deprived them of a father. md entert^ning no suspicioa invitation. It had been played out that peased.recompensing them for tbeir !tchery and threatened them :o Kandahar. experienced attacked at a banquet which ivere exterminated to a man. utterly debased. or a . 'sian who had held any emrom the Shah's government jted dunng a month. and desolation reigned on all sides. plunged Dto the depths of despmr. a brother. the th their jereeds as they fled )t long after. STATE OF THE AFGHAN ARMY.

while waiting till they received the same fate at his hands. in 1724. All these considerations. though Shiraz. 1 bis comnuud as the abuMahiDood tbe man readilj having been abandoned bj )f his coudn had become an > direct tbe military opersof health. Chif. and everything indicated that they would not be able to resist the storm which was gathering against them in the north. with which. and the. their name alone was in itself sufficient to make the conquered tremble .friend. ' amved but tardily. who. did not surrender until it had stood a siege of eight months and suffered all the horrors of famine. and his position was certainly well calculated to inspire him with uneasiness.V. But the Afghan nation were not dazzled by these successes. and threatened to march. it is true. taking advantage of the distracted state of Persia. the capital of the latter province. and it be anticipated. man} left the country. : was not fortunate in t!il! . upon Ispahan. He thus raised a new army. a chief beloved by the troops. The of these troops. the most devoted servants and the nearest relatives of Mir Mahmood fled from the effects of his tyranny. and made further dispositions for advancing towards the south. but the ranks of these hardy and ferocious soldiers were daily thinned. were vile and degraded enough to submit to be used as the instruments of his ferocious nature. who were of the hostile sect of Shit^hs. and he soon found himself isolated in the midst of his court In this extremity he recruited his army with Kurds. as well as the Afghans. at no distant date. On the other hand. Mahmood never regained their confidence. thinking that he could rely more upon them than upon tiie Persians. fw no one them from the Persian yoke tic tyranny of his own. he was unable to through his influence. and a part of Irak. he took possession of several districts in Irak and Fars. the Turks and the Russians. and the retirement of Mir Echreff. and such was the impression his actions had produced that the reinforcements he had OF MAHMOOD. On the unood marcbed upon Yerf. were Soonees. Georgia. and a party which began to be powerful in that province had pronounced in his favour. Thamasp Mirza had recently been acknowledged Shah by the population of Azerbaidjan. and. Kurdistan. had seized upon Armenia. The army of Mahmood numbered only at this time a few thousand Afghans . Guilan. But the torrents of blood thus shed brought no sense of security to Mir Mahmood. led to much desertion amongst the Afghans .

as some say. cruel than ever . still very young. indignant si btaining any corresponing ■ge and return to ^pahaa . hearing their cries. His insania was at length complete : to this were added an attack of paralysos. be shuddered at tbe spind in every one an asaafHH' B disease he was infiHTaed in had made an attempt td this intelligence. rushing to the scene of carnage. and. drawing his poignsn. emaciated. in despair at his . a blow from Mahmood's dagger wounded him in the arm. endeavoured to protect them at the risk of his own life . ACCESSION OP MIR ECHREFF.troops which Jt waa imp»if his intellectual faculties (ion . 65 tunate Ather. and want of sleep. and the Turks. haunted bj urn. he ordeieo . and his irascible natnre [reasonable demands of bis oops. broke through the guards. His mother. Their unfe- 1 Chap. and the sight of his blood alone recalled the Mir to himself. he was in such ognised. lis own band. to dread the ligbt ofdaj. Livid. which. the only ones that escaped from this fearful massacre. and b this condition he sometimes tore pieces of flesh from his body. and a with Yisions of his ridJui! tandoned himaelf to 8iipe> ated fonn . and. Alarmed also at the ians. be diut hiinving the strictest fast. his eccentridto *«« army. and devoured them. and induced him to spare two of the princes. W this retreat. V. a painful disease of the intestines.

his re.sufferings — or Mir Echreff. as well as several other chiefs. he did everything i in his power to attach the Persians to his interests. and he was also suspected of holding a secret correspondence with Shah Thamasp. But whoever gave the order for the death of Mahmood. it is certain that this prince was still alive when the Afj^hans acknowledged Mir Echreff as their sovereign. / Accordingly.l mains were thrown to the jackals. He confiscated to his own profit the wealth which they had acciunulated during the conquest of Persia. and bestowed | favours upon them. they had just placed in his hands. and expressed publicly the "^ horror he felt at the merciless deeds which had rendered the very name of A%han odious . he paid the greatest honours to the remains of the sons of the Shah Sultan Hoosein by magnificent funeral rites. This brave but ambitious general of Mir Mahmood. In short. had done everything to prevent his election. raised great hopes of him in the minds of his subjects. he applied himself earnestly to the task of mitigating the misery inflicted by his relative. at the close of which he declared to the assembled f^ Afghan and Persian nobles that he devoted the memory of Mah. in no way inferior to those of his predecessor during the first years ] of his reign. even to the detriment of the A%han8. and this enabled him to meet the immediate necessities consequent I L . The latter were not long in perceiving that they had chosen a master who was quite determined to take every advantage of the power . to obtain the power to which he was called by the general wish of the Afghans— ordered i him to be smothered under the cushions of his own divan .| ^ mood to the execration of future ages. No real crime could be imputed to them^ but Mir Echreff thought their deaths necessary to his security. The antecedents of this young soldier and his brilliant qualities. for his first act was to put the \ Serdar Aman UUah Khan to death. as others affirm.

67 all the treasure they had laid their hands on during their occupation. ECHREFF DEFEATS THE TUBES. as well as the restitutdra of T J— Chap. as Shah. for the Turkish envoy was unable to come to any understanding with Mir Echreff. who had seized upon the Iready masters of Geor^a. and to the already »!tzcd. it an end to tlie divisions amongst his ntidence of the Persians . These two towns were already . embarrassmeDts that met hiin on all siooB on the difficulty of bis poation. who had tbe com1 to send a flag of truce to Mir issembled at Uamadan.* And in this manner the matter terminated. offering to make great sacrifices e Sultan. with the troops under tbor ni Eermanshah. the Aktof Irak . This prince was the only 3 of the Shah Hoosein. V. at this time erruk. and as emy1 generals did not intend to leave the ichreff turned his first efforts againet a to establish peace he at first tried Ltion. CaiP. aud impera' floosein and his sons. Ahmed Pasha took the field with an army of 60. the Walee of Bagdul. and marched direct upon . were bmed Pasha. determined to retwn the . on condition that they throne of his fe. therefore. To the first he had promiseii irdcring on the Caspian.ANS AND TURKS. and afterwards to ji. Ahmed Khan. Agreeably to I accorded so well with the riewg of ajected by the remarkable sovereign . and had. at Ispahan. seeing the in Persia. and finally to subdue the :h had been organised in the south of zanderan. Turkish army under the orders of Valee of Bagdad. of Mosul.he army of Peter tbe Great disemere established itself. The rejection of any one of these conditions was to he followed by a declaration c^ war. treated with the lents.thcis. the negotiations.V. should be set at t upon the immediate evacuation a fghans. he bad also Russians. who was then f the abdication of his father he coni.000 men and 70 pieces of artillery.

Sultanieh. Echreff afterwards sent Mohamed Khan. a * Abdullah Khan.Ispahan. and 50 pieces of cannon . Looristan. aod he was lec^Tedit great honours. a town situated between Ispahan and Boroodjird. and. that im. the historian of is the only eastern authority which Herat. and in these negotiations with the Turks. This generous conduct. A battle was fought at Kiemereh. and the cesdon to the Turks of the districts of Tauris. for he had to contend with immeasurable difficulties . Kurdistan. He obtained from Turkey the formal recognition of his right to the throne of Persia : and the year following. that his greatest desire was to live in peace with his brethren . that records the death of the Shah Sultan £chreffwB8 so thoroughly indicant at Hoosein as having taken place at this the insolence of this message. and Koozistan. I thought it right to mention loediately after the receipt of it he the circumstance in a note. as well as his conduct in the field. but at length the Turks were routed. the baggage also fell into the hands of the Afghans.epoch. leavmg 12. his army not being half as numerous as that of the Turks. . Ferahane. but as Abdullah Khaa EVENTS IN AFGHANISTAN. that he trusted the Sultan would not again disturb him in the possession of a throne which he had taken from heretics. human and divine.000 men upon the field. Echreff met him about four days' march from the capital. adopting ordered the Shah Hoosein and his sons myself the opinion more generally ac* to be beheaded in the presence of the credited. >wledge the coiDplimeDt. Tefrich. returned all the booty his soldiers had made to the Turks. retaining only the arms. the Sultan Ahmed Khan sent Reshid Pasha to congratulate the Afghan chief on his acces^on to the throne. To Ahmed Pasha he wrote that he could not consider as legitimate spoils of war the plunder he had taken from misguided Mussulmans .T. Zinguian. and the victory was for a long time undecided. Echreff showed himself as great after the victory as he had been reasonable and moderate during the negotiations. induced the Turks to make peace. Echreff displayed the talents of a consummate diplomatist and a first-rate general. and very ill provided with artillery. and to which he had an incontestable right by every law. — Ferrier. which Mir Echreff engaged to acknowledge in future. Turkish envoy. CEif. This he ardently desdred. Kezaz. as well as admitting the religious supremacy of the Sultan. remarks in his manuscript.

and had Hie ^ at one of those extraordinary mf g intervals. V.t\efy their ambition. Subee lession of Kasbeen and Teberan ernately . Nadir. he determin in the East. which re of Mir Hoosein. offered his aervioes to the son of the Shah Sultan Hooeein. ire leaving Ispahan be ordered •eaided to be enclosed with high . an< rbing him in Irak. sap refiised to aurrender Kasbeei called to Ispahan by the urgenc osecute the sieges under the a Nassaree. Hera for many years past. up to this now saw. so that the lirection. who accepted them with eagerneee. where his affairs w. without mudi regret in . on the other hand. would aa. ECHREFF MABCHES AGAINST NADIB. and that for jpon those who bad. The militaiy reputation of Nadir. between w It a good understanding. but no sooner had Ed marched against and Gompletel I to retire into the Mazanderon. made < of the Seffiivyes. who soon reduced the as courageously fighting in Pen is hold upon Kandahar.f the treaty thus coDcluded between Echntf ud ice Thamasp was leit to his own tered the Azerbaidjan he evacu a few devoted adherents. subsequent] ^ Chap. to which was now added the authority deriyed from his position as commander-in-chief of the troops of the legitimate king. an !ater part of Shorasaan. . . 'ould be secure agunst all the isp. • 59 a powerful robbo'-chieftain. a deacendan had taken the title of king. evident to Echreff tJiat there v by bis own nation. These changes wen IB amongst the chiefs. and when he was convinced t . a brother of avoured to overthrow by an int ir Malek Mahmood. attracted numerous partisans to his camp.

and the slaughter of 3000 Afgbans. While Nadir was thud occupied. Mir Echreff seized upon Yezd. it would be easy for him a i 80 . adopt some plan for driving the Afghans from the kingdom. to beat the Afghans. the elite of his army. The capture of the city of Nishapoor. after which he marched towards Mazanderan. which soon acknowledged. During the years 1726 and 1727 Nadir employed himself in reconquering that part of Eborassan which Malek Mahmood. and. if they attacked him after a long forced march. This was indeed a great misfortune. After this he dislodged successively all the Afghan garrisons in Khorassan. audit was uiider such apprehensions that they moved forward to meet the enemy. Shah Thamasp. which had resisted the arms of Mir Mahmood : but the conquest was dearly bought. for he there lost his tried and veteran soldiers. Nadir felt confident that. aggravated by the fact that. they had lost all confidence in themselves. T. and be could therefore. therefore. and to the fullest extent. effect his retreat in all security across the . In acting thus he also bad the advantage of choosing the ground on which he intended to give battle without removing from Mazaiideraa. bad seized. and the measures of precaution which he took to protect his rear plainly showed the disquietude he felt. and take a deep revenge for Ihe odious tyranny under iprhich they had groaned for six years. unpatient to recover his capital. in case of a reverse. until they had entirely evacuated this province. constrained to recruit his army with Persians. Mir Hoosein having declared himself independent in Eandahar. the Prince of Seistan. whose victorious battalions were daily augmented by men eager to deliver their country. the authority of the Shah Thamasp. in concert with his sovereign.and he soon saw himself at the head of a large and well-disciplined army inspired by his own peculiar and energetic impulses. that he might. Mir Echreff was. he was unable to fill up the casualties in his army with A%hans. if he kept his troops fresh. and drove them from post to post. The population of this province was entirely devoted to Shah Thamaf^. but the prudent general respectfully but firmly declined to comply with his wishes. was desirous that Nadir should march in all haste on Ispahan. and march without further delay against Nadir. exhausted by privations and fatigue. Chap. convinced that such a movement would be inopportune. his soldiers participated in this feeling. who were no longer anxious to take serrice under him. and also in taking Herat .BATTLE BETWEEN NADIR AND ECHItEFF. was the prelude to this enterprise. Mir Echreff had never been in such a critical position.

never having seen the Persians hold their ground. The army of Echreff numbered 30. leading the mass of his forces agmnst the Afghan reserves. prodigies of valour . and at the same distance from the village of Deh Mollah. and routed in detail with his cavalry Echrcff's detachments. called also by the Persians Tingui-^erdaree.inount^ns. — Fenii Chap. or Meimandoos. and remained several days in a state of inaction. DEFEAT OF AFGHANS. 61 The Mir's troops performed.* Here the A%hans ndlied and renewed the fight . he took up a pomtioo in front of bis army echelloned from Itloomineabad to Boordj-meyooe. but they were unable to make any impression upon their adversaries. for the moet part balonging to the artillerj. owed the gp who naa placed by Nadir under their to the foithf «pecial orden. The Persians. but the Peraan commander. V. and. The latter place is situated about seven miles east of the town of Damghan. followed the retreating enemy and came up with them at the defile of Khar.000 men. at the utmost. who lost only 3000 men. but they were again defeated. It was only when it became impossible for him to obt^n supplies that he decided upon giving his adversary battle. and on the 23rd of Beby-i-ul akher. 6th of November. spreading alarm. The Afghans. attempted to destroy Nadir's order of battle by turning his left flank . and left 12. waited till the enemy had advanced within half musket-sliot before they poured in tbeir fire. perhaps inopportunely. The distance from the defile of Khar to Teheran is forty-five miles. scarcely the half of which.000 of their comrades on the field of battle. perfectly cool. were Afghans. indeed. but Echreff. and the remnants of the A%han army reached that city in one day . Berving io authority ov the Penian anuf. Echreff. which offered at eveiy step admirable portions for defence. he put them to Sight* ■ Abdullah Khan aUtea there were ten French ofBoers. and abandoned all their baggage to the victors — Nadir himself was wounded in this second engagement. after which. they subsequently pressed on to Ipsahan with all speed. but they were unable to rally. . having the village of NaJmabad on the west. and on coming up with the forces of the enemy he found them entrenched in a well-cboaen positioo on some small hilb selected by Nadir. this impulse. were anxious to attack at once . biit the Per^ans received it with great steadiness. formed bis infantry into squares. perceiving his intention. surprised at a resistance to which bis troops were not accustomed. repressed. had frequently told him him. 1728. The attack commenced along the whole line . and that hia hther. who had a higher opinion of his adversaries. The A%hans fought with the courage and savage energy that was natural to them and the conlideuce of men accustomed to conquer . which might have given him the victory.

maintained an obetJ&ate relo with men flushed with recent Tictorio. separated from them only by the village. as being the Caspian Pyles. Tartars. for a violent wind arose and drove clouds of dust in the faces of * ThiB spot is cited by several travellers. he determined to turn the position. over whom he still hoped to prove his superiority in arms. The Afghans were posted between the village and a trench which they had thrown up in front of their camp in the form of a demi-lune. Seeing them in so good a position. The reconnaissances which he ordered to be made on the Afghan camp having satisfied him that it could not he carried in fr^ont.000 horsemen still . [ON OP AFGHAN ARMY. V.desolation. Chap. put the Shah Sultan HooeuD and in a gloomy and savage moud m the walls of Ispahan. Nadir did not think it advisable to attack immediately : he wished to refresh his troops. into the fortress whidi Echreff bad constructed in the centre of the dty . which favoured him at all points. and at a spot twenty-four miles frt)m thence took up a position on a table-land in advance. the Peruana were imie of the injuries they had sufiered. Nadir fell upon [Hditj and -ngoar which be had airaij a despair. and mts. reverBes. and to the north-east of the village of Moortchekhor.000 men. with 12. which occurred three days after his arrival. fled soutliwud. he found himself at the near approach of day in the rear of the Afghans. accompanied by their «! on mules and camels. There he waited for the Persians. — Parier. con* sisting of Afghans. and with reason. the Afghan commander again took the field with his remaining troops. with their families and their treasure. and. again declared for him. their right resting on a watercourse and their left on a caravanserai difficiflt to take. On their arrival there they hastened. but after havbg confided its defence to a garrison of picked men. and Ghebers. J of old soldiers. in all 20. Kurds. He carried wi^ jewels. Fortune. marched to the north of Ispahan. and taking advantage of a dark night. and for this purpose pitched his camp about two miles west of the high road and round the village of Bagh-mirane. in defending which 4000 A^faan The Burvivore retreated in disorder to jm collected in the course of the night and at daybreak. d bf this circumstance. and The Tillage was at length carried. If the Afghans fou^t and their lives. and death on their route.

wherever they went.* Hius terminated the dominion of the Afghans in Persia. accompanied by tw nained i^tbfiil to his fallen fortunes. and devoid of every sentiment of honour and national feeling. seeing that they could no loagff I him. but they were again defeated le greatest confusion. that empire lost more than a third of its population . and without any reason or pretext whatsoever. the soil remained without cultivation. a bridge over tie if Persepolis. but the Afghans were better qualified to fight than to govern. and necessitated the employment of a large army. and informed the Bchreff was not delivered up to hi™ he would put every soldier to death. 68 lie bad only two servants with him. V. and. They were in the end weak- . they did so. in s]£te of their inferiority in numbers. To appropriate. it is true. the oflensive against the Persians .hans agreed to his conditions. money or money's worth. Such examples are. but the elements on which his power rested were too unstable for it to be possible that he could eventually come forth victorious from the conflict which arose between himself and the robber chieftain.id hb couTBe on Shiraz. taking in ^"^ Ji — a portion of his army fell under the gave their adversaries no quarter. a Belooch chief. revolts and distiu'bances naturally ensued. on asce^ red for flight. and disputed with tenacity at river. therefore. from whidi d^ . bat f time to reorganise his army. rare in history . if possUe. le province of Fars. Tiie invaders had to contend against a people enervated. If any individual was capable of maintaining it for a longer period. invested the city. who to extraordinary courage united great talents of every kind . DEATH OP ECHREFF — REFLECTIONS. who sent his head and two large brilliants which were found on him to the Shah Thamasp. Chap. the canals and watercourses for irrigation were dried up. fell by the hand of Abdullah Khan. and ^ to Echrefi*. it was certainly Mir Echreff. and they. was their practice . During the seven years that the Afghans held Persia. intending. . When he reached the Seiataa. he was bo rapidly pursued idon his baggage and treasure to avoid llowers. and aiter ince more on foot. by an obstinate determination to succeed. as well as the Mir. cut QUgb the investing army. Nadir doggedly I. and the greater portion of the public buildings completely destroyed. This extraordinary invasion of Persia ended in the extermination of all those who had taken part in it — a just retribution for the crimes and atrocities with which they had sullied their cause. effeminate. and. The Aighans adLS &r as Peulee Khan. they triumphed.

64 REFLECTIONS. If Echreff vanquished the Turks. and killed like them. much more by the terror which their first victories and their cruelty inspired. which ceased to provide them with further reinforcements . Kadir takea Herat and Furrah — Marches upon Elandahar in 1737 — Admirable defence by the Ohildjzyes — Mir Hoosein capitulates — Nadir reduces Afghanistan — His policy in that country — Insurrection of the Afghans after the death of Nadir Shah — Expulsion of the Persians — Ahmed Khan Suddozye elected King — Hadji Djemal Khan — Revolt of the Serdars — Nasser Khan surrenders Kabul and Peshawur — Ahmed Shah marches against Lahore — Hayat Ullah Khan obtains the assistance of the Mogul Emperor — Admirable tactics of Ahmed Shah — Passage of the Tchenab — Ahmed Shah takes Lahore — Makes a treaty with the Mogul Emperor — Revolt at Kandahar — Execution of the conspirators — Ahmed Shah advances into Khorassan — Siege of Herat — • . they were repulsed on all sides. and serred voluntarily against tbem . or perished from misery and hunger. who detested them much more than they did the A^ham. an asylum or even a shelter in those desert wastes . than by the material means at their disposal. 1 Chap. whose fidelity was at least doubtful. and aoaert that Echreff died of diaeaie. NADIR TAKES HERAT AND FURRAH. VI. — Perrier. therefore.ened by twenty combats. they were. Y. except in the small and scarcely organised state of Kandahar. obliged to admit foreign soldiers within their ranks. and it is doubtful whether more than a few hundred Afghans ever returned to their own country. this unreal and unstable dominion was dissolved and overthrown in four successive battles. but they maintained themselves seven years in Persia. and found. Chap. Persians. 63 CHAPTER VI. with great difficulty. but directly Nadir appeared. it was because he had the support of the * Serenl Eastern authors contndiot thu aooount. and who rarely acted with vigour . Shunned and dreaded everywhere for their turbulence and barbarity. and found it impossible to recruit in Afghanistan. the greater number of them were tracked like wild beasts.

a strong and very important fortress. a year and a half elapsed without hia having obtained the least advantagB against the dty — however. and followed the sinuosities of the mounbun. was obliged to halt before these obstacles. connected by curtains. he established a strict blockade. that city having revolted from his authority . prepared to resist the Persian invader. and commanding the citadel. Chap. Despfuring of being able to take the city by assault. the city being situated at the foot of a rocky mountain which flanked it on the north and ea$'. and imprisoned Thamasp. but proceed at once to speak of his campaigns in Afghanistan.000 men without meeting any resistance on his road. TL country . reminded the Ghildjzyes of the struggle they had made for their independence. but he did not extend his conquests on that side. innumerable stone towers. he also took Furrah. to which art had also added all that could render the defence effectual.Defence of the citadel by Emir Khan — Timoor Mirza marches against Meshed — Defeat of the Khorassian chiefs in that city — Meshed relieved by Shah Rokh — Defeat of Mir Alem — Ahmed Shah retires from Meshed — Besieges Nishapoor — Is obliged to retreat — Disasters of the Afghan army — Passage of the Heri-rood — The remainder of the army arrive at Herat — Ahmed Shall reaches Kandahar. In the year 1730 he seized upon Herat. placed half way between it and the city. and. which had been considerably augmented by the influx of persons whom his victorious inarch had driven into it. After the victory at Shiraz Nadir reconquered in succession all the Persian provinces which had become detached from the empire. and their conquest of that M SIEGE OF KAKDAHAR. Nadir Shah. the summit of which was occupied by a fort. that he placed the crown of the SefTavyes on his brow. Nevertheless the population of the city. believed to be impregnable. ho[UDg to reduce the garrison by famine . between which his soldiers were sheltered from attacks both from within and without . who was still in command there. he was more successful towards the . being eloquent as well as brave. agiunst whom no resistance had as yet been offered. for the inhabitants submitted to his authority or fled at his approach. The portion of Eaodahar was at this time very strong. we diall not follow Nadir Shah in his wars with the Turks and other nationalities under the Persian rule. their victories over the Persians. but it was in vain that he enclosed Kandahar within a double wall. he easily succeeded in exciting them to make a spirited defence. situated about one hundred and forty miles south of the first-mentioned place . and it was only after having obtained several fresh vic^ tories over the Turks. Mir Hoosein Khan. It not having been our intention to write a history of Persia. In 1737 he marched on Kan^ dahar at the head of 100. surrounded it.

But the new one was scarcely inhabited fifteen years. when the city of Nadir was deserted. and one of his favourite generals. for his detachments brought the whole of the environa under submission. after a furious and de^ierate conflict of two days' duration. and induced them to redouble their efforts. This noble offer led to a capitulation. YI. Once master of Kandahar. the " therefore obliged to surrender at dJscretio retreated into the fort on the summit of 'SI ^ Chap.country. A feeling of disccuragement began to pervade the Persian army. which opening i other towers. with a view of preventing the inhabitants from again offering a similar resistance. he resolved to carry the place. the Persian monarch took measures to consolidate his power. and in arees were in possession of them . the bravery and detotion of the troops admirable. and might still have made a protracted defence had it not been for the generosity of Nadir. therefore. their means of defence. he dismantled the fortifications. and ordered a general assault IW preparations for this had been most formidable. of the tribe of the Bakhtyarees. to ww some pieces of artillery. and. he was master of the provinee. and the strength of the place might tempt them to do. when a newly-raised corps. To the conquests of Herat and Kandahar Nadir was not long . who promised to spare bis life. Though received vrilh a storm of bullets. When. about one mile and a half ftirther east. which had already distinguished itself on several occasions by its firm and courageous bearing. for immediately Ahmed Shah Suddozye came to the throne he built a third city. though sevBal attacks against them had been made. by climbing the almost perpendicular rocks and clinging to their projections. simply with ropes and their own strong arms. and transferred the population to a new town which he built during the blockade at about a gunshot from the old city. and give him high rank in his own army. NADIR'S POLICY IN AFGHANISTAN. and Mir Hoosein afterwards became sincerely attached to the Persian invader. 67 • be sucoessfiilly resisted every attack. Kandahar was not only not ta^ but not one of the advanced works was carried. which their bravery. <*■ tained an advantage which raised the hopes of the rest of the troops. this gallant band had succeeded. in reaching a little plateau. but. from whence they were enabled to cany several towers on the north ^de of the mountain. Into these tbg managed. a breach was made.

as we ten in number. and rendered him such important services. on his return from India. This body of men accompanied Nadir Shah in all his expeditions. namely. and harassed on all sides by the Khyberrees. served in tlie Persian army were. lineally descended from of Sudoo in that embassy. :he Afghan contingent to Kandahar. Chap. VI.000 horse in that country. eight Abdalees and two Ghildjzyes. they le enjoyment of those social and family ties or so long a time strangers. was the most had clearly demonstrated to all these amongst themselves. and certainly saved his army from complete destruction. and thej . Bi'lng very inferior in numbers. and adjourned for one f the code of laws which they had deterition. by no means a difficult task. was tlic most noble amongst tbem. had the command of these troops. and their turrepose . twelve thousand being taken from the former tribe. he completely secured their good will. and four from the latter : the chiefs of these tribes. They were recruited amongst those who could claim descent from the Abdalees and the Ghildjzyes. ji Mohamcdzye. the command in chief being given te Noor Mohamed Khan Alizye. one of them.in joining that of Kabul. d to consult their own safety by a prompt their country under their own conmiaiider ut they immediately took measures to deliPersian yoke. this contingent of the Abdalees and Ghildjzyes showed so much devotion to Nadir. when. The Persian conqueror was in a most critical position on that occasion. narchy reigned in every part of the empire. up to that period. and more especially by the generous manner in which he treated the people and their diie&. and attacked fiiry. much more than the lad. By great political ability. and participated powerfully in the successes and glory of that conqueror.in strictly united. who had been ambaasador eat. In short. They rendered him more especially a signal service. e from Sudoo. but whether from a discontented ief. brought them under rious invaders of their country . and raised a contin* gent of 16. that he at length preferred them to his own troops. the Perdans . or intrigues which led them to rebel . which led to great f2 :TI0N' of the AFGHANS. and when Nadir was assaaivc vent to their rcscntmetit. he was engaged with the enemy in the mountains beyond Peshawur. to the number of ten. and thus became master of the whole of A%hanistan. Abmed Khan Suddozye. and extricated himself only by paying a large sum of money by way of toll to ihe mountaineers who closed the defiles against him.

in having these qualifications brought forward by a third person." After having pronounced these words in a most energetic manner. who should be obeyed in all things. whose family lived at Herat. God's work. At this meeti fusion of their nation with the Persians ssible — tliat they ought to elect a chief iselvcs. for his wrath will weigh heavily upon you if you destroy it. AHMED KHAX SUDDOZYE ELECTED KING. placed it on the head of Ahmed Khan. having formed it into a wreath. each tribe was anxious to advance the claims of its own candidate for the throne. and whose opinion was always received with respect. Ahmed Khan. was crowned in the . tbirtylar. but they separated well convinced that Ahmed Khan. had also been the most clever in not allowing his claim to be advanced till the last moment. who took the title of Shah. and. The dervish who had the care of the tomb of Sheik Seurk. " God has created Ahmed Khan a much greater man than any of you . who had been the most silent of them all. hat unity of purpose to all military operaninistration. wearied with the interminable discussions and repetitions which had taken place during several days at these meetings. adding. G9 (lifBcuIty . witliout wliich there was no . where he enjoyed great consideration. the most powerftil of the serdars present at this meeting. when the diversity of opinions had wearied the meeting. and more especially without great Chap. Maintain. and the holy man. This propoation it delay. had remarked the reserved manner of Ahmed Khan." Hadji Djemal Khan. sonage the principal serdars of the Abdalce isscmbled in the tomb of Sheik Seurk.rve their independence. and supported his election with all the weight of his persuasive eloquence — conduct that obtained for him the general respect of the Afghans. when they well knew he was neither the one nor the other. " and may this serve as your diadem. " Why all this verbose talk ? " said he to the serdars . seeing that he who would certainly have been chosen their sovereign was so disinterested.!W the chief command from Noor Mohatned 1 that his origin was not sufheiently noble. Nadir-abad. VI. and the good understanding between the chie&who represented the tribes was far from being impressed with sentiments of a conciliatory or unselfish character. now Kicbk-uookhood. which made him appear modest and disinterested. was present at eight of these tumultuous assemblies. he is of the most noble of all the Afghan families. The serdars. and had listened attentively to all that had been said without offering one word on the important questions which had been discussed. inmiediately withdrew his pretensions in favour of Ahmed Khan. advised their breaking up the conference at once. therefore. to decide upon the best method of )vemment in Afghanistan. followed the example thus given them . Ahmed Khan Suddozye. and. he took a handful of barley from an adjoining field. above all. and who appeared to have the greatest number of votes.

they made common cause with the Afghans on their arrival. Chap. when there were great rejoicings. obstinately refused to recognise the authority of Ahmed Shah. that their chie& should participate in the official appointments aod ' advantages in the gift of the sovereign. and this great liberally on his part did more for his future career than all his private virtues and his noble origin. but Ahmed Shah having. This Ahmed Shah seized and immediately distributed amongst the ofBcers and men of his army and the employes of the government . for Nadu* Shah had settled twelve thousand Persian families in the Bala Hlssar.mosque at Kandahar towards the close of the year 1747.* In spite of this defection. This ' vas not so easy as an offensive operation. and be treated in all things \^ on a ^ting of equality. The Afghans were still in the midst of their coronation festiTiis when there arrived at Kandahar Eaghee Khan Chirazee. and he profited t^ this feeling of unanimity to consolidate his power. entered into a secret understanding with them. gave ibam * . Tbis emblematical investiture of the regal power is followed at tl» present day amongst the Afghan tribes each time that they elect a chief. with which be subsequently marched on Kabul with a view to its capture. but the chiefe of which were on this occasion the redpients of his generosity. announcing to the assembled Afghans that he was the chosen of God and the nation.3(30. and J did everything in his power to recruit the garrison amoi^ the ■ The Peraiaiu inhabitiiig E&bul are tbem from the others. which were prolonged during' several ^eeks. under a prtKoise . sad shawls. The ceremony of his coronation was of the most simple 70 AUMED MARCHES ON KABUL. diamonds. VI. 1. that abundance and prosperity will result from the acts of him whom they make the depository of power. in money. Several tribes who had not as yet positively recognised his electinn. and duripg the first years of his reign to raise a large army. the signification which is attached to this ceremonia) is. the governor of Kabul. having b his custody two koorooTS. through bis parti! zans. Nasser Khan. the l' citadel of that capital . chief of the customs to Nadir Shah in Scinde and the Punjab.000^. kind : the Mollah of the highest rank poured a measure of wheat on the head of the new monarch. now attached themselves to his person.

henoe Uieir lume of becauMthey form ^ort of one or mora " Red head. Besides. Ahmed Shah resolved to extend these limits wherever an Afghan tribe was to be found. abandoned by the greater part of his followers and seeing clearly that a longer reastance could only end fatally for himself. thinking that Ahmed Shah Suddozye. and despairing at length of being able to make head against the Afghans. to Peshawur. of the Sbsh Ismail. TheM of tbe levea Turkish tribes that em. Chamloo. assembled an army and took up a position at a little distance north of Lahore.and Afciuir. the limits and boundary of which had not up to this time been defined by any one. VL HAYAT ULLAH KHAN. appointed as governor of the province a clever man devoted to his person and interests . Ahmed Shah then took possession of Kabul without meeting with the slightest opposition . and for these reasons claimed his assistance. would certainly have led to grave disorders against the prosperity of the state and been dangerous to his rising power. 71 Hazamhs and Usbeks. if they had remained inactive. the capture he had recently made of Kabul and Peshawur . He also wrote a letter to the Great Mogul at Delhi. he fled. Zootkadder. who. when he saw him so well supported.known by tbe mtme of Kuzzitbashes. the kingdom of the A%hans was to be constituted. and placed himself at the head of the troops destined to co-operate with Hayat Ullah. of his projects on Lahore. Nikaloo. hearing the intentions of Ahmed Shah. but all in vain . The Mogul Emperor conceded all that he desired. braced the part.seven tribes were OuBta4jaloa. Ahmed Shah Gourkanee. Immediately the Lahore chieftain felt certain of this he did not wait for their arrival. and left the city in pursuit of Nasser Khan. and those which he presumed he might have on India . surrendered Peshawur to the Afghans and submitted to their king." Keszel buh. — ^Vrur. and the rivalry which existed between the various tribes. the founder of the tribe of the 3*ff&. Hayat UlLah Khan. their turbulent nature. Kadjar. who had succeeded his &ther in the government of this city. Tliia aovereigD. and. he crossed the Indus and marched against Lahore. son of Zekeria Khan. would . Babarloo.* informing him of the advance of Ahmed Shah Suddozye . for. in order to carry his views into effect. kind of red cup. honoured by Nadir Shah with the surname of Shah Nawaz Khan. after a feeble conflict. Ahmed Shah was aware that war was a necessity to the people over whom he reigned . he remained no longer at Peshawur than was necessary to subdue and organize the tribes which inhabited the mountainous districts of that province . vjea. and when he was convinced that there was nothing more to apprehend from their opposition. to diatinguiah Chap.

who was the bearer of pacific proposals from his master. After long hesitation Ahmed Shah Suddozye decided for peace. he was also not without uneasiness as to his rear. REVOLT AT KANDAHAR. but the king. 73 to his ally by some reason or another. with turn perished by the hands of the executioner. he thought therefore that it would be imprudent on his part to risk his fortune on the uncertain issues of a battle. Chap. had he arrived in his capital than they resolved to assasfflnate him. as well as ten men from each of the tribes most deeply compromised. for the chances of the war in which he was engaged were great . Chap-VI. A treaty based upon this convention was signed by the two parties in 1750. therefore. All the countries situated beyond the Sutlej on the left bank of the Indus remained in the hands of the Moguls. his power was as yet in the bud . courage. and therefore agreed that all the provinces in the Punjab which had been under the rule of Nadir Shah should remain in the hands of the A%hans. frustrated it entirely by his firmness and presence of mind. also Hvrza Baboor and his descendants. where several Afghan serdars. VI. his accomplices were Meuheubet Khan. Ahmed Shah Suddozye marched to meet Ahmed Shah Gourkanee. when he was met by his envoy.. who was removed from the command of the army when the Afghans returned from Persia. were transformed into an ardent desire for peace. — Ferrutr. Kedoo Khan. secretly endeavoured to excite the masses against him. and should form the dower of a Mogul princess. and upon whom Ahmed Shah had conferred the title of Mir or Prince of the A%hans . but he had scarcely traversed half the distance which separated him from the Mogul Emperor. which up to that period had been unanimous in favour of fighting. this imprudent speech brought discouragement into the Mogul ranks. No sooner. Alizye. and their inclinations. attempted to justify it by exalting to the highest degree the numbers. who was some little time afterwards married to the prince Timoor Mirza II. son of Ahmed Shah Suddozye. After having fortified Lahore and confided it to the care of a picked garrison. and the rivers before mentioned were to form the line of demarcation between the two empires. Theae .* Gourkanee Ib the name of the tribe to which Tamerlane belonged. who 74 SIEGE OF HERAT. and several other Afghans of les? note. and cleverness of the A%hans . returned to Kandahar. informed of this conspiracy a few moments only before the time at which they had fixed to carry it out. and the Suddozye prince. The leader VQ this plot was the same Noor Mohamed Khan. and even regarding the state of his own country . jealous of the power of their sovereign and of the glory which he had recently acquired. after having nominated governors in his new conquests.

a project which he had conceived immediately he ascended the throne. and induced ihe army to proclaim him Shah of Per»a . being apprehensive that he migbt on eome other occaaion adopt the same severe measures against tbouselveB. Chap. Herat was then governed by the Arab Serdar Emir Khan. To the townspeople who were ready to defend the city he ordered that money. and the Emir hacked to pieces on the spot Fifty men whom he left in the citadel were the only troops that surrendered to the Afghans. who had even succeeded in taking possession of Meabed. and their lives were spared. disputed his right to inflict the punishment of death. VL SHAH ROKH— MIR ALEM. that this was a most propitious opportunity for lus purpcee . who. therefore. and despatched a messenger to ^lah Rokh Mirza requesting his prompt assistance. and with a garrison of picked men retired within its walls. . The inhabitants of Herat now sustained a siege for fourteen months in the most heroic manner. who held the city in the name of Shah Rokh Mirza . Ahmed Shah thought. finding themselves. who mutinied and put him to death. Reassured by this favourable result. His principal antagonist was Moomeen Khan. and being reduced to the greatest distress. witnessed the fall of the city. hut after having exercised the sovereign prwer for a few days only. he gave umbrage to the troops. his soldiers were soon exterminated. where he had with difficulty established himself after great opposition on the part of the chiefe. provisions. and many of the chiefs. and arms should be distributed.executions were the first which had taken place by order of Ahmed Shah. Emir E^han. they surrendered at discretion and opened the gates. tliey also wished to limit hia power. and his determination and justice Boon produced tranquillity in the countries subject to his duminioo. feeling that he was not strong enough to meet the Afghans in the field. or rather to subject it to their approbation . This event enabled Sbab Bokh to reassume his rights. he meditated the conquest of Khorassan. determined to make one last efibrt in its defence. and descended into the suburbs with his little band . for several other chiefs who had the same object in view as Moomeen Khan spread anarchy and confusion in all parts of Khorassan. placed the dtadel in a good state of defence. but Ahmed Shah suppressed with enci^ this feeling on the part of the chiefs. twenty times demanded. was not without alloy. and in 1750 he marched into that province with an army of 70. reigned in this province. an old commander-in-chief of artillery under Nadir Shah. and as often promised by the prince. this chief. After the executions were over they agitated the question whether or not the lex ialionU should be applied to the Shah and his fomily . 75 would at length reach them . but being assailed in front by the A%haji8 and in the rear by some Heratees who were of their party. from the citadel. governor of Tchinsran. grandson of Nadir Shah. hia satisfaction. deceived in their hopes. trusting always that this afastance.000 men. however. At that period Shah Rokh. however.

One of them. was chief of the Kurdish colonies of Boodjnoord. entere Meshed. The general-in-chief. These Khans. chief of Kelat in Beloochistan. so that Ahme Sliah's forces were always surprised by these onsets. Mir Alem immediately gave up all idea of ' l^eeping Meshed. on arriving at ToorbutSheik-Jam. which. for he was hardly able to maintain his own ground in Meshed. by name Mir Alem. i the head of a few select horsemen. Recovering from the first feeling of astonishment at this untoward incident. gave him also very usefi . a night rarely passed without h being surprised by Nadir Mirza or Nasser Ullah Khan. to the government i Herat. who. seized Meshed and imprisoned Shah Rokh . with the advanced guard of the Afghan army. Mir Alem attacked his adversary with the greatest intrepidity and made him give ground . the other. 76 SIEGE OP MESHED. and he suffered during seven months considerable losses that were not compensated by any coi responding success. and did not retire until they ha placed a good number of their adversaries hors de combat. Cbap. provisioned the place. and his army was cut to pieces. or videttes. was marching on Meshed. determined if possible to pounce upon Herat In this attempt he was disappointed. had at the outset beaten them all. Yoosoof Khan. but this chief^ as brave as he was faithftd. whom he believed he could trust. which h inrested on all sides. repaired the fortifications. belonged to an Arab tribe of the Seistan . but a charge of 3000 Belooch cavalry commanded by Nasser Khan. repulsed with energy. and. assisted by their respective partisans. Asiali armies have no conception how to protect themselves from nigl attacks by placing main guards. His attacks wen however. In this conflict Mir Alem proved the victor. but when the moment arrived for dividing the authority and the plunder they could not agree. who had attached himself to th fortunes of the grandson of Nadir. for. and placed him at the head of aSair Anxious to terminate the object of his expedition. who was in the fiel with a small party of horse when he heard this good news. Ilazarah. annoyed tiiem much. governor of Tchinaran. and after having confided its defence to the inhabitants.Shah Rokh Mirza had been prevented from going to the relief of Emir Khan by circiunstances which he could not control. he left Meshed. after the death of the brave Yoosoof Khan. the possession of which was disputed by a score of competitors. V Nasser Ullali Khan. Ahmed Sba now appointed Dervish Ali Khan. the son of Shah Rokh. who. and vigorously besieged. Mamech Khan Zafi ranloo. and retired in the direction of Ghain to his tribe. bein cleverly conducted. came down upon the Afghan cam when they were least expected. carried disorder into the Emir's ranks. After having obtained this advantage he made every preparation to resist Ahmed Shah Suddozye. pickets. and remained sole master of the city. and. came to blows. rejoining iiis advanced-guard with the rest of his troop a few days afterwards arrived under the walls of Meshed. Djafier Khan. In spile of the vifplance and the disciplii which Ahmed Shah maintained. he was himself surprised by the prince Timoor Mirza. delivered his father. fell in a combat which took place between his troops and those of two princes of Kborassan.

In thus acting the cunning Hadji was only desirous of gaining time. who had decided upon fights ing.000 families. deferring the siege to a later period. should be restored to him. For himself. 77 out troubling himself about his rear. his cavalry mad daily attacks upon the rear of the Afghans or pillaged and lai Waste the environs of the city and their camp. ^. Abbas Kooli Khan. or even seriously to check. situated in a plain exc^dingly fertile. the other. and on which he relied for support .support . but he added that it would require some time before he could overcome the obstinacy of Abbas Kooli Khan. with Chap. he laid down his arms the very day of Ahmed Shah's arrival. who dealt such heavy blows and numbered not more tha a thousand men. this handfiil i cavalry. said this personage in his letter to the Afghan monarch. whom Emir Khan had carried away fror Herat where his family resided. Ahmed ^ah. after which Ahmed Shah. Matters remained in this state during fou months. Ahmed Shah was satisfied by simply investing the place. a native of the city . were also to be given up. These conditions having been duly fulfilled. they wer never able to overpower. according to a promise made him by the latter. he supplied the town with provisions. DISASTERS OF THE AFGHAN ARMY. Severs of Ahmed Shah's relations. Although the besieg ing army amounted to an effective force of 60.000 men. and both determined to offer a stout resistance. au' consented to raise the siege of Meshed on condition that his so Sindjar Mirza. of the tribe of Beyat. and oi the receipt of a large sum of money the Afghan king agreed t retire from before the place. proceeded at once to lay siege to the fortified city of Nishapoor. where his army could easily find subsistence. This town was then governed by two persons of equal authority — one. Hadji Seif Eddin. which numbered 10. when. who had not expected to met with so obstinate a resistance. finished by listening to the proposi tions that were made with a view to an amicable arrangement. who had remained a prisoner with the Perwar after the death of Nadir Shah. -he hoped to be able to obtain possession of the city. residing around Nishapoor. for he negotiated . and the Afghan sovereign was his dupe.

killing eeventeen between sunset and Bunrise. which had been detached against Ali Murad Khan. and cold and hunger cruelly decimated the troops. which was the certain consequence. After having destroyed the former and spiked the guns. he eadi nigbt took up bis quarters. who held a command in this expedition. the chief of Tubbus. At length the severity of the season was such that the beasts of burden perished. ammunition. . but it gave way under the crowd of fugitives. those who escaped the sword succumbed in their flight to the severity of the weather . near the town of Kussah. and then retreated. and one of the incidents that he relates is worthy of mention. in the indde of which. as it appears to us unique in history. The Serdar Djummeh Khan. only one way suggested itself. they threw them mto the karizj or subterranean aqueducts. and in this way he passed from one to sdother as they got cold.and temporised so long. to disembowel some of liii camels.TI. and the Afghans were compelled to abandon their tents.000 of Ahmed's soldiers died in one night. and such was the intensity of the cold that at the halt made at Kiaffer Kaleh 18. to preserve himself from the excesBiTe cold. in order 78 . that the winter set in before he had opened his trenches . communicating with the surfiice by shafts. He assures us that. the snow fell heavily. and therefore from death. Another division of their army. who were swallowed up in the icy waters . this was. baggage. leaving a long line of corpses and baggage-animals on their track. Cbap. eoreloped in a blanket.THE AFGHANS BEACH HERAT. was also nearly exterminated . the army were soon in want of provisions. and on the following day very nearly the same number perished in attempting the passage of the Heri-rood. left a short sketch of it. which he adopted . The river was frozen. and artillery. those who had retreated by other roads were scarcely more fortunate.

reaches Lahore — Marches on Delhi — Shooja ed Dooulet — Passage of the Bar — Desertion of Delaver Khan and Zal Beg — Shah Alem cedes his rights to the English — Revolt in Kandahar — Abdul Khalek Khan — Abdullah Khan suppresses the insurrection — Ahmed Shah marches on Peshawur — Arrives at Kandahar — Zal Beg \m executed — Delaver Khan flies to Herat — Timoor Mirza is made viceroy — Ahmed Shah's reasons for thia — Death of Ahmed Shah — Yaghoot Khan — The Serdars declare for Suleiman Mirza — Character of Ahmed Shah. A few days sftet his arrival in the city. revolts — The combats of Pringuez and tfestook — Siege of Kelat — Favourable terms made by Nasser Blhan — Ahmed Shah proceeds to India — Insurrection of the Mahrattas — Ahmed Shah Gourkaoee deposed — Assassination of Alemguir — Qhazi Khan seizes the throne of the Moguls — Ahmed Shah. anticipating his intention. but Ahmed. appointing his sou Timoi^ Mirza governor in his stead . was iotriguing to seize his person and raise himself to power upon \m master's ruin . VIL SECOND SIEGE OF NISHAPOOR. at which time all that remained of Ahmed Shah's brilliant array of troops were a few misenUe beings more resembling skeletons than soldiers. i i«««M Chap. profiling by his distresaed position. Ahmed Hhah peromved that the goTenar. be then left for Kandahar. in 1751. Ik the following year. ordered him to be arrested and thrown into prison. having completely . with a view of recruiting his army. Belooch. 79 CHAPTER VIL Second nege of Nishapoor by the Afghans — Clemency of the victor — He inyetta Heshed — Battle of Kakhak — Death of All Murad — Capture of Toon and Tabbus — An ambuscade — Treaty with Shah Rokh — Ahmed Shah retires to Herat — Campaign against the Usbeks — 'Beghee Khan seises Balk. namely. &o. Khulm. — Asead Khan Ghil^jzye — His successes in Persia — Defeat of Kerym Khan — Assad Khan is attacked in the mountains — Last attempt of the Afghans to annex Persia — KaaserKhan. Dervish Ali Khan.The disasters of this retreat continued until the wretched remnuits of the A%han force reached Herat. Suddozye.

and take revenge for the defeat which the Afghans had sustained during the preceding year at the hands of Ali Murad Khan. as governor of that city. the Afghan monarch cast a gun upon the spot. When fired it produced a most terrible effect. who behaved like heroes. who held the citadel. such was the tenacity and fury of the combatants. after which they marched against the go?emor of Tubbus. haviDg perceived in this chief very considerable talents. the walls and houses being pierced through and through. took to flight. English. which threw a projectile weighing 472 lbs. Abbas Kooli Khau. Every cavalry soldier carried with him two battements* of iron for casting shot. Ahmed Shah detained him as a prisoner in bis camp. drawing their sabres. and reduced to the alternative of soliciting in person the clemency * A boHemeni of Herat is equal to 6 lbs. These Serdars commenced operations by devastating the country. whom they met at Kakhak. and attacked the Afghans at the moment they were on the point of entering the city . Having thus satisfactorily established his power there. and. and be subsequently accompanied him to Kabul : the Af^uio conqueror.repaired his disasters. who had been hostile to him in his second campaign in Khorassan. that. but he was repulsed in an instant. ignorant of that fact. a small village stuated near Gourmabad. that they despatched several of their chiefs to Ahmed Shah to inform him that they surrendered at discretion. for the most part of Arab tribes. gave him his sister in marriage. and one month was employed in casting. were 80 terrified by the destruction which this single bullet occasioned. did not cease to strike till tbe death of Ah Murad. wben ammunition failed on both sides. 80 BATTLE OP KAKHAK. and a frankness of disposition in which he thought he could confide. After this the Afghans took possession of Toon and Tubbus. he also bestowed one of bis daughters on Abbas Kooli's son. refused however to acknowledge this surrender. boring. and there fought one of the most obsUnate and bloody battles that is to be found in the annals of Persian historj . to subdue the districts of Todd and Tubbus. Ahmed Shah. which were placed in store directly he arrived with his army under the walls of Nishapoor. and the remainder of bis men.-^Ferner. Cbap. . The citizens of Nishapoor. they dismounted ftom theii horses. Ahmed made a second inroad upon Eiio* rasan. thinking he had cause of complaint against Shah Kokh Mirza and his sons. after which he sent him bad to Nishapoor. Thie siege of this city was now pressed with great energy . English . Contemporaneously with this movement he detached a corps of cavalry under the orders of the Serdare Jeban Khan and Nasser Khan of Kelat. and placing this monster gun on its carriage. again bid siege to Meshed. this determined the isaue of tbe battle. VII of tbe conqueror. Much of tbe credit of thb victory was more especially due to the bravery of Nasser Khan and his Beloocbees. who arrived at tbe close of the conflict. but it burst the very first time it was used.

It was from hence that he sent Beghee Khan.er having engaged in several combats. when on reaching the halt of Abbasabad the foragers fell into an ambuscade. that sovereign pressed on the siege irf Meshed with vigour. Hazarahs. up to this period. and to these were added violation. and the districts of Toorbut Sheikh Jam. regained the Afghan camp. and provi- \ «t C/iAP. VU. an Afghan chief. and devastation . and the survivors. and were returning to camp with 2500 beasts of burden laden with plunder. after which Ahmed Shah. Ahmed Shah. that money should be coined in his name. in which having indulged sufficiently. with an army to subdue the countries beyond the Oxus. animated by religious fanaticism. The inhabitants. on condition that Shah Rokh should acknowledge his suzerainty. AHMED'S TOExiTY WITH SHAH ROKH. returned to Herat. the plunder fell into the hands of the Kadjars. murder. was signed by the two contracting parties. who fell upon and completely routed them. where he occupied himself in carrying out numerous reforms in the army and administration. and a few A%han families. and Khaff. and the A%hanB suffered heavy losses in their encounters with the enemy . defended themselves with intrepidity. might cause a repetition of the disasters of the preceding one.and committed every kind of excess upon the inhabitants of those towns : fire and sword did their work. Bakharz. been scarcely more fortunate than in' the preceding year. to procure supplies. pillage. ^liich was now approaching. inhabited by Uzbeks. 81 sioDs became very scarce. While the serdars of Ahmed Shah were obtaining these successes. accepted the terms offered him by Shah Rokh Mirza. which had greatly encumbered and delayed them. of whom we shall have occasion to speak hereafter. in which were posted 1500 Kadjar horse from the environs of Asterabad. Aft. and fearing that the winter. be made over to him. carrying with them a considerable booty. numbering scarcely a thousand. their resources also diminished daily. who had not yet acknowledged his dominion. they again joined the royal camp. firmans and other official documents bear his seal. . Toorbut-hai-darieh. that Ahmed should leave him in quiet possession of Khorassan and support him against the ambitious chiefe of the province. In this enterprise they perfectly succeeded. one of his viziers. drawn up on this basis. thinking that the power which he had thus consolidated was a sufficient guarantee against the ambitious projects of Assad Khan. A treaty. but be had. seeing that his efforts to take Meshed would prove ineffectual. These were. which obliged Ahmed to detach 2000 of his CSV 1 y in the direction of Subzawar and Shah Rood Bostam. A great number of A%hans were killed or made prisoners in this affair .

of the tribe of the Zends. to recompense Beghee Khan for the services he hatl rendered him.but not very serious ores. with the viev of forcing him beyond the Persian border. ia in his opinion the throne belonged by right to a chief of the tHbe of Ghildjzyes . becaiiee the country people. retraced his steps. with whom he left troops to keep the inhabitants in awe. and with this he marched against Assad Khan. Shibbergan. This chief. 83 . was on the point of seeking reiiifc in India to enjoy the repose he so ardently desired. After the death of Nadir this Serdar had been fortunate enough to maintain his authority in the Azerbaidjan. but he was arrested in his march eastward. where Ahmed Shah had previously arrived. of the tribe of the Ghildjzyes. the chief of tbe district of KhechL This chieftain informed Kerym Ehan llul Assad Khan had committed the imprudence of entangling himself in the defiles which led to his place of retreat . Serpeul. that this ill-judged movement would infallibly lead to his destruction. met bis antagonist at Kasbeen. Beghee Khan seized upon Meimana. Khorassan. he returned to Kandahar. took advantage of the hatred which their populations felt for everything that bore the name of Afghan. He subsequently retired to the mountains in the south of Peras. attacked him immediately. Badakshan. Andekhooye. and this sovereign. wlio hid already advanced as far as Damghan. whom he considered as an usurper. and placing the former mider the authority of Shah Kokh Mint. Seeing hie power and populaiit^ thus increased. an Afghan Serdar. u 82 DEFEAT OF KERYM KHAN. who were on the dde of the Zend chief* and Chap. and recalled to Irak. his vassal. Kerp Khan. and more enlightened than are ordinarily the tndinduah o{ his nation . VH. his equitable views. and his justice. and having appointed governors. and discouraged by the reverse he had just experienced. Akhcheh. and even proposed to push on to A%haiiistaD. by serious events that occurred in 1753. added to his title of vizier that of Sedre-azem. He was a man of great finnoett. drew sround him a great number of partisans. and dethrone Ahmed Shah. Balkh. Khulm. Chip. of which province he was governor. ATTACK ON ASSAD KHAN. and so hotij pursued. when he n> dissuaded from taking this step by Boostem Sultan. after having made his authority acknowledged in Fars and the other southern provinces of Fenii. and Bamian: he organized the various districts he had conquered . and the partiality which he manifested in &vour of the sect of Shiahs. and with aidi effect. he declared openly his pretensions to the poeeeffion of Irak. brave. Ahmed Shah acted with a view of protecting himeelf against the projects of Asaad Khan. that he was obliged to abandon Ispahan and Sbim without being able to offer even the slightest re^stance. Ttt It has been mentioned that in isolating Khoraasan from Pasa. to shelter himself from further pursuit . that Kerym Khan was completely beaten. to raise a large annj.

accordingly this chieftain halted for Assad Khan at the defile of Kooma. his efibrts were unavailing. chief of Kelat and Beloochistan. and. which extends about a mile and a half along the summit of a high mountain. Not meeting here with the support he expected. were acquainted with all the advantages and difficulties of the ground. was almost permanent. fomented by the Mabrattas. he was overtaken by Mohamed Hoosein Khan. would make the narrow gorges and defiles through which the latter were marching a last resting-place for his enemies. and Assad Khan only escaped with his life by seeking refuge in Bagdad. Every shot from the long matchlocks of these expert marksmen carried death into the A%han ranks. istan to Persia : it was however believed at Kandahar that he w»a no stranger to the revolt of Nasser Khan. The Persians placed themselves behind the fragments of rocks which lay scatt^^ along the pass. where the Prince Heraclius gave him no better reception . All those who could escape fix)m this hornet's nest endeavoured to make good their retreat and regain the plain. he finished by making his submission to Kerym Khan. and waited till the enemy occupied it from one extremity to the other before they attacked. while continuing this retrograde moTement. while their bullets fell harmlessly against the rocks. Ahmed Shah experienced some disquietude in seeing Assad Khan thus submit to the Persian monarch. who had turned the position and attacked them with fury. Chap. and worn out and dispirited by his many disappointments and personal sufferings. but Kerym Khan. when the remainder of his army was destroyed. A few days after. when. as to . they fell upon the whole line. behind which their adversaries had ensconced themselves. Kerym Khan decided upon renewing hostilities. profiting by such knowledge. as well to establish his authority in the Punjab. giving him full power to act as he thought fit. having plenty to do in maintaining the tranquillity of his own kingdom. and he was obliged once more to retire. and this was the last attempt made by the Afghans to seize the throne of Persia. and being without a hope of success. VH.detested the A%hans. Eadjar. It was in vain that Assad Khan tried to rally his troops and renew the fight . never again made the slightest hostile attempt to annex Afghana 2 84 REVOLT OF NASSEB KHAN. with a perfect unity of action and inconceivable energy. where great agitation. and placed his troops under the orders of Roostem Sultan. Subsequently to bis return from Khorassan Ahmed Siah had been under the necessity of proceeding three times to India. who gave him high rank at his court and treated him with every consideration. Assad Khan remained to &e end faithfully attached to Kerym Khan. Conyinced by this reasoning. of which we shall have occasion to gpeak. and through this the A%hans could only advance in single file. he passed on to Georgia. another aspirant to the Persian throne. but here they found fresh opponents.

Ahmed Shah followed him close and invested the place. and directly he was informed of the arrival of Ahmed's troops he marched to meet them. and at length sent a division of his army against him. in which tbe Afghans were completely beaten. and within its walb he now took refuge. The Scrdar in command immediately despatched a messenger to the king to demand reinforcements. who were not less unmanageable than the Afghans. and obliged to retire to a distance of thirty miles from thence. fearful lest such a check. Nasser Khan had taken part in all these expeditions. Nasser Khan also stipulated that he should not be compelled to furnish such contingent for the sake of supporting this or that Suddozye chief. This people incited the population to . who was now exempted from the tribute which he had previously paid to Ahmed Shah . This was the only condition bearing the charactor of vassalage imposed upon the Belooch chief. or their successors of that or any other tribe. shoull acquire importance from the exaggerated manner in which tiie circumstances might be detailed to the tribes recently subdued. but the chief. and did not. In this case the chief of Kelat was to receive a sum of money and munitions of war every time he took the field. and eventually to no advantageous result. they all failed. and obliged him to furnish a contingent of troops on every occasion that the Afghan monarch made war beyond the boundaries of his kingdom. 85 would not. \IL THE MAHRATl'AS. and at length the Shah. Ahmed Shah exhausted every means of conciliatioii towards Nasser Khan. and this circumstance. and obliged to retire in all haste to Kelat: this town he had previously placed in a good Etat« of defence. the position of the citadel on an eminence was exceedingly strong. and Ahmed. Nasser Khan. and hastened to the support of his discomfited troops. and he was shortly obliged to leave for India to put down the troubles which had again broken out owing to the intrigues of the Mahrattas. A battle was fought near the village of Pringuei. assailed by him near the camp of Mestook. and distinguished himself in each of tben: he had recognised the suzerainty of Ahmed Shah from the t'mie he ascended the throne. perceiving he could gain nothing by prolonging the conflict. though of little consequence in itself. support each other . put himself at the head of this second division. and the want of unanimity that existed amongst the Afghan serdars. and had always been well treated and genci^ ously recompensed by that sovereign . situated about seventy miles from Kelat. was not intimidated. who had been for some time prepared for this crisis. whom he esteemed. but nevertheless the Beloodi chief revolted against him and proclaimed hb own independoice in 1758. or be obliged to take part in the internal quarrels that might arise amongst the Afghans themselves. situated three miles and a half from Pringuez. It was in vain that assaults were made on five different occasiomt . and in order to make the treaty more binding the king married a cousin of Nasser Khan's.curb the turbulent spirit of that people. because the various cbicfe Chat. was defeated. consented to a treaty which replaced Nasser Khan under his suzerainty. after which he returned to Kandahar. without being able to bring him back to his allegiance. were the causes that led to a protracted siege.

by continuing united. the Mahrattas. Besides the great possessions which they actually occupied. Suddozye.* that their habitations and fielde might renuun b safety. when the usurper seized upon the sovereign power hiniBelf. heard of this event a few days before he arrived at Mooltan. boasts more of his power to dude than to attack his enemy." remarks Sir John Malcolm. " became formidable in the reign of Shah Jehan. When the empire of India fell to pieces at the death of Arungzebe. but at the death of Shah Mahmood. and Ibe latter uaed all the influence they possessed in the various principalities of India to force those princes to send their contingeot of troops to take part in the war in which they were about to engag* against the Afghans. to pay them a considerable part of their annual col- 1 86 AHMED SHAH BEACHES LAHORE. they had compelled not only the paramount sovereign of India. ardently deored to deliver themselves from the yoke imposed upon them by thii confederation of plunderers. made a rapid and surprising progress. and Mahomedan princes and nobles were all ranged against each other. anarchy was rampant The princes of India. and that functioDST^ placed his nephew Alemguir on the throne in his stead. TIL lections. and who. and whose glory lay in the rapidity of his retreat . sent setTct . and Ahmed Shah.revolt. emperor of the Moguls. and during thirty years that Arongzebe passed in the southern provinces of his empire his chief occupation was to subdue the Mahrattas ." -fThe disgracefiil tribute of which Sir John Malcolm here upeaii was agreed to by the Indian princes at the period when Ahmed Shah marched against the confederation of the Mahrattas. the aty of Dellu itself was subject to this ditgraceful tribute. the wife of Timoor Mirza. were no burden to their horses. This prince. At the period when Nadir threatened invasion. from habits of hardihood and abstemiousness. as well as of the junction of the Mogul trooiK with those of the Mahrattaa. the sovereign of Delhi. required little either for shelter or support. from the lightness of their frames. The country was laid waste and his troops continually harassed by men who. It seemed in vain to war with a foe who was intangible. for the Mahratta soldier. " The Mahrattas. which was the appanage of the Mogul Princess. Chap. for they never awaited his attack. Suddozye. was assasanated by Ghaiee in ■ 1760. but almost every ruler of a province. had beeo deposed in 1753 by his vizier Ghazee Khan. The various populations of India had been in an unsettled state ever since Nadir Shah seized upon Delhi . and seized the country. and Ahmed Shah. tributaries of the Mahrattas. utterly destitute of ability. but this he found imposable. Ahmed Shah Gourkanee. though brave.

On the 7th of January. followed by several other Indian rajahs and 25. sutlers. drivers in charge of oxen. camels.000 to 110. &c.000 being cavalry and the remainder infantry — with seventeen pieces of cannon and eighty zimbooreks. perceiving this corps required support. which the Mahrattas evacuated at his approach without fighting. which made the efiective force of Ahmed Shah's army 85. some of them murmured loudly. to cross the river with 5000 cavahy and attack the Moguls — which order he promptly obeyed. sent tbrir several contingent^ which. and came up with the enemy on the banks of the river Bar .000 were cavalry. Ahmed Shah. Yoosoofzye. and there be encamped. The Indian princes obeyed the injunctions of the Mahrattas. he was obliged to wait a few days until the water had subsided. ponies. Aluned did not take the field until the whole of this formidable t Sier Husakhereeu. as servants. and. the Prince of Lucknow. and others prepared to desert. whereas in that of the Mahratta confederacy one-third might be set down as belonging to that class. it was resolved to give battle. He then advanced to meet it. sent two others .000 men. had submitted to the Mahrattas only because he couki not avoid it. took place. the Afghans soon felt the effects of a scarcity in their camp . when a fortunate occurrence. formed an army of 200. but in consequence of the depth of that stream and the want of pontoons. There were about 10. that the survivors remained in a state of indecision. revived their hopes. producing abundance at once.000 men — 45. inasmuch as he could only obtain provisions for his troops on the side occupied by the enemy . 1761. suddenly leaving them. BATTLE OF PANIPUT. such. therefore.000 troops could be brought into position. when united. having provisioned the Afghan army.emissaries to their courts in order to work upon and strengthen Cbii feeling. proceeded to the Afghan camp. and overcome the heatation of the Serdars. and the fire of the enemy's artillery made such havoc amongst them. and occupied himself in organiang the territory which 1m had recently conquered in Scinde and Mooltan. which.. and. for instance. 87 army was assembled in the environs of Delhi. ordered the Serdar Samut Khan. the result of the clever policy of their sovereign. VH. This was all the more disadvantageous to him. of wUch 70. but the greater portion of his horsemen were carried away by the rapidity of the current. who considered the passage of the river as a thing impossible. and as the Mahrattas were vigilant in watching the fords which they fortified. in spite of the intrigues of Ahmed Shah. Chap. With a view of giving them time to do this he advanced but slowly. and thus not more than from 100. so that he arrived at Lahore unopposed. Shooja-ed-Dooulet. Suddozye. Shooja-ed-Dooulet. supported by twenty [Meces of artillery of lai^ calibre and 200 zimbooreks. He then ento^ the Punjab.000 men. Ahmed Shah.000 non-combatants in the Afghan army.

The Serdars conmumding the divisions which had rcmuned immoTable were now obliged to advance. as in duty bound. Shooja-ed-l)ooulet had up to thb time formed but an incorrect estimate of the bravery of the Afghans . and Chap. though with heavy loss. if poeabie. when the usurper Ghaiee Khaii. VH. left the camp by stealth. This memorable aad bloody battle was fought on the plains of Faniput. who had not obeyed the order of Ahmed Shah to march to the assistance of Samut Kbao. should surrender the crown to the legitimate sovereign. taking with than their men. the oppoate shore. and remembering that they were not very conspicuous for their notions of gratitude. 20. but the Serdars Delaver Khan. and seized upon the Mahratta country. and plunged into the river. and the victors obtained a rich booty. who commanded them. TIL REVOLT IN KANDAHAR. The Mahrattas redoubled the fire of their artillery to repulse this attack. Isakzye. but on condition that Ghazee Khan. after vhidt he passed into the Mogul territory. was raised to the musnud. whom they finally put to the rout . and. The king saw the state of affairs at a glance. Popolzye. upon hb refusal to be reinstated in his rights. Ahmed was dearous of phunng Shah Alem. and might perha^e be wanting in that which they owed to him. 89 . and. on the throne. the son of Alemguir. and with hearts burning for revenge teW upon the enany. his son Jehan-boc^bt. Chap. and Zal Beg. followed only by his guards. alive to the least thing that might compromise him as to the issue of the conflict. The king. as yet only a child. did not heartily execute the order they had received. ^uld fiuiher pay an enormous contribution to the expenses of the war. seeing his kingdom invaded. and its waters became crimsoned with their life-blood. contmtied rapidly to advance. The Prince of Lucknow was not averse to unde^ taking this negotiation . and who were at variance with Samut Khan. and this was so terrible that the surface of Ibe river was covered by the corpses of men and the carcases of horses. mounted his horse 88 DEFECTION OF SEBDABS. the mediation of Sbooja-ed-Dooulet. Ahmed Shah proceeded in the direction of the Punjab to maintain order there.000 of them remained on tlie field of battle. also their artillery and baggage. without making himself very uneasy at this defection. and allowed Samut's troops to be cut up. he regretted that be had assisted them — nevertheless he remained faithful to his new ally . but after having been an eye-witness of it. and thus make hia peace with Ahmed Shah. even before the issue of the day was known. as to Delaver Khan and Zal Beg. and feared his anger. determined to obt^n.to its assistance . a few parasangs north of Dellu. These severe terms having been accepted. But the A%hans gained at length. Matters at Delhi having been thus settled. for the troops were ashamed to see their sovereign braving death while they remained passive epectatcn of the combat.

who ought to have shut his eyes. and. The greater Dumber of the revolt dan had only supported the usurper because they believed the which had been circulated by Delaver Khan and ZaI Be Ahmed had lost the battle of Paniput. he returned towards his own terri* toiy.was preparing to march to the southern provinces of India when he learnt that the Mahrattas had moved upon Delhi. This desertion. Cai TOUT to aniTe at Kmiitiilnir before they could reach it &om Gi he was not. for the Mahrattas retired at his approach. and Suleimaa Mirza. satisfied with the immense treasiu'es he had ooUected during the war. indignant at the request. had. Whether Shooja-ed-Dooulet had really intrigued with them to bring about the fall of Jehanbooght. therefore. had likewise proclaimed himself king at Kandahar after the departure of Ahmed Shah for India. hai expelled from the capital. the result was that the Afghan monarch. added to that of Delaver Khan and Zal Beg. but Shooja. supporting the revolt of a nephew of Ahmed Shah's. to put down the rebellious proceedings of his nephew and the serdars who had joined him. recommending the Khan. who. as it happened. retired to his own country. proclaimed him king at the fortress of Guishk. jealous of his influence with the Skah. Abdul Khalek. and met with great rt and disasterv in India . whom he had the good fortune to save from the danger that menaced him. and Abdullah Khan.000 horse. but. less judicious. of the branch of the Zergueranees. to the accusations brought against the Prince of Lucknow. with a strong division of cavalry. to use the utmost despatch and endea* 90 EXECUTION OF ZAL BEG. seriously reduced the strength of the A^han army. the eldest Ahmed Shah. and subsequently moved in triumph towards Kandahar. demanded from him a large sum of money . to which he was. but they deeply r^fretted their folly unlucky business when they were made acquainted with iui . but having heard of Ahmed's victories. but sent the Isakzye Serdar. recalled by an event of some importance. and had even coined money in his own name . with their 10. made incredible efforts to secure his oBject When Ahmed Shah became thoroughly aware of what was passing in his capital. by name Abdul Khalek Khan. Previously to tiiis Hadji Djemal Khan. he considered the circumstances of so little importance. He returned. and consequently discontented serdars. clandestinely leaving the camp with his troops. joined Delaver Khan and Zal Beg. and saw Abdullah Khan and his cavalry make their appei . in baste to the support of his new ally. determined not to comply with it. who governed in the absence of his father. Some ambitious. able to do so unt the revolt had taken root there. or whether the serdars. after their flight firom the royal camp. that he did not think it necessary to return there in person. deceived Ahmed in order to effect his ruin. sumamed Shah Pecend Khan. above all things. he thought it would be more prudent to renounce the royal position he had assumed and stand on one side. at least for the moment. in spite of his exertions. so that Ahmed Shah was no longer in a position to ]nx)Iong the campaign. however.

Ahmed Shah left Peshawur at the commencement of spring.. and months elapsed before tranquillity was restored. and with more intensity than ever. which had sloughed away. Zal B cepted the invitation. with few exception: to the camp of the latter. and showered honours and benefits upon him. This malady. which were increased. When he left Delhi. astonished at this decunon. At this period snow covered the gn the depth of three feet. called by Abdullah Khan Djuzam (which in Persian signifies leprous. feigning a friendship ai miwng perfect oblivion of the past — and this in the name father — if he would pay him a visit at Kandahar. to re-e£ his authority. I Kban was less indined to confide in the prince's word tJ unfortunate friend. Su Mirsa put him to death directly he entered the town. and the Shah was obliged to wait spring until he could return to his capital . desiring bim to take every posmble in his power to capture the serdars Delaver Khan and Zal Be had 80 treacherously deserted him. desired him to strangle hb nephew » a command which he immediately put into execution. and placed hitnedf under the protection of the prince Timoor Mirza. and during this journey that he received a letter from Abdullah announcing the manner in which he had terminated his nui the king. TIMOOR MIBZA VICEROY. therefore. and a small ulcer) arrived towards the dose of this year at such a fearful height. In this document they allowed a feeling of something like discontent to appear. and. at which period he experienced an attack. Ahmec had gone to the Punjab. Chap. 91 son of Ahmed Shah. inasmuch as it was to the prejudice of his eldest son Suleiman Mirza. in hie reply. Timoor Mirza.ITiinking. that the Shah determined to proclaim his second son. he fled to Herat. with whom he was on bad terms. he had [ff^viously promised to do. and gOTernor of that city. even to prodigality. which had been somewhat questioned . VE. and to put them to deatl prince wrote therefore to the latter. and. which appeared to them unjust. and thence to Peahawur. arriving at Kandahar about the middle of autumn. assembled. therei his son Suleiman Mirza. that the only way to obtwn the Shah's was to make a prompt eubmiawon. The serdars. as well in the town as in the neighbourhood . presented a respectful request to the Shah Ahmed in &vour of that prince. and instead of proceeding to Kaiidal». to whom they delivered up the cil also Abdul Ehalek himself.* and remained the whole summer at Kabul. having come to a resolution. of that terrible malady which had forced him long before to substitute an artificial nose of silver for his own. vrith perjury truly Eastern. The disorder at Peshawur was great when Ahmed i there. From a epiiit of opposition to his brother Suleiman. Timoor received the fugitive in a somewhat eager manner. his viceroy and successor to the throne of Afghanistan. they. each time that the reiterated orders arrived at Herat to put him to death. he wrote. that they had not been con- . and matters n their ordinary course.

remarking to those of his escort who wished to make any request or an inquiry about his health. " Timoor. which were carried by mules. TU. his son Timoor Mirza as his successor. namely. Yaghoot Khan also took with him the Shah's jewels and treasure. when the prince Suleiman Mirza came out to . in 1773. ^^ it is true. No one discovered the deception during the greater part of the journey . his opinions for the future guidance of the princes of the blood. prince SuleimaD. "ho was still governor of Herat." said he. hot he is infinitely more capable of governing you than his brother. and the curtains being carefiilly drawn was completely concealed from every one. 92 DEATH OF AHMED SHAH. he entirely abandoned pubhc affairs to the governors of the various provinces of his empire. hia disease having rendered him incapable of any further continuous labour. taking the royal corpse with him . that he hastily put to death the Serdar Zal Beg. he retired to a palace be had built at Tobeh-Maharoof. this was placed in a litter. in short. the cradle of his tribe. and a person in whom he had great confidence. is younger than Suleiman. as if to receive some order from hia sovereign. — Ferrier. the author is therefore ttoable to give any.sulted in a matter of so grave a nature. that.'' said the serdars. which were known to the * The manuscript of Abdullah ia entirely without dates. Chap. and it was only about a day's march from Kandahar. situated in the midst of the Suleiman mountains." The serdars appeared 3atis6ed with these replies. to come with all speed to Kandahar and take possession of the throne. The adroit eunuch approached the litter from time to time. or give him some refreshment. that he had never been able to foresee or put down a revolt . that in acting thus he had not consulted his own particular bias. the Shah simply replied that Suleiman had never been able to conciliate the esteem and afiection of the tribes . as his brother did. Yaghoot Khan. ^'and what did he do? Political reasons might induce me to order two culprits to he put to death. and always preceded the royal litter. but after four or five years had elapsed.'' The serdars wi^died for a proof. From hence he watched o\& the government . At the some time that he transmitted this information he set out himself. and wrote immediately to Timoor Mirza. and." " Did I not also order Timoor to put Delaver Khan to death? '* replied Ahmed . that he was violent without clemency . When Ahmed Shah bad induced the serdars to acknowledgt. and expired shortly after. as it were. kept his death a profound secret. the chief of his eunuchs. '' But. " it was by your order. but other secret reasons. the Shah had ordered that no one should be allowed to dishirb him. ought to have led him to disobey me. which seemed to embody. The Shah replied. being extremely unwell. and that in making his selection he had been guided entirely for the public good. so that he might be able to have his eye constantly upon them.

he had deeply felt the deprivation of these organs. which was Abdalee^ to that of Dooranee. should marry his widow . he granted permission to sit in the presence of the monarch only to the syuds and priests. and commanded that his descendants and successors should do the same after lum. brother. and live on the proceeds of his property till her death . and withdrew from the master his right to kill his slave. i. He accumulated great riches. whether firnn Chap. HIS CHARACTER. e. such oa drunkenness. or other relative could not demand her dower from the husband . D3 wine or opium. On his accession to the throne he changed the name of his tribe. In order to increase the numbers of the Afghan nation Ahmed connected with it all the tribes of doubtful origin. no matter whom . There was a clause in his will forbidding his successors to cut off the nose or ears of any one. that when a married woman died without having a child. whom he commanded henceforth to be saluted by carrying the hand straight to the forehead . to whom he conceded the privilege of dining every Thursday evening with the sovereign. who were present on this occasion. to pumsh him for an act of insubordination. He abrogated the custom of bending the body and kissing the earth before the sovereign. ayarlce. and Nadir Shah. The laws he made during bis reign he caused to be rigorously executed. and one which need not be mentioned . who were settled in the various provinces. He also desired the Dooranees to ally themselves one with another. and this was based upon his own sufferings. but they consisted of the plunder which he had taken from his enemies. Suddozye. having cut off one of his ears. cruelty. TTI. Eimak or Belooch. and not to give their girls in marriage to strangers . and he took the title of Doorveranee.' he was always a most firm supporter of religion.receive his &ther. he also abolished divorce. that for the fiiture the succession should go entirely to the son and to the exclusion of the daughters. and proclaimed him Shah of the Afghans. were nearly all attached to the party of this prince. her father. which signifies a person of noble and ancient birth . for the leprous disease having destroyed his nose."dars. that it was necessary to make the Shah's death public. and they immediately returned with him to the city. the father and son excepted. in order that he might be able to converse with them on the sciences and religion. that at the death of an Afghan his nearest relative. duplicity. particularly in the district of Furrah and on the banks of the Helmund. the revenues of . The 3e. who up to that time had participated in the property left by their &ther . Ahmed Shah. the widow should reside in the house of her deceased husband. and if there was no relative. from whom they had received brilliant promises. he around whom converges the noble and ancient tribe. speaking the Pushtoo language. reigned twenty-five years and a fe* months : he was free from most of the crimes commonly found in individuals of Eastern nations .

Tin ntme of Ahmed Shah became glorious throughout Asia after the battle of Paniput. which absorbed all his time. never found their way into his private coffers : he gsre his troops thm pay in. Indu. the Sutkj. He saw that repose demoralized his troops. It was by this system that be was oiabled to maintiun himself securely upon the throne. were as follows : the frontier to the north was defined by the Oxus and the mountuns of Kiafferistan . CHARACTER OF AHMED SHAH. and no one ever complained of the judgments that be gave. than an absolute monarchy. than for having given such a vast extension to his kingdom. 95 iailed in any promise that be made them. The princes who prior to him governed the Afghans exercised but a nominal authority over the nonade tribes. he was of easy acoees. Feieia. had it not been for the six campiugns which he made in the Funjah. TU. The petty chiefs of Khorassan. . His reign was remarkable for the good whidi he spread around him. He greatly extended the limits of his empire. and reduced to obedience the few who were hostile to him. and But Ahmed Shah is much more deserving of eulogy for the talent with which he subjected the various Afghan tribes to his Isn. and his generosity and simple and modest demeanour in the midst of courtly pomp made him loved by all'who approached his person . and offered but a timid oppoaitiix. wbo all acknowledged his suzerainty. and between whom be was obliged to be the peacemaker. by Khorassan. and which induced him m conticually to pardon the rebellious chiefs who could not bring themselves to bow under the yoke of obedience. at the moment of his decease. Vn. A^hanistaii. for they listened only to the orders of their own chieb Ahmed Shah conciliated the majority of these. williout a harsh word even to those who deserved it . by the mountains of Thibet. [K^ suasive. as mu(^ as to the great clemency that he constantly manifested. and who bad elevated him to the sovereign power. The nine Serdan who had served with him in the army of Nadir formed a Council which he always consulted in questions of state : he adopted DO measure of importance without thdr approbation. and the Indus . and he kept them always in a high state of disdptine. or for the victories he won. which. properly so termed. After a victory he always gave up a large part of the spoils of the enemy to his soldiers . he never adopted an arrogant tone of superiority with their chiefs which could hurt the feelings of those with whom he had once been on equsA terms. to the south. His goyenmieiit in short resembled much more a federative republic of which he was the bead. to the east. be would have brought into complete subordination.W CHARACTER OF AHUED SHAH. and neTer CBjkP. by the sea of Oman . be was conciliating. Chip. and to the west. acd administered jusUce upon the most equitable principles. which waB one of the causes that led to the rapid deav of the Mogul empire.person. and Beloochistan.

namely. generations. they became all at once conquerors.FOBMATION OP AFGHAN CHARACTER. Chahab Mirza. which was subsequently the ro. but i thoroughly deyeloped under Ahmed Shah. Timoor Mirza. dence during the whole period that the dynasty of the St occupied the throne of Afghanistan. mv^f ^HAP. His son Timoor Shah altered this things . The liberty of speech and action they were permitted to indulge contributed without doub fully to develop that independent manner and rustic prii still characterize them in our own day — a conquered n. he went to Kabul in the spi summer. Yezdan bakhch Mirza. the natioi had been formed. Sindjar Mirza. Fethi Khan Talpoora auoceedx to pover — Timoor tales the field i Emir of Bokhara — Balkh and Akbcheh become indepeadeDt — Timo to Kabul — Eventa in SboraBsaa — Afghan arm. Suddozye . The city of Kandahar was considered the capital of Afg during the reign of Ahmed Shah. 97 Ahmed Shah left eight sons. Suleiman Mirza. and the national disposition was modified at this epoch. Tliis 6ud< sition took place it is true under Mir Mahmood. Vni. alternately changing his place of abode from to the other. AFGHAN PRINCIPLES. marches on Meshed Khan — Capture of Tchinaran — Death of Medad KhaD — Fresh ii in Khorasaan — Afghan army advancaa into that province — Conapin Timoor Shah's life — The plot fails — Araeleh Khan is put to deat ofanoathinan Afghan sovereign — Death of Timoor Shah — Cbarac monarch — Sons of Timoor. in a word. for he withdrew tlie title of capital from Kanda transferred it to Kabul. . Ci CHAPTER VIII. it them with confidence in themselves and roused a superiori bad up to that period been dormant . that he might constantly enjoy an agreei temperate climate. but he only resided tber the autumn and winter . Kabul become! the capital — Sons of Ahmed Shah — Derviih Ali 'KhKa prinoiplei — Walea Khan aad bia huhb put to deaths Flight of Sulei — Timoor Hirza eptera Kandahar — Residea at Kabul — Kusdlbai organised — Timoor Durabes agaimt Sciuda — Cooflictn between tl aod Talpooras — Timoor Shah tatea Bawalpoor — Eatablisbea the Scinde — Fresh diaturbancea ia Scinde — Msdad Khan u beat«D at . The Afglians never really enjoyed their independence reign of Ahmed Shah.

but he learnt before he left Herat that his brother Suleiman Mirza had been proclaimed king at Kandahar by a few Serdars. Governor of Herat . and gave the command of the Hazarahs to the Serdar Mohamed Shah Khan. terrified by these executions. Vin. nevertheless the prince. to which place he at once proceeded with his army. Popolzye. and Perviz Mirza. and the remaining seasons of the . according to Afghan usage. Timoor. Mahmood Mirza. but as he was desirous that he should accompany hiia to Kandahar. The Prince Timoor. After this he appointed his own son. named by his father as his successor. a subtle chief. The reign of Timoor continued for twenty years. This personage brought his two sons and two of the principal Dooranee Serdars to the camp of Timoor. did not hear of his death till he received the letter written to him by the eunuch Yaghoot Khan. ordered their heads to be struck oflF directly they appeared before hiuL The party of Suleiman Mirza. in which Ahmed Shah had imprisoned him after his return from Meshed A party hostile to Timoor had rallied round this Khan . Chap.Sikander Mirza. after which he assembled his troops and marched against Suleiman Mirza. which consists generally in a perfect disregard of the value of the most solemn oaths. and accompanied by a numerous army. but he made only a short stay in this city. accompanied by four followers who alone remained faithful to him. which was then at Siah-ab . under a promise of pardon. and desirous also of striking terror into the traitors by a severe example. and a dangerous traitor. leaving his son Mahmood provisional Governor of Kandahar. was clever enough to induce him to come within the precincts of his palace . the population of which had become odious to him from having taken his brother's part : as a punishment he deprived it of its title of capital. On his arrival at Furrah he was joined by a great number of partizans who had already abandoned the cause of his brother. which as we have already said he transferred to Kabul. surrounded by all the great and powerful families in the kingdom. H 98 PROMOTIONS BY TIMOOR. now made his public entry into Kandahar with much pomp and circumstance. Darab Mirza. but the prince. where. first minister of the deceased Shah. at the head of whom was the Shah Walee Khan. he named Islam Khan. and was at once acknowledged king by the assembled Serdars . who had recently escaped from the dungeons of Herat. fearing to be hampered in the government by this old servant of his father. but amongst all those who deserted Suleiman the most important accession to his cause was the Shah Walee Khan. he put him instantly to death. as the locum tenena of his son in that office. his vizier. a member of the same tribe. The delay which took place before Timoor proceeded to his capital arose from the uneasiness occasioned him by Dervish Ali Khan. and the usurper finding himself thus deserted fled to India. and during this period he almost alwap passed the winter at Peshawur. Hazarah. Walee of Herat. was at once dissolved. who had great influence over the Afghans.

Noor Mohamed Khan. and dispos- . and gave the tribes a great extension of territory . aiter which Ahmed forgave him. and honoured with the title of Sera-fraz Khan. A diviaon of 12. and almost always abused their authority. equity. and had the title of Emir of Scinde. one of the descendants of Sheik Ahmed Zindeh Fir. and admitting their suzerainty. " Greatest of the Great. and as an indemnity for the expenses of the war . several of the serdars received appointments of great trust and high command and titles much esteemed at the court of an Asiatic sovereign. Abdul Latif Khan. The Serdar Payendeh Khan." Timoor Shah had such an implicit confidence in this Serdar that he never did anything without consulting him. a rival of his. and the army every year. which had revolted. and lastly. This chief belonged to the tribe of the Kalora. son of that Hadji Djemal who had renounced his pretensions to the throne in favour of Ahmed Shah. was appointed chief treasurer and custodian of the crown jewels. On ascending the throne he augmented the pay of the Afghan chiefs. making him pay a very large sum of money as arreap of tribute. a vassal of the Afghan sovereigns. and Ahmed Shah had subdued him even before the battle of Paniput. Mir Fethi Khan. Baberee. attacked him in Jane. Isak^ye. massacred a great number of his people. received the title of Medad Khan. and maintained him in his goverameut. had endeavoured to throw it off at the time the Mahrattas rose in his father's reign. 99 Kozzilbash horsemen was also organized under the command of the Seidar Mohamed Khan Beyat. was confinned in the command of the powerful tribe of the Barukzyes. Medad Khan." Kazee Feiz UUah. Pich-nawaz of the king. chief of the eunucbs. for he had a great predilection for wine and other pleasures. Suddozye. and a mild course of conduct should be observed towards every one . and to this the Serdaree Serdarane belonged. and the grade of Serdaree Serdarane. Delaver Khan. Iltifat Khan. but he recommended them to employ the chiefs of tribes as little as possible as public functionaries. was made president of the court of accounts . was appointed lieutenant of the kingdom and receiver-general of the taxes. YDI TIMOOR MARCHES AGAINST SCINDE. The Shah's guards were selected from the tribe of Isakzye. 1779.000 Chip. and Timoor ordered as a general rule that the principles of justice. Timoor Shah was only twice at the head of his troops to meet his enemies . The first occasion on which Timoor took the field was in 1779 in the campaign against Scinde. the Serdar who deserted at the battle of Paniput. the pay of their officers was augmented. He paid with great punctuality every halfyear the salaries of the officers of his court.year at Kabul. All these personages had the rank of ministers. chief of the Talpoora tribe. for up to this period they had generally held the appointments. " General of Generals. received the title of Kelane Kelauter. The governor of this province. and Timoor chose from amongst these the companions of his debauched habits. all the other wars in which he was engaged were conducted by the Serdaree Serdarane.

Ich the town to oppose the Shah. and upon these he laid his hands. to punish of Balkh and Akhcheh. Chap. the tribute the third year after his installation as . Kalora Emh*.ingcnt of troops.sessed him of his government. which by his sovereign. and in whose support Sultan illurad Khan . promi^ng for :act payment of the tribute as well as the sum* tlien !. The insurgents after this success did not hold their ground anywhere. If Timoor Shah had I the Uzbeks he would most certainly have crushed ny was much superior to theirs. not only in numbers of the troops . The king began by seizing Bawalpoor. TTU. The embarrassments under which Timoor laboured at that time prevented him from promptly repressing this fresh outbreak : aud it was only in 1786 that the Serdaree Serdarane Medad Khan could march there with a small corps d'arm^e. it a short distance from him. this chief. h approached Balkh. but he had scarcely left Scinde when the chief of the Talpooras again entered that territory and once more drove out the Kaloras. Emir of Bokhara. but Mir Fethi Khan. the contingent of the Khan of Kelat was to form a junction . in which place he found immense riches. firom whence he addressed a petition to Timoor Shah. and of Mavar-ul-nahar. who at once took the field with his army to reinstate him in his rights. on its entering Scinde. In spite of this contretemps H 2 AR WITH THE EMIR OF BOKHARA. and 1 held by the chief of the Kaloras. who had driven out their or and revolted against him at the instigation of Khan. was bound to the Talpooras by family ties. in order leiy his suzerain with the greater chance of success. demanded to be invested with the same rights of Afghanistan had formerly acknowledged. which the Shah placed under the control of the. and on various pretences did not bring the reinforcement whidi by treaty he was obliged to fiimish. and proclaimed his independence. Medad Khan accepted this airangement. with which. who only time to collect his treasure and hia forces. but the rivalry which existed between d the vexation felt by those who commanded the . those who had raised the )ellion. Timoor blc to send troops and thus oblige him to return iude remained independent of Afghanistan up to Shah's death.inde. The Kalora chieftain fled to Kandahar. eked by very superior numbers near the village of i beaten and obliged to retire and fortify himself in Khan tlien entered into negotiations with the •ane. marched upon the insurgents with his small force. and then returned to Kabul . occasion on which this sovereign took the field in lis conquest of Sannacand and Bokhara. however. and their chieis fled from the province.

particularly from those who were hostile to him. his territory ravaged. which from this day became pretty nearly independent They accepted. 'imoor Shah was the object of the scrdars. Timoor Shah sent 30. replacing Shah Rokh at the head of the government of Meshed. Shah Rokh Mirza. and. EVENTS IN KHORASSAN. withdrew from the conquest of Narar-ul-nahar. and retired to Kabul. but he had scarcely reached the capital when news was brought to him that Mamech Khan had been enabled to collect a few thousand horsemen. who wandered from town to town with monkeys and other animals. but they took care previously to point out certain persons from amongst whom that officer should be taken. but they paid him neither taxes nor salary and subjected him to every kind of annoyance. claimed his assistance against his old friend Mamech Khan of Tchinaran. who had five years before seized and continued to hold possession of Meshed. caused ze and thus compromise the success of the A%han ttempts to conciliate these chiefs were so prolongifd as at last completely without provisions. The king penegn. and that his position became every day more menacing. Vllf. 3 successor would grant them the advantages which but in vain. and this ccomplish without its appearing to be their fault.000 men. preserving a feeble appearance of authority on Balkh and Akhcheh. in which city he exercised a most fearful tyranny. From the period at which Timoor Shah succeeded to the throne Khorassan had been in a permanent state of revolt. taught them to cast earth upon their heads (a sign of the deepest grief amongst Asiatics) when they were asked whether they would be governors of Balkh or Akhcheh. On his arrival at Meshed Mamech Khan left the city and shut himself up in his fortress of Tchinaran. to receive from him. a governor named by Timoor Shah. he returned to Kabul. and on his arrival Blamech Khan again retired within the walls of his fortress. the people he governed merely furnished him with the means of subsistence for himself and a very small number of personal servants . and soon forced him . who recognised the suzerainty of this sovereign as he had done that of his father. and once more devastate the province. The consequence of this was that Timoor Shah was at length unable to find any person who would accept the appointment of governor of these turbulent cities. under the orders of the Serdaree Serdarane. Timoor Shah was obliged to send Medad Khan to put down this fresh revolt. it is true. and to avoid an irreparable disaster came to an CtiAT. disturb him . but this time the Afghans laid siege to the place.ihliged to leave their lucrative appointments. he contented himself therefore by ordering his villages to be pillaged. The Loutis. The authority of the governor thus chosen was very limited . in which place Medad Khan thought it would be as well not to. which led to a hundred jokes and witticisms more or less wounding to the feelings of the sovereign. to overthrow the usurper. 101 underetanding with the rebels.

should connive at tlie entrance of Arseleb Khan and his people when the king retired there. TUl to aurrender at diBcretion. hearing the tumult and a distant hubbub of voices. Iskander Khan. of the Mohmund tribe. suddenly assembled in a large open space covered with riiins. left him in possesion of bia Ebanst. Arseleb Khan. and. Tlie Serdaree Serdarane. and with him a great numW of bis soldiers. the palace guard were therefore bH Chap. He placed these troops under the command of Ahmed Khan Noonje. nevertheless the year preceding the death of thtt prince was remarkable for an event in which the Shah was nearij coming to a violent end. habitually deserted and situated on the sde of tbe grand square opposite to the citadel. In accordance with his usual custom Timoor went to pass a fe" months at Peshawur. A few days subsequently to this circumstance the Kboraasanees were informed of it and immediately rose against the Afghans and their protege Shah Rokh Mirza. tbe time at which eastern oations take tlieir siesta. and waa satisfied with acMzepting a light contribution in money towards the expenses of the war and a thousand beasts rf burden loaded with provisions : after which he set out on bis rebin to Kabul . 2500 bill-riflemen. -well armed. he perceived at once that he was . the Afghans were never engaged in any conflict. forming tbe king's guard. VIH. but this year he remained at that city a longer period than usual. succeeded in putting down the revolt. treated Mamecb with generosity. a son of Suleiman Mirza. who. ITS FAILURE.102 PLOT AGAINST TIMOOR'S LIFE. From this moment up to the end of the reign of Timoor. who with several other Afghan chiefs were dissatisfied with Timoor. on which a few tbiwsand Kuzzilbaab borse. 1( 3 asleep. or very nearly so. bowers. and the conspirators made choice of this moment to penetrate into the citadel by a sally-port. after which they were to procl^ bis nephew. and put him to death. son of Naser Ullah Khan. which obliged l^moor Sbsh to send a third army the following year to reduce them to obedience. king in lus stead. On the day agreed upon for the execution of this conspiracy. vbo commanded the guard of the royal harem. and as many resolute inhabitants of Feshavur. chief of the eunuchs of the late king. although with great difficulty. determined upon his ruin. By a rare chance Timoor Shah had not yet fallen asleep. and Yag^oot Khan. but the amoom blew with such intensity when be arrived in the plains of Furrah that he died. detained there by an insurrectional movement which threatened to develop itself Inrther and extend as feras Lahore. of which Yagfaoot Khan had given them the key. It was agreed amongst them that Yaghoot Ehan. Chat. It was about two hours after noon. were always encamped.

Timoor Shah . and that he desired nothing more than to be able to repair the injuries he had done him. a rough country. he could not quiet hia conscience and absolve it from the guilt of the wholesale slaughter of which we have Just spoken. which gave the guards time to come up and vigorously attack the insurgents. but one of them. who were soon supported by other troops. which had till then rendered his reign remarkable. he feigned forgiveness and a wish to pardon Arseleh Khan. fiill of difficulties. morose. who were snoring below . and lus clemency. Timoor Shah. placing confidence in the sanctity of the book which had received on its pages this solemn promise from the king. and when he knew they had reached the ears of Arseleh Khan. this command waa unfortunately but too well obeyed. The Goolams. and Peshawur was very nearly depopulated by these executions. in which tiie Afghan cavalry would have had but very little chance of success had they ventured to pursue him. He made these sentiments well known in public . and quickly retired to the summit of a tower at one of the angles of the citadel looking into the large square. now ordered a massacre of the people of Peshawur who had joined in the revolt. who had conceived a passion for her. but when they returned they were attracted by his shouts. a little reassured by tie death of this chief. nor the nurder of Arseleh Khan. that he admitted he had been occasionally unjust towards him. the conspirators endeavoured to get at him by breaking the doors. he sent one of the great nobles of his coinrt to him. Chap. and but very few of them were enabled to escape — Arseleh Khan fled to his tribe. declaring daily at his durbar^ and also in private. treated him with great splendour and consideration. and it terminated in an act of unparalleled cruelty. which were preceded and followed by a general emigration. on a page of which he had inscribed an oath that he would pardon his fault. never thinking for a moment that he would hide himself in a place where no one ever put his foot.threatened by some impending danger. to give ber to a certain Mohamed Khan. who lived m the valleys enclosed between the mountains of the Haicht-naggar. invited the envoy and his suite to lodge in his own house. and after a few days returned with the embassy to Kabul . The assassins. and restless. accompanied by a large suite of servants carrying a Koran. and saw the king waving his Cashmeer turban in the air as a signal of distress to the Goolam Kuzzilbashes. one of his favourites. for the Peshawur men had dispersed when they saw that the alarm was given. and fixed the extent of it to one in three of its inhabitants . cut the conspirators to pieces. Arseleh Khan. who were quickly reduced to the simple contingent of the mountauneers. His last days passed away in alternate parosysms of remorse and fear . and' affixed his seal to this document. resisted all their efforts to open it. brought about by perjury. 104 DEATH OF TIMOOR SUAH. did not search for him there and went on . being ironbound and padlodced. and also having carried off by force the wife of an Afghan of Kandahar. entirely ceased. Timoor employed cunning in his attempts to seize the culprit . From this period Timoor Shah became suspicious. the Khan's throat was cut the day that he entered the city. VIII.

assure us that he was poisoned by one of the women of his harem. and bis death. astonishing that. to be subject to laws which prevent him from ransacking and destroying.which European authors have so sharply reproached him. In spite of the several acts which have just been mentioned. Several of his contemporaries. accompanied by violent fits of vomiting. it was only by employing such means that the great Ahmed Shah. HIS CHARACTEE. everything which tends to make him respect the property of his neighbour. without reflecting whether it was possible for him to follow a different line of conduct They would have been less severe if they had given themselves the trouble to inquire what were the causes of this apathy. were able to appreciate his character. but we must not forget that this people admit amongst the number of their great men those only who gorge themselves with pillage. having held high positions at the court of this sovereign. He had many difficulties to surmount. is opposed to his nature . and divided with him the direct t^on of a^ira. His son. in 1793. who were venerated by the Afghans. one of civil war . and paternal feeling with which be treated his subjects. hut.survived only ten months after the attack on his life . equity. was occasioned by an inflammation of the intestines. and always uncertain. but it would have been absolute folly for him to have entered into an open struggle with the old serdars. was obliged to come to the assistance of those he had to protect by taking funds from his own treasury . They heard from the Afghans that which they have themselves repeated . the reign of Timoor Shah should appear to him weak and effeminate ? I had occasion. to converse with some respectable serdars. a sovereign. and would have ended in his complete ruin. is it. and it was these qualities which had led his father to give him the preference over his other sons . was enabled to make himself popular with the plundering tribes of which his nation was composed. it may be aflBrmed that in this he only imitated . tlie sister of a Popolzye chief. who. be it observed. considered themselves much more like the tutors of his son than his councillors. being animated by such sentiments. who was hostile to him. therefore. instead of enriching them by continual wars. he gave himself up to that life of ease and effeminacy with. and this was quite enough to bring upon him the slander and ill feeling of the people. for this contest could terminate only to his disadvantage. the reign of Timoor Shah is cited in Afghanistan for the justice. An Afghan loves to live at other people's expense . seeing that his efforts were vtun. 105 fur riches . placed his father on the throne. whom we have had occasion to consult on the subject of hb death. with a view of concentrating all the power within his own hands. He preferred the wise and prudent path of reasonable concessions ■to that dangerous. and who satisfy them in their eager desire Chap. for the serdars who had . who carry war and devastation everywhere. The king endeavoured for a long period to release himself from this thraldom. VIH. during my journey in Afghanistan. highly to be respected as an Afghan. if he was debauched. These individuals assured me that the intelligence and activity of this prince were equal to his courage and firmness .

but. he had had the power in his own hands . of these twenty-three were sons. Mohamed Sultan Mirza. It was the just medium that Timoor adopted with them all. These chiefs disposed of the tribes .the majority of Eastern sovereigns — even those who rank highest in the pages of historians. however. VIIL obliged to be on good terms with them. being without the experience of their fathers. which could not be done without a great deal of tact. like his father. — Their mother was of the tribe of Yoosoofzye. and Timoor. they could alienate them from him in a moment. When the serdars who had been the companions of Ahmed Shah were dead. and he was. exempt from the scenes of anarchy that stained with blood those of his successors. Sultan Ali Mirza. and Timoor was unable to resist their demands. They have always considered. passed his time in endeavouring to heal their misunderstandings. Hadji Firooz Eddin Mirza. Unfortunately these young serdars were passionate and ambitious. without doubt would have been less effeminate if. It was in consequence of his sons not having followed their father's example that they were hurled from the throne of A%hanistan. — ^Their mother was of the tribe of Isakzye. he gave himself up to frivolous ones. Chap. so long as there is no change of habits in Asia. and will always consider. — Their mother was of the tribe of Popolzye. Timoor Shah left thirty-six children . Timoor. and the clever concessions which he made to ambitious chiefs eager for change. Abbas Mirza. — His mother was of the tribe of Suddozye Mahmood Mirza. Nadir Mirza. they never knew how to preserve amongst themselves that union which had existed amongst the latter . Yezdane Bakhcb Mirza. instead of finding in them the characteristics which aie necessary to triumph over difficulties. namely — Humayoon Mirza. Ahmed Mirza. their sons succeeded to the influence which the former had taken in the affairs of government. therefore. Zeman Mirza. Kechver Mirza. . which assured to him a reign of twenty years. — Their mother was of the tribe of Noorzye. Kohendil Mirza. — ^Their mother was a great-grandchild of Nadir Shah. 106 SONS OF TIMOOR. the abuse of the physical powers and pleasures as the first and most imprescriptible of their rights. so that their feelings should not be wounded and that he should still appear to preserve the authority of a sovereign over them. and ended their days by the sword or io exile. not having serious subjects to attend to. Shoodja-ool-Moolk Mirza.

Mirane Mirza. as may be seen by the above table. — Their mother was a Popolzye. Hoosein Mirxa. whom Timoor married in 1750. AFGHANISTAN AT TIMOOR'S DEATU. and in cases of revolt are nearly always united against them. SONS OF TIMOOB. Saltan Ali. — Their mother was of the tribe of Etchekzye. Mohamed Murad Mirza. Nearly all these princes were. All these princes had each from ten to fifteen children . acts — Gives up Balkh to iman marchea Hg-. Echreflf Mirza. where the greater number of them are pensioners of the East India Company. Djehan Wala Mirza.— Their mother was of the tribe of Mohamedzye. Vm. CHAPTER IX. with the exception of Kechver. Muzafer Mirza. — Their mother was a Mogul. Chapoor Mirza. It is essential that the reader should notice with attention the names of those princes who are bom of the same mother. bom of Afghan mothers.Eyoob Mirza. it the death of Tiraoor — lutrigues for the BuooeBsion — I^fcod^ lorta Zeman Uirza — Afghan tactiu — Zeniui is procloimsd Sluli -chea agiiitiKt hia brother at Kkodahar — Flight of UumajrooD ranny of Zeinan Shah — Hia sanguioar. whose mother was a daughter of the Mogul Emperor Ahmed Shah Gourkanee. and Nadir. 107 are nearly always sure to have the support of the tribe to which Aeir mother belonged. and Achem and Chapoor Mirza. Achem Mirza. those who survived the disasters which have befallen their dynasty have sought refuge in India. In taking up arms tbey Chap.— ea the city by treachery ^ Humajooo ia made priBoner — Hii ts out hia eyes — Zemiin advances upon Scinde — Mabmood Mir^ to intercept him — Battle of Goiirrek — Zeman advancea on H«mt e city — Mahmood Miria retires to Pereia — Advancm on Fuirah — [Qaret — Mahmood investa Herat — Cunning of Zenton Shah — Hab< hia camp — Hia alliea are beaten and diapenie — Zeman Shah ajTiTe* Mahmood retirea to Bokhara and Khiva — Revolt of the Sikhs — uces Lahore — Disaaters of bis army — Me reaches Kabul and -Fatal tendencies of Shah Zenian — Diaeontent of the Afgluois — .iinat tlie Punjab — Humayoon aaisea Eaadahu. Hassan Mirza. who were descended from a great-grandcbild of Nadir Shah. becaase the half-brothers habitually detest them.

andahar. remained at their governments. was at Kandahar. and endeavoured to influence him in favour of his own particular interests. but the serdars having refused to sanction his election before his father's obsequies were performed. Kohendil at Cashmeer . The most powerful and influential of all the serdars was Payendeh Khan. had promised to confirm him in his government of Herat The good understanding was not so complete amongst the other brothers assembled at Kabul. at the death of Timoor Shah. in the first instance. and blood flowed in the streets of Kabul. or to the throne by right. Zcman Mirza at oodja-ool-Moolk at Ghuznee. the others. had. chief of the Talpooras. Abbas Mirza at Feshawur. IX. Kabul. amongst whom were Humayoon Mirza and Mahmood Mirza. as well as Persian Khoras^an. though not having paid for five years the jed upon hy Mir Fetlii Khan. INTRIGUES FOR THE SUCCESSION. 109 last breath. and the latter. acknowledged her as Scinde also. Abbas Mirza. Peshawur. The consequence of this was a complete dissension amongst the chiefs — each party flew to arms. the fourth son of Timoor Shah. ral corpse had not received the rites of sepulture when his dready disputing the succession. Mahmood Mirza had promised his support to Humayoon Mirza to aid him in seizing upon the throne. Thted than his father Ahmed Sliah. Mooltaii. The eldest. a son of that Hadji Djemal who withdrew his pretensions to the crown in favour of Ahmed Shah. the deceased prince T designated the son who was to succeed him to the : obtained the recognition of any one of them by the rhe majority of his sons at the time of Timoor's death ]ors of various provinces. a chance of obtaining possession of the throne . those of Kelat and . the untoward delay modified the chances which he might have had of success . I^lioro. and Herat . in acknowledgment of this service. Mahmood Herat. Balkh. and commanding- . where they had made themselves beloved by the people.n. Humayoon M irza. for each serdar attached himself to one or other of the princes. Like his father he was the head of the family of the Mohamedzyes.Vefadar Khan ^Conspiracy of the Serdam — Pajetideh Ehan and ilicea eiecuted — Flight of Fethi Kban_Revo'lU — Fethj Khan d by Hahmood taiiea Porrali and Kandahar — The army deserts attle betweeu the brothera — Zeman ia beaten and his eyes put dar Khan is executed — Zamao retires to Bokhacs — Character of TAN. supposing that his accession to it was disputed . The majority of them ed to Kabul to be present when their father drew his Chap. and might reasonably hope for their assistance and support in retaining their power. comprehended the :a of Cashmeer. renowned for his Herculean strength. was 8 classed as amongst the number of her depeodencica.

who. Mohamed Khan. Emir Ullah Khan. Logheree . only to be transferred to the cibidel of the Bala Hissar. under some slight pretence. they resembled so many skeletons. TX. deprived of their chiefs thus retained prisoners and receiving no inatructiona. Suddozye . the princes agreed to assemble with the chiefs of tribes in order that the latter might proceed in all liberty to the election of a Eovereign takfst Erom amongst the former. about his person. had withdrawn from them a portion of their regard. and arranged the apartments in such a manner that no prison could have been more secure. which. When the princes were assembled. replaced by fear. after the descendants of Sudoo had been raised to the throne. suddenly. and left the inhospitable and treadierous rot^ under which they had passed these five days of sufiering. Each of the sons of l^moor. Noor Mohamed Khan . Chap. Amongst the former were Ahmed Khan. Beyat . and with great secrecy. The new sovereign commenced bis reign by settling a pennwi . had not uttered a word in laToiir of his candidate. Emir Islam Khan. Djevanchir . accompanied bj the serdara. Payendeh Khan gave his adhesion to Zeman Mirza. followed him out of the room. no one bad any anna. the fifth son of Timoor. Emin-ool-Moolk . I^evanchir . This position gave him great influence amongst the people. The place selected for this gathering belonged to Payendeh Khan . who. Noorzye . to prevent any suspicion. either concealed or otherwise. and in conformity with an understanding which had been already agreed to. When they and the chiefr who had shared their captivity were released. and subsequently to ele- 110 ZEMAN PROCLAIMED SHAH. allowed themselves to be persuaded by Payendeh Khan. had been bestowed upon the descendants of Mohamed. The new sovereign kept his brothers in confinement during five days without ^ving them anything to eat save two or three ounces of bread daily. The various factious. the only way in which he codd bring them to recognise his election. left the assembly. within the walls of which Zeman thought it would be prudent to place them. Payendeh Khm. and troops stationed round it.in-chief the tribe of the Barukzyes. whom they considered as alone capable of maintaining their privileges against the excessive power which they had given to their kings. and succeeded in attaching to his party the most influential of the Afghan nobility and the chiefs of the Kuzzilbashes at Kabul. strengthened all the doors and windows. came to this meeting . and some time had been occupied in discussion. he had prerioualy. With their assistance he was enabled in the first instance to calm the general excitement. Djafl^er Khan. and acknowledged Zeman Hirza as their king. and many others of as high rank and equal power. w^ose par* tisane had purposely abstained from appearing there. yate the Prince Zeman to the Bovereign power in the following manner : — On the [Msjpoeition of Payendeb Khan. after which all those who remained in the house were placed under lock and key. Zeman. Fath-Ullah Khan.

But Zeman Shah. and Zeman. he put to death . the citizens of which were soon brought . and concentrate the absolute power in his own hands. and. Even Payendeh Khan himself. informed of the blow thus levelled at hta J Chap. HIS TYRANNY. after all. and obliged to fly into Beloochistan. K. his brother. Humayoon Mirza advanced boldly to meet Zeman. and by various concessions attached to his person those serdars who had been opposed to him . was not made an exception by the instigators of this violent change. who could dispose of the greater and the richest portions of the kingdom. and accelerated his preparations for war . in a very short space of time he had assembled a sufficient force to put down his two antagonists. did the same . directly he was in a position to take the field. Individuals of consideration were attracted to court on the faith of solemn oaths. and they recommended him to alter this system. after the defeat of the latter. he marched on Kandahar. Mahmood Mirza. To effect this object Zeman Shah commenced by taking the great appointments of the state from those who had inherited them as sinecures since the reign of that monarch. protested against the usurpation of Zeman. Humayoon was completely beaten. a battle ensued between the rival brothers . and as. to whom he was indebted for his throne. Though Mahmood had not yet come to his assistance. who was in possession of the royal treasure and the most warlike of the troops. and these sanguinary executions spread consternation in Kabul. when several revolts which broke out at Kabul forced him to return there. made preparations to subdueMahmood. arrested. for the sake of example. but some few others. and caime up with him at the little town of Kelat-iGhildjzye . or put to death. who met with no further opposition in Kabul. retained at Herat by the necessity of calming the excitement that reigned there. and a good many partisans came forward at their appeal to overthrow the usurper. they contented themselves with the one that had thos been elected. . imprisoned. they persuaded him that the weakness and condescension of his father to the eerdars had alone checked the increasing impulse given to the prosperity of Afghanistan by his ancestor Ahmed Shah. the Afghans were obliged to have a king.upon the old and devoted servants of his father. At this period evil councillois obtained a power over the mind of the Shah . Httmayoon Mirza. and these dismissals did not long suffice to appease the fears that his ambitious advisers suggested to Zeman Shah. did not remain inactive . Mahmood Mirza. Ill rights as the eldest son of Timoor. was not able to act up to the promise he had made his brother Humayoon to come to his suppcMi. where he found an asylum at Kelat with the Emir Nasser Khan. for his influence considerably diminished.

this treaty was never carried out. could not refuse this oodcession to the Kadjar. IX. unfortunately for hun. and he set off by foreed marches. . which he required in order that he might be able to undertake in all security the expedition which he proposed to make against Beghec Khan. The Punjab.numerous army . and the Shab Zeman immediately took the field to chastise the rebels . from whose Chap. and again fled to Beloochistan. Humayoon was bctriiyed by his Afghan partisans. they put out his eye& The Shah. and in obedience to the orders they had received from Shah Zeman. IS. nut only to his demand. Afghans from their new sovereign . fearing that a general reaction would be manifested against him. after which. at that period king of Bokhara. being then greatly embarrassed. but promised also to assist him with his own troops. The Shah sent a thousand cavalry in pursuit of him. but these quarrels between the sons of Timoor Shah were the prelude to scenes of cama^^ in the midst of which the dynasty of the Suddozyes was to end. who were released from the citadel almost immediately after the. On the approach of his brother. delighted with this fresh act of cruelty. requesting the cession of Balkh. as it was in the first instance his intention to do . they nevertheleas ceased not by their intrigues to endeavour to accomplish the fall of their relative. and continued very dangerous to his power. therefore. sent Mohamed Hoosein Khan. Chap. be succeeded in escaping from them. It was about this time that Agha Mohamed Khan. Zeman Shah. who was at Meshed with a. founder of the dynasty of the Kadjars in Persia.under a yoke of iron. Obliged to conspire in secret in presence of the troops that were sent to suppress the disorders of which they themselves were the instigators. dispersed over the different provinces. returned on his road to gain Herat. who wished to seize and deliver him up to Zeman . annexed to the kingdom by Ahmed Shah. as ambassador to Shah Zeman. assisted by the Beloochees. to attack Reformer city. had been incarcerated. he consented. Sbah Zeman. but he had scarcely crossed the Indus when he learnt that. Such useless cruelties alienated the 112 ZEMAN MARCHES AGAINST THE PUNJAB. his brother Humayoon had seized upon Kandahar. BATTLE OP GOURREK. but. was afraid to put those who were in his power to death. assisted by the Emirs of Beloochistan. they came up with and arrested him in the district of Zemindavar. This intelligence obliged him to put off his expedition to Lahore. and his brothera. but having. attempted to regain its independence. Subsequently Agfaa Mohamed Khan having been called to the west by the menaced invasion of the Russians. Karaguzloo. and by the direct road across the mouDtfuns. 113 chitdies he escaped for several days . During the events that we have related above the fire was smouldering which was so soon to burst forth in the midst of the Afghan nation. and everywhere excited disobedience to his authority.

he came to terms with Fathi UUah Khan Talpoora. and fought with fury during fifteen successive hours. Forced therefore by necessity. Shah Zeman had reached the Bolan Pass when he heard that Mahmood Mirza. and confirmed him in the government of Scinde. thought of mardiing against the Emirs of Scinde.which. after having established his power at Herat. halted when he heard of the king's return to Kandahar. and were afraid to go into the town lest the fortress should be taken from them by some treacherous act on the part of the garrison. only moved forward when he learnt that Zeman was two or three marches from his encampment.000/. after which he moved by forced marches to meet his brother. At length fortune declared itself against Mahmood Mirza. a large village situated between Girishk and Zemindavar. quite as well informed of the movements of Zeman as the Shah was of his. his brother. ought to strengthen the power he had usurped. their joy was not greater than their astonishment when they saw Zeman Shah in full . who was anxious to carry his arms to other points that were seriouslj menaced. and Hadji Firooz Eddin. IX government of Herat The Shah. was delighted with the proposition. Mahmood Mirza. which amounted to three times that sum. and which they had ceased to pay several years before the death of Timoor Shah. who she assured Zeman had no desire for the throne. and he was on the point of retreating when the mother of Mahmood Mirza arrived in his camp to make proposals in the name of her son. who had been appointed governor of the city in Mahmood's absence. but several assaults which he made were repulsed with energy. and encamped under its walls. Chap. had remained within the citadel. turned. gaye up the remainder of the arrears. and having taken up a position in the mountains of the Siah-bend. and for the sum of 300. Kamran Mirza. and intended to advance upon his rear while he was engaged with his enemies in Scinde. who. ^as obliged to fly and retire within the walls of Furrah. had just taken the field with an excellent army. and attacked at Gourrek. he fancied. and accepted it immediately. the son of Mahmood. After this Shah Zeman. and cut off from his communications. and would be quite satisfied simply with the I 114 ZEMAN TAKES HERAT. as to force them to pay the arrears of tribute which they owed. Not having received any information respecting the transaction which had just taken place between the two brothers. marched straight upon Herat. across which he had advanced. beaten. The two armies came in sight. without giving himself any further trouble about his antagonist. as much with the desire of punishing them for the support they had given to Humayoon. followed only by a hundred of his dependants.

retreat. they assembled in haste the troops that were at hand. IX MAHMOOD ADVANCES ON FURRAH. informed of this unfortunate circumstance. Kalech Khan (a serdar of the Taymoonis. of making a diversion in his favour. took possession of Herat. was appointed Vizier to Kaissar Mirza. but they had scarcdy reached the royal residence of Roouz-bagh. Directly he appeared. but before his departure he recommended Mahmood M irza to the care of the Emir Assad Ullah Khan. therefore. Zeman Khan. and a few days after arrived at Kabul. during which the revolt of Sedik Khan obliged Feth Ali to proceed to the Azerbaidjan . and this sovereign promised him support and his reinstallation in the government of Herat. After having taken these measures the king returned to Kandahar. meeting with no further opposition. and Zeman. and gave the command of the Heratee troops. 1 15 A%faani8tan. in order that he might be enabled to invade that province. who had for some years been seated on the throne of the Kadjars . who had been intrusted by Kamran and Firooz Eddin with the command of tlie citadel during their absence. while it required only two days for Zeman Shah to come and occupy it. independently of those commanded by Kalech Ehan. and son of the Ethemad Dooulet. and capable of resisting any assault for several months. which Zeman Shah had the intention of uniting with Chap. suzerain lord of Khaff. Desirous. well provisioned. With this view he left a corps of troope with the Popolzye Serdar. He appointed his son Kaissar Mirza governor of the province. answered only by redoubling his fire. who had delivered up the place to him. The place was strong. where he remained but a short time. despatched a messenger to Zeman Shah to inform him that he held the fortress at his disposal. The princes. a man of great influence in the principality. fled in the direction of Khorassan. but. the Shah of Persia. situated seven miles south of Herat. and attacked the citadel on all sides . Mahmood Mirza followed the Emir Assad Ullah Kban to Kachan. could do but little. seeing themselves abandoned by their partizans. without either money or an army. and came to the determination of going to Teheran snd demanding assistance from Feth Ali. the princes. and reputation in warlike affairs). as well as 1000 Afghan horse. Popolzye. Hadji Ibrahhn of Shiraz. This occurrence took place in the year 1798. to the Serdar Kalech Khan. which stiU held out for them. and received the title in partibus of governor of P^^sian Khorassan. on condition that he admitted his suzerainty. and that he ought to come immediately and occupy it with his own troops. but it was in vain that they cannonaded it. when the Parsivan. and ordered to return to his duty. But Mahmood Mirza. the conqaest of which was resolved upon. Kalech Khan. and pursued the Shah . observing that Feth Ali Shah prolonged his stay in the north of his kingdom. whom they summoned. the prince got weary of waiting for the support that had been promised him. where he remained four months. and wrote to the . returned instantly to Herat. which they attributed to the arrival of Mahmood Mirza at the head of fresh forces. goremor of Kachan.

but more alarm of the prince an The report of this tr standard a relnforcen was the Noorzye Sen contingent of a thouaa army I^lahmood's was. and he was described as having arrived at Furrah with 50. under cover of a darl great haste to Heral known. aud which co . Afl^r having wrote a letter to Mir . Reassured I the troops of Kalech Khan. subduing everything on his road. The King of. some terms of arrang Mirza. marching in the first instance in the direction of Furrah. Tlie inhabitants of this city were favourable to the cause of Mahmood. Mahmood proceeded to Khorassan. and the Prince Kaissar. Mahmood. all those who had deserted the Prince Mahmood. for Mir Ali Khan. nor was he deceived in this hope. and directly they heard of his approach they came out several days' march to meet him. Persia having consented to this request. made their preparations for departure . himself believing in the accuI 2 racy of the intelligec great haBte .Shah. These reports carried consternation into the minds of the citizens. dreading his anger. determined to encam about three miles fron discovered that the s. espoused his cause. where he hoped to be able to raise some recruits . the governor of the district of Chain. and they took the field with 3000 in£uitry. when a great number of them enrolled themselves in his army. an Arab. requesting that he might be permitted to leave the residence which he had assigned him. Mahmood M the place entirely b.000 men. Popolzye (wl promptly from Ehorae marched with these 1 ee^g that Furrab wa right. The news of the arrival of Mahmood Mirza had spread rapidly in Herat. conceived not but be advantagt force was not on the s ning. much exaggerating his success. advanced at om tacked him near the ^ The vanquished aro gates.

Nevertheless. that no messenger had been able to reach him with true intelligence of the actual state of things . alarmed at the Boare thus reyealed to him. in exchange : mood Mirza into his h to an intelligent mi way that be should jffince'a troops. the contents of this letter did not remain so entirely a secret firom Mir Ali Ehan. IX ZEMAN ARRIVES AT HERAT. than Kaissar Mirza was informed of the fact. his brother Hadji Firooz Eddin. Mahmood Mirza had scarcely left the camp and his ally Mir Ali Khan. was soon informed that his brother Mahmood had returned to Afghanistan. who had taken possession. for the country and the roads were so thoroughly scoured by the partisans of Mahmood. and Jeached Ghain with only a few horse. the camp gu jnrisoner to Mahmooi mm Chap. after having been beaten at Emaret. and a few devoted servants . He therefore assembled his army without loss of time. he fled from the camp. to fall upon and rout them thoroughly — a great many were made prisoners and brought to Herat As for }[ir Ali Ehan. but. asked the advice of an Afghan noble. as to what steps should be taken. Delighted to find that the evil was not so great as he had anticipated. and t question should not 1 wished . 1 1 7 which they had taken. and some false reports induced him to believe that Kaissar Mirza. but that he received some information respecting it He hastened. when night came. having met much privation and danger on the road. and he advised him to avoid by flight the trap that had been laid for them. and he profited by the confusion and astonishment into which this event had thrown the Ghainians. immediately to Mahmood» and swore and protested in the most energetic terms to the truth of his devotion to his person and his cause. therefore. The prince feigned to believe him . proceeding himself to Bokhara to endeavour to interest the Emir in his &?our. the Serdar Akrem Kban. and took the field with a view to its recapture. Mahmood. and when he thought himself in safety he sent his son and his brother to Teheran to claim the promised assistance of Feth Ali Shah. accompanied by his son Kamran. Shah Zeman. Mohamed Akrem £han. then at Kabul.prince. he had great difficulty in efiecting his escape. had also evacuated the city of Herat on the approach of Mahmood. he encamped his army on the banks of the . it was only on his arrival at Herat itself that he knew positively what was passing.

managed to deceive the vigilance of his guard! and fled to Khiva. ncTertbelesa. did his best to frustrate their intention . but that. As to the mass of his army. when Mohamed Rahim Khan. 1 19 the country of the Hazarahs. Medad Khan. artillery. When he learnt that his brother had gone to Bokhara he inmiediately despatched the Kazee. Popolzye. Shah Zeman appointed Mir Efzel Khan. and plundered and sacked the cityThe Serdar Ahmed Khan. CHAf. eon of the Serdaree Scrdarane. Sultan Ali Murad detdned Ibe Afghan envoy for some time at his court without giving him t categorical answer: he finished. to the Emir 118 nSVOLT OF THE SIKHS. for some time treated him with great hospitoli^ . After a residence of four months at Herat. IX DISASTERS OF ZEMAN'S ARMY. nevertheless. who interested himself in Ids behalf. Zeman iShah receind letters from the governor of Peshawur informing him that on hu departure fixim Kabul the Sikb mountaineers of Yambou had made a descent upon Lahore. his death was indeed only defeiied at the earnest request of a great and influential Uzbek nobleman. to represent that by the terms of the tieity coDclnded between Timoor Shah and the Emir he was bonnd to deliver up Mahmood Mirza to him as a disturber of the tranquillity of the Afghan kingdom . and.IX. by name Fezl Ahmed. Abdul Irak. in wbiw military talents he had the greatest confldeuce.Hen-rood. to which dty he had sent then subsequently to his flight from the camp of the Emir of Ghaln. and that be would answer for it with his head that /le thould not leave it. the sovereign of that Khanat. after which. but his soldiers fled at the first onset. accompanied only by oDe hundred and fifty horse. M^mood. he lefi inunediaielj for Kabul by the difficult and mountainous road which tiaTeraet Chap. of that country. if be found himself bound by the duties of hospitality. who had dwelt especially upon tbe Ust part of his reply. by promiang that Mahmood Mirza should be detained in his capital. Poocht Koch. and the Khan was killed in endeavouring to cover their retreat On the receipt of this diiastroua intelligence. vizier to his son Kai*sar. he ehoold remuD satisQed if he would order the prince to be watched it Bokhara in such a manner that he could not escape and agaie foment discord in his dominions. Mahmood Mirza left Khira and rejwned bis son and his brother at Teheran. at the time governor of Lahore. taking with him Zeman Khan. followed by his court. and baggage. subsequently entered the city. ^ as in the end he was unable to render him the assistance wbicb he required to renew the war. he went out and attacked them. Tbe Kazee left Bokhara without having comprehended the meaning <^ these words of the Emir. he sent them by Kandahar. informed by Fezl Ahmed of the plot which was in preparation ag^nst his life. under the conduct . the real and secret intention of which was la gratify upon the fugitive prince the mortal hatred which be fell ht the &nuly of tbe Suddozyes .

The THE VIZIER VEFADAR KHAK Chap. the Mciiamedzyes. who followed the example of s &ther. where he made but a very short stay. took a large sum from his treasury to make f(»inidable preparations for carrying on the war with activity . who were incapable of defending themselves. the chiefe of which conBtantly . Zeman Shah. and consented to the request which they n^ade. either dropped to the rear or deserted. Zeman Shah departed on his return to Kabul. EL ader should remember that. he proceeded to Kabul. Here he remained a month to rest and refresh his troops. set aside and debarred from holding any public appointment. The descendantt ' the second.of his minister Ve£Eidar Khan and the Serdar Ahmed Khan Noorzye. it was the debris of an army of attenuated men. and after having duly installed him. Such revolts originated more especially in the discontent which the powerful tribe of the Barukzyes felt at seeing their chiefs. and eman Shah was the first who dared to alter this state of things. This march was for him and his army one long series of misfortunes . the rsun. that Zeman succeeded in bringing into Peshawur.1d the most important commands in his army and the great Bees at his court. and meeting with no consideration at court. after which. therefore^ for this post one of them. and were not less venented lan the Suddozyes. bad all the force of law. who had even then acquired a great reputation for talent and courage . from the day od which Sudoo and [ohamed had been rmsed to a guperior rank hy Shah Abbas tiw rest. As the inhabitants had taken no part in the last revolt. sanctioned by time. namely. in which they had been maltreated by the mountaineers. The Sikh mountaineers abandoned Lahore at his approach and retired into their fastnesses . that in ftiture the governor of Lahore should be selected by the Shah from amongst the principal Sikh chiefs. he therefore took peaceable possession of the city. He chose. as governor of the city. the descendants of the first had enjoyed under the Se&Teas ^nasty au almost reg. hich. Timoor Shah. had so broken up the roads that they were impassable . having installed his brother. which. spected the privileges of that family. had the tact always to attach them to his party. who arrived in the capital in twelve days. without having so great an influence. a chief of the Mohamedzjes. i. held nerertfadeK le highest appointments in the state. he thought he could place confidence in them. When Ahmed Shah ascended the throne. his artillery and a great part of his baggage were lost at the passage of the Jelum . and the plundering tribes took advantage of the distressed condition of the army to pillage the baggage and strip the stragglers.al power in Afj^anistan. out of gratitude to Hadji Djemat. for he was under the necessity of going on to Kandahar in spite of the severity of the winter to suppress the disposition to revolt in that city. to the exclusion of the Afghans. by name Runjeet Sing. . and directly the troops which arrived by way of Kandahar had joined those he had just raised he left for the Punjab. Shooja-ool-Moolk. worn out by their sufferings. harassed by a thousand miseries and privations. the soldiers. which fell in torrents and almost daily. In fact.

by making them believe that. and nouiisbed their minds sentiments of hostility to the king. and by these intrigues attain himself the regal power. was despised by the higher. and a Vitality seemed to urge him ^■ ard from day to day in this impolitic and unjust path. worked upon them for the vizier's own purposes. and some partial revolts. who were devoted to him. Although Ve&dsr han was not ignorant of the extent to which he was detested hj lese persons. up to this time. had jvertheless. boasting everywhere the favours he had granted. and that his intervention with the king was the means of saving them from much greater disasters. 121 deavoured to compromiae his sovereign in their eyes.Paycndeh Khan. was of low estraction. he Sliah did nothing without having first taken his advice. CONSnRACY OF SERDARS. and he made use of them and led each in his turn to believe that he was endeavouring to raise him to the throne. stripped of all the appointments ttiat he held. His friendly protestations were always accompanied by hypocritical marks of interest in their behalf. thus leading diem to hope that they would be in a much better position in future. The brothers of the king also were under his influence. produced only irritation in the public ind. and. was. id this personage was the instigator of all the harsh measures liich the Shah had adopted against the great families of tfae ngdom . bo became so many tools in his own hands. The system us adopted by Zeman of governing in the most absolute anner. . and seeking every opportunity of laying upon the king all the odium of his tyranny and the bloody executions of which he himself was the sole originator. chief of the Mohamedzyes. Lrticularly amongst the most influential and powerfiil chie&. and they also delivered him from daosrous rivals. as we hare ready remarked. »bo id all of them been more or less despoiled. Vefadar Khan found his own interest in tbe confiscatioiis [lich habitually followed. IX. altbou^ benging to the royal tribe of Popolzye. such as the remission of a tax or the concession of some land. hoping by such conduct to overthrow his sovereign. regretting that it was not in his power to render them a greater service. having sprung from the lower ranks of the uolity. and he revenged himself by iprcssing them and elevating unknown persons in their place. he played neverthele« a double game. He fancied he should obtain his end by exciting. a tumult amongst the people. His numerous emissaries glided amongst the populace. Tie ime minister. The Khan an Chap. Vefadar Khan. without the concurrence and support of the serdars. though apparently perfectly disinterested. when the propitious moment arrived. id this was the first grievance of the Barukzyes against royalty. he prime minister of Zeman Shah. Zeman remained deaf to the milder tounsels liich were given him. and expected to receive the support of the new serdars of his own creation. he simply executed Uie wishes of the Shah. but the discontent was general. in whatever he dUd. and led them to believe that he had great difficulty in procuring these fiBivours from the Shah. In this way he by turns flattered and caressed all parties.

as tbdr plaoeofmeeting. 122 CONSPIBACV OP SEBDABS. which they were to give to their countrymen. The chiefs present at this meeting were Payendeh Khan. and the first replaced b. the steps he took were always well considered. IX. and also to depose those sovereigns *bo proved themselves unworthy of the trust which had been reposed m them. Yooeoof Ali Khan. Chap. Moonshee Bashee (cashier-in-chief). he aud the other delegates would escape the inquiries which might arise. Before separating they fixed upon a day for the execution of their project. The Afghan serdars. Noorzye. Paycndeh Khan had the cleverness to induce this holy man to join the conspirators. that henceforth the crown should be elective . Alizye. who went by the appellatioQ of his murida. aud nothing escaped their Argus eyes. Sultan Khan. and to the point. but to give a greater chance of success to their enterprise. the five del^ates Gsed apon the hous6 of a dervish. they delegated five of the most powerful amongst them. and to execute without hesitation whatever should be c upoD. Mobamed Sherif Khan. the {Hince Shooja-ool-Mootk. and also drew up several articles. his half-brother.The intrigues and underhand practices of this ambitious man proved that he had as much craft and subtlety as he had talent for governing . in which each of them stated the grievances of his tribe. and this delay was fatal. therefore. The prindpal clauses in this document were. that the Serdars alone had the right to vote at such election. chief of the eunuchs. and Rahim Khan. who alone were to decide upon the means to be employed — the others binding themselves to be ready on the day appointed. As the police of Vefadar Khan was perfectly organised. for the most part discontented. but the heads of a few more serdars. fonning a kind of constitution. in order that they might come to some understanding as to the measures that must be taken to free themselves from the iron yoke and sanguinary persecutions which weighed upon them . by meeting at hie house and taking advantage of the custom eo long established there. and his plan was so well conducted that it might have succeeded if he had had the boldness to bring it more rapidly to an issue . and his door was shut against every one unUl these sis departed to make way for others. But unfortunately tie conspirators procrastinated. who had taken umbrage at him. and their plana were betrayed to the prime minister by the Moonshee Bashee. were wanting : he temporized. and he trusted that. Al^r a lively discuseioD at one of these meetings. thinking this an admirable opportunity . He never received more than six persoos at s time. fur his residence had been always frequented by the moat considerable of the Afghan nobility. it was admitted that their nation had suffered beyond what any men of spirit could tolerate — that Zeman Shah and bis minister ought to be overthrown. Vefadar Khan. in high repute for his sanctity. formed a secret league. at that time govonor of Peshawur.

IX.of getting rid of bis principal opponents at one fell swoop. On this occasion. Zeman Shah ordered them to be executed in his presence. However. After having listened to this avowal. he ordered that all the Mohamedzye serdars should be arrested. as we have already remarked. where he rejoined Mahmood Mirza. iin* mediately informed the Shah of the conspiracy which had been revealed. and also to the people. and it was the hope of putting an end to this wretch that had led them to conspire against their king. Fethi Khan. 128 chiefi who were concerned in the plot . with a view of putting him to death. Having received notice of their intentions. their bodies to be leil on the public square outside the citadel. in eight hours. FLIGHT OF FETHI KHAN. but not to put him to death . in order that no trace should be found of him. who was more particularly sought after by the express orders of the Shah. demanded why they had conspired against him ? to which they replied. — ^a sanctuary never violated. of whoso fidelit)' he was doubtful. but on his arrival at Nishapoor he learnt that fresh disturbances had broken out in the Azerbaidjan. to dlBposa them in his favour. the diief of which tribe he had just put to death. taken up his residence at the court of the Kadjars. and. and on the eucceeding one sent tor all the Chap. and remain there for three days exposed to the pubfic gaze. also escaped the vigilance of the soldiers that were sent in pursuit of him. on their arrival at the palace. and under the pretext that he was de^rous of conversing with them upon public aifalrsy so that they should not have the least suspicion of his motive. who recommended that the greatest secrecy should be observed. replacing them by others on whom he thought be could rely. having been warned in time. with a view of reinstating him in his government of Herat . as on the former one. which obliged him to return to Irak . seventy-three miles distant. that they ne^er could have had an idea of attacking his royal person if they had not been firmly convinced that all their representations to induce him to dismiss his vizier would be fruitless . As he now feared some movement on the part of the Barukzyes. he reached Girishk. and. he got over the walls. he had been very well received by Feth All i%ab. the eldest son of Fayendeh Khan. who. had. and at once relieved his guards. A few hours after the Shah ascended the throne in great state. The following day he made considerable pressnts to his servants and officers. who had placed himself at the head of an army. but the greater part of them. From thence he took the road over the mountains and across country. they were seized and imprisoned in the citadel. were enabled to save themselves by flight. ordering them to be brought into his presence. having excellent horses awaiting him in a garden adjacent to the city. but separately. it was his ruin alone they were bent upon. that they had sworn to dethrone him. for the second time. or take refuge in the mosque of Ahmed Shah. and directed his course to Persia.

Mahmood almost regretted having left TutpHz. and he marched on Ghaiu. to whom they opened their gates when he presented himself before them. hastened en masse to place themselves under the orders of their young general. he saw that the inhabitants did not feel disposed to pardon liira for the check they had sustained. The tribe of the Barukzyes. had also their father's death to avenge. who had. when Mahmood marched on Kandahar. At the same time he sent two of his brothers to the fortress of Furrah. and in the manifesto whici he issued he drew a vivid picture of the cruelties and vices of Zeman Shah and his minister Vefadar Khan. which formed all his army. Mir Ali Khan. as governor. and overthrow his brother. urged that prince to enter Afghuiistan once more. devoted himself to the cause of Mahmood Mirza. who. and be soon found himself at the head of a small force. went out to meet him at the head of four thousand cavalry. CaiP. and the Serdar Mir Ali Khan. Their pressing solicitations at length prevailed. who recognised Fethi Khan as their chief. and dismiss M&hmood Mirza. AND KANDAHAR. 125 aoo. accompanied only by eighteen horsemen. this was easy enough. the Afghans' in all parts of the kingdom rose against Zeman Shak The Punjab and Peshawur in particular openly raised tk standard of revolt There were also some attempts at insurrecOoc in Kabul. and the greater part of his brothers soon arrived at tlie same place. for the inhabitants of that town were entirelj devoted to Mahmood Mirza. IX. a devoted. in* formed of his approach. The governor.124 MAHMOOD-TAKES FURRAH. to endeavour to keep matters quiet and obtain intelligence . This sue(» obtained for him the support of some chiefs of Khorassan. like him. but Fethi Khan somewhat restored his courage. to whom he gare a eubffldy and assigned Turchiz as bis place of reddence. to deliver the people from their oppm- Chap. and induced him to renounce this intention. After the sanguinary executions of the chiefs at Kandahar. and this example was soon followed by the greater number of the Dooranee tribes. and intelligent man. but fearing also for the tranquillity of Kandahar. IX. he left there a part of his army. but. While Zeman Shah was in a state of complete uncertaintj as to what step he should take to pacify his kingdom. whieh obliged the King to proceed there in great haste. He then oude an appeal to the Afghan nation. and that in consequence they were very little inclined to assist him. and thought of returning . with his troops. so that the prince might proceed against Herat It was at Turchiz that the Serdar Fethi Khan joined Mahmood Mirza. promiaiDg that he would send him troops when order was restored in the north of the empire. as well as hb brothers. he had scarcely time to retire within the citadel. Fethi Khan. on his arrival in that district. energetic. completely routed and forced to fly. and announced his design of marching on Kabul. but. Mahmood Mirza . owing to his flight when they formed part of his arnj before Herat.

with all his army. and they remained devoted to the prince. On hearing what was passing at Kandahar. stores. at Mookpoor. but the persuasive manners and talents of Fethi Khan induced them to support this contribution without murmuring. and the fortified village ol mediately eet to worl hence a ireah appeal as the royal treasur pretty good number receiving high pay t ever that might be.000 horse. after which he mounted his horse and escaped by a secret door. he ordered these two traitors to be brought into his presence. and but for their help the place would not have been taken wiliiout great difficulty^ When Mir Ali Kban saw that the afiair was desperate. two Afghan chiefs. for he was averse to learing the capital himself for fear he should lose it in his absence. under the command of the Serdar Ahmed Khan. and. In anticipation of ulterior events. and invested the city. were secretly doing all they could to make that of Mahmood Mirza triumph. ostensibly of the Shah Zeman's party. Zeman Shah sent an army of 15. he went over to him. accompanied only by a few horsemen.followed him step by step. They were treacherously aided by Bakhch Khan and Hassan Khan. An outbreak occurring at the same time in Kabul. who. feeling sure of their perfidy. m the hope that he would be better treated by Mahmood. This officer was but little satisfied with the Shah. and Fethi Khan. andamm Serdar Zeman Kha mained faithful. assembled fresh troops. i Kabul. Zeman Shah was under the i^ccessity of evacuating the city and retiring in the direction of 128 BATTLE BE Jellalabed. was the first man that scaled the walls. who conducted it. put them to death on the spot. against Mahmood. but when they heard of the defection of the corps under that serdar they at once disbanded and retired to their homes. on the forty-third the assault was given. Directly Mahmood Mirza was in possession of Kandahar he was obliged to levy a large sum upon the inhabitants for the maintenance of his army . and his soldiers followed rapidly. after the departure of Ahmed Khan. Shah Zeman had. and still less so with his minister Ve£Etdar Khan. At length. give battle to his brol After the 15. which he be» Eoeged without success during forty-two days. without meet Islam Khan and I^ could have defender! . and. On leav only two hundred caT guns.000 ( of Mahmood Mirza.

which would infallibly have happened. and. Mabmood. and Mohamed Khan. had not his courage failed him at the moment his plan was on the ere of execution. IX. He perished by a death to which he had condemned hundreds. Though blind. Thus terminated the career of this ambitious minister. and fled to Bokhara. were sent to Kabul. which was then governed by the Prince Hadji Firooz Eddin. and there publicly executed. Popolzye. From Bokhara this king. who could only govern by intrigue and murder. where fresh misfortunes awaited him. in conformity with the orders of Mahmood. when Zeman was taken prisoner. who had inherited from his father a hatred of the Suddozye family. and appeared. which he would have done. but now so unfortunate. His daughter. and this in order that he might supplant his master. hitherto so powerful. with t Cdap. was torn with violence from him by the Emir Haidar Turreh. and imm< but. and who was remarkable for her great beauty. defended by ho men determined to < the continuous efibrt arrived when they coi panied by the serdars and retired into anotl ing to Acheg Khan that dieastrouB consc tality he had shown t to inform him of tj sent a eerdar. subsequently managed to deceive the vigilance of his guards. DOWNFALL AND MISFORTUNES OF ZEMAN. with the assistance of a few devoted friends. also taken prisoners with Siah Zeman. After this abduction he was on the point of putting Zeman to death. went to Herat. be hesitated of the two brothers the Shah was compli greatest difficulty it lowed him. his elder brother. Yefadar Khan. for the prince had not tbeless. who followed him in his exile. the brother of the Vizier. who . Shah Zeman. 127 m which the Khan had designated. Zeman Khan. if he had not again succeeded in making his escape. half-brother of the Shah Mahmood. his eyes were immediately put out — a punishment he richly merited for the same cruelty which he had practised upon Humayoon Mirza. thus s Shah from the fortif a difiicult one. and which he so thoroughly deserved himself.Mohamedzycs.

This wounded the pride of the serdars. always on horseback. but. Chap. for he was personally very brave. ACCESSION OF MAHMOOD SHAH. i Chap. very active. than that of his father. 129 CHAPTER X. for their rights to the great offices of the state were quite as sacred in the eyes of the Afghans as those of the Suddozyes to the throne. His greatest crime was. Zeman retired to Loodiana. and was in opposition to 128 CHARACTER OF ZEMAN. in spite of the sanguinary executions he was guilty of at the instigation of his minister. he gave him an escort which secured his safe retreat to India. The moment he endeavoured to abrogate those rights his fall became certain . like all the Afghans. where he lived on a pension from the East India Company. and after having treated him in the most hospitable manner during several months. With a different vizier. and Kaisaar alternately take possession of Kan- . and wished to gratify it. than because he was of a naturally cruel disposition. but is obliged to retire — Ksmnua. • the receiTed opinions amongst them as to the extent of the sovereign power. the Afghans have a greater respect for his memory than that of any of the other sods of Timoor Shah. This prince. devoted to the observances of his faith. He was still living in 1846. but this arose tnuch more from the fact that he was influenced by a bad minister. was cruel . a son of liUhmood.respected his misfortunes and gave him a generous reception. IX. b whom he placed too much confidence. nor was he wanting in intelligence : but he lost all his future chances by making the Mohamedzye chiefe discontented. and would reign on that principle. bringing one war to a conclusion only to commence another . he might have hoped that his reign would be as long. and who knew how to inspire him with chimerical fears. and possibly more glorious. and did not at any subsequent period mix himself up with the revolutions of which his country was so frequently the theatre after his fall. Xahmood aacends the throoe — Pint acts of the Shah — Revolt of the Qhil4jzyes — Kaiflur Minsa is driven from Herat — Hadji ¥lrooz Eddin made governor of that city — Kaisaar Mirza attacks him. X. that he was absolute.

ool-Moolk. * Shere Mohamed Khan. son of the Vizier Shah Velee Khan. • Friend of the king. and gave them the highest appointments at his court : the Serdar Fethi Khan received the tide of Shah Doort Khan . which Mahmood ordered ^Icr his installation to power. and. Ali Kioozye. so Kamran took possession of Peshawur without any fighting. against Shooja. He al&o enriched the chiefs who had assisted him. and made Governor of Cashmeer . Cbm. He behaved with the utmost generosity to his troops. 130 KAIS8AR MIRZA DRIVEN FROM HERAT. the chiefs of which had more especially felt the effects of his anger . and to him was delegated the government of the kingdom . to take the city and seize that prince. even to such an extent that he exhausted the greater part of the treasure accumulated in the coffers of the state by his father and grandfather. the Serdar Abdullah Khan. with several brothers of the Serdar Fethi Khan. finally. who commanded at Peshawur. r. but as theee rigorous measures affected his adverguica . After seven years of conflict and misfortunes Mahmood Mirza ascended the throne of his &thers in the year 1800. was named Mooktar-ed-Dooulet. — Ferrier. Shooja did not wait for them. and made his solemn entry into Kabul.dahar — Disorders and conflict with the Kuzailbaahes — Peace is restored at Kabul — Conspiracy against Shah Mahmood — He is dethroned — • His brother Shooja saooeeda him — Mahmood remains a prisoner — Kamran is expelled from Kandahar by Kaiasar Minsa — The latter. he sent his son Kamran Mirza. father of Yar Mohamed Khan. excited a little irritation amongst the nomade tribes. A few capita] punishments. was released from that fortress. who had been confined in the Bala Hissar by Shah Zeman. but fled at their approach .X. defeated by the Heratees^ eraenates the city — The Persians besiege Herat — They are beaten and retire — Shah Shooja marches against the Talpooras — Returns to Kabul — English embany to Kabul — Difficulties of the reign of Shah Shooja — The Serdar Fethi Khan intrigues and flies^from Kabul — He is arrested by Kaiasar Mirza — Dost Hobamed escapes and pillages Bakooa — Shere dii Khan assists Shah Mahmood to escape — The latter and the Mohamedayes release Fethi Khan — Mahmood inarches on Kabul — Seizes the city — Battle of Neemla — Shooja is put to flight — Endeavours to keep the field — Retires to Loodiana. and when Zeman Shah was overthrown he took the title of Shah.

Hadji Firooz Eddin. he resolved on putting Kaissar to death. Nevertheless the Ghildjzyes. and fonned with great ease a powerful party on which he could entirely rely. and sought refuge at Kaff-rooge. who. informed of the plot ia time. the Shah's party felt no uneasiness. who were attached to him. Mir Efzel. Mahmood was obliged to send the Serdars Fethi Khan and Ahmed Khan against the rebels. had on leaving that capital gone on a pilgrimage to Mecca. retired therefore to Turchiz . and terminated the revolt by makng them coufonn to the existing state of things. revolted at the outset against his authority. and this without any attempt on the part of Mahmood to dispossess him of it. for KaJssar Mirza. but the prince. whidi they guaranteed him. occupied at this time with the Ghildjzyes. the Vizier of Kaissar Mirza. would not agree to this except with a certain reservation. who was anxious not to be a witness of these sad scenes. as we hare already remarked. who wished to assassinate him. leaving his wives and children under the protection of the Serdar Kalech Khan. fortune came to the aid of the Shah Mahmood . should receive as governor. and at this intrigue he worked ardently. was sUll sufficiently poweri'ul not to be tqiprebaiBive on account of the support and protection he gave to this unfortunate family. who. could not by any pos^bility come and disturb him. the son of Shah Zeman. and were desirous of placing one of their own tribe upon the throoe. but Mir Efzel. lost the goTemment of Herat. they rejected and repelled ^ secret intrigues of Kalech Khan. one of the blood royal. 131 return of that prince himself.only. hastened to find a successor agreeably to the wishes of the people. endeavoured to establish his authority in Herat 'Ih . a town of Khorassan. escaped from Herat. X HADJI PIROOZ EDDIN. On the other hand. conceiyed the idea of overthrowing the prince immediately ailer the fall of bis father. who beat them in four or fire encounters. the Hadji. retired to Teheran. The circumstances were as follows : — Mir Efzel Khan. on the other liand. fearing the resentment of the latter. The Heratees demanded that Efzel Khan. though retaining the appointment of vizier. the antagonist of the usurper. the bom enemies of ereiy Abdalee Bovereign. When he thought he was sufficiently powerful. inhabitants. in the place of Kaissar Mirza. and considered that he had a right to chastise those who had been opposed to him. and the war was then going on between him and Mahmood Mirza . but. though less influential than Mir Efzel Khan. After the flight of Kaissar Mirza. well convinced that Shah Mahmood. On his return Afghanistan was groaning under the sanguinary executions of Shah Zeman. unless he preferred the Chap.

and brought him to Herat. and proposed for his acceptance the government of Herat. induced the prince to meet them in a retired spot. camels. which the Shah of Persia had assigned to him as his residence. when they all arrived he marched against Kandahar. he « It a few days after the inhabitants revolted. Mirza had been the aorereign ruler of AfghaniEt ears and six months. who. when they carried him off by main force. who. he had himself forged. would not submit to the decision of the Heratees. but this prince. the prince after his defeat directed his course southward into the plain of Bakooa. this. This refusal was not at all to the taste of Mir Efzel. which he had succeeded in raising. however. declined the offer. where he attacked his adversary. so that these two prini ch other three times durinf^ the space of two montl the party which supported either had the upper ban Kamran Mirza fini^ed by remaining master of Kaissar fied once more. noUiis volens^ wbere he was obliged to accept the title of Governor. Kamran Mirza. where the fugitives went to rejoin him . at: city. pressed by the intrigues of Kalech Rhan. therefore. the impatience of the people. originating in a religious schid . K 2 K>NFUCT8 WITH THE KUZZILBASHES. Chat. under the pretext of wishing to purchase some horses. Kaissar Mirza. In accordance with a plan agreed upon previously. and caring little for the grandeur of such a position. when the city of Kabul becati ianguinary disorders. preferring to continue his commercial pursuits. seeing that his uncle had carried the day against him. a village situated twenty-one miles west of Herat. rpriae Kamran Mirza. when Kaissar was completely worsted. who commanded Uiere.in Khorassan. contemporaneously with making the letter public. and dro andahar. In this attempt. and here he occupied himself in the purchase and sale of horses. was more earnestly solicited from day to day to recall Kaissar Mirza. and other beasts of burden. Hadji Firooz allowed him to advance as far as Shekivar. who had retired to Eel waa recalled by them. To allay. as it turned out. An envoy from Mu. despatched in haste a few horsemen to Turchiz. and marched against Herat at the head of a small army of Afghans and Rhorassanees. and.Efzel Khan came to him there. and of which the troops had been bformed. he pretended that he had received a letter from Hadji Firooz Eddin accepting the government of the dty. and obliged to take to flght. devoid of ambition.

The first {dace to which they proceeded was the quarter of the Khaffis. 1 lugh dissatisfied in that the Shah eluded ^heless conformed to hia orders. their atuation became every moment more critical. massacred all those whom they met. who are Soonees. Recovered in some degree from the first movement of surprise which this sudden attack had caused them. on the morning of the third. and in great numbers. who had come to the assistance of the citizens. wbii me short time after. to exterminate the Kuzzilbashes. for. and might be again. only irritated tibem the more. whom be held in detestation. who were jealous of the frivour shown to the Kuzzilbash chiefe by the Shah. after a stout defence of two days. and pillaged and burnt their houses. to endeavour to prevail upon them to desist fix)m their sanguinary intentions.place. the youth informed at had taken. Some of the Kuzzilbashes lys a young A%han lad of great beauty in their 1 time he was treated in the moat infamous mamii : only from their depraved passions. Nevertheless. fully determined to defend their property and their lives to the last extremity. instead of appeasing. PEACE RESTORED. When the compliunants appeared g to an immense crowd of persons. but the king. around the mosque. . not wishing to alienate theKi ! adhesion had been. The Shah Mahmood had sent Mooktar ed Dooulet and Ahmed Khan several times to the assailants. and contributed greatly to his fall. fiill of excitement. X.the Persians have for a vice which it iges to menUon. aud pi > consult the Syud Mir Vaez. the Afghans assembled in anns. and forwarded igioua tribunal from which it came.Afghans. neverthele^ he surmounted the dil s support he gave to the herelJcal Shiahs alienat from him. but this step. a people originally from Khaff. refused to legislate upon the matter. rders were occasioned by a circumstance arising bclination. of greit 1. but from onees. a man highl Jis. and whose hostility to the Shah Mahm ! one. 133 known that this fetvo had been issued. and the Kuzzilhasls of Shiahs. Restored to liberty. On learning the nature of it them a Jetvo authorising the estenninatioi !abul. and to make known their business with loui r clothes. W 1 Chap. all the heights that commanded their position occupied by the A%hans from the neighbouring villages. excited as they were by the mollahs and some serdars. when they immediately compi nood . these riots seriously compromised t ah Mahmood. the Kuzzilbashes assembled. and afterwards went. they saw.

and. requesting him to come immediately to Kabul. An occasion for doing this did not present itself for two years. sent an express to the prince Shooja-ool-Moolk. and overthroiii^ AHHOOD DETHBONED. and Mooktar ed Dooulet. fi-om that period. when Fethi Khan was obliged to march with an army to Bamian to put down some disorders amongst the Hazarahs. K governed. Fetbi Khao. became alarmed. and dispersed them with matchlock and sabre. during which four hundred persons at least. followed the manuscripts of two Eastern I have fi^uently quoted in the course of mj [irza All Mohamed has led me only to tbe aminion in Persia . Mahmood took re(iig« in the inhabitants. declaring in favour of the Kuzzilbashes. was at a ignorant of what was passing at Kabulhad been despatdied to him by Shah Habdetained. to give him their support and that of the This prince. who. rushed at the head of their partisans upon the disturbers of public order. namely. From this moment they conspired against them. on the receipt of the letter written yn. went in crowds to mert lom they brought into the city in tiiuinpli. pick-Khetmet. had lost their lives. and on -either side. the Serdar Ahmed Khan. Mir Vaez. and. ence of bis danger. the Serdar Fethi Khan. satisfied by keeping an eye tside of the citadel. refiuined from taking any part in the afiair. one amidst the loudest acclamations. with his brother. for no one bad revealed the &ct to irtaioed it by remarking tbe excitement wbid He waa not a person who could Buggest to measures which the exigencies of the moment 1 of action who had placed him on tbe throne. who were also envious of the favour in which he was held by his sovereign. apprehenjdve that things might take a still more serious turn. was anxious to put some bounds to the fturious harangues of Mir Vaez. wbidi iched. and. to the Shah Kaioran of Herat. advanced rapidly towards Euibul with sU lUect Shah Mahmood was one of the latt bis arrival. up to this time. up t» the ja at Kabul. tched in his palace.X. had. and swore to overthrow them both. who had received informadon of was not very &r distant from Peshawur. who spared not even royalty itself. Immediately after lus departure. wint. Fethi Khan therefore stepped forward.After four days' fighting. to the great regret of the serdars opposed to Mahmood. the principal chiefe of the conspiracy. gentlenan squeiry. and could not join him in permm. the younger brother of Shah Mah^!iM)od. by reason of the alliances which existed between his family and the Kuzzilbashes. Caif. I have drawn my materials from lab Khan Heratee. but narrative is very summary aild destitute of een obliged to make researches elsewhere to .

he learnt. a son of Mahmood Shah. who themselves loot those times. leaving the victors masters of Kandahar* Hadji Firooz £ddin had scarcely obtained this success when he learnt that Mohamed Velee Mirza. therefore. where he commanded. Governor-General of Khorassan. and moved out of Herat to meet the Persians . he became governor. and confided to hina the government of the district of Fiurah. Some time after Hadji Firooz Eddin. whidi was soon besieged by the victors. greatly to his satisfaction we may presume. Shooja revoked this order out of ccHisideration to his supporter . The Persians . out of Kandahar. THE PERSIANS BESIEGE HERAT. or otherwise. meeting half-way Alem Khan. deliyered up to him by his own guards. Kamran Mirza took the road towards Herat. nephew of the Serdar Ahmed Khan. and driven Kamran from the city . it will be impossible fcr nw iportant omissions which. The reign of Shah Shooja-oolton which I am not so well informed. adjacent to Kandahar. and make an attempt to release his brother . 135 Mahmood. was to Bcize Sbsii Chaf. of which. without doubt. where his uncle Hadji Firooz Eddin gave him a kind reception. but. from the mouths of cmTimoor and of his sons. 1 have also joined to tbe inlbnnatioD cript many other particulars which I coUecteil rels in Afghanistan. in order that he might turn Kamran Mirza. came out nevertheless from Kandahar and attacked the Heratees near Kaleh d'Azim Khan. On leaving the city. the son of Shah Zeman. that this had aheady been done. and to lay hands upon it by surprise. who abandoned in their turn Kandahar to Kaissar Mirza. as king. the king confided a division of his army to his nephew Kaissar Mirza. consented to march an umy against Kabul. tardily infanned of their march. influenced by his mother. shah Shooja. as Mahmood had done those of the Shah Zeman . While awaiting their arrival. The inhabitants had risen at the instigation of Alem Khan. X. in virtue of new orders from his uncle. but he was beaten and forced to fly once more. and to order the lex talionis to be enforced by putting out his eyes. as occasion might present itself. the encounter took place near Chekivan. but he was beaten and obliged to make a speedy retreat into Herat. where he was in a position to observe the events that were passing in that city. and confined him in a dungeon of the Bala Hissar. Mooktar ed Dooulet having interceded for him. eiicl ■eign. After having taken this precautionary measure. The prince Kaissar. no opposition. was offered to the prince on entering Kandahar. who was also the mother of Shah Mahmood. had marched an army commanded by the Naib Mohamed Khan Kadjar to take Herat He therefore recalled his nephew and his 800.•rded. but he detained the ex-king a prisoner. he gave the command of these troops to his son Malek Kassem Mirza and his nephew Kamran Mirza. Hadji Firooz Eddin assembled in haste a few thousand horse of the Eimak tribes. ■"■'i ibrary to refer to.

and their troops bad remved for some time past of inslructioii and oi^gamzation on the European ^ht therefore hope to make thonselves masters of )rt space of time. it was much or drcumstances and the meaos which the Persiara brdng payment Shah Shooja bad enough trouble a power in Kabul. retunnng foil upon their rear. for the sake of haug at acknowledged. for a thousand factitxis were in ion around him . CHiP. they must have thouglit tbemin being able to effect their retreat with the Ion I men killed and three or four guns taken. opposed it . His advice would most [Hxibably have Chap. X. The chief of the Talpocrat avoid the storm. As the Shah had a predilection 6x a I advice was adopted. although evasively. 137 been listened' to if disastrous intelligence had not been received from Kabul : the nortliem tribes were in a state of agitation. without more success than in . and the capital itself was not tranquil . ant of vigilance.000 men. he could. which tfaey put to the root. ch were left altogether undetermined : neither the ime it'was to be paid was stated . the invasion of Scinde re. the suzeruntj irna after this attack . ooz sallied from the city and attacked them in en between two fires. but the Serdar Fethi he king was inclined to accept thb offer. llxjr 3 however for this check by ravaging the country ley retreated. and agreed to pay a tribute. and had at length succeeded in eetabliehThe Serdar Fethi Khan. who. ENGLISH EMBASSY TO KABUL. he punished some and comproh others. and bringing with them to Medied mdred thousand cattle.vertbeles8 they have exercised 'from this period t upon its governor. after his return fimi 1 himself to his party and became one of his minischief who advised him to give up his life of repose 'hicb alone could conciliate and obtain for him iia ifghans.i f. and sent bis minister Walee to the Shah. But this hope was not realized.IH SHOOJA MARCHES ON SCINDE. which x> him for arrears of tribute . aAer having assembled an army of 30. offering to pay him 320.000/. for the A^han princes. irst time after the death of Nadir Shah that the rard th^ daims to Herat . d on that country. which reasons induced the Shah . aace then they \ian r attempts to take it.

the ambassador was exceedingly well received. after having subdued in succession all the sovereigns of India one after the other. and overthrown the then political state of India. Elphinstone as ambassador to Kabul. served only to excite in him the love of absolute authority. she thought therefore of establishing her first line of defence beyond the Persian frontier. or serve as an instrument to a party. and the ascendancy obtained by England at the court of Teheran by scattering her gold on all sides. Pressed by circumstances. With this policy in view. by which he ought to have obtained strength. therefore. of being the moet talented of the sons of Timoor JSiah. Chap. and reducing the Serdar Runjeet Sing. and an unforeseen occurrence. for they clearly saw that under such a sovereign they most take a straight course and obey without making those representations which the Afghans love so much to present to their superiors. was not so stanch an ally that England could trust him . the result of which was the elevation of Shah Shooja to die throne . it was plainly to be seen by more than one circumstance that he was not a man to support intrigues. Though Shah Shooja's reign was so short. having suffered considerable losses. to obedience . With great firmness of character and tried courage. The A%hans seemed tired of the demon of discord. passing through Persia. X. with a view of retaking possession of Cashmeer.. The siege of Herat. and with reason. saw itself menaced in &e middle of its triumphs by a danger against which it sought to protect itself by all the means in its power. led to the failure of Napoleon's plans. Shah Shoo]a-<K)l-Moolk had the reputation. Ahmed Khan. a little against the grain that the serdars had submitted to the coercion of Mir Vaez. it was nevertheless one of those which had the greatest chance of being prosperous. Governor of Lahore. he alienated those whom he had the greatest interest in attaching to his cause. which might otherwise have been completely successful. the Governor-General of India sent Mr. where he made a treaty of alliance offenave and defensive with Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk . which having done he returned in great haste to EabuL Having restored tranquillity there. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander had just agreed to undertake an hostile expedition against India. Feth Ali Shah. It is well known how the rupture which took place between France and Russia. and returned to Kabul. but unfortunately there was nothing of a conciliatory character about the Shah . for his usurpatioD . It vub. and sought the friendship of the Afghans to form her advanced guard. he made an expedition eastward. they could not do otherwise than accept the candidate for the throne without conditions. and Mooktar^Dooulet. which Mohamed Velee Mirza had just undertaken. who then reigned in the latter country.0007. The British government. was the counterpart to this embassy. and in the end turned to his prejudice. and each day the Shah gave him a fresh entertainment in the royal palace.to terminate his misunderstanding with the Emirs of Scinde and accept the 320. but he fiuled in this enterprise also. and the result of which had been so unfortunate. 88 CHARACTER OF SHAH SHOOJA.

and to his jmiae. and he never afte^ wards gave any proofs of that independent spirit which had led others to have such an high opinion of him when he was only a prince of the blood. X. and their chief. and bitter anxiety. BIB DIPPICULTIES. who exercised so great an influence over the A%hans. for the Shah. Fethi Khan. and he might have aspired to a reign not less glorious than that of his grandfather Ahmed Shah. Mooktar-ed-Dooulet. died sword in hand. he continued to give vent to his . and they fell bH three from the elevated rank in which fortune had placed them by the revolutions which the Barukzyes and their numerous adherents Chap. in the eyes of whom they had become ostensibly compromised since the unfortunate day when the Sconces and Shiahs had massacred one another in the city of Kabul. The Serdar Ahmed Khan. but they were mistaken. or if. Shooja shook himself free from the yoke. however powerful or influential they might be. Ahmed Khan. and Mooktar-ed-Dooulet. who at once penetrated their intentions. but this friendship could not preserve them from the sad fate that awaited them . 189 stirred up amongst the Afghans. took from that time part in the revolt.was the only means by which they could withdraw themselves from the vengeance of Shah Mahmood. and that of the Serdar Fethi Khan. vas in prison. who vegetated in obscurity and were the least to be feared. obliged to give up the post of vizier in favour of the Serdar Akrem Khan. Sir graced by the king. were much more his friends than his dependents . and it inareased by degrees with all those who displeased him. who also murmured loudly . and it was without doubt from the day that he retired from afiairs that the decadence in the reign of Shah Shooja may be dated. The Mohamedzyes themselves were deprived of their appointments. while repressing them with more severity. The serdars. they still hoped that in accepting Shah Shooja as king be would keep his authority within just limits . less unfortunate than Mooktar. and from this moment the reign of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk was nothing more than a succession of dangers. he had acted with justice on the flagrant proofe of their crimes. But he was capricious and singular like his brother Zeman. This tyrannical feeling soon became habitual to him. and transformed everything. But it must be admitted. If he had been content to remove with some show of reason those who impeded the march of government by their intrigues. cut diort all their demands from the very day he ascended the throne. even amongst his most devoted adherents. sufferings. that he was always grateful to those who had raised him to power: Mir Vaez. Ne▼e^ theless. Discontent soon became general amongst all classes of Shah Sbooja's subjects. were taken from their retreats and placed in positions of importance — in a word. while putting down a revolt in which the most fiuthfiil of the Shah's friends lost their lives. whose cruelty was necessary to consolidate the power in his own hands. the restless disposition of the Afghans would not have been alarmed. The sons of these two diiefe. by an act of sovereign power of the most absolute character. with whom he had more than one point of resemblance. but without taking into consideration their irritation and remonstrances.

consisted of 12. he did everything to increase his dissatisfaction. There is even some probability that this prince would have been able to maintain his hold upon the throne if the Serdar Fethi Khan had not been amongst the number of his adversaries . ed and protected by him as long as he ^d not (Fairs of goTemment Fethi Khan was not then ta e conditions.000 &milies when . Shooja imagined he could despise him. they gagged ries. bis young brother. When he arrived Kaissar Mirza was governor. who saw in him the most talented of the Suddozyes. habituated to raise and depose their kings. be was obliged to retire. his native city. and soon found himself in posseffiion ■■ spent in obtaining recruits and adherents to hii tlu Khan had previously to his arrest despatdied dil Khan to Kabul. and knocked out ftb. not to permit any Afghan to take part in duB employ Kuzzilbashes exclusively. but he prepared everything in secret for the ah Mahmood. volley from the garrison. and recommended him.haughty and absolute disposition. resisted for a long time the wishes of their eerdars. but. however. The Afghans. in collectiiig a few es in the city. ng the town. Profiting by this circumstance. be was obliged to take to flight to escape Eut He succeeded. ffbich was devoted to his &mily. idar to be seized on his leaving an audience whidi led him . This false policy cost him dear. and the want of agreement on the choice of a successor which they must give the nation was the reason why they delayed his fall indefinitely. proceeded to Kandahar. X. Caw. and in the environs of which the greater part of the tribe of the Barukzyes resided. which would have been the wisest course. This Per^sn already stated. and was obliged to accept thoee vMdi I . and he promised that he UPRISONMENT OP FETHI KHAN. who listed by a few servants. instead of conciliating him. who. lumbers. Whether Kaissar was infonned of le thought the Btep necessary to bis uncle's safe^. and with these attacked the dtadd. and the officers who were commit him predpitated themeelves upon him with mdi fell with his face to the ground. After this be of Bakooa with the Barukzyee who had followed le caravans. After his disgrace Fethi Khan. and made him . Dost Mohamed Khan. disliking Kabul as a residence. with the view of bcilitatiiig h Mahmood frcon prison. were anxious to be rid of him . attempted his rescue. and. bound bis feet and his hands. retreated to the fortress of GinBht.

but Fethi Khan prevented him . they left. and the Kuzzilbashes. he collected his troops and left Kabul with 25. two thousand Barukzye horse encamped within a short distance from the former city. they retired. but after a few days' march more than half deserted . The undertaking was a difficult one. haying covered the place of his retreat with branches and earth.t to Kabul by Nadir Shah. but subsequently to the [ueror their numbers had considerably augmented. X. after which they acted upon a larger scale . .000 jncked men to relieve it. of Sbah Mahmood the Afghans treated them of equality. and this determined Mahmood to march on the capital . Mahmood learnt that his brother had made useless search for him : he therefore left his retreat in the middle of the night. but after the sanguinaiy coniirt reen them on the occasion of the horriUe crime se Penoan colonists they were oppressed in ereiy ugh Fethi Khan had always remained on good which led them very naturally to assist him in ilahmood. The next morning a hundred emissaries were despatched on every side. After having passed several days in this subterranean abode. on condition that they raised the siege and retired from Kandahar. and they then laid siege to Kandahar. he came to a compromise with them. and not at Kandahar. ESCAPE OP 8HAII MAHMOOD. accompanied by Shore dil Khan and a few devoted adherents. but after this. but whatever mi^t hare Chap. Mahmood Shah was strongly inclined to break his promise. and such was the energy with which he used them. galloped southward. When Shah Shooja heard that Kandahar was besieged by Mahmood. that in eight hours he had dug down to the conduit by which he was to escape beyond the city walls. in whose company they plundered three rich caravana With the proceeds of these robberies they were enabled to raise a small force. When the serdar was released. but the majority of them soon returned to inform the Shah that their endeavours to find him had been unavailing. and constrain his nephew to give up the city. and. the Kuzzilbashes especially all left his court and . he tepreaented to him that the throne was at Kabul. During three months Kaissar Mirza repulsed all the attacks of the beaegers. It was ni^t when he gained the outside.pt bim closely guarded . with orders to put him to death directly be fell into their hands. setting the Serdar Fethi Khan at liberty. who were on the watch. being without either provisions or munitions of war. conducted him to a tomb in a churchyard situated near the walls of the Bala Hissar. the villages were in their turn put under contribution. when they were soon joined by Dost Mohamed Khan. and. . 141 been the yigilance of his gaolers^ the Kuzzilbashes finished by eyading it Tools were secretly conveyed to the prisoner. recommending him to have patience for a few days until the pursuit which it was certain would take place began to slacken. nevertheless.

X. which obliged the Shah to fell back on his 142 SHAH MAHMOOD RESTORED. Powerless rather than discouraged. to add to his disgrace. mounted on an elephant which Shah Shooja had ordered to be richly caparisoned for his own triumphant entry into the capital. and hastened against ^lah Shooja. Kaissar Mirza. Akrem Khan. Chap. Fetfai Khan charged them with impetuosity at a moment when they least expected it. where he hoped. Directing his course towards Kandahar by the mountains bordering the Indus. a brother of Fethi Khan. four months having eli^ieed between bis first and second defeat. who followed him cloee.000/.returned to Kabul. like that prince. and. and he retired and took up a position in a vast plain surrounding the gardens of Neemla. remained in Kabul only long enough to take poeaesaoa of it . Shah Shooja remained only a short time in the Khyher. was killed. capital.. and entered Kabul amidst the acclamations of the inconstant people of that city. but not bcfiire he had gone through many severe trials. for it threw the mass into utter confusion . and the king escaped to the mountains of the Khyber.000 combatants. independent of a sum of 2. it became known. but in spite of the secrecy with which he endeavoured to conduct his march. where he resided near his brother the Shah Zeman. to take the offensive and region bia crown. hia nephew was driven from Kandahar by the Serdar Poor dil Khan.000. contained precious stones of immense value. SKETCH OF SHAH SHOOJA. by joining his nephew. and before they had even time to form up in order of battle : the result was a complete rout. XI. Shah Mahmood and Fothi Khan. which. but he had ecarcely arnved there when a revolt forced him to evacuate it. living from that time. whose army was advantageously posted and numbered 20. they then confided it to the care of the Kuzzilboshes. near Gundamuck. fear took possession of them. on the bounty of the East India Company. the son of . 143 CHAPTER XL Sr A. the vizier of Shah Shooja. Chap. who was fortunate in being able to escape by a rapid flight. he obtained some recruits on the road . and they fled from the Beld. Shah Mahmood secured an enormous booty. this was in 1809. BumeB* sketch of Shah Shooja — Fethi Khan is appointed Vizier — Shall Mahmood devoted to pleasure — Influence of the vizier — Kamran. abandoning on the field of battle all his baggage and the royal treasure. and retired soon after towards the south. he retired shortly after to Loodiana. Though mustering only 3000 horse. After this Poor dil Khan attacked Shooja with superior forces.

and subjected to much indignity.Flight of Mur Efzel Khan to Meshed — Battle of Kiafflr Kaleh — Retreat of both parties — The Afghans obtain the plunder — Kamran conspires against Fethi Khan — Shah Mahmood commands the vizier^s eyes to be put out — Kamran arrives at Herat and executes the order — The brothers of the Tiaer. the son of his former vizier. He was for some time confined in the fortress of Attok. This narrative was taken from a little work written by Shah Shooja himself. and in the end had ample i . gives a sketch of the life which Shah Shooja led after the battle of Neemla. " After Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk had been defeated at Neemla he had wandered as a fugitive in various corners of his dominions . I present it here from the pages of Bumes. which have been detailed by himself in a small volume. Iiad used every persua: Shooja's placing. are replete with interest After his discomfiture at Kandahar he was seized by Ata Mohamed Khan. In the mean while Ata Mohamed Khan proceeded to Cashmeer. queen. himself in the power of Runjeet £ regarded her advice. Shore dil Khan and Kohendil Khan. escape — Poor dil Khan renmins a priaoaer. or mountain of light. threatening him with instant death. Sir Alexander Burnes. The object of such severity was to extract from him the celebrated diamond called Koh-i-Noor. His 144 SKETCH OF SHAH BHOOJA. tl tial lady of his harem. which he was known to possess. but without result — as it is highly interesting. with his arms bound. On the fall of that valley he was released by Futeh Khan and joined his family at Lahore. and his keeper once took him into the middle of the Indus. aa I may well call the Wafikdar Begum. The lancet was frequently held over his eyes . and his adventures. an enlightened and conscientious traveller in Afghanistan.Shah Mahmood — His ferocious disposition — He kills his cousin Kaissar — Fethi Khan reduces the Belooches — Establishes order and security — Afghan alliance with the Sikhs — They unite and seize Cashmeer — Fethi Khan breaks hii word to the Sikhs — The latter seize upon Attok — Brilliant exploit of Doit Mohamed — Panic of the Afghans — Runjeet Sing pillages Cashmeer -^ Ths pretensions of Persia on Herat — Hooaein Ali Mirza marches against that city — Fethi Khan marches to the relief of Herat — The vizier arrests Hadji Flrooz Eddin — The prince's harem is violated and plundered by Dost Mohamed -. and carried the captive monarch in his train. I made every endeaToar when in Afghanistan and Persia to procure this book.

ar or three servants towards the hill country of Kisl once more raised the standard of a monarch. where his family had found an asylum. Few monarchs and few men have been subjected to greater reverses of fortune than Shooja-oolMoolk . e the diamond in a mortar. while at the mercy of the Sikhs. She also intimated to that. and once more frustrated the hopes of Shah Shooja. but an Hiitimelj season blocked the roads with snow. This lady was a woman c determined character . Wandering by a cheerless and ungenial country. and even hunger. if he continued his dishonourable demands. in which he was assisted by the Rajah of Kishtwar. He here joined them.bis having neglected it. or valuable diamond which was in and evinced intentions of fnrdng it from her. He transfer the daughters of the unfortunate king to Tlie queen seized on the person who conveyed ti had him soundly chastised. and then swallow ing. They hired all 1 adjoined those in which they lodged. and first administer it tc and those under her protection. XT. A the household had retired to rest. . 145 attack on Cashmeer. Chap. insult. for the GoFeraor of Cashmeer had evacuated his frontier position. " The ungenerous part which the king of the SH towards her husband aroused the energies of the settled herself at the British station of Loodiana. but it would be this sketch. FETHI KHAN VIZIER. It is sufficient to mention that an i the closest nature. and her counsel bad often to her husband. the Shah at length reached the British station of Sabathoo in the outer Himalaya. ber husband. Runjeet Sing pressed her urgen the Koh-i-Noor. and the gates wei crept through the common sewer of the city. and opened the street by cutting through seven walls. and we find our sympathies enlisted in his cause by a knowledge of his misfortunes. The expedition would have been successful. both in his days of power and disa " At Lahore. interrupted the supplies. and Shooja made wvery exertion in Lahore. ' May the blood of all of us be on your hea succeeded in the end in escaping from Lahore Hindoo . and planned the deliverance of her husbai followed. fell tc unfortunate monarch. and has since shared the bounty of ihe British Government. she preserved her own and his hoi heroic manner. from which he repaired to Loodiana." . This was only efiected at the expem diamond. the placing of horses on the road. A narration of the circumstances rel r^der would prove interesting. the king descen* ture and issued into the street in the dress of th (aty wall had yet to be passed.

he had the administration of the finances and the army . he wished for power with reference only to the sweets of life and the pleasures which it procured. and were constantly seeking for an opportunity of inspiring the weak monarch with chimerical fears. All the affairs of the kingdom were submitted to his discretion . alter having rejoined his father under the . It was on the Serdar Fethi Khan that he heaped these. From this time he gave himself up to. Fethi Klian did not abuse this unlimited confidence.Shah Mahmood had now for the second time reaped the fruits of the clever combinations of Fethi Khan. whose military talents were completely developed. XL Uie Teneration tfaey had for the Suddozyes. his orders were not subject to the least control. had learnt nothing by adversity . and gratified. But those who envied the minister did not £nd him to tiieir liking. which had totally disappeared since the pacific reign of his son Timoor. It is true many persons have ^ven Fethi Khan credit for the most ambitious viewB. gave him the most extensive powers. It was much more in answer to bis appeal that the Afghans. without giving him more power. the greatest contempt for their king. he thought of nothing but his pleasures and orgies of every kind and description. vhich would have caused him immense embarrassment. living in utter ignorance of all that was passing around him. had responded. amongst these was his son Kamran. and was contented wilb the high position to which his sovereign had raised him. Nevertheless such was at this epoch H6 KAMBAN MIRZA. Kamran Mirza. and under the following circumstances. This prince. Cbap. his depraved inclinations . The name of Fethi Khan soon became celebrated and popular throughout Central Asia . or. but his intrigues had no other result in the first instance than to cause his own removal from office. that thqr never tliought of dethroning him in farour of hie fortunate and able general. more likely still. because he was convinced of bis great capacity . What could he desire more ? Nothing ! and Shah Mahmood considered himself extremely fortunate in having as his minister a man who fulfilled his responsible and arduous duties so well. leaving to others the cares of government. and had. but on a close examinatJoo of the &ct8 one remains convinced that this chief was nncere when he protested his devotion to the Shah. although tried by many vicissitudes. either because he was convinced that it was impossible for him to reign veithout the co-operation of that chief. and laid upon him the difficult task of governing the Afghan nation. than from any wish which they had to see Shah IVfahmood again upon the throne. on the contrary. efieminate and self-indulgent. or from a feeling of gratitude. he made him his prime minister. particularly the powerful tribe of the Baruk^yes. and a host of enemies. and soon restored to his country the splendour and glory of the days of the great Shah Ahmed. he made his brothers in Bucces»on governors of all the provinces . the Afghans more especially held him in the greatest admiration. What indeed could he gain by becoming king ? only another title.

with a view of forcing him to give up some diamonds which he had forgotten to take with him in one of his hurried flights from that city. XI. and he was ever after mixed up in all the intrigues and conspiracies that were formed against him. The first object of Fethi Khan. meeting Kaissar Mirza in one of the royal gardens. as after having been removed from his government. immediately interfered. the observance of which had been very much relaxed. He also restored order in all the provinces . he still found time to direct the helm of state. had already become remarkable for his haughty exterior. up to that period. Kamran Mirza. when Kamran felled him to the earth with a wrestler^s club which he took firom the hands of a person in his suite. His couan Kaisrar Mirza. or keep them afterwards in the path of duty .walls of Kandahar. and a great indinatioo for debauch. Kamran. This ]Hince. he then reduced to obedience the greater part of the tribe of the Hazarahs. Shah Mahmood. settled in the heart of the mountains of the Paropamisus. returned with him to Kabul. regulated the administration. and made him release his nephew. he struck hard. ABILITIES OF FETHI KHAN. and it was determined between the king and his minister that no appointment should be given to Kamran Mirza. had not followed the example of Sash Sfliooja. and put to the torture. ordered him to be seized one morning. and which he pretended had &llen Chap. was to make the Emirs of Scinde and Beloochistan return to their duty. giving rise to the most nefarious exactions and embezzlements of the most scandalous kind . made the laws. 147 into his oousiii's possession. he made his submission to his uncle Shah Mahmood. Kaissar had the imprudence to reply. to be respected. This remarkable man united to a superior genius a great aptitude for governing and for war: not one of his predecessors had been able to reduce rebels to obedience with the same promptitude. Fethi Khan seized this opportunity of representing to Shah Mahmood how his son with such a disposition might compromise himself with a nation so susceptible as the Afghans. From this moment the hatred of the prince was redoubled against the vizier. and he was on the point of proceeding to Kandahar as governor of that province when he made himself conspicuous l^ circumstances of a most odious character. apostrophized the latter in most opprobrious terms. and that he should for the future remain at court under the surveillance of his father. and lastly it might be said that security reigned everywhere. and was ready for everything. and shone by his excessive liberality: always in the midst of combats. cruelties without number. but a few days after. son of Shah Zeman. had been in a most intricate state. but he was generous after the victory was gained. — . and remaned from that time at Kabul under the special protection of the Serdar Fethi Khan. of which Kamran was going to take poeseesion. although still young. who stilt entertained great resentment against the prince for all the disappointments he had made him feel on various occasions at Kandahar. after the restoration of Shah Mahmood to power. which. having heen infbnned of this circamstance.

in which he gave him nine lace of rupees (90. who powerfully assisted him by their support . which had thrown off the Afghan dominion. Sultan Mohamed Khan at Peshawur . who. He would also have willingly marched against Bunjeet Sing. as we have already said. and falling upon him afterwards when he had no further necessity for bis servicea. His young brother. at the head of the provincial governments.0001. which did not prevent him from counting his horse and fighting like bis other brothers. govanar of Lahore. The Afghan minister had with bim eighteen of bis brothers. on condition that the Sikh army should assist him in reconquering that country : this treaty was concluded on the banks of the Jelum. He was the eldest of twenty-one brothers. Fethi Khan marched in 1811 against Cashmeer. who were men of capadty. Fethi Khan rejected this proportion. than because he required the support of the Sikh army. jealous of his fame. and assisted him in the administration of aSairs. simply because the troops were occupied elsewhere . he placed them. after the fall of Shah Zcman. Shere dil Khan at Gbuznee . to be taken ftom die revenues of the province of Casbmeer. where the two chiels met. XI. or in endeavouring to injure him in the opinion of his sovereign.in activity he had no equal. and the others under their orders in districts of these provinces. After having completed the preparations for war. Kobendil Khan at Bamian . were occupied only in creating embarL 2 L 148 ALLIANCE WITH THE SIKHS. he nevertheless retained some of them near his person. killed at the battle of Neemla. who advised him to put an end to the Sikh chieftain at this meeting. a thing which Asiatics never look upon in tlie light that we do. Cuap. Amongst these were Mohamed Azim Khan. He therefore induced him to sign a treaty. but much less because he would not be guilty of a base action. and was then held by the Serdar Attab Mohamed Eban. Poor dil Khan was installed at Kandahar. Hadji Firooz Eddin was the onlj prince whom be allowed to remain undisturbed in bis government of Herat. Dost Mohamed Khan. D)abber Khan. a son of the vizier Akrem Khan.). his fell was therefore delayed. rassmentB (or bim. and this. who. He intrusted the govenimeot of Beloochistan to bis brother Rabim dil Khan.blood or ambitious serdars. moreover the vizier preferred making use of bim in his plans for the reconstruction of the empire. but It would have been undertaking too much at a time . had the entire charge and management of his household. attended with a sufficient escort. twelve . Nawab Assad Ullah Khan. offering themselves to be the assas^ns. all men of mark. who Tended at Shikapoor. in whidi lie had been engaged during two years. had proclaimed his independence in the Punjab. putting much more faith in them than in the princes of the .

Runjeet Sing tried. who was a brother of the Serdar Attah Khan. but without success. and in the rear by his brother Kohendil KLhan. he proceeded towards Cashmeer. 149 after the treaty was signed. who saw the drift of his proposal. to reimburse himself in the first instance the expenses of the war. seeing themselves menaced in front by Fethi Khan. Chap. to which the Serdar Attah Mohamed Khan had retired. by way of Bember. namely. he turned his attention to Attok. at the head of two thousand horse. having surrendered this important place to him. he quitted Cashmeer to march against Runjeet . to clear the way. therefore. XI. and followed close with all his forces. The city also had scarcely been invested when it surrendered at discretion. and confided the administration of this fair province to his brother. capitulated. after him. and certain promises which satisfied his ambition. he treated him. When Fethi Khan was informed of tlie desertion of his allies. to induce Fethi Khan to confer upon him the government of Cashmeer . no one to disturb them in their advance. after thirteen days of negotiation. XL THE SIKHS SEIZE ATTOK. energetic. on entering Attok. brave. and the citadel alone. Frustrated in his ambitious design. eluded his request. On the approach of the advanced guard of the Afghan —-■'■*' 150 EXPLOIT OF DOST MOHAMED. was the eldest son of Payendeh Khan — Runjeet was therefore minus his expenses. commanding the principal passage of that river. continued to offer any further resistance . rather than be besieged. and afterwards to ensure to himself the payment of the sum guaranteed by the treaty. in consideration of a lac of rupees. On receiving this augmentation of his forces. The little army of the rebels had posted themselves in the defiles of the Pir-pindjal to dispute his passage. but the vizier. and recommended him to the good offices of Shah Mahmood. but. that chief. and they took possession of the plain of Cashmeer without opposition. influential. Fethi Khan wished to make a friend of him . He was a man of great talent.thousand men of whicli formed a junction with his immediately Chap. and the governor. nevertheless. openly abandoned the Afghan party. who. The Afghans had. with great dis-* tinction. and respected by the Afghans. and hastened to put the place in a good state of defence. they retired without fighting. sending forward his brother Dost Mohamed Khan. the Sikhs. and did not even receive the nine lacs of rupees which had been promised him. . therefore. the Serdar Mohamed Azim Khan. who had turned their position with a corps of cavalry. a fortress situated on an eminence close to the Indus.

and he made therefore an echelon movement towards the Indus in order to avoid the Sikhs. who. was obliged to give up for the time his belligerent policy against Runjeet Sing . Unfortunately the Dost's message never reached Fethi Khan. who assured him that his brother had been killed and his division nearly destroyed. who wished to overthrow him. and took up a position about three miles and a half from the fortress. had in the year 1800 been elected^ in spite of himself. were unable to find support anywhere. who laid claim to the principality as having . Fethi Khan. he sent an express to Fethi Khan to hasten his march. an act the Afghan governor could not prevent. Before entering upon the details of the new campaign which the Serdar Fethi Khan had to sustain against the Persians. 151 removed with yiolence from Turchiz by the orders of Mir Efzel Khan. but his success did not last long . which followed him a league in the rear. the messenger taking a wrong direction and losing his way. on some hills where they had not only the advantage in the ground. sovereigD Prince of Herat The just and mild character of his rule had obtained for him the love and respect of all classes of the population : ambitious individuals. which lies to tiie east of Attok. Dost Mohamed Khan. after having received remforoements. XI. it is necessary. felt the necessity of seizing this pcmit. PRETENSIONS OP PERSIA ON HERAT. that we should look ba!ck a little at the events recorded in the preceding pages. Finding that he had committed himself. but also that of securing the only spring of water in the country. the Sikhs rallied. renewed the attack with a force eight times superior to his. Feth Ali. This encouraged the Sikh chieftain to make several inroads on the territory of that province. It has been mentioned that the prince Hadji Firooz Eddin. the revenues of which he seized. and while awdting his reply 'valiantly resisted the enemy. indeed he was compelled to weaken the garrison of Cashmeer to reinforce his army. In this charge be captured the enemy's artillery . Dost Mohamed hesitated not to retreat by the road it had taken. nor could the Sikhs force him to do so. and those which were almost annually sent against him by the Shah of Persia.the Sikhs descended into the plain of Tchatch. ordered the heavy baggage to be burnt. and. under the pressure of threatening circumstances which arose in the west of A%hanistan. and crossed the river without being disturbed by the enemy. fell with impetuoaty upon tlie Sikhs without waiting for the arrival of the Afghan army. for a reason so important. The vizier was also led into error by persons ill-informed of what had transpired. and desirous of distinguishing himself in the first command with which his brother had intrusted him. in order that the reader may comprehend the motives wbidi led to the war. and during the sixteen years that he had governed this province he was never seriously disturbed except by ^e unfortunate expedition of Kaissar Mirza. the Sikhs retiring to Attok. ITioiigh tardily made acquainted with the movements of the Afghan army. Chap. and would neither retire himself.

Nishapoor. that Feth Ali Shah in his capacity of Shah of Persia was not more justified in making this claim upon Herat. than the Afghan princes would be in laying claim to the possession of Ispahan. that the dynasty of the Kadjars had. son of Feth AH Shah. if they had at once entered upon the campaign. i. or Kerman. also joined the Persian prince with a contingent of estroops. The vhicli this sovereign felt agiunst Hadji Firooz Eddin. ■3. in short. he soon saw Herat d by a formidable army. it is true. This gave the Vizier Fethi Khan time to come relief of the place . which in forming themselves had taken less account of territorial limits than of the races which inhabited them . and Ghain were pretty nearly inde- AFFAIRS OF HERAT. had been made sacred by the elevation of the Suddozyes to the throne. In support of these arguments. and necessity obliged him to have e to the aid of Shah Mahmood. for the simple reason that Mir Mahmood and Mir Echreff had reigned over those provinces. t. Xr. and. Tubbus. a man dreaded by ratees. whose assistance was almost ^rous for him as the enmity of the Shah of Perma. the king then on the musnud being the third of that tribe . Haidarieh. who ovoked it. however. particularly that of the Afghans.Q be no doubt that they would have taken Herat . and in exciting SLgainst Feth Ali Shah he hoped to gire the Persian army occupation to prevent it from being sent again^ himself. became fatal to the latter . and dedared that Feth Ali Shah had no more le^timate claim upon Herat than he had upon the other countries which had emancipated themselves from the dominion of Persia during the last century . founder of this dynasty. under the antbority of the khans vith whom the or of Herat had just entered into alliance. established itself on the ruins of a vast empire. his troops cleared the two hundred i which separated them from Herat with a rapidity unex* . Ch*p. Shiraz. But up to this period Hadji Firooz Eddin had paralyzed his efforts. but n Ali Mirza delayed ttie march of the army for a reinforce>f several guns of large calibre which he could have done all without. sometimes by repelling the Perrians by force of arms. Kalech the celebrated Serdar of the Taymoonis. sn the Persian battalions were all assembled at Meshed. and. Koochan.once formed part of that kingdom. Toorbut. n AliMirza. for after a vigorous efibrt Fetii Ali inished by triumphing over their insubordination. that none of them had the right to impose laws upon the others without their consent . mistaken. he had always protested against the pretensions of the Persian monarch. that the independence of these races. Boojnoord. but that these remains had been absorbed in the organization of several kingdoms. took the command. Of this vast province he really possessed only Meshed . he reigned as the legitimate sovereign over a province the majority of the inbaUtants of which were Afghans . that as the grandson of Shah Ahmed. but more frequently by paying a small tribute which was exacted from him . Hadji Firooz Eddin sent detachments of troops across the frontier to the assistance of some chiefs in Khorassan whom Feth Ali Shah had not yet been able to bring under his rule. nevertheless.

and they soon induced their relatives to make common cause with them . he would in his turn be obliged to conform to his brother's views. and the party deputed to seize them. with very great regret that he saw himself obliged to call this general to his assistance. Fethi Khan arrived at Herat towards the close of 1816. but Hadji Firooz clearly understood that the vizier was only temporizing with Chap. and. 153 him. he permitted him to do so with an escort of fifty horsemen only . but he rendered this of a very illusory character by the choice he made of the persons who accompanied him. but his conduct betrayed the fears that assailed him. and contributed more than anything else that had occurred up to that time to deprive him of his government Well convinced that if Fethi Khan entered the city his own power was at an end. to Kabul. but directly the lad left those provinces to proceed to Caahraecr. Hadji Firooz received him with great honours. It was. The vizier dissimulated his displeasure. OUTRAGE ON HADJI FIROOZ. . He also arrested Hadji Firooz Eddin. XI. that he wrote to the latter protesting the truth of ipect for and submission to the king. as they were concealed in his harem. to give the king an account of his long administration. the army was obliged to encamp under the walls. so that on the fourth day after the vizier's arrival they delivered up to him the gates of the city— the citadel surrendered on the following day. whom he had so great an interest in seeing employed anywhere rather than at Herat . and that. or that his orders were exceeded. All these were allied to some family or other in Herat. but under honourable escort. though they were on good It was only wlsen the successes of Fethi Khan in Beloochnd Sdnde made him fear that he sliould be removed from 'emment. li Khan. and made him protestations of fidelity and friendship. he wajB deprived of all his riches. and arrived there before tbe Fer^ans en crossed their own frontier. but whether he was animated with a certain feeling of resentment against the prince. for the danger that menaced him left him no other alter* native. but he never paid him a &r)f the tribute which had been agreed upon. as soon as he was relieyed from the emharrassments which had arisen with Runjeet. During the sixteen years that he governed Herat he ways been independent of him. he kept only le promises he had mada It is true he coined money name of the Shah Mahmood.I in that country. this sacred asylum was forced. Fethi Khan had not up to this point passed the limits of justice . and sent him. as not without good reason that Hadji Firooz wmted till in the last extremity before he claimed the assistance of his r. of whom his brother Dost Mohamed was the com- . appeared for the moment to rest d with this state of things at Herat. but there was no time to hesitate. therefore. who was too much occupied in the East to enforce s complete submission. and even accepted the proposition with an outward appearance of respect.

which lasted till four o'clock in the aftera the Fer^ns. the wife of his own nephew Malek Kassem Mirza. falling from his horse. they rallied. which he dieoUows : — In the first line he placed four regiments of Fantry. and the Persians victorious . had been taken. made an indiscriminate pillage . however. He was the most influential person at Herat after the governor. and the Dost himself tore ofi^ a sash ornamented with precious stones which supported the trousers of the daughter of Shah Mahmood. who.* U. were grievously disconcerted at not that arm of the service. after a time behind mserai and ruins on one side of the plain. Fethi Khan immediately advanced to ascertain n of things in his front.ly Opposed any appeal to Fethi Khan for assistancer but of Hadji Agal. killed his magnificent Arab ront of his division. the princesses were even stripped of their clothes. and fiiriously ced the combat. which Fethi Khan thought neceseaiy tcurity of the kingdom. turned this x> a complete rout. The Persian prince. . CeiP. to give confidence to his newly organised troops. tor the out the eyes of Hadji Agai. but he received a spent ball in .mander. . situated in the plain of Kiaffir the extreme frontier of Pertna and Herat. The battle i at dawn of day. Hooaein Ali d a splendid army under his command. when his corps ed by the cavalry of Shere dil Khan. and it was a happy thought of his. and once all the courage they had so recently displayed. ipletely routed . brother of the vizier. ! seized with a sudden panic. ig only cavalry. and placed himself at their head on spite. however. one of his officers. XI. and Efzel Khan would have imilar fate. ty miles from Herat. began at A charge of cavalry made just at the right moment by ■ Kohendil Khan. . afterwards became his prime minister. son of Hadji Firooz Eddin. and the Persians precipitately abanfield. The first fugidves who Herat spread terror through the city . encamped in front of the town of Kusaan.hese measurea. who had much assisted in the elevation of Hadji Firooz Eddin to power.000 men hart de combat. had prevailed over hi& r that which aubsequently took place. he nurclied e enemy. a part of the inhat at once. and. also a brother of the vizier. under the orders of the Serdar Zoolfagar Khan . and the remainder prepared to receive their • The S»b» of Ali Ferritr. Isakzye. Mir Efzel ELhan.ht their chief was dead. of this proof of courage. BATTLE OP KIAFFIR KALEH. was obliged to be carried to This fact having become known amongst the A%han&. . having 10. Mir Efeel Khan he command of the army and retired to Pema before of die vizier.

and they spoke of him with veneration. his fame was carried to the highest point by his last victory . taken possession of by their adversaries until nine days after the battle. but Mahmood. in spite of their having lost their artillery and baggage. he tried also in every possible way to excite the jealousy of the other serdars. I have had opportunities of conversing with many Heratees who were acquainted with this remarkable man. when Fethi Khan aniyed very a propos to restore confidence. From that day he had thought only of taking vengeance upon the vizier. who were already only too much disposed to side with him. for his wound was not a serious one. he was completely devoted to the glory and interests of his country . His virtues were as great as his courage . and sought every opportunity of rendering him an object of suspicion to his father. Kamran Mirza. The Persians retreated with scarcely a halt as far as Meshed. KAMRAN CONSPIRES AGAINST FETHL 165 new masters. which disgusted the Persians for some time with the idea of attempting to take Herat. and in reconstructing the dilapidated fortifications of the city. After this victory. aitd T his extraordinary success. by whom he had been prevented from taking part in the government on account of the murder of ELaissar Mirza. and who always fell in with his views when he brought any complaints to the notice of the Shah . and enabled to gratify his own depraved inclinations without being obliged to take any part in public ai&irs which were so well conducted. when a fearful catastrophe deprived A%faanistan of this worthy man.Chap. a monster of vice and ferocity. it is true. delighted to find himself powerful with so little trouble. which were not. His just and enlightened administration obtained for him the esteem and affection of the inhabitants. witnessed with the greatest displeasure the successes of Fethi Khan. but he was completely amazed when he m» . to whom he spoke in depreciating terms of all his actions. guiltless of ever having felt one noble or generous sentiment. XI infamous accusations brought against hie minister. he at length finished by entertaining a igs. and the influence he bad consequence. and which would have made that kingdom as prosperous and powerful as it had been under the great Ahmed Shah. XI. and were not a little astonished to learn a few days after their defeat that the Afghans believed that they were the victors. axti he was always able to direct the affairs of government. Fethi Khan occupied himself in fixing the revenues of the province. refused for a long time to believe in the RECEPTION OF KAMBAN AT HERAT. ever to listen continually to a repetition of them. and annihilated the generous designs which he had conceived for her. and he was making his preparations for the conquest of Khorassan. Ch*p.

Kamran Mirza came to his aid. who. ery effort to convince the king that his royal dignity isulted in the person of his brother. bringing to the notice of the feeble lost of other disgraceful actions of which they said had been guilty. but he would not believe in such base cruelty ude. they ac- . no exaggeration to make lus brother believe the his statements. namely. towards the close of sure of his victim. and also id own daughter. ese representations. and his eyes were immediately put out The same fate was reserved for the three brothers of the vizier. and that fact must have been s he latter. 157 go hand in hand with him in consolidating the power of the Suddozye dynasty and raising the glory of the Afghan nation. quietly playing at chess. and. FETHI BLINDED— FLIGHT OF HIS BROTHERS. yielding to the lowest feelings of 1 not the strength of mind to resist their arguments. and put him to death . Generally speaking. seemed as if he wished to induce t the past. thus brought ioaded with chains like a vile criminal. inciug any mistrust. were in the royal palace of the Tchahar-bagh in the city. who was also told by his friends of the &te him . intreatmg him that he would for the ^toK Chap. during the time that this abominable cruelty was bemg committed. and Kohendil Khan. Poor dil Khan. He received the son of his sovereign jst profound respect and the greatest honour. Shere dil Khan. he was arrested with his suite. The vizier had been to him every morning to receive his orders since the prince arrived at Herat . and the residence of the prince). )een agreed between Mahmood Shah and his vt^ier not to leave the court. They assured the Shah that he had upon his ruin . which consisted only of twenty persons. one day on entering the Bagh-Shah (a royal palace outside the city. the best intelligence seemed to exist between them . he kept tlie king's instructions as secret u id left for Herat immediately. until rfahmood Shah. This prince protested 1st the manner in which he had been treated bj he invasion of his harem. i an order that the eyes of Fethi Khan should be vould not rely upon any one hut himself to execute il sentence . and took no precautions to guard himself from f his enemies. who were jealous of the nzier's power.iz Eddin arrive at Kabul. when. the wife of Malek Kassem. the loss of his propertr. that the king ought to be beforelira. XI. The prince had broken his parole. from 1 Dost Mohamed Khan bad stripped the last vestcould protect her from his gaze and that of hid The scrdars. and Fethi Khan had already accused his friends of having given themselves up to chimerical fears. that there were at bia chiefs braver and more capable than he was .

whom . but on aniTing at the dtj they found two hundred soldiers tltere to dispute their e. Sben lan and Kohendil Khan were fortunate enough to do eo it receiving a scratch. Poor dil Khan being indisposed. of their followers txx>k to flight. XII. that the fellows. KAMRANnS PBOHISES. rushed upon the soldiers with such impetuosity and resolution. but always preoccupied with the idea of completing his nary work. ran to the palace and informed them of what had. seeing that two victims had still escaped him. fled terrified from the house. and carried him to Kamno The prince. 159 " ' CHAPTER XII. where he hoped to J in this object. but he had scarcely fulfilled this act of devotion when the satellites of Kanu*an Mirza filled the court of the Tchahar-bagh. and putting to death the brothers and adhcr^ Fethi Khan. however. ilated the regret he felt. and escaped to their residence with the utmost haste. Fortunately. Chap. and from the terrace leaped on to that of a house adjouiing the palace without being seen. hoping that be be able to make use of him at a future time as a means of ig by craft his principal adversaries. but on this day. thinking. one armed with a sabre. one of their servants. weakened by sicklad his horse killed under him. and sent a detachment of soldiers to arrest them immediately.occurred. and Poor dil Khan. the other with a dagger. AVhen Kamran saw that the three other victims had not come within reach of his vengeance. they mounted their horses. bound his hands. nran Mirza remained some time longer at Herat. the two heroes promptly rejoined their brother. Taking advantage of this moment of panic. and accompanied by POOB DIL KHAB PRISONEH. but Shere dil Khan. They were accompanied by only two servants. Chap. being unwell. for every mode of egress was carefully guarded. in all probability. and through these they had to cut their way. and Kohendil Khan with the dagger. .companied their brother in his visits to the prince. XI. but Poor dil Khan. and assured Poor dil Khan. endeaj by promises and presents to secure the army to hie own ts . Flight was now almost impossible. arming himself with the sabre. hearing by accident of the danger which threatened them. retired to a terrace of the house with them . he dispensed with their attendance. he went to Kandahar. he was suflFocated with rage. which the three brothers did. and the only mode of escape was to put a bold front upon the matter. After having armed themselves to the teeth. that no harm would befall him. in prison. that they were supported by their servants. when a score of nien threw lives upon him.

. XIT. The prince. Poor dil Khan appreciated this brilliant 160 FETHI KHAN'S BROTHEBS. employed the arts of cunning to lead his brothers to tall into his net. whom he took from his prison. which formed the nucleus of a Uttle army.Shsre dil Khan ndaes Kandahar — Kamran proceeds there — Poor dil Khan eecapes — Crueltiee of Kamran upon Fethi Khan — Brothers of the YiKier — Dost Mohamed Khan — Cause of his quarrel with Fethi Khan — He seizes Kabul — Flight of the Royal Family — Mabmood and Kamjtui meet at Ohuznee — Dost Mohamed puts them to flight — Murder of Fethi Khan — The Shah and bis ■on are pursued and arrive at Herat — Misunderstanding between tbe princes — They acknowledge the suzerainty of Persia — Quarrels between Mahmood and Kamran — Hadji Firooz and Kalech Khan attack Kamran — Tbe latter is killed and Hadji Firooz made prisoner — Kamran and the Persians at variance — Kerolt of Furrah — Kamran proceeds to that place — Moustapha Kban and Mohamed Hoosein revolt at Herat — Cause of this — Djehcmguir Mirza is proclaimed chief. and pressed him to "write and tell them to come to Kandahar. Cnar. situated about twenty-three miles from Girishk. promised that the firman of vizier should be sent to him as soon as Shere dil Khan and Kohendil Khan had made their submission. and afterwards deposed — Hadji Firooz succeeds him — Death i of Meubvali Khan — Hadji Firooz retires to Meshed — Mouatapba Khan closes the gates of Herat against Kamran — He besieges the city. which belonged to Adeh. After their flight from Herat Shere dil Khan and his brother sought refuge in the fortified village of Nadalee. He had dragged about with him the unfortunate minister. the mother of Fethi Khan. and endeavoured to persuade Poor dil Khan. observing that the detachments which he sent from the city were constantly destroyed or repulsed by the partisans of Fethi Khan. A great number of tbe Barukzyes responded to their appeal. From thence they despatched emissaries in all directions to rouse the nomade tribes. made him a serdar. who would not serve under Kamran. and this was soon increased by numerous deserters from the royal forces. but retires on the i^proach of Shore dil Khan — The latter also retires — Cruelty of Moustapha Khan — Conspiracy of Syud Mir Sedik — Kamran enters Herat — Miserable end of Moustapha Khan — Vengeance of Kamran — Reflections on the Afghans. that he had put his brother's eyes out only to raise him to the post of vizier: at the same time he gave him a magnificent robe of honour.

which he might have foreseen. Hohamed Adm Khan | Bf the rame mother j „ Timoor Khan ) I » PoordU Khan i l „ Sheredil Khan I Kohendil Khan / B. ) Uoad. revenged himself on the unfortunate Fethi Kbnn. and behaved as if he intended to keep his word.. for the Afghans bad great confidence in bim . upon whom he inflicted a thousand outragea and cruel tortures.. Such cruelties practised upon such a man merited puoishmcDt indeed. and seventeen brothers of the victim soon united to tale their revenge. he assured him of his entire devotion.. showed himself as great in adversity as he had been generous in the exercise of his power. Hia presence also tmu^t fresh recruits to their ranks. .. irritated by the flight of Poor dil Khan.. for their measures bad been almost paralyzed up to that moment by the fear they experienced that be would be treated by Kamran in the same way that he had dealt with their eldest brother. Pir Mohamed Khan By the «une mother ^i^i^ . ) ( Dead. he himself introduced a hot iron into the orbits in order to dry up every part It was in this condition that the butcher dragged him to Ghuznee. _™» ™nH. but his courageous minister never asked for mercy. . where the Shah Mahmood awaited him. and in tlie diflerences which existed between themselves almost always requested him to be the arbitrator. and. Their names were as follows : — The Vimer Fethi Khan .. Kamran Mirza. Having perceived that a ray of light still remained in the eyes of his victim. Yar Mohamed Khan | „ ji. by his firm and resigned bearing. but two days afterwards he fled. but he appeared as if he believed the prince and entered into bis views . the aame mother I Liviog in 1 94e. DjemalKhan ) I » Sultan Hohomed Khan . they considered him as one of the most talented of the sons of Payendeh Eban. HaMmdil Kfaan I 1 „ Hir dil Khan I I „ Doet Mobamed Khan 1 I ■' Emir Uahamed Khan } By the same mother I Dead. i ( living.. and to their great joy reached his brothers at Nadalee.promise at its exact value.

Syud Mohamed Kiion J I . 161 Mobamed Azicn Khan. as his lieutenant and respon* . This young chief was the very man for such an undertaking. and advanced boldly against the capital. „ Chap. he also required him to restore the girdle ornamented with brilliants which he had taken from the daughter of Shah Mahmood when he broke into the harem of Hadji Firooz Eddin. though at the moment his services were required he was in prison. and sent Dost Mohamed Khan before him to Kabul. and the following were the reasons that led to his captivity. he therefore collected a small corps of fnen. and revenge for blood. governed Cashmeer. A few days prior to his attacking the Persians at Kiaffir Kaleh. plunged in debauch. was detained a prisoner until they came to release him in order that he might assist in aven^ng the brother by whom and for whom he had been so severely treated. he had already made himsdf remarked on several occasions for courage and military talents. and went to Cashmeer . Djumhb Khan Son of aalaTo . as it has been shown. in order that he might work upon the population to rise in favour of their cause. was the eldest of the sons of Payendeh Khan. for. spoke more powerfiilly to his heart than his resentment . when the latter. it produced a rupture between them. who had foreseen that the theft would give rise to complaints and fresh intrigues against his family. again refusing to restore these valuables. son of Kamran. who. was incapable of watching over his own safety. he could not then join his relatives. The voice of honour. and from the moment the insurrection broke out confided the care of Kabul to his grandson Djehanguir Mirza. But Dost Mohamed obstinately refusing to comply with his wishes.. with whom he associated. DOST MOIIAMED KHAN. but he raised the standard of revolt in this province against the Shah Mahmood. who was own brother to the vizier. after Fethi Khan. fearing the consequences of his brother's anger. Nawab Aasad Khiin ) | Dewl. and stated thus much to the merchant who had them on sale . Being ill at the time he heard of the atrocious cruelties inflicted on his blind brother. departed secretly irom the royal camp. The Dost. Mohamed Azim Khan.. and still more the conviction that he had been in error. and demanded that the brilliants and the unlucky pearls should be surrendered to him for the purpose of being forwarded to Fethi Khan. took his part. Fethi Khan ordered him to give up some magnificent pearls the Dost had purchased. Shah Mahmood. Nawnb Samut Khan ^ By the aame mother < „ Nawab Djabbar Khan J ( Living. XII. but which the vizier had already selected for himself.

M MURDER OP FETHI KHAN. rushed upon him. and suby sent him away into the mountains. midway beihuznee and Kabul. who. Mahmood. himself the most cruel of the es. and much ged. Popolzye : is Mahmood retired to the fortress of Ghuznee. but still able to afford him the hope of reducing irgente if be had been a clever man. who had twelve thousand. from le wrote to his son to come and rejoin him. now re-established in health. It was not loog before Shah Mahmood ouaded by the troope which his eon Kamran l»Y>ught from ar — much weakened it is true in numbers. and a few sol10 were with him. on the nig^t preceding the they passed over to his adversary. and at this signal the rest drew ^gers. His corpse. WANDERINGS OF MAHMOOD AND KAMRAN. Chap. ] bis members. The king. which put an end to his agonies. made desperate by this last ^saeter. But rtunate vizier calmly replied that in losing his ^gfat he also all his influence over his fellow-men. and. .hed to Kabul to put down the rebels . Kamran Mirza. The army having L few days at Ghuznee to give Kamran a little repoee. who had now been deprived of his eyea^t eight to be brought into his presence. to evacuate the town. his new vizier Mohamed Attah Khan. was abandoned to the public execu- . and desire them to return to their duty. and that he no »nipied himself with the affaire of tlus world. for. ordered han. xn. were charged with the execution intence . had just joined ohamed. and commanded him to his brothers. They flayed him alive. at this answer. spared him half his journey. was sot in t doubtful of success. which they drew from his body one l^ one. and those who supported :ty. thus mutilated. Dost Mohamed aving completely beaten the detachments which Djehanguir ent against him. 1 obliged his father and himself. and strove who should make him greatest torture and snaring. had his eyes put out on the public square. and hia tlie nobles of the court. XII. but Mohamed Lhan. 163 and at length decapitated him. entered Kabul. offered him battle at the head of four [ mea The prince. ordered him to be put to death. he also took Attafa Mohamed Khan . struck the first blow. Mohamed Azim and t pursued Kamran immediately to the walla of Ghuznee. and obliged that prince safety in flight. but he was wrong in his estimate feeling of his troops . riser. Chap. having been rejoined by Djehanguir Mirza.

inhabited by the HazalOcht-Kooh. but. and the calm of a pure conscience. had now only a few servants around him. Nearly dead from hunger. he dared not stop even in the most desert spots. A general cry of indignation arose from one end of Afghanistan to the other against the murderers of this great man. XH. and there were very few serdars whose jealousies were not subdued by his sad end. but the governor Gul Mohamed Khan escaped. . the frigitives endeanroured to reach Kandahar. a wanderer and a frigitive. . Chap. having with him only his son Kamran. Poor dil Khan had seized it. After Fethi Khan lost his sight. The two chiefe then marched against Kandahar.tely directed hb steps towards that city. had confided to the care of Gul Mohamed Khan. the number of iwers diminished day by day. and in the last stage of despair. on leaving Ghuznee. and obliged to shun inhabited places. came to him and demanded his assistance and that of his tribe . having nothing to support life but roots and wild fruits. repulsed. Shah Mahmood. where they were interred. and tracked. harassed. even the personal friends of the king were moved with compassion at the manner in which his old and faithful servant was put to death . M 2 QUARRELS OF MA. and those who had remained faithful to the Suddozye party. who cut it in pieces. It was in this condition •f crossed the Faropamisan chain. a fortress situated on the bspiks of the Helmund. neverinspired them with less terror than the latter. and carried them to Ghuznce. and Poor dil Khan. At length )d reached Herat. he was obliged the least frequented and acces^ble roads . being informed of this fortunate circumstance. without giving himself any concern as to the antagonistic feeling which existed between Mir Efzel ELhan and his elder brother. and reached Herat. but from a sentiment of duty. which belonged to him. who. which surrendered to them after a feeble resistance . threw them into a sack. and the former knew how to keep them in obedience. Wng comrithout provisions and menaced on all sides. he suffered every kind of privation. Efzel returned from Persia to live in the midst of his tribe. but he soon learned that the city had fallen into the hands of the Mohamedzyes. now left it . fatigue.tioner. Isakzye. so hot was the pursuit The dangers he lUMlerwent were incessant. and privax>mpanying them everywhere. and the Mir joined the Mohamedzyes. Popolzye . not from a feeling of sympathy. hunger.HMOOD AND KAMBAN. the garrison of which was devoted to Kamran Mirza. which Kamran. Not a sigh or complaint escaped Fethi Khan amidst these horrible tortures : he was sustained by the courage of a hero. though enemies of the Afghans. encamped in the environs of Koohnichine. this was conceded. and that with the assistance of Mir Efrel Khan. Shah Mahmood.

who seemed to set up anew their claims upon the city. who. but having invested it for a few days. After having d his artny he returned in 1821. a short time after this agreement had been concluded.her Hadji Firooz Eddin. XII. and eleven servants who were to him. and repaid themselves by agitating that province with rumours and secret conspiracies. but Siah id. and for a time appeared to hare d the energy of his youth to fight his son. by no means satisfied with the con- . When Hadji Firooz Eddin. 166 upon the understanding that Shah Mahmood was to have the title of king. attributed irtunes to his son. the serdars d between father and son. Kamran Mirza had ired the fall of Fethi Khan in order that he might himself le government . Shah Mahmood. iscord soon divided this royal trio. and his son the power he so much ooveted. The fonner were too much occupied with their war against the latter. tired of the tenacity with which his father mainis rights as sovereign. bound themQ pay him tribute. Chaf. While these two princes were disputing in the west the possession of one comer of Afghanistan. wearied with these able discussions. so that Kamran had at first great difficulty in making his authority respected. and besieged Ho-at a ime . 19. re to the city in 1820. but Sholi id and Kamran did not make this matter so much a question r propre as did Hadji Firooz Eddin. HADJI FIROOZ ATTACKS KAMRAN. Mirza. which daily produced between them the ilent scenes . resisted these attempts and determined rn for himself. and Hadji Firooz Eddin. not without reason. drove him from Herat. for they admitted protest the suzerainty of the Shah of Persia. and effected a reconciliation. which he did immediately. and enjoy all the honours. He was however beaten and to fiy to the Hazarahs Zeidnat : nevertheless he did not himself vanquished. ome time after their arrival at Herat Mahmood and his B alarmed by the threats of the Persians. and when it was a little strengthened he had to repulse the attacks which were made by his adversaries from the exterior. obtained permission from the king to retire ed. he commenced therefore by seizing upon ority. and thought themselves fortunate in }le to remain on such conditions the peaceable possessors LSt refuge that they were able to find in Afghanistan. and their differences with one another. to carry their arms against Herat. having collected a small army amongst the Eimsks. the other portions of the kingdom passed into the hands of the Mohamedzyes and the Sikhs.

Wliile these troops. while he gained the fields by a back door. His soldiers. but fortune t in the ascendant for him. a town situated about fifteen hours from Herat. and he would not have been spared any more than his if Shah Mahmood had not interfered energetically in his but he was subsequently confined in tlie citadel. This serdar said. while he. would most assuredly have been before long raised by them to the sovereign power. was surprised by the advanced guard of Hadji Firooz. The vic'ertheless remained for a long time uncertain. when it was over there e counted more dead bodies than living men. Kalech Khan made all the preparations which could suggest themselves to the mind of a clever man. and. deeded upon taking Kalech's advice and reign again over a people and a province which he had rendered happy and flourishing for sixte^ years of his paternal administration. on the road to Meshed. Arrived at Herat. Taymooni. overcome by his solicitations. The coaflict lasted thirteen boora . who had gone to hunt in the country round Kussan. his horse came down in a. and several other officers. and offered his support to reinstate him in power. where be ely watched. . and were all killed at the entrance. Attah Khan. who had governed that country for years to the general satisfaction of the people. and perhaps do more ohstinate battle was ight under the walls of Herat . under the orderB of Attah Ali Kioouzye. and injured the khan's neck in the faU. the devotion of four of his servants. but at length. in all directions to assemble the contingents of the nomade tribes. and very nearly made prisoner. but the f Kalech Khan turned the tide of battle in lavour f>f u This serdar had singled out and pursued the [H-ince ry. who promptly arrived to his assistance and [AMBAN AND THE PEBS1AX8 AT VABIANCE.le powder waa expended. upon the enemy's rear. who defended his house. attacked the army of Hadji Firooz. Hadji Firooz was also I. and in a few yards more he would have crossed with the miscreant torturer of Fcthi Khan . alone secured him the opportunity of flight. he met there the famous Serdar Ealech Khan. retired to Meshed. Firooz Eddin. Kamran sabred his foe himself— on Lsion as on every other he showed himself ferocious in the and cruel when victorious. Chap. the enemy made lum prisoner. the (amraD left the city at the head of two thousand A^hans. in short. he immediately despatched his minister. turned and fled. who represented to him how wrong he had been to leave Herat. The prince for a long time resisted these arguments. all that he could to awaken his ambition. It was kept so secret that Kamran Mirza. where oeith^ Mahmood nor Kamran had the least chance of being able to maintain his position. the city. SII. iim in this disabled state. . and the expedition was undertaken in 1822.duct either of his brother or his nephew. for the two armies fought with el foot to foot.

but he much niore ly met and bent to the storm.prince Kamran was scarcely delivered from this dauger e was called upon to deal with another. with the title of vekS. The united f Khorassan attacked Herat in 1823 . inroads of the Persians were frequently renewed. and the Serdar Moustapha Khan a still greater in the army. he lost all his influence. by paying a small tribute to the Sbab of ind in conforming to some frivolous ceremonies of vassalage. These two personages were to have equal authority and a voice in the direction of affairs. They also attempted to dissimulate their. and not the representative of the regal authority. and to put Kamran on one side that he might govern in his place. During three months the Ktioraaoade many unsuccessfiil efforts to take the dty. Before departing on this expedition the prince took every precaution to preserve the tranquillity of Herat in his absence. who became simply the promulgator of the orders which they gave. That of Furrah more particularly pushed matters to the last extremity : the inhabitants finished by separating themselves from the capital to form an alliance with Kandahar. each sought secretly to overthrow the other. Djehanguir Mirza. and Kamran hoped that in opposing one to the other he would be able to secure a greater guarantee for their fidelity. REVOLTS AT PURRAH AND HERAT. At the time Shah Mahmood accommodated matters with his son. when an occurrence wholly unexpected . a palace situated about a gunshot from the city. and he appointed his maternal uncle Mohamed Hoosein Khan governor of tiie city. who had always been devoted to him. XH. ambitious purpose from one another. where he could at his ease give himself up to his depraved inclinations. His eldest son. The Vekil Mohamed Hoosein Khan had great influence in the city. Zoori. as Hadji Firooz had been 1 do before him. an Mirza had scarcely shaken off tliese enemies Eram when he had to contend with disagreeable compUcatioDS le province of Herat. this expe^tion lertaken by order of Feth Ali Shah. and in the year 1824 tlicy extewiai Chap. and they leave the province until they had completely ravaged it. which under various pre! had never done. The citadel with a good garrison was confided to the charge of Moustapha Khan. but they were united only in appearance . King of Ferda. and Kamran was obliged to march in person with an army to reduce them to obedience. but they held this prince in little consideration. Kamran to pay the tribute. was left in Herat to control their actions. At first they seemed to act perfectly well together. and was forced by Kamran to retire to the Bagh Shah. and repulsed them all by force of arms whenever there was a ifhiscoming victorious out of the contest . 167 to the districts which up to that ^me had been pretty quiet.

The troops left for Furrah in the hope that. and decided upon overin . therefore. the Vekil have patience for a few days. intention which Kamran entertained towards tliein : " if a subordinate addresses ua in such a mamiCT. y arrested the messenger. his gers. and in a loud voice invited all those who . I'as a terrible one : they first cut off his rose. of the officers of Djehanguir Mirza drafted him 2aars. but wlien they came to discuss the ba^ upoa nment was to be established. but the officer de. and also that his son Djehanguir ■omised in the eyes of the people. by making him issue a prolis father's rule waa at an end . and from hour to hour scored him with aabreagonies of this unfortunate man lasted two days. which he ordered his uncle Mohamed Hoosein Khan to pay with the least possible delay. and to him Kamran gave a uote of hand for six thousand tomauns. then about twenty-two years of age. who was present during tUs altercation. as stated by Kamran.surose. and it would seem . One of the oflScers of his household. and his pronounce the condemnation of Meuhvalee Khan. the ofer-ince Kamran . and made them participate in concert in a revolt which each of them had individually premeditated. by name Meuhvalee Khan. but this promise not having been performed they began to murmur. and . REVOLT AT HERAT. they would receive their pay directly they arrived in that district. and the question was adjourned Neter^reed upon the main point — namely. lis colleague that Meuhvalee Khan must be cogni. was charged with this mission. because the money was not ready . Chap. e prince do when be returns ? " The iroaginalJon already prepared for revolt. The iha Khan. and who should be its il it was not easy to come to an understanding Uves. and the prince was forced to send to Herat for money. soon became heated. and rendered ig induced to commit some unnecesBary act of began.r. thinking without doubt that there was in taking' the place of his father Kamran than in his dethroning Mahmood Shah. Accordingly I proclaimed Sovereign Prince of Herat. sum should bo given him on the instant. and apoelin Khan in menacing and opprobrious terms. m pcrfomied this duty in the most baugkt. agreed very proposition. XU.

from whence he cannonaded the city. I saw him in my way through Meshed in that year. released Hadji Firooz from the prison in which he was confined. thus forestalled. The former was still alive in 1845 . to which city he was followed by the Vekil. thinking his chances of success were small. and rated in the eyes of the Hcratees. replied to the summons to open them that he knew no other sovereign than Shah Mahmood. sent an express to Kamran Mirza to beg him to hasten his return. This done. As a counterpoise to this. saw very well that he could not obtain anything from the inhabitants if he stood alone. The Vekil. having now no other competitor. Moustapha Khan. but he found the gates closed . to avoid complete destruction. defeated in the first conflict. and received these details from his own lips. would obey his orders only. and was ignorant of what was passing in the city. blood soon flowed in Herat. for the victorious Moustapha. and his return to power filled them with joy. was obliged to shut himself up with the old king in the citadel. and dislodge him from the citadel. also stoned the misersbic lamed Iloosein and Moustapha Khan had attuned compromising Djehanguir with his father. and calculating still less upon Shah Mahmood. After the deposition of Djehanguir Mirza. The prince hastened to adopt this suggestion. which. who had been assembled there 6 serdar and the Vekil. 169 reYoIt by which the prince was overthrown and imprisoned. SECOND REIGN OF HADJI FIROOZ. for they had penetrated the intentioDS of each other. who did not feel himself strong enough to attack the serdar openly. and the executive power placed in their owti hands. XIT. surrendered at discretion. for Hadji Firooz was their idol. and arrived under the walls of Herat the day after his uncle Hadji Firooz and the Vekil had retired from the city. tliey improviwda r« %- Chap. and made the citizens acknowledge him as their sovereign. the serdar went to the Mahmood at Bagh Shah. and Moustapha Khan. and that those orders were that his son should not be allowed to enter the . promising to stand firm for his party until he made his appearance. they still remembered how much happiness they had enjoyed during his administration of afeirs. This was the critical momcDt for these ambitious men. where he lived pretty nearly forgotten. This second reign of Hadji Firooz Eddin lasted only eighteen days: the victor Moustapha Khan obliged him to return once more and seek refuge at Meshed. Moustapha Khan. and when he saw the power as he thought escape from him by the election of Firooz Eddin. with the intention of setting him up as an opponent to Hadji Firooz.f the new sovereign to throw a stone at the wo hundred men.

XU. Khan. and by paying his expenses campaign . added to hich he had made to the eastward since the fall of ood. had been seat against him by his brother Poor dil ivereign of Kandahar. for an annj Bsan. rat about midnight. he did not hesitate lis dangerous invitation to regain his power. and this conquest. Chap. as we shall see hereafter. and of hail. invited the prince Kamran to approach the stly as he could. declarinj. a tribe from which the majority of the citizens of jprung. Garai. commenced the e was soon forced to raise it. 6nding himself between two fires . and revolt was the only resource thtt the miserable Heratecs by which they could deliver 'om this tyrant. The remainder of the cupied in malting the arrival of Kamran known to the and the citadel in which Moustapha Khan rended Led at sunrise by ten thousand armed men. was in the iiagb> ter. and finally to retreat idahar. now being rid of Hadji Firooz. commanded by Mohamed Khan. his march not having been disSyud admitted him into the place without the prince compelled to fire a single shot. with a sum of money. whose forces were much superior to \m. Though Kamran had since his last flight been very nearly the whole of his army.city. Sedik Khan. not having succeeded in obtaining poBsessloD of simple summons as he had expected. a forU6ed castle and the south of Furrah. of Kamran.. as much to avenge the death of as to seize upon Herat. cnUELTT OF MOUSTAPHA KHAN. that when he arrived they him. but he had scarcely opened his trenches when he to retire to LAUsh-Jowaine. but not feeling sufficiently secure even le thought that the best method of maintfuniog bU to destroy all those who had opposed him. satisfied the expectations of his ally Mohamed i. Blood . who aroused Chap. 171 . and. invested the place immediately after he receired . chief of the Afghan branch of the . on all sides. XIL HIS MISERABLE END. would have made them masters of the whole an. whom Khan had called to his support. to avoid a battle with ^eie M amedzye.

His body was burned with hot irons. he was bound to a large tree at the entrance to the citadel. and on this spot the people congregated to spit in his face. From the death of Moustapha Khan. as a small recompense for having assisted in dethroning his father. covered with wounds and nearly flayed.. one of his party. which he kept for this purpose. Xn. two thousand cuts with the bastinado on the soles of his feet. Alternately victor and Tauquished. There was in his revenge a barbarous ferocity of which it would be difficult to form a conception . Kamran Mirza punished his father. and he only made up his mind to surrender when the towers. and suffered the most dreadful of deaths. to Kamran. Hie serdar. and strove to distinguish themselves by the most odious crimes. and. and large breaches opened a wide passage for the besieging army. but with it. which during a month was most vigorously conducted. were on the point of falling. and sent him a Koran. as I have already remarked. without Eamran's seeing Bome ambitiouB character putting his soT^^ignty in queBtioo. shaken to their foundations by the explosion of mines. conspirades. surprised by this sudden attack. Moustapha was taken prisoner. and covered him with every kind of excrement. certainly very far from a good Mussulman. fell upon the messenger and cudgelled him with a dervish's stick which he happened to have in his hand. Chap. the place fell. and forgive each other their faults . Moustapha Khan. but the prince. followed by the most atrocious executions. The tree to which he was bound was standing in 1845. a rare example of ferocity. and grandfather were all equally worthy of each other. forgetting that he had been guilty of the same crime himself. not one year went round 172 REFLECTIONS ON THE AFGHANS. . even those whom he merely suspect^ : and numbers of these unfortunate beings were thrown under the feet of elephanfe. In this family the son. he gave him his liberty. lost a few men in the first instance. and the most disgusting feature in it was. grandson. to offer his submission : at the same time he invoked the clemency of the conqueror. or to hungry tigers. and revolts. bis flesh torn with red-hot pincers by shreds . Such is the Afghan character : the people of Afghanistan honour that which is vile with us. appreciating clearly from this incident the kind of fate that awaited him.him by a well-sustaiDed fire of artillery and ToUeys of musketry. that he delighted to be himself the executioner of the sentences wliidi he pronounced. defended himself with desperation for ten days more — ^it was a lion encaged. opeAed at the verse which recommends Mahomedans to bear no hatred. for having assisted the serdar in this revolt. his ragn was nothing more than a long drama of intestine wars. He cruelly put to death all who were opposed to him. In Europe . Shah Mahmood. In this extremity he sent the Serdar Uost Mohamed Khan. but afier a few hours he completely organised the defence. and he expired after enduring seven days of the most fearful agony. which was to him a terrible infliction. As to his son Djehanguir Mirza. At last the assault was given.. Popolzye. At last they ripped open his belly. by depriving him of his wine during one whole month.

From the time of his father's decease Kamran took the title of King . the people flock in crowds in pilgrimage to his tomb. the most honoured . and some that he was strangled. XUL DEATH OF MAHMOOD. remaining almost a stranger to the affsurs of government. and it is very doubtful wliether there is a family in Herat which has not been deprived of some one of its members by Eamran. and they regard this as an act of weakness and pusillanimity. the Serdar Attah Khan. In their estimation he who makes the most victims is the most powerful. who was tired of seeing him raised to power like a puppet every time an ambitious man revolted against hiniself. They cannot comprehend why an enemy vanquished or disarmed should be pardoned. passes with them for courage. and retired within the walls of the citadel of Herat. a chief. 173 CHAPTEE XIII. the direction of which he gave up to his minister. the Shall Mahmood. Death of Shah Mahmood — Kamran is suspected of murdering his &ther — He indulges in every kind of excess — Death of Attah Khan — Yar Mohftmed Khan is made Yiaer of Herat — Hostility of the Persians against this principality — Intrigues of Abbas Blirza — Yar Mohamed arrives at Meshed — He is put to the torture by the Persian prince — Is delivered by the Athar Bashi — Measures of Yar Mohamed — Revolt of the Syud Mohamed Sedik — He is betrayed by Kamran and executed — The Shah is closely watched by Yar Mohamed — His Bons are disgraced — Project of Mohamed Shah on Herat — The Barukzyes consent to the restoration of Shah Shooja — He plays the despot. Now that he is dead. he then seemed to have lost all energy. and to take vengeance upon an enemy. who was found dead in his bath in 1829 . who had given him many marks of . With such sentiments it b not surprising to see the history of this nation broadly traced in characters of bl«od. courage so called b in their eyes the greatest of all virtues : it stands in place of eterj other.the memory of Eamran would have been execrated for ages. Kamran Mirza was generally suspected of hayiDg abridged the days of his father. or a person of lower grade is in the possession of absolute power. and is overthrown — Eyoob succeeds him — Mohamed Azim Khan marches against the Sikhs — Runjeet Sing successful against the Afghans — The battle of Noochero — The Afghans are beaten — Death of Azim Khan — The character of that serdar — His son Habib UlUh Khan succeeds him. he ought to prove tliat he faa^ it by tlie massacres be orders. to kill and massacre plenty of human beings. some assert that he was poisoned. by the command of his son. Directly a prince. Chaj. but the Afghans see things in another point of view . Ali Kioouzye.

That sovereign released him from prison. opium-eating. although of noble extraction. and in whom he had entire confidence. and his son's career was even more successful. and every Eastern vice. where the office of prime minister is hereditary like the crown. and Shah Kamran. leaving thre§ sons. and following the example of his father. he commenced a life of drunkenness. and frequently expressed an opinion anticipatory of his future greatness. Ali Kioouzye. and became governor of Cashmeer at the period when Shah Mahmood first ascended the throne. he refused to accept power. like himself. was not in the outset a very great personage. As firm as he was vigilant. Chap. and each wished to try its strength in several disturbances. followed his advice in all respects. but he rose by merit. had made numerous partizans amongst the Heratees. proof on several occasions. after which. But Yar Mohamed bad been minister scarcely a year when one of those events so frequent . influenced by a certain moUah. serdars 174 YAR MOHAMED VIZIER. the Serdar Dine Mohamed Khan. and administered his drugs to excite them. but the vigilance of Attah Khan suppressed them with 80 much energy that they withdrew into the shade. XIII. he bad shown himself worthy of this distinction by his bravery in the field and his military capacity. having lost his father at a very tender age. and made no further attempts during his lifetime. In conformity with the custom of Afghanistan. surrounded by intrigues. thus fortune favoured him. in short. the Serdar Yar Mohamed Khan. The debut of Yar Mohamed in administrative afiairs justified the selection which had been made in his person . and endeavoured to smother the rivalry existing between the various tribes on whose support he could rely . and the Shah Kamran. The minister had always evinced a great predilection for his nephew. had been brought up with him in the house of Attah Khan. who. the apothecary-in-chie^ who flattered his passions. His father Abdullah Khan. it was expected that the eldest of these sons. would succeed his father as vizier. however. he proceeded.his attachment. to be presumed that he at once turned his views towards the assumption of supreme power. of which he had given. This able man. like a clever and intelligent man. who had distinguished himself as much in war as in the civil admilustration of his country. he always held his adversaries in check by depredating them . confiding in him. for all his acts tended constantly towards the accomplishment of his ambitious projects. who was distinguished for his courage and cleverness. died in 1830. This alteration in the conduct of the prince awakened the hopes of every party. he successively removed those most dangerous to his interests in a manner that did not produce too much discontent. and placed him in this high portion . Mohamed Athar Bashi. in which he had been confined by Shah Zeman. accepted Yar Mohamed Khan as his vizier. Though young. but. it is. and abandoned his rights to his cousin. This young serdar.

and went to Meshed attended by five hundred Afghan horse . the heir apparent to the throne. he immediately sent off his men by small detachments to Kootchan. He then addressed a communication to the Persian prince containing most energetic protestations on his strange proceedings with regard 176 ESCAPE OP YAB MOHAMED. Nevertheless. who had not been subdued by Abbas Mirza. She was. who had given only a nominal obedience to Persia since the reign of Nadir Shah. then governed by Reza Kooli Khan. VISITS MESHED. and endeavour to terminate their differences in an amicable manner. She commenced. The East India Company was also clever enough to induce Feth Ali Shah to turn the expedition from its original object for a time. and recommended them as brave fellows who could powerfully assist the ally of his sovereign in the defence of his fort. to himself. the Persian army being directed by English oi&cers. but instead of coming to an arrangement as Yar Mohamed hoped. For some years past Russia had encroached considerably on the north of Uie Persian territory. at Meshed under the command of Abbas Mirza. and this much more in aa»rdance with the wishes of the Emperor Nicholas than his own. which Yar Mohamed considered one of the outworks of Herat. XIU. and brought forth all the springs of her clever policy to prevent it. therefore. Chap. by fearing that the Shah of Persia. would undertake the conquest of Herat. England had done the same thing in the south. in the first instance. or the rights of . could only obtain such success as they would permit. 175 At the commencement of 1832 Feth Ali Shah. and reduce the petty chiefs of EJiorassan. always preoccupied with the idea of joining the province of Herat to Persia. to the prejudice of the Indian princes. Abbas Mirza originated fresh and serious difficulties. however. The character of the prince inspiring the vizier with every confidence. but it was all very fine for him to inv bility of an ambassador's persoo. England was alarmed at this demonstration on the side of India of which Herat is the key. she had not made a progress that would enable her to secure as much influence in Persia as the Tzar. therefore. and Yar Mohamed was very KooD obliged to confess to himself that he had been led into a snare. assembled 30. he accepted this invitation.000 men. or at least to paralyze the eflFects of it. whom she had abandoned to the Muscovites. somewhat reassured by the reflection that.in Afghanistan arose to check for a moment his dawning fortunes. With great secrecy. On his arrival at Meshed the prince Abbas Mirza despatched one of his officers to the Shah Kamran to request him to send his minister there in order that they might consult together.

ai with a strong hand. The prince even wet tract two of his teeth to cure his obstinacy. facilitated his release. was abandoned. which took place towards the close of the year 1833. aa\j partially succeeded . and retreated on Meshed. He subsequently led his troupe eouthw . which he succeeded in obtiuning at the a)£t of 1000^. aod the time when Mohamed Mirza. encamped under the walls of Herat with a awyi iTarm^e to effect a preliminary investment of the place. in consequence of which he rais his camp. but Muhamed Mirza h scarcely pitched his tents under the city walla when he heard the death of Abbas Mirza. After this Abbas Mirza endea him to consent to an arrangement relative to Hen would not concede anything which he considered ] interests of the Shah Kamran. unworthy of o royal family. The intrigues of the English at the court of Feth All Siah to prevent the expedition against Herat from being carried out. he marciii without delay against the rebels. The Athar Bashi arrived to offer himself as an hostage in the place o who returned to Herat . the pi energy and talents. but this he of course took very good care not to do. and two yean elapsed between tlie period at which they reached Meshed. and a few days af^r. and subdued them with as mu promptJtude as vigour. gave an order that his movf carefully watohed. AVhen Yar Mohamed escaped from the Persians be retook. He also promtsetl to send them a similar sum when he reached Herat. paid to those who had charge of him. the eldest son of the herediUrj prince of Pefsia. Thia was to be succeeded by a regular siege on the arrival of the re< guard under the command of his father.one listened to him. an active general as well as a clever politician. but the vizier not having the ransom which he had consented to pay to i Atbar Bashi was placed in great danger : the deatJi of Abbas Mirza. the reins of government : nevertheless his vi{ lance could not prevent the revolt of the nomade population in soi of the districts situated in the north and east of the principalit but. the troops were occupied in redudng the small fortresses still unsubdued of Khorassan. when by of some great personages this cruelty.

which in consequence of the numerous assaults they had sustained were partly in ruins. and cleared the roads of myriads of robbers who had infested them. After this he returned to Herat. who had surrendered the town of Herat to the Shah Eiunran when he was dethroned by the Serdar Moustapha N . MS MEASURES. and he had the tact to make the odium of the plundering and discontent on the part of the people. though in his extortions and sanguinary executions he was not always guided by any regard for the public weal : his ambition on such occasions was concealed under a veil of devotion which he affected to feel for his prince and his country. cruel. Yar Mohamed repaired the fortifications of the city. but such measures would then have injured his own interests. came to Herat. and continued to take a firm course in Antheranoe of his secret designs. and offered his services to the Shah Kamran. and would have done at that time what he did at a later period. who had been a sergeant in the East India Company's service. which the '▼izier accepted. and implacable as it is possible for an Afghan to be . he was nevertheless not exempt from the vices of his countrymen. encouraged industry and commerce. Berduranee. though very indifferently. and the serdars. and from this time the infantry. Towards the dose of the year 1834 an Indian Mussulman. Amongst the numerous revolts which he had to repress. fall upon the king^ while he managed to secure to himself all the praise of whatever was good. was drilled. invited the populations from a distance to settle in them and cultivate the land lying untilled or unreclaimed. till then held in little estimation there. It is true that he governed. but without the least success. It was headed by the same Syud Mir Sedik Khan. but unfortunately this is frequently necessary with people of this nation. 177 and made Kamran's authority respected in all the Seistan.1 Chap. were contiDually on the alert to overthrow him. that which broke out at the commencement of 1837 gave him the most flerious uneasiness. If from the moment of his elevation to the post of vizier he was remarkable for those qualities which are with difiiculty found united in an Afghan. Xfll. He created villages. Taking advantage also of a few years' peace which ensued after the retreat of the Persians. who were not his dupes. 00 the European system. but Shah Kamran reigned. During the entire reign of the Shah Kamran he was as avaricious.

was taken and executed. and be never seriously attempted to di le tyranny which his minister imposed upon him ia consent. and even restricted his pe sious to throw off the ehacklcB which impedec Ktions. but there was not one ^urk of ^at feve ing in him which caused the death of Fethj if drunkenness in which he continually lived ^rgy. when ton year 1837 Mohamed Shah. But he did not dare to strike open! y the Shah himself who in a drunken fit reT< ■ Mohamcd. beginning to perceive that \ owerfiil than himself. but less fortuoate on this occasion. He preserved ti »rnal appearances of respect and obedience. Kill OFFER TO RESTORE SHAH SHOOJA. for it admitted the yalidity of the Shah's claims upon Herat. and in fact he did 1 Kamran. tt red that be was bound in honour to recommence ith of his &ther Abbaa Mirza had alone inc Chap. and found independently of these many other legitimate and powerful motives . 179 abandon before he had even fired a shot The execution of this project was highly satisfactory to the Russian government. warned by his wives. Yar Mohamed disposed of { 'med tliese intrigues.PLOTS AGAINST YAR MOHAMED. a conspiracy at were his own sons . The unf tered into this conspiracy witii the full knowle the king. interprise. and at length finished by d him himself. to a secret league formed overthrow Yar Mohamed. and o ^tested the vizier. and thus caused the death of Ml as that of many other chiefs who were comp T this occurrence the'vizier removed from tl king's advisers as were attached to him. and this desire was all the more intense. it is true. but he withheld hia co-ope ie occasions at the very moment when his m een put an end to. and punished the sons ol ucing to a very small sum the allowance which le state. and took up the idea which hii lU Shah had entertained. of adding this provi i. 1 was the situation of affairs at Herat. at length perceived clearly end. who. Mir Sedik. am id them by hia own creatures. b id ways of eluding his orders and his wishes when rdance with his own views . his sons. King of Persi that capital.

Mohamed Azim having gitm in lilar declaration to that of Kis brothers. had induced to revolt against him. His other brother. The English. who had done everything in their power to prevent the first expedition against Herat from being carried out. and sent it to looja set off immediately to join him at Fesbawur m was. we will enter at a later period into the details of the various phases through which it passed. In the mean while we must retrace our steps a little to give some account of what happened in Kandahar. reunited the scattered remains of the Afghan army. and Cashmeer after Shah Mahmood and his son Kamran had been driven from Afghanistan proper. would lead to his restoration to the throne of his ancestors. if accepted. . Kabul. and in suppressing the revolts which arose from the intrigues of his clever and powerful neighbour. he Bent his brother Kohendil Khan to Shikapoor. and re-established security and order. Amongst them was the refusal of Shah Kamran to liquidate the arrears of tribute which he had pledged himself to pay. Cbaf. the Serdar Mohamed Azim Khan. became the oldest surviving son of Payendeh Khan.for apprpving of the expedition undertaken by that monarch. Once master of Kabul. XUI. whom Shah Shooja. but his brother the Nawab Djabbar Khan. and having no hope of receiving any succour from Mohamed Azim Khan. on the death of the vizier Fethi Khan. and after having obtained this pledge he proceeded to that city. and Poor dil Khan accompanied him with a Mohamed Azim Khua was in perfect good faith ented to the restoration of Shooja-ool-Moolk. be wrote to Mohamed Azim Khan' to clfum his rights and Peshawur. had great difficulty in escaping the snares set for him by Runjeet Sing. who had hurried from India. for his not less embarrasaing than that of Poor dii Khan. This prince insisted that the sons of Payendeh Khan assembled at Kandahar should swear on the Koran that they were sincere in their devotion to his person. to propose certain terms to Shah Shooja. and the snms of money taken by his vizier from several Persian caravans travelling through his territory.-ESTABLISHMENT OF SHAH SHOOJA. by whom he was represented in the government of Cashmeer. had been obliged to fly from Shikapoor immediately after the death of Fethi Khan to escape from the Beloochees. which. opposed the second in a still more decided manner. but not thinking himself sufficiently strong to maintain his power as sovereign. who. Poor dil Khan had remained master of Kandahar. who had quite enough to do in Kabul. N 2 V . Bahim dil Khan. but as the consequences connected with this event were of so grave a nature that we cannot treat them summarily.

The restoration of Sliah Shooja was therefore to in tills basis and understanding . <le»- Chap. re-established bim on the throne. he defended himself.XIII. where the Emirs of Scinde consented to receive him. they would not permit him to proceed to prince therefore left the camp. who» id absolute character had not been softened in exile. and an enormous breach was made in the city wall. but was eventually obliged to evacuate the town sooner than he had expected. His magazine took fire and destroyed all his munitions of war . Mohamed Azim Khan. manifested almost from the outset his ithout disguise . finding hint immovable ite views. whom they would place :t on the throne. 181 perate at haying created fresh diiBculties for himself by thus recalling Shah Shooja. Mohamed Azim Khan. he treated Mohamed Azim Ehan Khan as rebels. led to ascend the throne without making any oondiiring into any engagement. and retired within the walls of that town. but such a mode of ras by no means satisfactory to that prince. which opened an easy passage for the troops of Mohamed Azim. and this in knowledge that he had of his intractable charader. immediately laid siege to Peshawur with all his army. succeeded BY EYOOB MIRZA. he thou^t Y way of consolidating the influence of the Mohato call in a Suddozye prince. nevertheless. the Shah managed to readi Shikapoor. thinking that he migl't ig to admit as sacred the right of his femily to tlie the state. situated thirty-five Peshawur. ere loss of the sovereign power in his family. Azim and his brothers exhausted all the powers of it could be dictated by consideration and wisdom to Shooja to listen to reason. two hundred of his men were killed by the explosion . I body of Sikhs who had attached themselves to his hich were added a thousand Afghans of the discooof the Mohamedzyes. Sir Alexander Bumes states that they ceded the place to him and adds. The prince could not hope to hold the place for any length of time . took offence because one of their a palanquin. and ordered tliat for the future this honour icrved for the princes of the Suddozye family alone. Foreseeing well that the ih had crept in between his brothers would lead. without taking any account of the ulterior conseliia conduct. but.ery great difficulty in maintaining his authority ovot provinces of the kingdom. and preserve for themseWes all the wer. either with individuals or lat^e. — *' A series of intrigues set on foot by his enemies . Obliged to make a precipitate retreat.

doubt only waited for a favoumble opportunity to it be that as it may. in giving up so readily thority. and yet he could Dot itality which seemed to pursue the bods of Timoor ! letters which he wrote to his brothers Shah Mahlah Shooja having been intercepted. The fitness of Shooja-ool-Moolk for the situation of sovereign seems ever to have been doubtful. and the whole power and resources of the kingdom may rest with yourself. for a r to that which had led to the fall of Eyoob. Mohamed Mund ider the sword of Kohendil Khan at Kandahar." remarks the author of the work we have just quoted. my ambition will be satisfied with bread and the title of king. Mohamed Azim t of Kabul. The conduct of Shah Shooja was ill-calculated to support his falling fortunes : he forgot the dignity of a monarch in low intrigues with his subjects. camp. that the very robe of honour with which the minister was installed into the viziership of the empire. " In short. ' Make me but king and permit money to be coined in my name. and he fled by the circuitous route of the desert of Jaysalmere to Loodiana. His manners and address are highly polished. having no other ambition than that of perpetuating the possession of the throne of the Afghans to the descendants of the great Shah Ahmed. another brother of that prince. The have in their itinga activity.expelled him even from this retreat. neither plan succeeded. couriige." In the year 1819 Mohamed Azim Ehan gave way to the representations of Eyoob Mirza. and had been sent privately to th^ SUCCESSES OF HUKJEET SING. and put his brother Sultan Ali Mirza to appeared to have encouraged the king in breaking ■h united him with the Mohamedzyes. ^' Eyoob said. if the Khan would place him on the throne. So degraded was now the state of the Royal house of Kabul. but continued a tool in the hands of Azim Khan. another son of Timoor Shah. the order he established . was a portion of his own property.* These conditions were accepted." It therefore the promiBe which be had made to Azim >eyond what he had permitted himaelf to hope. who was nominally his vizier. Several of the young princes who aspired to !re delivered over to Eyoob and put to death. At tbe it which Sultan Ali Mirza was put to death at Kabul m. he would appoint him his vizier. but his judgment does not rise above mediocrity. Xlll. and give him all the power. 1 yeara past the affairs of government had weighed Mohamed Azim Khan . and energy of it Eyoob was distinguished only by nullity the most ! thought of nothing but himself. I seem to indicate that Eyoob. obeyed from necessity rather than choice. and to see money struck in his own name. inferred it on the vizier with all the pomp and yalty. nor did this puppet monarch ever violate or attempt to infringe the terms by which he had gained the name and trappings of royalty. in which he tarnished their honour as well as his own. and promised him that. who came to his. CniP.

driven Shah Shooja from Peshawur had, aHer the Ihah Eyoob, agun given place to agitation : tbe public be quieted ; the scrdars were to be satisfied or put lire tranquillity for the kingdom, and that was not on accomplish. Mohamed Azim Khan in his desire to ise difficulties wished to proceed with some degree of tie commenced therefore by marching against the nee they had occupied Attok, bad taken posseaaioD of Afghan territory which surrounded it^ and began to asant neighbours to the Dooranees. rkable man Runjeet Sing, profiting by the enfeebled h BO many troubles had reduced the Afghans, had them in succesaion Attok, Mooltan, DerrehgbazM and Cashmeer. Nawab Djabbar Khan, the goremor rovince, had been forced to evacuate it, and Euffefed jffecting his retreat ; tbe Sikh troope bad even purwied


Chap. XIII. BATTLE OF NOOCHERO. 1P3 faim to the right bank of the Indus, and at one time menaced Peshawar. Eight thousand of Runjeet's soldiers, under the command of Boodh Sing, had also just made, from weak entrenchments hastily thrown np, an heroic defence against a population of fifty thousand Afghans. The Sikhs, up to this time enslaved, proved by these brave deeds of arms that their nationality had boldly developed itself; they felt the necessity of constituting themselves a separate and compact power ; and as this first and sudden impulse of the natural genius of this people might become fatal to their neighbours, there was not a moment to lose in repulsing such formidable adversaries. Azim Khan therefore marched a body of troops towards the quarter that was threatened ; but though they obtained marked and somewhat numerous advantages over RuDJeet, they were not able to force him to recross the Indus, which on his invasion of the Afghan territory his cavalry had passed by swimming at a spot where there was no ford — a feat unheard of before in the annals of war in that country. Mohamed Azim Khan had endeavoured to rouse the fanatical feelings of his soldiers by proclaiming a holy war, but, not having been able to arrest the success of this modem Poms by that device, he was obliged to march in person against him. The Sikh and Afghan amaies met at Noochero in 1822, the latter being divided into two corps by the Kabul river. The vizier Azim Khan had conceived his plan of operations very badly : for he and the greater part of his brothers were on the southern side of the river with the second division, which it was impossible to move to the support of the first wben it was attacked in person by the whole of Runjeet's forces. Nevertheless it sustained the fight valiantly : the infantry, posted on an eminence, and protected by several pieces of cannon, received the onset of the Sikhs without flinching, and repulsed four successive charges which they made with the whole of their cavalry ;

it was only when a fifth was given that the Afghans were obliged to fall back, and with the loss of their guns — Runjeet conducted this charge in person, and brought up the whole of his reserves. Mohamed Azim Khan and his brothers were spectators of thb sad disaster without the power, as it is said, of being able to remedy it; a circumstance which seems incomprehensible, for the runaways found no difficulty in crossing the river and rejoining them, as did likewise a corps of Sikhs who pursued them* How then did it happen that Azim Khan could not do the same ?

DEATH OF MOHAMED AZIM. Chaf. %m3smg tbe Afghan general bad committed this first error, it Tor him to repair it by attacking the Sikhs in tbeir parage er, which be did not do ; tbe fact was, hie heart fuled him, Qk to flight Hia apologists have endearoured to justif;f it by saying that it was caused by the shouts that were the Sikh camp on the nigbt preceding tbe battle, whidi 1 Khan to believe they had received large reinforceBut even if this version of tbe affair was correct, the ; to say stupidity, of allowing tbe Sikhs to cross the rirer laking any attempt to stop them, is not tbe leas great; \. may always be said that the Afghan general did not aerely to retreat, but to fight, and that he might at lesft k1 bis guna and hia baggage which be abandoned. Tbe . :ing advantage of the panic that seized their adversaries, }n Peshawur, of wbicb tbey took possession, and destroyed 1. rbt bank of the Indus remained in the power of tbe Sikhs battle of Noochero, and Peshawur was an advanced poet h Runjeet reserved the right of suzerainty. He gave iment to Sultan Mohamed Khan, one of the brothers of lan, enforcing a small tribute, hoping by this means to be disunion amongst tbe sons of Fayendeh ELan, and greater account. ed Azim Khan, overwhelmed by all these reverses, and from the effects of a wound which, from bis habits </ bad become very irritated, left tbe army, tbe temporary of which he gave to his brother Dost Mohamed Khan, the road to Kabul, where he hoped to recover ; but this never realized, for he bad not su£Scient strength left to city, and died at tbe village of Latu-bend about t«o aey from the capital. For some time past he had felt bis end was approaching, and hastened to collect all big lich amounted to 2,700,000?.* Azim Khan left this sum to his son Habib Ullab Khan, and a few hours 1 death be made him swear to employ it and his life in bis father's defeat and the misfortunes of hia country, laracter of the vizier Mohamed Azim Khan has been

very differently by different persona according as tbey izang of tbe Suddozyes or the Mohamedzyes, but the at this from KobendU Ebao, bia book, uid bis brother. — Forier,

Chap. XIIT. HIS CHARACTER. 185 majority of impartial individuals in A%hani8tan are of opinion that he was a man of moderate abilities, and not equal to his mission ; that he was wanting in firmness ; that his military talents were of a mediocre character ; and that his love of wine and ardent spirits was so great that he -had the command of his faculties but for a reiy short time during the twenty-four hours. He was, however^ gentle, conciliaiing, and showed great urbanity of disposition.



CHAPTER XIV. iings of Habib Ullah Ehiui — Divuloiis betn-een tha bodb of PajudfEi 1 — H*bib UUkU Khui It. WW with bia unclaa — Poor dil Khim iDterferM ■bul — UuioD of Sultan Mobamed uiil DoBt Mohomed Khuu — ^endil 1 and Poor dil KbaneBtnblish peace between their brotbem — Dost Mohuned I at Tanance — His rivalry witb Sultan Hohuned — That priace at awur — Sir A. Bumes's opinion of him — Kandahar — Poor dil Khin tnd B dil Ehsn — Character of tha latter — Sir A. Bumea's opinion ot the lahar chiefs — Character of DoBt Mohamed — Sir A. Bumes'a opJuioa of hinu B Ullab Ehan had sworn to hie dying father that he would lo rest until he had exterminated the Sikhs, but his courage did irrespond with his promitie ; it is true he continued the war, ithout energy ; and it was only hy the power of money lliat 9 enabled to maintain for a short time his troops in obedience, lized by his passion for drink, a vice which he inhented from irent, he felt very little for the misfortunes of his country, nother endeavoured, hut in vain, to stimulate his zeal, and him to appreciate more honourable sentiments; but lie ned deaf to her solicitations. This apathy in their chief iraged the inferior officers, who by degrees abaodoued him, the serdars and his uncles neglected the national defence iterests to quarrel for power amongst themselves. From this I the sons of Fayendeh Khan were more disunited than even iddozyes, and rushed into a number of little wars which conl during several years, until a few of them had succeeded in tively establishing themselves in the Afghan principali^es.

., Khulm, Koondooz, and Badakshane had shaken off the yoke the fall of Shah Zeman, and governed themselves. As to e. Shah Shooja was the last of the Afghan kings who received e from that country, and after his disasters the Talpoors I considered themselves as completely independent, hib Ullah had scarcely exercised his power six mouths when, oney being spent, all consideration for him was at an end ; in 1 he had only a mere shadow of authority remaining, and that * oon disputed by his uncles. As to Sultan Mobamed Ebaa, lad been made governor of Peshawnr by Eunjeet, he was not ed with the small revenues of that province, which be was k1 to share with his two brothers, Pir Mohamed Ehan and

Chap. XIT. I^'TERFERENCE OF POOR DIL KHAN. 187 Sjad Mohamed Kban. Dost Mohamed Khan had made a party for himself, and resided at Ghuznee. The army of Hahib Ullah Khan, considerably weakened by desertion, was not in a condition to measure its strength with those of his uncles united. Aware of this, he sent his brother Akrem Khan to Kandahar to represent to their uncle Poor dil Khan the danger there would be to him if he permitted his brothers Sultan and Dost Mohamed Khan, who tlien had the reputation of being ambitious and restless characters, to acquire an influence in his neiglibourhood superior to his own, for it might lead to their creating disturbances in the principality of Kandahar, and possibly end in their taking it from him if he was not upon his guard ; Akrem Khan also sent him a few of their letters which had been intercepted, and in which such intentions had been clearly manifested. Poor dil Khan, alarmed at the danger which menaced him, sent his brother Shere dil Khan to Kabul at the head of a few thousand men, and Uiis serdar met Dost Mohamed Khan on the road, beat, and forced him to retire upon Jellalabad, and then proceeded to Kabul. There, however, instead of giving any assistance to his nephew Habib Ullah Khan, he deposed him, plundered him of his riches under a threat of killing him, and united the remnants of his army with his own. The vanquished chief by way of consolation now plunged into every kind of debauch, and continued to reside at Kabul, where he still lives in a miserable plight, given up to excesses of the most filthy kind. Akrem Khan, his younger brother, died after his return to Kandahar ; he was a brave and resolute man, and no friend to ambitious characters : his death was supposed to have taken place from the eflects of poison. When Sultan Mohamed Khan and Dost Mohamed Khan saw the torn affairs had taken at Kabul, they put a stop for a time to the fratricidal war they had carried on since the death of Azim Khan, and united their forces with a view of seizing that province. They then marched against their brother Shere dil Khan, who at ^ir approach retired within the walls of the Bala Hissar, not haTing sufficient troops to meet them in the field. Here he had

great difficulty in maintaining himself during the winter of 1825* The season was very severe ; the roads were covered with snow, and impassable ; and it was only in the spring, and after he had been five months besieged, that Poor dil Khan could bring him reinforcements from Kandahar. Directly these arrived they attacked

188 RIVALRY OF Chap. XIV. Sultan Mohamed and Dost Mohamed, and defeated them after a most sanguinary struggle. Nevertheless, these serdars did not consider their cause a hopeless one, and again prepared to try the fortune of war, when Poor dil Khan, by a generous resolution, stopped the further effusion of blood. He went almost alone to the camp of his brothers, and pictured to them all the calamities which the quarrels and divisions of the sons of Payendeh Klian had brought upon their country. ** Let us stand close," said he ; " and to prove to you to what extent our union is dear to me, I will return to Kandahar, and abandon Kabul to Sultan Mohamed Khan, our eldest brother ; but, before I retire, you must swear to me, as well as all our brothers now present in both camps, that nothing shall disunite us for the future." This generous proposition was accepted, and a good understanding reappeared for some time amongst the members of this heroic family.* But Dost Mohamed Khan took the oath that Poor dil Khan bad exacted only because he felt convinced that his brothers would never support him in his resistance, but he felt very angry that Sultan Mohamed Khan, who was already in possession of Peshawur, had been preferred to him as sovereign of Kabul, in contempt of the rights that he thought he had acquired by the courage he had everywhere displayed, and by his great popularity with the Afghans; and without doubt this chief was the bravest and the most talented politician amongst the brothers of the vizier Fethi Khan, and had thus contributed more than any of them to overthrow the Suddozye family. With him vexation and spite overruling every other consideration, he foreswore himself and prepared to carry arms against Sultan Mohamed Khan ; however, there was, it is true, a deadly enmity between these two brothers, which had its origin in a love affair. One of the widows of the Serdar Azim Khan was a member of the royal family of the Suddozyes, and, according to the established custom in Afghanistan, was obliged to marry one of the surviving brothers of the deceased. Sultan Mohamed Khan, who greatly admired her, had, in the first instance, some chance of becoming her husband, and a few conferences had already taken place on this subject, when Dost Mohamed, who knew how to render his homage acceptable, made his appearance and married the beautiful widow. Sultan Mohamed Khan never forgave him this outrage, and swore to wash it out in his blood whenever an occasion should present itself. * All the sons of Payendeh Khan were then in one camp or the other. — Ferrier,

Chap. XIV. DOST MOHAMED AND SULTAN MOHAMED. 189 During the space of two years did Sultan Mohamed and Dost Mohamed carry on a merciless war one against the other, but it tenmoated in 1826, when Dost Mohamed, victorious on all points, was enabled to establish definitively his authority at Kabul. Mohamed Khan, Beyat, a serdar of the Kuzzilbashes, gave him his support in consequence of the blood relationship which united them. His sister was the mother of Dost Mohamed Khan ; and without the support of the Kuzzilbash chief the Dost would have had great difficulty in obtaining this triumph over his opponent, who was assisted by the Sikhs. Sultan Mohamed Khan, thus thrown back upon Peshawur, had also the annoyance of finding himself more and more brought under the power of Runjeet Sing. The Maharadja had, up to this time, been satisfied with receiving a small annual tribute from the A%han chief, but, when he saw that Sultan Mohamed was beaten by the Dost, be demanded that one of his sons should be delivered up to him as a hostage, and reside at Lahore. It would have been easy for Sultan Mohamed to escape this difficulty by becoming TecoDciled to Dost Mohamed Khan, who was quite willing to receive his advances, and had even taken the initiative in this respect ; but Sultan Mohamed thought it preferable to persevere in the hatred he felt to his brother, and made his complete submission to the Sikhs — the sworn enemies of his country and of his religion. 1 was not able to reach Peshawur myself, and could not therefore judge of the state of this province or collect any information respecting the manner in which it was governed by Sultan Mohamed .Khan, but I will supply such information by giving some passages ftom the work of Sir A, Burnes, who visited that city in 1832. " The government of Peshawur has been held by a member of the Barukzye family since Futteh Khan placed Shah Mahmood on the throne of Kabul. Peshawur owed allegiance and contributed to the support of the kingdom till the year 1818, when the vizier wasput to death. Azim Khan, his successor, exacted tribute for it during his lifetime in the name of Eyoob Shah. Since that time it has formed a separate chiefship like Kabul and Kandahar, now wibject, however, to the payment of a yearly tribute to the Sikhs. It is governed by the Serdar Sultan Mohamed Khan, who shares its revenues with two other brothers, Pir and Syud Mohamed Khao. A large portion of the country is alienated to different individuals, and the net revenue falls short of nine lacs of rupees per annum. The younger brothers enjoy three lacs, and the chief

190 SIR A. BURNES'S OPINION Chap. XIV. defrays frora the remainder the entire expeDses of the country, the tribute to the Sikhs, and likewise supports the numerous families of two elder brothers, who fell in battle and to whom he succeeded. " The power of the chief is confined to the plain of Peshawur, and the hills of Kohat, which form its southern boundary. That

plain is well known as one of the richest portions of the Kabul dominions. It is of a circular shape, about thirty-five miles broad, highly peopled and cultivated, watered by nature and art Within this limited space there are numerous villages which pay no taxes. The Khuttuks, a tribe of Afghans in the east, hold the country for twenty miles west of the Indus for the small sum of 1200/. annually, which they render to the chief of Peshawur. The villages on the west, and the Khyber hills, do not pay anything ; and those north of the Kabul river, with some few exceptions, enjoy a like immunity. The only places of note in the chiefship are Peshawur and Hushtnuggur, which are described by Mr. Elphinstone. Peshawur has fallen into a state of decay with its change of rulers, and it is doubtful if it boasts of a population of one half the hundred thousand souls which occupied it in 1809. Hushtnuggur is the seat of one of the younger brothers ; Kohat is held by the other. The military strength of Peshawur is unimportant Its contingent of troops cannot be rated above 3000, two-thirds of whom may be cavalry. The chief might rally round him a numerous body of irregulars, or, as they are called, ' ooloosee ; ' but they are badly armed, and not to be relied upon. Six pieces of artillery, and two hundred regular infantry, complete the power of the chief of Peshawur. With money the services of the Khyberees, and other hill tribes, may be purchased on an emergency ; but the chief has no treasury. In a religious war with the Sikhs, an infuriated population may be always raised, and has proved itself formidable on a late occasion, when the Syud Ahmed preached his crusade in this country ; yet the whole of these combined form a diminutive force, as compared with his neighbours on the east and west — the Sikhs, and his brother of Kabul. The political influence of Peshawur is as limited as its military power. The Sikhs have exacted a tribute from it since the death of the vizier's brother, Azim Khan, and retain a son of the chief as a hostage for its fillfilment It now amounts to sixty horses, with some rice, which is peculiar to Peshawur; and it is annually enforced by an army which crosses the Indus, and lays waste their territories if not speedily paid. The amount of the tribute depends on the caprice


Chap. XEV. OF SULTAN MOHAMED KHAN. 191 of Runjeet Sing, but the Sikhs will not make a conquest of this countiy. Without Mahommedan auxiliaries they could not retain it* " The chiefs of Peshawur and Kabul, who are brothers, are at enmity. The power of Kabul is far more consolidated than that of Peshawur, but the latter has an ally in his brother of Kandahar, who would resent any attack either on Peshawur or his own country .f The chiefs of Peshawur and Kandahar have been some time past concerting an attack on Kabul ; but it is not improbable that the territories of both may ere long be threatened, and perhaps taken, by the Khan of Kabul. In such an event, the chief of Peshawur

would call in the aid of the Sikhs. This would probably be given, since Dost Mohamed of Kabul would never consent to the annual tribute now paid to Lahore by his brother of Peshawur. Serdar Sooltan Mohamed Khan entertains hopes of being able to interest the British Government in his cause should it decline. No chief in the kingdom of Kabul entertains a higher respect for the British Government than Sooltan Mohamed Khan. This has always been shown by his attention to Europeans who have entered his country. If misfortunes fell upon him, he might be a useful or a dangerous partisan. He might espouse the cause of the King Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk ; though that monarch is no favourite with his family ; yet the inconsistency and inconstancy of the Afghan chiefs are proverbial. In any difficulty the chief of Peshawur would be ably assisted by Pir Mohamed, but his other brother is destitute of energy and enterprise. The whole of the Barukzye &mily { entertain a dread of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk, and the Prince Kamran of Herat The one, if aided by the British, would drive them from their usurped authority ; and the other, if assisted by the Persians, might perhaps fix himself on the throne of his ancestors. Sooltan Mohamed Khan bears a fair reputation, but his government is most oppressive and vexatious. His agents and underlings practise all manner of exactions ; goods are taxed far above their value; and the currency is constantly altered and depreciated. An enormous tax is levied on the water-mills which grind the flour,

^ Bumes is not quite accurate here, being dead, Kohendil Khan governed for Pe»hawur was actually invaded by Kandahar when I visited that city. — the Sikhs and governed for a number of Ferrier, years by General Avitabile, who was the % Bumes should have written Moterror uf the Afghans. — Ferrier. hamedzye, for Barukzye is the deaignat Poor dil KMn and Shere dil Khan tion of the entire tribe. — Ferrier,

it falls heaviest on the lower orders of the people. 1\ie diief man about thirty-five ; he is ambitious, and at one time held government of Kabul. He is well educated, and with good its ; possesses an engaging manner, he reads and writes and sacts his business in person. He has not the art of settling jtes, and his court presents a scene of confiraon which is ly to be described or believed. The complainants intrude at imes and places, and state their grievances in the most free republican manner, yet nothing is ever settled, and the populaare heartily disafibct^d. Like Afghans, the chief of Peshawur hiB relatives live from hand to mouth ; they are liberal of t they possess, and have no wealth. I have been informed that could not retain their government without this open-banded

-ality. The chief of Peshawur has rallied round him some of most celebrated of the Dooranee nation, who share his boun^. sons of Akram Khan, and the Mookhtar o Doula, Shah >ja'8 two ministers, as also one of the celebrated Mir Wels, are ng the number ; the latter is an officer of the chief of Peshawur. only son of the Vizier Futteh Khan likewise reades with Sultan tamed Khan." * 1 has been stated that Kandahar had fallen into the hands ine of the Mobamedzyes, namely, the Serdar Poor dil Khan, lediately after the death of the Vizier Fethi Khan. lliB sodsr . like Sultan Mohamed Khan, divided bis prindpality iato ral districts which he had given to his half-brothers, 9iere dil \.o, Kohendil Khan, Rahim dil Khan, and Mir dil Khan, re dil Khan, who had the reputation of being the bravest acd most enterprising of the surviving sons of Payendeh Khan, had ived from his brother the command- in-chief of the army of idahar. Unfortunately this energetic man died while still ng, in 1829 ; a few months after, his brother Poor dil Khan »wed him to the tomb, and the power then reverted to their t eldest brother, Kohendil Kban. Such had been the paternal enlightened administration of Poor dil Khan, that his successor, vhom the Kaudaharians had founded the same hopes, was by eral acclamation placed at the bead of affairs. It would appear, ever, by the following extract from Sir A, Burnes's work, that the* es were not realized ; for this is the opinion of that oS&ca lecting the government of Kohendil Khan : — * Thia wrdarfau laft him, uidhM long rvaided at Kandahar. — Fnritr.

Chap. XIV. SIB A. BURNES ON THE KiLNDAHAR CHIEFS. 193 "It has been already mentioned that Shere dil Khan * fled from Eabu] to Kandahar, and formed the present chiefship with the qwil of his nephew. He was a man of singular habits, in some respects resembling his brother Futteh Khan, but morose as well as cruel. They give an anecdote of his lopping off the finger of one of his boys, telling him at the same time, if he cried, that he could not be his child or a Barukzye. The young fellow bore it with great patience. Shere dil Khan in his flight to Kandahar was accompanied by four brothers. He himself is since dead, as also one of his brothers. Kandahar is now governed by Kohendil Khan, supported by his two surving brothers, Rahim dil and Mehr dil. The revenues amount to about eight lacs of rupees ; his force consists of 9000 horse and six pieces of artillery ; but as the city is situated in the heart of the Dooranee country, and near the native seat of the Barukzye family, he could perhaps increase his cavalry on an emergency. " The government is not popular, nor would it appear from the acts of oppression that it deserved to be so. The chief is on bad terms with most of his neighbours. In common with all his family,

XIV." * Btimes appears to have thought de facto . the moel and important of the Afghan provinces . but. Peshawur. as there is an open and easy communication between Kandahar and the Indus by the Bolan pass. in all probability. and let us in the firat commence with its chief. and Shere dil Khan died entire direction of affidrs.ntly to the dismemberment of the kiiigdom of the Suddozves. injure their brother of Kabul. but Poor dil Khan ODJoyed by Uiat Shere dil Khan was the sovereign right the prerogatives of a sovereign. as he himself looks upon Shikapoor with an eye of cupidity. The Kandahar chief also seeks to form a settlement on the Indus. and has for several years past sent his troops to threaten Shikapoor in Scinda The Ameers of that country have been hitherto able to resist his attacks . which manifested itself in many heroic hen he was still a very young man. In a disorganized state of Scinde he might easily possess himself of Shikapoor . sirable that we should throw a glance at Kabul.tcmpt from the ordinary the Afghans. who came torious in 1826 from his conflict with Sultan Mohamed Rhan. The chief of Kandahar would gladly interest the ruler of the Punjab in his cause . Afghans considered him as their chief — Ferrier. DOST MOHAMED KHAN. He is also at issue with the chief of Kabul. he was certainly not e. His maaneis were and attractive. but it is not probable that he will procure his assistance. which were never contested by his for Poor dil Khan gave up to him the brothers. and the without ever having positively reigned. Mohamed was the fevourite brother of the Vizier Fetfai ind this predilection was not the effect of chance . and this is not surprising. having endeavoured to show the manner id whidi the lities of Herat. hut b the good qualities which were remarkable In the young and chieftain. The connexion between the Peshawur and Kandahar branches of the Barukzyes is very close and secure . though distinguished from them by superior ice and courage. Doet Mohamed Khan. the chief is not likely to discontinue his endeavours in that quarter.he is inimical to Kamran of Herat. Chap. and has at different times attempted to seize that city. but their united efforts will not. and one felt irresistibly drawn towards . and Kandahar were constitnted . of Kandahar. and such a state of events seems by no means improbable in the country of the Ameers.

and occupied himself in making order. his brothers were tar fnm ^ hb capacity and resolution. but when rtunlty offered never failed secretly* to play him some rick. It is true that the ■tion of the kingdom which had fallen to him did not his raising a large army and Eubduiiig all the other which had detached themselves from Kabul. he had the good sense to be satisfied with it. Without evincing any want of generosity. They were very nearly all opposed to him when he D seize upon Kahul. and the with which he met these misunderstandings with hit had procured him the sobriquet of Gurkek (the little name by which he Is distinguished amongst them at the ay. and lend their support to the development of commerce and agri- . he obliged them to moderate their tyrannical conduct towards their dependants. The rock upon which all the Afghan sovereigns had made shipwreck up to this time was the insubordination of theserdars.he preference evinced for him by Fcthi Khan obtaiDed hatred of hts brothers . hut the finest prize in Afghanistan was alill CHAF. Dost Mohamed was not one to be made their dupe. and to change the sovereign as it suited their fancy . and yet he triumphed over ell their . and at their cost. His justice and equity were admitted by all. but the Dost soon made it clear to them. which gave him very little for. this Increased their hatred.XI7. security. 395 within his grasp . and repaid them in kind a hundredfold for the evil ed . he preferred to leave them in quiet enjoyment of their conquests. and he repressed violence without mercy from whatever side it arose. which he might easily hare done. having the power and influence over the warlike portion of the population. took advantage of these circumstances to agitate the public mind. and. instead of taking his revenge against his jealous and ambitious brothers. wishing to irritate them he took no trouble to conceal ns. ilia power was consolidated in the principality. who. and in the quarrels which etween them and him he was sure to have the upper hand. he occupied n healing the wounds which so many intestine wars and ul inflicted on the country. nevertheless they aSected to be to pay their court to him to please the vizier. es3 which crowned all the projects of the Dost. like the . and defeated them every time they came to blows. and abundance in his own territory succeed to the disasters of war and the conyulsive throes of revolution.thi Khan. DOST MOHAMED KHAN. that it was as difficult as it was dangerous for them to endeavour to throw off their allegiance to him. and it soon felt the vivilytiig mal influences of his government. though brave soldiers. and possessing very productive fiefs which ooDsiderably lessened the revenues of the state. by dispossessing them of what they had.

tainous . as well as to engender in their minds sentiments of a humane character. an unheard of circume in the time of the kings. and which might again place them under the insecure and cruel despotism of the Suddozyes. terminating at the garden of Neemla. and attends daily at the Court-house with Lazee-o-MoUahs to decide every cause according to the law. village troops. but they thought that it was better to bend to a monarch who was generous. the present chief.e.culture. and it will not be out of place to give here the parallels which he has drawn between those chiefs and the state of their dependencies. It lies along the base of hills. and the merchant may travel without guard otection from one frontier to another. and no one better merits Igh character which he has obtained. has deprived his subjects of the luxury of and spirits as being prohibited by his creed. One in forty. ITiis counliy i< ature strong and mountainous. He intrusts the town and dependencies of Ghuznee to a brother. and a park of fourteen which are well served for a native state. and Dost Mohamed and the condition of Kabul. Bumes estimated the characters of the two brothers at Peshawur and Kandahar. it containa a large proportion of arable land wtudi 3t productive. Much of the country is 2 8IE A. to the south is Ghuznee. than to attempt revolts the issue of which must be at the least uncertain. and relieves them from the_^ M aut incognitum of a despot Trade has received the greatest u-agement from him. though it has good roadi ghit. XIV. sum receipts of the Custom-house of the city have increased W rupees. BURNES'S OPINION Cn*?. But we have seen how Sir A. rhe reputation of Dost Mohamed Khan ia made known to t Her long before he enters his country. i. since the chief retains a body of good . 2J per cent. The enaclment . Koran and its commentaries may not be the standard of le^ ! excellence . and admits no one else to share his fortunes. since it fixes a line. The limits of the chiefehip extend to ffindoo Koosh and Eamian. The chief of Kabul. Snce then he has greatly extended and consolidated his power. and now furnish him with a net revenue of t«o jer annum. and to the east it stretches half way to Peshawur. and derives > 2S8 from the soil washed from them. The revenues of Kabul nt to eighteen lacs of rupees. and he has derived Ms own reward. Its military force is greater any among the Afghans. who are well mounted and accoutred. in his led f« dox government. which he was anxious to improve amongst a people so idle. He has also 2000 try.. He is unremitting in ^tention to business. is the only dutj 1 in his territory . with other auKiliaries. "In the year 1826 Kabul fell into the hands of Dost Mohamed Khan. but this sort of decision is exceedingly popular the people. The great families submitted unwillingly in the first instance to this state of things. On the west it is bounded by the hill country of the Hazarahs . and a brother of the vizier Futteh Khan.

who excite disturbance . The task will be found difficulty for the chief of Kabul. and curiosity which he displays. '* The differences which exist between Dost Mohamed and his brothers lessen the influence of all parties. The state of fear which an enemy on both sides must inspire has had a bad effect on Dost Mohamed Khan's administration. but they cannot accomplish their purpose. The family of Barukzye * have nothing to fear from any other Afghan tribe. OP DOST MOHAMED KHAN. which has so often turned the scale in favour of different pretenders to the throne. and both cherish hopes of rooting out one whom they consider a usurper. therefore. as well as his accomplished manners and address. Dost Mohamed Khan has not attained his fortieth year . Both have emissaries at his court.f The chiefs of Peshawur and Kandahar do not want the wish to injure their brother of Kabul. He has acquired their language (the Turkish). Both of them have had a footing in Kabul. which keeps up an esprit de corps among them . A good Mahomin ought not to regret the loss of such luxuries . leasant rejoices at the absence of tyranny . capricious . his mother was a Persian. 197 maimer in which their arrears are discharged. the merchant at the equity of the deciBioB the protection of his property . it also gives them a knowledge of their power which may prove salutary or prejudicial to the factions that divide the country according to circumstances. XIV. but be as as his court hold out a bright example to the community.000 families . siuee thej' no other means to procure a subsistence. but *lth this e exception I heard of no complaint against the mJe of lJ«t amed Khan.Iriven the Jews and Armenians from his coimtry. they reside in a separate quarter of the city. The re of this chief affords a constant theme of praise to all classa. the citizen at the y of his home and the strict municipal regulations regaroing hts and measures. enjoys an advantage in his Peraan descent which will prove of material service to him in adversity. in common with many of the Afghan n. and promoted their interests and wellbeing. One is struck with the intelligence. and look with envy on the prosperity of Dost Mohamed Khan. and may yet raise himself by his abilities to a much greater rank in his native country. was addicted in early life to wine and its concomitant vicesprohibition of them may be. and the soldiers at the regulw Chap. and would lay open the state to intrigue and faction if invaded. and he has been trained up with people of that nation. since they surpass all in numbers as much as in power. With his own house as an . He holds the warlike clan of Juwanshire in his interests. A man in power can have no higher praise. and given him advantages over all his brothers. besides the moderation and justice which secure him so many friends. **The Persians of Kabul amount to 12. which has sharpened his understanding. and takes every occasion to conciliate this tribe. knowledge. He is doubtless the most powerful chief in Afghanistan. That chief.

t since Kamran would gladly hold bis power on any The Per^ans do not appear to contemplate any permao^t it in Herat.000 that he refers to. and that DOST MOHAMED KHAN. therefore. XIV.Ferriar. By this wealth able to retain about his person some of the Afghan chieft. since it would incur the expense of retaining that would diminish the tribute now gained from it is said to be in possession of some of the crown jewels of md derives a large revenue from Herat. by the . which is atuated if the most fertile countries of the world. or the fallen Btate of Kabul. if it is the family or branch to to which he alludes. he is not likely to pursue ccnquests abroad. s. He has the r of a cruel and tyrannical man. It is probable that both these requests will ed. and desire his destnicevenn:e for the assassination of their brother Futteh Kiaa. ■ care. He has no political ns in any quarter . 1832.— >F<?rrier. This alooe deters him from [erat. Chat. If it is the tribe of Baruk2ye bas fallen. it is probable that ^hichthesonsof familes. tiooed Uiem as Mohamedzyee.* It was threatened in September. since the whole of 3 of Afghanistan are his enemies. the only province of the kingdom of AfgfaaniEtaii I by a descendant of tbe royal family.* Hohamedzye.— PayendehKhanbelongs it contains 45. bccwme a dependency of Persia.oyal in person. The town of late been several times entered by the troops of tbat lud only spared by the ready tender of money on the part vernor. and ako that the coinage of the city should be struck in the name ing of Persia.000 or 55. raise a body of 4000 or 5000 horse. and ) his countrymen. is destitute of friends. who made a pecuniary demand. but still clings to the hope of being re-establish the monarchy of his father. same causes which prevented Dost Mohamed from marching Herat prevented him also from making some endeavours . he should have men. coDBists of only four or five thousand t This is an error ixtto which Bumes families. and the Prince rules more from tolerance in hia enemies than his own Je receives no aid from his countrymen.

With these perverted feelings. was on the eve of being totally overthrown by the Maharadja. and they accused him. but this danger was in another quarter* Saltan Mohamed Khan. who did not govern at Peshawur a whit better than he did. of wishing to seize their territories — there was danger for them it is true. He last ide a demonstration against Jellalabad. Kohendil Khan and Sultan Mohamed Khan constantly pursued a hostile line of conduct towards their brother. Such was the s»tate of things when Bumes visited Kabul in 1832. as well as Sultan Mohamed Khan. but until able to coerce le either Feshawiir or Kandahar. KOHENDIL AND SULTAN MOHAMED. if Kohendil Khan did not succumb to him first." Cbap. the sovereign of Kaudahar. and was far from following in the same steps. worth about seven lacs of rupees a year. is that Kohendil Khan. Ambition is an imfaithful mirror. The people were discontented with him. already subdued by Runjeet Sing. The result of bis opinion. it was because he owed his preservation entirely to the generous support which he received from his brother Dost Mohamed Khan. now elected Emir. a district between ind Pesbawur. which is also that of the Afghans in general. probably annex it to his power. whose enlightened and loyal government they sought to impede and ridicule in a manner little honourable to themselves. 199 CHAPTER XV. Dost Mohamed Ehan -ise above a chief. but without the least reason. and. Bumes at Kabul The English are hostile to Dost Mohamed — Sumner's account of the Russians and the English in Asia — Mohamed Shah determines to invade Herat — He is supported by the RoasiaDs. who was desirous of being on the best terms with them . as of my own. which reflects things much less in their natural aspect than that in which mankind is pleased to colour characters and personal interests. and he might have been reproached.Mooltan and Dera Ghazee Khan from tbe Sikhs. or be aught than one among many in staa In the present state of politics in that countiy be heless the most rising man in the Kabul dominions. with sentiments of jealousy and hostility* to Dost Mohamed. marches against the Sikhs — Defeats tbem at Djamrood — Sir A. Shfth Shooja takes up arms against the Barukzyes — Dost Mohamed Khan marches to the relief of Kandahar — Shah Shooja receives a check — That sovereign is completely defeated — He retires to Kelat— Sultan Mohamed arrives at Kabul —Machinations of that serdar against Dost Mohamed Khan — Resolution of the latter — The Dost. as we shall now see. XV. . had not the same superiority of mind as his brother.

but he was defeated and obliged to make a rapid retreat on Kandahar. with which. but that Shah Shooja had its best . he remembered only the ties of kindred and blood which united them. a good many amongst them were addressed to some of the Afghan serdars. Runjeet Sing agreed to furnish the Suddozye prince. he should fight The political agent of the Company replied that the Indian government had taken no part in the expedition. he despatched an officer to Sir Claude Wade to ascertain from him if it was true that the Shah was openly supported by his government ? that if his reply was in the affirmative. the Governor-General supported his cause with some Sikh regiments. some of them being deserters from the Company s service. if. although often beaten. afraid to assist him openly. and assured them that his government would know how to appreciate the support that they might give to their legitimate sovereign. From the period at which he was. On the reception of this news the chief of Kabul made the following reply : " Whenever you are menaced let me know. had not re^ 200 PROCEEDINGS OF SHAH SHOOJA. at that time political agent at Loodiana. it was in the negative. the latter drilled and manoeuvring on the European system. in the month of May he crossed the Indus. The British agent excited these chiefs to revolt. In January. DOST MOHAMED RELIEVES KANDAHAR. having assembled in haste what troops he could collect. through his intervention and promises of concession of territory on the part of Shah Shooja. Shah Shooja quitted Loodiana . he should think about it . belonging to the Emirs of Scinde. XV. and. 1834. oa Chap. and. and obsefving its discipline. This fact has been proved by the letters of Sir Claude Wade. But. Kohendil Khan.000 Afghans and Hindostanees. forgetting the just complaints which he had against this ungrateful brother. but. he failed — but his courage remained unshaken. 201 the contrary. He then marched towards Kandahar at the head of an army of 22. so I will be your friend then. for -the first time. in the first instance. which letters were found amongst the baggage of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk after his defeat . They required a sovereign in Afghanistan devoted to their views. and he had succeeded in interesting the Anglo-Indian government in his fate.Shah Shooja-ool*Moolk. XY. and hurried to his assistance with his army. but to which he laid claim." After which. overthrown hy Fethi Khan. marched to meet the king as far as the valley of Pisheen to close the passage. Chap. whence he despatched messenger after messenger to inform Dost Mohamed of the storm which had burst upon him. as I am your enemy now. nounced his right to the throne. he had made eight attempts to regain it by force of arms . before setting out. seized upon Shikapoor.

sed him permission to enter the ci^. and thrown back upon the interior of the kingdom. and the attack of the Dost in his rear. though the advantage on the whole was on his side. inasmuch as the combatants. he was cut off from his communications. and the Afghans affirm that 16. lasted during fifty-four days. The defeated Shah therefore obliged to retire upon Furrah. and pressed the siege closely. The ground from which he opened his attack was intersected by numerous watercourses and covered with large gardens. he made a general assault upon the place. but hotly pursued by Uie Mohamedzyes.XT. and from that day Shah Shooja was under a double disadvantage. and itwas indeed high time that he should arrive at Kandahar.wishes for his success. four times repulsed. Shah Shooja had great difficulty in repairing his losses. under the scorching rays of the sun. for he was obliged to diride his forces to repel the sorties of the besieged commanded by Kohendil Khan. 1834. afraid that he might intrigue with a view of supplanUng him. enclosed with mud walls. and had only fifty horsemen with him when be arrived at Herat. or rather this butchery. is incredible. preferred being killed on the spot to yielding one inch of grouud. in which the soldiers made many gaps to pass through . but at last they were obliged to retreat. This war. The Dost*s army arrived at this juncture. The encounters were the more murderous. What he suffered in traverang its parched burning sands. leaving the ditches of the town filled with their dead and wounded. After having lost a pitched battle asrainst Dost Mohamed Khan. surrounded by walls. conflicts took place daily on both sides in these labyrinths. Soon after he was abandoned by his soldiers. Cbap. and on the 29th of June. who pursued him. nevertheless. but his nephew. The "best wishes" of the English government did not stop Dost Mohamed . and such close fighting soon weakened both parties. wanting in short everything. and demanded a refuge and hospitality of the Shah Kamran . and the lamedzyes. who never loved him. His troops displayed great bravery . and PROCEEDINGS OF SULTAN MOHAMED. but he received him . The Emir of this town had freed himself I the Afghan dominion during his reign.000 men were killed before the place. of which arm the greater part of both armies was composed . he now hastened . and these obstacles were far from favourable to the manoeuvres of cavalry. four times they returned to the assault. his march. which he had delayed in order that he might receive the reply of Sir Claude Wade. for Shah Shooja had taken up a position between the old and the new city. without or water. were on the point of ia^'ing him >ner at the moment he entered Kelat Kassir and was safe I further molestation. through the arid rts of Beloochistan. Shah Shooja fought only to clear a passage for himself and his troops. and make good his retreat to Shikapoor .

therefore. Pir Hohamed Khan Syud Mohamed Khan. he. the title of Sovereign Prince. but. with courtesy and all the appearance of sincere friendship. supported by an English army.tire to Jellalabad. but the success of their plan being. Mir Vaez. imagining that in acting thus he might bring their dissensions to a close. He received his brothers. X7. it became the signal for fresh disseDaoDB :igst them. before undertaking it. his victory definitively confirmed the Mohamedzyes in the ^on of eastern Afghanistan . and they not as yet committed to ley gave up the project. and spared nothing to attach them to his cause. and England met the greatest disaster that she was ever called upon to register le military annals of her Indian empire. His two brothera. and proclaimed a holy war against the Sikhs . Here he Bgato led. in the campiugti that had just inated. DOST MOHAMED ELECTED EMIR.. Although informed of their faithless proceedings. the grand Mollah of Kabul. composed of the serdars of the principality. proclaimed him Emir ool . pen^oned by ttie English. While Dost amed Khan was gone to assist hia brother against this ei^ed sovereign. ly the least. directly he returned to Kabul he determined to revenge the affront which had just been put upon them by Runjeet. by a courage wfaich might almost be termed fooly. joined him in this enterprise. and received from a council. who reserved him for a new sion in which he subsequently lost his life. doubtful. Moreover. Dost Mohamed thought it would be better to leave them to think that he was ignorant of their schemes. forced. Sultan Mohamed Khan had been removed from govemnient of Peshawur by Runjeet Sing . the result of which was the recall of Shah Shooja w years later. with a view of remedying this re. instead of profiting by it lo igthen their position. therefore. nevertheless. on the most friendly terms with their victorious brother. and furnished his guest with the means of gaining liana in a manner suitable to his rank. [ohamed Akhar Khan. pretended to feel an ardent desire . he was desirous of exalting himself in the eyes of the Afghans. .itably. and r" Chap. they cursed from the bottom of their hearts. They therefore remained some days undecided as to t line they should adopt . which had already commenced when they heard of the victory the t had gained at Kandahar and at the same time bis returo ^bul. thought he might profit by the absence of Dost Mobamed n to seize Kabul. as it annihilated all their hopes. and military talents which even then gave indications of : his future career might be. 203 went boldly to meet the Dost to congratulate him on a success which. distinguished himself. the ikvourite son of Dost Mohamed R.

and Haree Sing. Lord Auckland rejected these reasonable proportions . — Ferrier. When the festivities of his enthronement were over he sent 9000 horse against the Sikhs commanded by one of his brothers. their general. This time fortune declared in favour of the Afghans. and gave the conunand of his army to his sons Mohamed Efzel Khan and Mohamed Akbar Khan. respected the territory of his enemy. fortress in tbc north of the Punjab. finding that Dost Mohamed hesitated to renew the attack.Moamerime. intending to enter at some future time upon another campaign. the inhabitants of which were for the most part Mohamedans. threw themselves completely into the hands of Runjeet Sing.General of the British possessions in India. but the result was not more fortunate than before. and consented on this condition to abandon Cashmeer to the Sikhs for ever. Governor. abandoned the wax. The Emir. declared war against Runjcet. which were not to be hoped for so long as Sultan Mohamed Khan was ready to play the traitor. which could only be disastrous to him. Chap. and. Haree Sing. having convinced himself of this fact. XT. The Emir. There he occupied himself in reinforcing his army. 204 DOST MOHAMED DEFEAl-S THE SIKHS. and was guilty of numerous exactions against the Afghans of that country. who evinced great moderation after his victory. seeing that they were wholly powerless in Kabul. but. in his reply. the Afghans were encouraged by his arrival. and the majority of the population were hie countrymen. he made his sons governors of the various provinces and districts. This was owing to the intrigues of Sultan Mohamed Khan and his brothers. and the Emir Dost Mohamed. near the entrance of the Khyber Pass. a * Commander of the Faithful. left Dost Mohamed only a hope that . with greater chances of success. Sultan Mohamed Khan and his two brothers. who were negotiating secretly with Runjeet Sing. mistook his discretion for fear. though it was an Afghan province. and claimed the intervention of Lord Auckland. to which they had advanced. and further intrigues failed in consequence of the wise measures which he adopted. who appointed the former governor of Rota. All the public functionaries of whose fidelity the Dost was not * perfectly sure were now dismissed. as they obtained only a doubtful succesSi he left Kabul and placed himself at their head . He demanded that the Indus should for the future be the line of demarcation between the two states. threatened some villages dependant on Kabul. governor of the Maharadja at Peshawur. The Sikhs. weaned with all these annoyances. They attacked their enemies at Djamrood. and returned to Kabul. and defeated them completely .* and on this occasion repeated the same form of ceremonial that had been used at the coronation of Ahmed Shah and his successors. being killed in this battle. with orders to advance immediately agmnat the Sikhs.

Runjeet Sing would be requested by him to restore the governinent of Peshawur to his brother. the author has nothing to do. king of Persia. in his eyes. Merely a traveller in the country. Sultan Muhamed Khan . borrowed from them whatever appeared to be true. which was nearly altering the status of every country in Central Asia. and endeavoured to make it as accurate as possible with respect to the events that have recently taken place in Central Aaa. however. for all his tympathies were with the English. to influence their opinions. the Ic^tJmacy of which was. consistently with the friendly relations existing between the Maharadja and the East India Company. God be praised. which have hitherto appeared. XV. but come to that famous siege of Herat. and the information that I have collected is added. I shall begin by giving the reader an idea of what were the respective positions of the English and the Russians in Asia at the time the siege of Herat was . that the consolidation and extemioa of Runjeet Sing's power. force htm h) make a restitution. Sultan Mohamed Khaa. I have given a sketch of the whole. The extracts are from the text of these authorities. Almost all those persons who have written on the changes which it occasioned during the last few years in Afghanistan have allowed a party spirit more or less strong. to seeing it again in the hands of his mortal enemy. which could not gain by a transformation of style. It was about this time that the army of Mohamed Shah. To attain this object with the greater certainty. information came to me from all sides. 205 a counterpoise against every evil that could happen to them. and rejected all that seemed open to the suspicion of a single doubt. THE ENGLISH HOSTILE TO HIM. who from that moment had no other hope of safety than by allying himself with Russia and Persia. nor dignity or diplomatic pride to maintain. those which seemed to me to contain the most exact detail of facts. and the Emir was far from desirous of forming a treaty with that sovereign. and many fresh circumstances were revealed to me. my constant aim was to search for truth. but Messieurs the Directors would listen to nothing . anticipate. and to speak it with impartiality . that he could not. marched against Herat. I have selected from amongst the narratives. with which. and he had done everything in his power to enter into a sincere alliance with the East India Company . and eTcry advantage the Russians could gain arising from the Treaty of Turkomantchai signed between the latter power and Persia in 1827. tliej had admitted as a principle. under their immediate protection. having no political interest to defend. free from constraint. and the Emir naturally preferred leaving Peshawur to Runjeet. a questionable point Bumes was sent to Kabul to make known this deci^on of his Excellency to Dost Mohamed . "» Chap. Let us not. Hence arose the tenacity with which the East India Company supported the invasions of the Maharadja and rejected the loyal concessions of the Emir Dost Mohamed. and having been able to mix with all classes of the population. adding. In adding them to those already known.

George Sumi seems to me to have treated what relates U maimer which is tolerably satisfactory. . have appreciated them.1 20e SUMNER'S ACCOUNT OF TB with simply tbeir historical interest &tt&cbed t recriniiiiate against any indiridual whatever. give their instructions and orders to less than eighty years have succeeded in rai seems almost to equal that of Alexander or Tai " The condition in which they found the vsi was no doubt exceedingly favourable to the ina but another cause. and towns containing a m entirely under the control and government merchants and capitalistE. when that talented offic Madras. large revenues.undertaken. an . tranquilly si counters. to make the subject n speak of the position of England in the East immense empire. tending almost equally to th vast 6eld that it opened to talent of every • facility that every able officer.000 army. that the plan of conquest mencement by Clive. Russia. It was to employ only European troops in the conquest of India. however low I there found of attaining wealth and distinctii devoting himself to the interests of those whom " It ought to be remarked. It was concei' General Duplelx. in speaking of th India was subjugated. and drew upon its author repn recent biographers have not endeavoured to n have continued them. anc of the dissensions amongst the princes and raj to foment discord in their different states. but a reservation is necessary on my part. First. His proposition to the French govi diately rejected. My object is to make known fccts without malice or prejudice. I do not intend to be responsible for any remarks that can wound the susceptibility of any nation which is the subject of them. with more than 100. Though assenting to the mode in which the writers whose works I am about to make use of.000. and who have examined matters to the core. Tl: opinion : — " It has been generally thought that the Afghans by the English was t^ be attribute encroachments of. who. bu acknowledged that this fear was only a chimei this question. 19 taken from a work by Mr. to give these facts impartially. and invasion by. and since constantly folio did not originate with them.

on the Persian frontiers. leading direct to the Khanats of Badakshane.any one of them who. in 1835 and 1836. was the river Sutlej. seems scarcely to have forgotten its past splendour and ancient renown. " When the expedition of the Shah of Persia against Herat. of which the interest and capability of advancing southwards were just as unlimited as those of England acting in the opposite direction — that power is Russia. rajahs. which flows south-west. and Bokhara. Bumes said of him that he might be regarded as one of the most faithful allies of the English. inrading. He had hastened to treat with the British government in 1832. By adopting this plan the East India Company has worked by degrees to the north and north-west. in summer. one after the other. and even the Great Mogul himself had to accept their alliance and submit to their rule. RUSSIANS AND ENGLISH IN ASIA. we reach the Caspian Sea and the southern boundary of Russia. and has travelled thus far without knowing when or where it ought to stop. enfeebled within and powerle&a ' . Divide et impera. " Beyond. crossed the Sutlej. of which the mind was as active and the resources as great. across which. like Turkey. besides the three Kiianats that we have mentioned. extends a portion of the Himalaya range of mountains. we come to the unhappy country of Afghanistan. a vast extent of deserts. and joins the Indus at a distance about 200 miles north of Delhi. until it found itself &ce to face with another power. With these Russia has formed great commercial interests. after his success. rendered tributary the sovereign of Lahore. the capital of that province. there are at least two passes open to caravans. " From Kandahar. but the government of that country pretends that she has not yet any wellestablished political relations there. the road is open towards Herat. Runjeet Sing of Lahore. passing through Persia. the northern limit of the states belonging to the English. which witnessed the recent disasters of the British army. and. and paying taxes to them. and the Maharadjah proved this by joining with them against the Afghans. and emirs. with their remarkable sovereign. another city in Afghanistan. Between Afghanistan and Russia then there is on one side. This 2u8 BUSSIANS AND ENQUS nation. 207 supported him. the capital of the empire of Aurungzebe. and on the other side is Persia. princes. show become a docile instrument in the hands of Chap. the kingdom of the Sikhs. To the north of Kabul. Balkh. The Company has occupied Delhi. ' " Crossing the kingdom of Runjeet. which. and in the delta formed by the Sutlej and the Indus. is the Punjab. XV. was determined upon.

" The position of the English in In their fiiture policy. respect Afghanistan. the sucoesaive invasions of the Colossus of the North on that continent. stopped to i with delight the refreshing fruits of ' now find Kabul. 209 dominant in Europe. when they undertook their this distant point is now fixed the a' countries. that of maintaining p supporting the independence of the peop possessors and the ancient inhabitants. 1838. and unfolds. RUSSIAN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA. who look upon it as the pivot must turn their respective interests in in a despatch of October 20th. in a monthly rei who has proved himself as well infoi Boston. in Turkey. determined to recover ( been part of his legitimate possessions. The reviewer commences by citing the opinion of a contemporary historian : " Vainly. and. ' Great Bntain and but one de^re. and seems ready to whu shall attack her with vigour. the writer turns his attention to Asia.and more tottering. then Rus^ai least it was supposed bo.' " The friend of England. that Alei march towards the Indus. with startling truth. Through it also p Tamerlane. " were the dangers pointed out . He had already commitf istan. are clearly set for would not be of much interest if it sketch of the Russian policy in Central considered in 1843. " 'Diufl it is evident that the countr Europe thought very little fifty years ag( to be the theatre of important events. and their di " It was in Afghanistan. Runjcet Sii progress by this manifestation on the p powers of Asia. After having rapidly traced I made by the cabinet of St Peterebi F^ Chap. a that province of Afghanistan situated ft he was probably instigated to attempt this rights by Count Simonich. above all." say Lesur. XV. Central Asia will be tested. reduced Peshawur to a state of vat more hostile movements towards the so of Persia. remembering that his domini< tended to Delhi.

But the patient constancy with which Russia carries on her schemes is weU known . 210 RUSSIAN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA. But he contented himself with pleading their cause with the Sultan . he could not ensure his object until he had deprived Persia of the states she possessed on the borders of the Caspian Sea. envoys to the Khans of Khiva and Bokhara. . that this step on the part of Alexander occasioned no suspicion. to provoke a rupture. drawn up in the Russian language and in the language of their country . " The long looked for epoch for the adiievement of the project to the accomplishment of which all his intrigues had been directed. XV. at the extremity of the Gulf of Bothnia." After this quotation the reviewer continues : " Subsequently to the year 1819 Russian agents left Tiflis. but he wished to give a colour to the war for which he was preparing. and did in fact very soon after set out for Orenburg. aggression against Turkey would dissipate any suspicions that might arise. Persia. have established her dominion on the right bank of the Danube. Chap. and from the Vistula to Kamtchatka. She commands the Black Sea. pretended to restore hberty to slaves. Russia has been elevated as much by the errors of others as by her own genius. Their instructions were to obtain the abrogation of the trade in slaves. and she knew not how to proceed otherwise than by the sword : she threatened to conquer. The disposition of the Greeks to revolt was therefore encouraged. and the shrine of the Eadjars is placed under her protection. arrived in 1824 In the spring of that year he saw the ambassadors of the Khirghizes arrive at his court to render him homage as the supreme chief of the Tartars. and several influential personages of his court having endeavoured to turn to their advantage the discussions that arose in 1823 with the Porte. and that conquest could not be attempted without further success against Turkey.of permitting this intrusion of an enslaved and barbarous people into the system of European politics . The Autocrat expected the refusal that his envoys returned with. while an invasion of Persia would only confirm them. Their reports also informed the Emperor Alexander that his projects against Turkestan were premature . and his battalions were already marching from Tiflis upon Orenburg. she suffers none but her own armed flag to float over the Caspian. this he bestowed upon them in consequence of their having acknowledged themselves vassak of his empire . In virtue of tliis title he granted them a code of civil laws. and to announce their mission as the accomplishment of a great duty on the part of the head of the Russian empira Russia. the Emperor also promised to visit them. who had generally imposed slavery upon civilized nations. The last treaties with Turkey. *' Such was the rash and inconsiderate contempt of the nations of the west for the people whom they called the barbarians of Asia. and Alexander showed himself again in the character of defender of an oppressed people. and the powers assembled at Vienna. the Emperor sent them into exile.

in which the Turkish navy was almost entirely destroyed. it was hoped. being thenceforth exercised by the acknowledged chief of the Tartar nation. though it was the very same kingdom of Kharism. and the conjecture might be read in the papers that she was emboldened to that step by the secret intervention and promises of England. The khans of the most distant tribes came there to acknowledge their prince. whatever dangers were revealed. occupied the countries south-west of &e Caspian Sea. she grew worse. with him. re-establish her health : but as. on the contrary. Russia acquired two khanats which in a military point of view commanded the Persian provinces. the blindness of England continued and manifested itself by the impolitic battle of Navarino. They had bestowed upon him. for he had drawn upon himself the same enemies. The Russian joumab were filled with accounts of the homage which the numberless hordes scattered over Asia came to ofler to their new chief. and afterwards that of Uukiar Skelessi. The result of it was the treaty of Adrianople. was the result of this clever comedy. and was satisfied that he should find in them all the submission that he could expect from their nomadic habits. and took the empress. and succeeded to the rights which Persia had preserved over that Turkomania which had been the ancient kingdom of Samarcand. intending to leave her at Tangarsk. " A brilliant reception awaited the Tzar at Orenburg. XV. and which also terminated his own life. formerly so powerful. the Tartar surname which signifies The Greatest" Djenghis. 1827. The rupture of the treaty of Gulistan appeared to be the work of Chap. he would not quit her. RUSSIAN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA. " Nevertheless.The country of the Khirghizes attracted no attention. 21 1 Persia. as formerly on their celebrated Temondjine. . " The Emperor soon quitted Orenburg to visit some of the Khirghiz hordes. which confirmed to the Emperor Nicholas his preponderating influence in Turkey. and proclaim aloud his sovereignty. These rights were of the same nature as those recognised by the Khirghizes. the Emperor Paul. " Everything was in readiness for the Persian war. then an invalid. It was then that he was attacked by the mysterious malady which had already carried to the grave his father. " Alexander went again to Orenburg in 1825. would. and became much stronger. and the commencement of it was in the following year the first act of his successor . " The treaty of Turkomantchai. of which the preliminaries were signed November 3rd. it might therefore from that moment be concluded that Nicholas was worthy to continue the policy of Alexander. the climate of which place. and which once entirely ruled Central Asia. the mildest in Russia.

it will be lerstood that this desert can with difficulty be crossed even by Bw squadrons of light cavalry. Turkestan. and it was at this time that Captain Conolly and Lieutenant Bumes were sent on their respective journeys. and so many other impedimenta. d|JiImia so prevalent. W ceeded. had too much neglected the political interests. but the object of his p 2 RUSSIAN POLICY IN CENTIUL ASIA. the breaking out of the rebellion . one may be allowed to think that his BriI pride had strangely blinded him. Bokhara. of which the chiefs. and it sacrificed that unfortunate people to its own safety. and the extent to ich their efforts to lay the Toundations of political power in rkestan. ^ The British ministry was the first that opened its eyes. they can do so vitbout liting much attention fi^im Englishmen. the ministry addressed to the Governor-General. by hurrying them. Bumes had already shown great capability in other expeditions. But who would tbink of crosang If the descendants of the Scythians and the Partbians ha« pretension to enter upon this conflict. and Persia. His numerous anny was concentrated upon Orenburg. absorbed in commercial calculations. when the insurrection in Poland suddenly obliged him to march his troops to the Vistula. under the appearance of commercial intercourse. fresh instructions . *^ Taking immediate measures for the protection of the Indian Empire. as is proved by its intrigues to cause. CBir. Lord Auckland. Burnes allowed it to be seen that be waa conTinced project of marching an army across so much arid anduncultied steppe was impracticable ." The successor of Alexander then appeared sure of the expected triomph of the policy so long followed in Asia. though prematurely. while the second left Delhi to explore Afghanistan. It was evident that his purpose vaa investigate the intrigues of the Russiaua.XT. but the passage of his nanatJTe which he insists with the greatest force upon this B£eeiticiii lices to prove that he had presented Lord Auckland with notes 1 infonnation to the contrary. Here follows the pafsage: ''hen ooe has met with antT felt such a horrible gcarcitj of ter. The first started from St. \A'bat difficulty could re be in procuring wster in a country from which the river I only been turned aside? What obstacles could hinder the sing of forage in a country lately so fertile and of which tbe rility" was bo recent?""!- .' If the traveller a deluded himself. Petersburg to pass through the countries of the Khirghizes. into action to avoid being taken at a disadvantage itself. and Persia. and found pasture for the horses so difficult to obtain. rels waa not dissembled. and orders were given for the opening of the campaign in the first fine weather of 1831.

that the posdbility of ■ issian expedition to India is a chimera if we had bufed our nion. uid. the Governor-General in Council was right to take precautions against any invasion which could be made from the north of Europe into Central Asia. and with less delay. He ought indeed to have done this with more energy at the outset.' — FtrHer. Peshawur in the north. to sieze Herat. 1 as several newspapers have done. Herat has remained iDdependent. and passed that river at two points . correct id which a Rmsuad eipeditioD could tin reinarka upon Humes. on the authority of Burnes .ta knew very well that the obstacles were not so serious as tbis The district of Merv hare spoken wu nvsged by the Tartws Bad leka in 178tS. e added. . and Shikapoor in the souths are two tete^-de^pont which cover the principal approaches to the river. i ue ncuiit -'"■ The critic i> perfect]. n. while England has brought her frontier up to the west bank of the Indus. had he reach India has been Bhowa ia 'Ciin™> leased more iaformalinii. as there is everything to lead us to suppose these writen 1. hs might JonrDSfa. by which means he would have avoided many diplomatic embarrassments. But let us not anticipate. the wounds from which will not be healed for a long space of time. without doubt.Divn ana iMuara. but as the Government at Cil. PROGRESS OF ENGLISH CONQUEST. 218' officer wished them to believe. and many important disasters.This sketch gives a very accurate idea of the object the Tar I ia extending his dominion towards the south . We will admit. though. it is astonisbing irefore that the English Government should have been alanned the project formed by the Shah of Persia. England gained her object. XV. like many other perwns. and Russia has retired within the limits stipulated in the treaty of Turkomantohai. under the advice of s^a. that in tbe winter and in •y *r Chap. and menace the Afghans.

General Simonitch. whenever an opportunity presents itself. The projects of Mohamed Shah on Herat began to see the light about the commencement of 1835. for she was not then in the least prepared for so great an enterprise. originated with Mohamed Shah. Mr. which always leads her. they therefore forced her to extend her frontiers out of all reason. exciting her fears by demonstrations of an ambitious character. not because the views of Russia extended at that period so far as to undertake an invasion of British India. 215 .214 FIRST DIPLOMATIC DISCUSSIONS Chap. who serve her much more from a sentiment of fear than because they are habituated to. evoked by Peter the Great. Ellis. and forcing Kamran to pay tribute. hoping by that means to make her consume with greater rapidity the immense resources at her command. EUlis is succeeded by Mr. but it should be said that immediately the subject was made known to the Russian Government it met with its eager support and encouragement. It has been already remarked that the idea of laying siege to Herat for the purpose of eflFectually putting a stop to the incursions of the Heratees on the Persian territory. CHAPTER XVI. had taken in connexion Chap. RELATIVE TO THE SIEGE OF HERAT. at once informed his government of the fact by pointing out the active part which the Russian minister in Persia. or love. XVI. At that time the Russians were contented with the possessions which they held in Asia. XVI. but because she cTer obeys that spirit of forecast. First diplomatic discuasions relative to the siege of Herat — Mr. as clevet politicians. but they could not. to extend her influence in the direction of the Indus. her rule. see without jealousy the successive invasions of England . then British minister at the court of Teheran. as she did not long ago to the banks of the Bosphorus at Constantinople. M'Keil — The Persians invade the principality of Herat — The mimster of the Shah plays a double game — Captain Eldred Pottinger at Hent — Russian officers in the Persian camp — Samsoun Khan — Colonel Blarembeiig — General Boroflski — Colonel Semineau — Siege of Gorian — Kecrimination against the latter officer — Russian and English agents in the Persian camp — Their hostility agaiiist Colonel Semineau — Operations at the siege of Qorian — Fall of the place — Shere Mohamed Khan — Yar Mohamed's reply to his brother— Duration of the siege. and to irritate the numerous peoples she has subjected.

the unfortiuiate Mr. in the direction of Afghanistan. It was equally useless that. of the complicity manifested by Russia in this war. Mr. The &itish Ambassador danced atttendance in the diplomatic antechamber eighteen months to persuade Lord Palmerston. to be submitted to tlie supervision and control of Russian agents. the Persian Government had refused to allow Major Todd. on the contrary. promising. in the name of his government. This extension will bring Rusoan influence to the very threshold of our Indian Empire . timid anticipations which nothing could justify. Uoiidtt/ has furnished me with Talu- 216 DIPLOMATIC DISCUSSIONS. the officer attached to his misaon. and almost always censured by his chief for the fears which he expressed. our policy for the future should be to consider her not as a barrier which covers India. subsidies of all kinds and even the support of some Russian regiments. able information on facts relating to A. and had driven the Shah to carry on : supported by his government he dared everything. Ellis wrote to his superior thus : — " I have the complete conviction that the English Government cannot permit the extension of the Persian Empire. XVL been during his service in India. Thomas. and perhaps unreasonably. enter into a sincere alliance with England. to be the bearer of his letter io Shah Kamran . Ellis informed his Lordship that. Ellis did not know what part he was to play at Teheran. under the profound impression that he foresaw a very serious misfortune impending over his country. and as Persia will not. and'' he persisted in seeing in the reports of his subordinate at Teheran. only. obliged very frequently to ^^e recourse to his recollection as to what the English policy had * An article from the pen of Mons. and that he was obliged to place it in the hands of the Persian authorities in order that it might reach its destination . or dare not. The minister of Russia. Chap. without placing the interior trauquillity of British India in danger. that each day he hastened forward the preparations as well as the concentration of troops at Teheran. in other words. always advanced boldly in the warlike policy which he counselled. It was in vain Mr. but as the first parallel from whence the asBault will be given. the Foreign Minister of Her Majesty. Left without instructions. and . The British minister further stated that Count Simonitch openly encouraged the war against Herat.with the resolution which had been formed by the Persian monarch. which was evidently undertaken with views hostile to England. in the * Revue des Deux these negotiations. — Ferrier. to enable himself to make a few feeble remonstrances to Mohamed Shah." Lord Palmerstou* was not much moved or affected by this inferination : his policy at that time was not anti-Russian. after having offered his mediation to smooth the misunderstanding existing between the Shah of Persia and the sovereign Prince of Herat.

and to make confidential representations to the Shah's Government on the embarrassment which his inconsiderate aggression against Shah Kamran must expose him to. well known for his hostility to Russia. this cautious policy could not save Lord Palmerston from the consequences of the entanglements which it created for him. fought . respecting whose intentions. and he is recalled without mercy for not having been able to stop events the development of which was owing to the too great confidence of his chief in the assertions of the Russian Government The noble Lord still endeavoured to disguise to himself the check which his policy had inflicted upon English influence in Persia . his Lordship requests Mr. he will see nothing because he is determined to avoid a conflict with Russia. He believes the word of the Cabinet of St Petersburg. he had. In short.his most trifling wishes were accepted as orders by the Court of Teheran. Ellis then has to endiure ail the ill-humour of Lord Palmerston. he had returned to England towards the end of the year 1834. The Prime Minister had been disturbed at a moment when the Russian alliance was without doubt necessary to him. and it was almost by menaces that he replied to the constant demands of the English minister that a good understanding should exist between the two governments upon theaffiiirs of Persia. which his subwdinate had conceived respecting General Simonitch . XVf. Monsieur de Nesselrode denied facts as dear as the sun. not approving of the policy that had been followed by his government in Persia since the accession of Mohamed Shah to the throne. the cause of which his Lordship obstinately refiises to comprehend . The noble Lord. and. nevertheless he subsequently made choice of an energetic man. and for whom European principles disappear before the necessities of the tortuous diplomacy of Asia. Ellis to act in concert with that diplomatist. and he keeps on such good terms with that power as to embolden her to redouble her exertions in encouraging the Shah to seize upon Herat. If Lord Palmereton. However. and yet he doubts more and more the accuracy of the Chap. MR. ELLIS 8UCCEELED BY MR.five years in India or Persia. to fill the post of British minister at the court of Teheran. deceived by Russian duplicity. was hardy enough to make a few weak remonstrances to the cabinet of St Petersburg. Mr. The correspondence of the Foreign Office relative to this affair is nothing more than a series of reproaches upon what Lord Palmerston then denominated chimerical ideas. he has nothing to transmit to Mr. 217 reports of his own minister at Teheran. through the press. pressed by Mr. and he could not make up his mind to open his eyes to an event and give his attention to a subject which took him ^y surprise and deranged his plans. and he finished by being completely the dupe of his own acts. Ellis. After having passed twenty. as a balance. so far as he is concerned. considered it a crime in his minister at Teheran to have seen too well and appreciated too clearly the state of things there. McNeil belonged to that school of diplomatists who are perfectly happy in the midst of agitation. Ellis but timid counsel to assist him in meeting an evil. he is quite satisfied. The far-sighted Mr. M*NEIL.

but nevertheless he preserved it as a last resource in case he should find the Shah intractable in every other way . and in I uf October entered the province of Herat . at length broke in upon his Lordship's mind. and as he was aware that Mr. bad just refused to do so. which Lord Palmerston ought to have adopted fi-om the first. one so simple. Ellis and M'Neil had foreseen occurred . The new Envoy was desired to discourage the ambitious projects of the Shah. the Persians took the field in 1837. certified in his letters to the sincerity of the part played a by Count Simoniteh. demanding that his instructions should be Extended in order that he might have the power of acting with some hope of success. he was to continue a spectator of Russian intrigues without being able to offer one energetic word in opposition to them. Shah had conceived some just apprehensions upon thi: . M'Neil the Shah on hU oion responsibility had led to indecision ai sensation of fear in the council of bis ministers. and to ofier his mediation in arranging the misunderstanding which bad arisen between Persia and Herat . resolute even to temerity. which realization of the promises made eighteen months 1 General Simonitoh also powerfully contributed to devel Persians had waited. EUb. The noble Lord waited with impi tranquillity till reparation should he made by the Persia] ment for conduct with which he was offended. hut in vain. and as Lord Palmerston bad deferred sending his instructions. in short. But Lord Palmerston appeared to send him duplicates of all the replies that 218 THE PERSIANS INVADE HERAT. but it is nei add that the energetic representations which Mr. his envoy found himsel with his hands tied. Ellis. up to this time for ttu intervention promised by Rus^a. M'Nell received the assurance thai declined to make any . stating that there was no necessity for drawing the sword fi'om die scabbard to baj99e the Russian intrigues at Teheran. and he endeavoured to maintain a peace which t seemed little anxious tu preserve. Lord Fahnerston wa fortunate in his appreciation of diplomatic affairs. and the Rns^u diplom had been urged to give a guarantee in writing to the t it would be forthcoming. M*Neil was not more successful than his predecessor. M'Neil was active even to restlessness. for.the question with all the obstinacy inherent in the English chamcter. and complained to his government with as miich force as perspicuity. His Lordship coul make up his mind to take the initiative in a vigorous op] llusaia. his instructions were ^ilar to those which had been given to Mr. Mr. to the ever active manceuvres of R the determination of the Shah to seize Herat That which Messrs. This view of the subject. and this a moment when Mr. < be had formerly given to Mr. that nobleman admitted his bad f own correspondence. that it was only requisite for England to declare distinctly to the Shah her opposition to the war with Herat for that monarch to abstain fi-om carrying on any further the preparations for the expedition.

But the clevemes Simonitoh surmounted this difficulty also. but it might nevertheless become a mediator if requested to do so by both parties. nevertheless it sustained a siege of more than nine months. travelling in the neighbourhood of that city. Captain Pottinger. and was known there only to three merchants of Herat. and that it was with his assistance and advice as well as the eiwouTayement tjiven by tfie Etujlish Government^ that the inhabitants were enabled to hold out for nine months. the English Government should remain neutral. entered it by chance at the moment the siege commenced. and many persons still think so. and he sent Captain Eldred Pottinger to defend Herat. without doubt induced the Governor-General to pay very litde attention to it.which led him for a moment to think of renoundng hi fur he was afraid that his quondam ally would abandon I height of the conflict which the war with Herat mif between himself and England. who were devoted to English interests — Shah Kamran and . XVJ. deceived by his minis-^ tersand generals. Twentyfive days at the utmost ought to have been sufficient to take Herat . who. This resolution of the Vizier is the solution of the enigma which so many persons have attempted. to the great displeasure of Mohamed Sliah. there is exaggeration in these two assertions which I will clear away. were more than sufficient to cause the failure of the enterprise without the addition of bad faith. that the Persian army was accompanied by many Russians. but in vain. as these engagements were never carried out. was ignorant that there were some amongst them who had been gained over to the English party and intended to retreat without having accomplished the projected conquest But the folly and incapacity of the Persian officers in directing the operations of the siege. to discover. and. but the eagerness with which the Russians had advised the Persians to undertake a siege that threatened the dearest interests of England. the city was not taken. uid the Shah field without an afterthought. sent by his Government with a secret mission^ arrived at Herat disguised as a Hindoo physician. an old and obstinate man. We have seen that England up to this time had not failed on her part with respect to that clause . determined to seize upoi tress which he was going to attack. directing as I the opinions of the King. was far from sharing these S" He readily consented that the PersiaD'army should invi but he had secretly decided in his own mind to allow operations to languish until the Russians had fulfilled CuAP. if war broke out between the Persians and the A%hans." The first part of this assertion is not accurate. CAPTAIN POTTINGER AT HERAT. when it marched against Herat. officers and men. In the treaty of 1813 between England and Persia it was stipulated that. as well as the eccentric measures adopted by the prime minister. The Indian newspapers pretended that " this officer. 219 stipulations which their diplomatist had made with him. but his prime minis! Mirza Agassee. and that the place was defended by several English officers . The newspapers assured us at the time.

This w^as the moment chosen by the English officer to SAHSOUN KHAN. in 1839. SamI Khan was much more of a Perdan than a Russian. and they had for the most part arrived in Persia before there was any question of the siege of Herat. travelling * QeDentl of Brigiule. red to pve up these Russian deserters. 221 . in consequence of the representations of British Government. but it should be added that Major Todd and some other officers. lS to the Russian officers. The Shah. but the Emperor Nicholas at that moment visited bis Trans-Caucasian provinces. a very small number of these had been Eergeants corporals. ob well as eubeidiea ill kinds oa the part of his Government. He was the only Engnan who remmned in the place during the whole period ot siege . there was not one in the Peruan army. EUROPEAN OFFICERS IN THE PERSIAN SERVICE. XVI. nearly all of whom were mon soldiers . Besides. of Russian origin. reclaimed and given up to the Emperor of sia. XU r the support of his professional services. 'ieil arrived in their city in March. At the time of the e he commanded the Persian battalion of the Chaldean. and did not mpt to conceal himself any longer. to which were attached seven light hundred Russian deserters. it is reasonable to suppose that the advice of these o%«rs was ulated to strengthen tiie resolution of Yar Mohamed Khan in Jniung the defence. From that moment itain Fottinger resumed bis European uniform. Chap. entered the city on several occasions with a flag of truce. could not be lidered such . aud. and Nestorian Christians. and that event led to a new conflict between Russia and iia. as all e who knew him could aver. [These rters were. but such was still the discretion of the chicfe Herat that the inhabitants were actually not aware that the «nded Hindoo physician was an English ofiScer. This offer accepted with joy. on the ground of the duties of hospitality. for rank in the Russian army had never been higher than that quartermaster sergeant* of dragoons. lenian. to assist the Shah iiran in making a atand against the Fergus.his vizier did not hear of his arrival until the army invested the place. his military knowledge too mediocre to influence the operations of the Persians. 1838. until Mr. y Chap. be had resided in Persia for many years. who were like himself attached to the Feraan assy. the Sertip* Samsoun Khan. ng refused to take advantage of the amnesties granted by Emperor of Russia to his subjects who were deserters.

advanced to this rank in the Persian army. Cbip. but each of them detached an officer of his legation to the royal camp. and had no military experience whatever .] Nor can it be said that Lieutenant-Colonel Blaremberg. Two other European officers were in the service of the Shah : one of them. in an excellent position to know that. however. too numerous to mention. to compliment his Russian Majesty. his father at Nice. as we shall further on. through the protection given him by the English. if he did not give up the Russian deserters. and their position was simply that of advisers. there was therefore nothing to be done but to yield. carried on an active paper war. and there is nothing astonishing in the fact that the English had great doubts of the Colonel's conduct being disinterested. of the Russian Engineers. The Count Simonitch and Mr. The other was General Semineau. at that time Colonel of Engineers. but courage alone is not sufficient to direct the operations of a siege. serving in the Shah's army as a Frenchman — his mother was French and bom at St. because he performed his duty .indeed as far as Erivan . a Pole and a Russian subject. The English accused General Semineau of serving the interests of Russia. to prepare the way for Rus^an influence in Afghann. who had made himself a reputation for talent in Tartary. he was reported brave. Amongst the Persian nobles. they were. XVI. however. duty is a thing which always comes after personal interest. the heir to the Persian throne should remain an hostage in Russia until he did so . General Boroffski. was attached to the Persian army. In Persia. Count Simonitch then declared to the Shah that. lie spoke with fluency several languages 1 oriental dialects. to wliom . Tropez. It is true that these two superior officers were actively mixed up in the affairs of Herat. by name Vikovitch. and an old officer of the Empire. taotis with Euccesfi. To the first was attached an officer of cavalry of the same nation. M*Neil had remained at Teheran. The Russian dragoman Goutt. this officer was on the very worst terms with Count Simonitch. — they never ostensibly directed the operations of the siege. and the English Colonel Stoddart. a Sardinian subject. when the campaign against Herat commenced. and his government destined him. had. but in a diplomatic sense. and been employed in several COLONEL SEMINEAU. and to this alternative the Shah consented. Nasser £ddin Mirza. for he formed part of the mission of Count Simonitch. and to this place Mohamed Shah sent his eldest son. taking example from their chiefs. but he had never served in any part of Europe.

Great confusion and tumult followed. which brought upon him from the first the jcalou^ I oppostioQ of the Persian officera. '* placing us so close to the poignard of the Afghans . and with them the Russian agent Goutt. and. and formed bis duty before every other consideration. he wishes our throats cut . according as hi^ i happened to be adverse to the policy or proceedings of either. but he continued his examination of place. iigh on terms of good social feeling with men of all parties. ** It is treasonable. I Majesty was obliged to make Colonel Semineau take upon iself the duties of chief of the staff. who were besides ui^ed to loy him by the Russian and English agents. 223 to a short distance from the noide uf the camp. ?he Persian army advanced very slowly upon Herat. and traced a sketch of the plan of attack which he thought it desirable to make. well provided with artillery munitions of war. before repairing to its ulterior destination. his plan of attack. there I not one who was capable of taking up the encamping ground an army. and tumeii le to wage an irregular warfare against the Turcomans. Unfortunately the Persian Goverait lent but too willing an ear to this gossip. he proceeded to make till closer reconnoiseance of the town. neverthe." &c. and every one was on the point of carrying his baggage elsewhere. The mules remained still laden. stating that the Colonel paid received visits to and from Colonel Stoddart. and such weaki annihilated all the good that could result from the active coration of this oflicer in carrying on the stege. who. The Persian chiefs . a fortress garrisoned the troops of Shah Kamran. when the arrival of the Shah put a stop to these irregular proceedings. and was received by a rp fire of musketry. Colonel Semineau ordered the army to imp a gunshot from the fortress on ground sheltered by a ridge hills which covered it at this short distance. Tamoods. it then ibered from 34. : Russian was the first who endeavoured to injure him. While thus employed. f seeking every opportunity of annoying the Colonel. &c. or directing scientifically the operations of the ^ege.000 men. he is sold to the English. this duty having been accomplished. and maledictions without number were hurled at the Colonel.XVI. wheo s proved that Colonel Semineau was a loyal and honest man. fae retirc<l Chap." excliumed the Hussian. and situated thirty-five miles west ierat. when it arrived under the walls of Gorian. and director of the artillery i engineers. Goklans. After having ked out the encampment for each corps. other divisions of the army arrived in succession. in the lion of the Sbah and his minister. which was a great iropriety in the eyes of Count Simonitch.Shah had confided the various commands of his troops. but subsequently. in the middle of a large plain ten miles in width. was loud in his exclamations against the spot he had chosen for the camp. the attaeb le from the opposite side.000 to 35.

and that. il to the ground after having struck the wall. The Colonel's plan of attack presented three points^ on either of which it could be made with a fair hope of prompt success : but the one selected was on the reverse side of the ridge of hills against which the troops were encamped. and when the trenches had arrived at the point at whidi o brigades were to separate. But ibe lussian Sertip. and Karaguzloo. I mention these . These four regiments were the Bahader-hane or grenadiers. being at a distance equal to the point blank fire of one of a pieces." and gave him written orders to the colonels of four battalions to place themselves immediately under the Colonel's command. like himself a deserter the Russian service. fell into ddle of Semineau's division. and saw at a glance that the spot chosen by Semineau was a most favourable one. the Demavend. who was not a little astonished. His plan consisted in dividing his corps into two brt." said the Shah to Semineau. but ^scotheir portion to the besieged by a brisk cannonade. ce methodically and in silence like the Colonel. the shot passed over the town at a conale height. which had been directed by French and English officers. it was necessary that lid acquire greater power in a longer trajet. who were ordered to conduct the other attacks. they were to construct thar rere batteries. under of which their troopa advanced on the open plain. so called irom the district of that name. to the most completely destructive efiect. but the King well knew their ignorance. as the enemy's shot flew over the camp. after taking some precautions. but he had then to avoid a danger which he did not in the least suspect.made their complaints in bitter terms. went to communicate with the soTereign about half an hour after. ignorant of what had taken place. ately determined to remain where he was and batter the an^e it. enabled him to form a correct judgment of the circumstances . and was received by him in his nsually kind manner. who had convinced him that a canuootriking a mark at a short distance would not make a bole. The Persian diiefs. The Persian being badly laid. to the (!^olonel had given tlie command of the second brigade. and on the following night Semineau broke ground and commenced his trenches. then. but the ed Gorians replied with a musketry fire so well kepi up lany of the Persians were soon hori de combat. for his military studies. after having described tbeir curve. and. to attack an angle of the bastion that it was intended ta y . " Well. the Khasseh or guards. The Shah therefore maintained the dispositions made by Semineau. " it is you who shall direct the attack. he proceeded with his les. adviser on this occasion was a gunner. and obey him in everything. did not SIEGE OP GORIAN. Chap. Samsoun Khan. for from thence the ground sloped towards the place. of the tribe of that name. heless. at a good distance from one another. of the grenadier regiment. XT I. These troops were employed in making the gabions and fascines that were necessary. he went himself to the summit of the hills adjoining the camp to ascertain the eligibility of the position. who.

the Serdar Shere lan. leaving to him all the responr of hia conduct As to his own operations. oineau bad not advanced so rapidly with hie trenches. who cere in the prosecution of the war which had been irtaken. . came to the Shah and made his submission . the brother of Yar Mohamed Khan. el Semineau. . and threatened to retire if he persisted in tliis abstiit length acceded to his wishes. who had served in the wars against >een present at different sieges. as the commanders of the other attacks. anxious to see the p a position on the neighbouring heights to have a Semineau obtained the success which from his able le had reason to expect : the great tower at the ay. had never witnessed : this. which were of course knocked pieces by the first fire. English. both on scientific grounds as well as courage. and the ricochet fire would soon have destroyed Mwers. and he was also considered oet experienced generals of Mohamed Shah. 1 to the top of the breach and declared that they it discretion. . and this without losing a single man. hung out a flag of truce near the angle '. after having made reiterated representations . and ader to imagine that of his Persian colleagues. to impede Colonel Semineau. isoun Khau had constructed the embrasures of his battery with loden boxes filled with earth. and Mohamed Shah. officer. not less surprised than the Shah. and.r circumstances. Semineau having given orders to cease firing.r part of the wall which connected tliem one with >hamed Shah. and le disastrous consequences which would follow if the en by assault. irds a result. which a bis. and Samsoun Klian in particular. a the first established their batteries at too great a the pUce . which were on the prolongation of this face . as a Russian deserter. who come town. when he saw the result of the ily to-day that I understand what may he done with The Afghans. at every step. What sd above will give a correct idea of bis capacity. Samsoun Khan. and exclaimed. and to conBtruct a freah battery in the leeo diffuse upon these accessory details of the siege is not that they are of any real importance. he gave notice to the king of the hour at which he pen his fire. but with a view to more satisfactory protrrired after several days' hard work within five-andr the fortress. his casualties soon amounted to forty-five or fifty. hut that ! an idea of the obstacles raised by Persians. constructed upon the ordinary rules of engineering. and ws Y was laid completely open This decided him in oauing iDeau's opinion. only with a view of showing how ignorant the n officers were in general. exerifluence over the troops. he continued inches in order that be might be able to place his guns ou ot he had determined upon at the outset. Two hours after. and ten of his men were killed at d»j. to a certain extent foreign to the subject: of this work.

" He also stated that in persisting in his rcsiEtance he lid only lead to the ruin of his country and great misfortunes himself. I will never bow my head before the Kadjara : I not surrender. a sabre in my hand. 5T1." He kept his word. " It may be very well for you. The lar Shere Mohamcd Khan wrote to his brother irom the camp nfonu him of the reason which had induced him to BuircDder ian. Yar Mohamed. and their army. as long as there ains one cartridge to fire. and advised him not to continue a conflict which the ifficiency of his means of defence would not permit him to long against the Persian army. but for myself. CHAPTER XVII. EABANCB ASD POSITION OF nERAT. If then the fortune of war goes against me. " there is an Euroa officer with it who can in forty-eight hours raze Herat to the und. and one hieatb ife in my body.Herat until the teeth which Abbas Min* 3red to be pulled out of my head at Meshed are replaced. Chap. said he. I shall know bov to ^pe dishonour by dying in the breach. replied. Persian troops occupied Gorian the BBine day. his heroic defence during nine months is one of the finest tary exploits which modern history fiiniishes in Asia. indignant at this Bage. ch was now at liberty to advance to the siege of Herat. airiTed er the walls of that city in the beginning of November. who knew not ho» lie at your post in defence of the fortress which I con&ded to r care. for. that it would therefore be much better for him to iw himself upon the generosity of Mohamed iShah and open to the gates of the city. d podtkni of ths city — It* fortificatioaB uid on I OD the suburb* — Colonel SeminaBu's' plu of iraiuu — TTDderhuid intrigues and scoentridties US adopted bj him to pr«Teat suooess — Consi « Penuns — ThB plot is discovered — Monster c 1 of MirzB Naghi — Distinguished conduct of e of Heuhbdee Khan — Colooel Semineau decline s — The A^ihans suiprisa Hadji Kbwi -_ Scarcit] 1 camp — PriTations of the enemy in Herat — 1> [ellal Eddin Mirza and Chems Eddin desert to the I at the Peman camp — ProceedingB of that m . to give such advice."^ TAB MOHAMED.

the ground from the edge of th •y. or Meshed. WSt Tcmnkcnt — His msssengen are arrested — Mr. on which account at different anc«s little bridges have been built. of Herat. XVII. it is onlj iSiTe towers at the angles that cannon ing. are two citadels — Ark Noon he New Citadel. each of a single arch. The height rywhere equal. or Tower of Cinders. filled tbe jh Shah. and it flows out on south side opposite the large tower which forms the angle of place. IB a quadrangle of 3} miles long on tl d rather more on tlie east and west. and above all fir. WTien Persians firet arrived before Herat the immediate neighbourd was well wooded — ao immense number of vines and vast atations of poplar. n camp — He leares for Tauiis. but the average may b< pported on the inside by counterforts of n a taken ibr a distance of 108 yards bey< the construction of this work. is of a und at a depth of from 8 to 10 feet. Iti if all the suburbs were included. water the environs and supply the ditch . which all run east and it. the southern side of the city. s fordable only at a few points. as well as the curtains that conoec ire loopholed for musketry. Chap. part the west of the town beyond the Dervan 1 these suburbs are partially covered wit sd gardens about half a gunshot from ih oDstructed of earth brought from the int it and forms its defence. in a radius of 250 yards. in which re is an enormous round tower. which is four miles ant from the city.ireen the Busmans and the English — Hr. flankt h. es Q 2 FOltTIFlCAlTONS OF HERAT. and Ark Keuheuneh or the Old Citadel — which riy join each other. and on the I been built about 32 feet high. The first commands the second. that then served as the palace . or King's Garden. cypress. for the general inclination of llie und is from north to south. and on this canal are a great number of mills . supplied with water by the Heri-rood. The rampart ] ig hill surrounding the city. and being le exceedingly solid. willow. called Koordj Khakhister. U half a cannon-shot south of the town is a canal with steep iks. supposed to have been &ui at. Streams. There are five gates to the city of Herat To the north of it. and bordered the avenue which ended about a mile thence up to the gate of the city. r the Dervazeh Meiek.

and the attack was indefinite! . of ^ be bad the opportunity of examining with a glass. the Afghans. and traced a plan of attack. but such was his wre' vacilUtion. called Koordj Khodja* Abdul Hamid. and as soon as his troops arrived he commanded them to . Herat is not commanded by any of the hills in the irons. COLONEL SEMINEAU'S PLAN OF ATTACK. at last retr and abandoned the suburbs to the Persians. from minareta of Talleh-biogui. n the summits of which the interior of the town can be seen. Arl did no further seirice for the Serbaz or Persian infantry than I the towers and covered ways. in the evening. having foreseen the attack tbey e now called upon to repel. Colonel Semineau then made a careful reconnoissancc of th< tifications. the front within the towa The thought the plan was an excellent one . the great tower s angle of the city. which he submitted o following morning to the Shah. To do this was not difficult. from which a treble fire of mus proceeded. the smallest tuft of trees. were of which they availed themselves with great readiness. and about 1250 yards from n. Ubo on the north. the smallest piece of wall. which forms a ridge od t side. and the fire from these took the assailants in flank and occasioned them immense However. and so strong were the intrigues of the English j that it was never acted upon. for the sians were ten Umes as numerous as the Afghans. Beyond this hill stands one of the most beautiliil iques ever built in Asia : it is surmounted by nine minarets. on the right bank of the great canal already menled. rises the long hill of Talleh-bingui. 229 opposed the occupation of the suburbs with as much courage a^ obstinacy . Talleh-bingui. feaiing their po would be turned and their communications cut off. as the point on which to make a regular approach. it was necessary to dislodge them from each house in succestioD . In this he indicated. and tbence directed a most murderous fire on their aggressors.st the place on all sides. The first day that the Persians attacked the city the AfgbaiB Chap. that. They had confined themselves to small number in order to economise the provisions they bad 'ed up a long time previously. XVil. which is used for a cemetery. their ardour was not abated. its distance from it is about the longest range of a twelvender. parallel to the walls. is the hest lohamed Shah pitched his camp about a mile and a half southt of the city. aud such was the pre they made. who bad f 4000 men to defend it.he Shah Kamran. The Afghans had a few pieces of heavy calibre ' they had placed on the large towers. who immedi Eurrounded the city and took up a position wherever an ineqi io the ground presented itself to shelter them from the uni nipted fire which proceeded from the ramparts.

to take the city in eight days. an old Mollah. was to prolong it till the diplomatic struggle in 1 be had. On ther hand. XTII. ed. as each would derive ham his own deeds the honour that would attach to i indeed were the consequences of these incredible arrange): everything in the trenches was done at random. the great advantage of exit and entrance having been I them by their enemies. men were lost lut necessity. Hadji i Agaasee. as e stated. inducted his operations on the side assigned to him. excepting it might be said they agreed on one point only. who till then could not 1 or out of the city excepting at the gates. and promised. his object. But as the Shah had not at that time been convinced by rguments. and treason was the order of the day. they fought therefore without a purpose . without any regard to acting in concert. the Shah thought he ought not to discourage IS each asserted he was braver and wiser than all the rest. with Russia. lonel Semineau alone was ignorant of these disloyal intrigues. should be ed. for. which all the cannon-balls in the world could not destroyQret operation in each trench was an endeavour to bring down >wer and curtains on the crest of the rampart. and ordered them to tak poeitjons according to their own good pleasure on whatever p they considered most eligible : tliey were also to attack as • Martar-tower.lajed. Hadji Mirza Agasaee committed a thousand extia- . if allowed to act for t selves. they refused { directed by an European. ly to the convenience of the Afghans.orders to )thing . 1 that time they constantly harassed the Per^ans by surprises I points. engaged agidnst England. entirely ignorant of military sdence. therefore they broke the dam and laid it diy. he i each independent in his command. though the operations were thus disjointed and subject to the ce of a score and a half of commanders in the trenches. but the prime minister I means to paralyze his best measures by giring him as jutors Persian officers who did not execute his orden. which were masked. artillery played without judgment on the whole circumference ! place. before they [ht of how they were to pass the ditch : to effect the latter purthe Persian generals could devise no brighter scheme than g off the water . to : the greatest possible noiae without arriving at any result. the Gate andahar. namely. and pressed his generals to take the town as quickly ssihle. which evinced itself by false oaths and hollow prol tJons of devotion. with his habitual resolution. the prime nunister gave them secret counter. and wasted their shot in a point-blank fire against the art. The Shah was afraid of offending the different Persian manders. This emulation among lieutenants. moved by presumptuous vanity. red to himself the chief direction of the »ege . INTRIGUES AND ECCENTKI CITIES Chap.

but it was necessary that a diversion in their fa should be made by the troops in the other trenches. XVII.Qces. His request was granted. they would fill Tolumes — a few only shall be mentiooed. sa. and being < hostile to him. and Hadji Mirza Agassee. tha make a simple trial would only serve to expose them. applied to IHime minister for permission to make an attack that should r< the very heart of the city. Two (»■ three of the commanders m tlie trenches. . but after they had put their troops I that labour the powder requisite to discharge them at . namely. the gallant fellows therefore who made the assault fc tbemselves betrayed. that he had scarcely enough bfmself to defend the king's ci if it should be attacked. STir. coldly added. we shall see later what can be attem] definitively. retire after a slight engagemi be sadsfied with knowing that you have the advantage. OP HADJI MIRZA AOASSEE. Tliis di siw was ostensibly promised to them by lladji Mirza Agai but he secretly forbade those who were to carry it out from d so. The minister remained immoveable in his d( mination. The following will only give a slight idea of his eccentricities . and ha pushed their works with ardour were more prepared to attemp assault. " You must do the jou can. or the cartridges for the guns and musketry were bli This happened several times in tbc trenches commanded Fiince Seifet Dooulet . and this spirited oflicer was obliged to give up cheri^ed hopes of serving his sovereign and distinguishing him From that time the intriguers tempered his zeal by withholi the ammunition and projectiles that were requisite for the i rations he had to conduct . " do not advance too far. it is your affair." said he to priuce. lost heart any future attempt At another time anomunition was wanting at the momcn attack . & Dooulet. but a co tioD was attached to it. that be must trust nothin chance. nevertheless he was not discouraged. Chap. and." In vain the gallant prince represented that Afghans were quite ignorant of the works in bis trenches. were they all Cbap. bad not been &voured with his views. I on the Talleh-bingui. alter having made the necessary arrangements. being sufficiently poverfiil to have oothing to fear from the minister. crushed by the Afghans. thatshi be sufficient for you . and those chiefe who were similarly circumstan cut some thousands of balls out of the ruins of the ma C0K8PIBACY IN HERAT. but make a trial first " If you succeed. more like the lucubrations of a diseased brain than the lal conceptions of the commander of an army. 231 to be cbronicled. and en them to construct other works tbat might completely neutralize efiect of his." Upon receiving this reply.

which plainly showed that he intended lain till tbe next harvest. and he was very indignant with the commander of ihe ry." B same time he by degrees formed a Persian party in tbe who conferred with him. for a as the troope were installed he made each battalion clear a jf ground and sow it. when the treason of Mirza Naghee was de- . everything was agreed upon. but neither was he disposed to abandon tbe siege. but the Persians appeared . The trumpet did sound. and deliver to him all the artilleiy . PROCEEDINGS OF COLONEL SEMINEAU. "cannot you at this piece. which with some difficulty was done. and id that all who were taken prisoners should be put to death : ." he said. Shah Kamran . 233 his own eyes. proposing to admit during the some of tbe king's troops. and the reason he as1 for this strange conduct was that the rebels should hare portunity of escaping. " If I were to be master of the town days. was once heard to say " In Gulistan est. in their stead. few days after the Hadji eaid that they ought to pie Afghans the power to move out . who down upon them and cut them to piecea Hadji Hint lee had himself revealed the whole plot to the Vizier of Shah an! ain : Mohamed Shah bad ordered that a 96-pounder should be pen the spot." In another instance. when beholding the vast space of bloodstained ground. was cast far more for the purpose of terrifying )f destroying the Afghans? tell your men to fire over ihe that will frighten the Shah Kamran. the accomplices in this n saw approaching tbe troops of Yar Mobamed Khan. and. The king had k1 all the gates of the town as soon as he arrived before it. he showed himself far less benevolently inclined I Afghans and their adherents than bis minister was.n commanded that these executions should take place under Chap. XVII. " What a fool you are I" he said to him. and the of the trumpet was to be the signal for the Persians ter the city. and. but when it ounted tbe prime minister discovered tiiat it required too much nition.lemy was deoied these energetic officers. " tliere would be too many of them to punish. and every morning you md a waggon and a few artillerymen round to the other side k up the balls that will have fallen beyond it" IS it will be seen that the prime minister was iu no hurry to ierat." " This is a garden of roses. As long as Mohamed Shah was evailed upon by the Hadji to waive his original ideas of tbe of Herat.

ordered that he should lose his life under the bastinado. gardens. 234 ATTACK OF THE AFGHANS. he entrenched it.* situated at a short distance from the Gate of Kandahar. He had scarcely regained the tomb when a Herculean soldier who had followed him crawled up the breastwork with his sword raised to cleave him to the ground. and recommended him also to warn Mr. and connected it by some small earthworks with an ab-ambar. and for this simple reason — they were most of them his own friends. Once in possession of the Imaum Zadeh.tected. and the enemy crept up to it unperceived. and they prolonged it only to avoid incurring the indignation of that diplomatist Colonel Semineau was no longer an obstacle to the proceedings of the prime minister. and his guilt was proved by an intercepted letter of his to the Shah Kamran. in which he informed the Afghan prince of what was doing in the Persian camp. f Reservoir of water. and for a considerable space covered with burial-grounds. XVII. The day after that on which the place was invested the Colonel advanced. Chap. and favoured an attack that 2000 Afghans moving silently out of the town attempted against it The Imaum Zadeh was at the time bat imperfectly protected by a slight earthwork scarcely finished. and. and finally succeeded in his object But both the one and the other stood so much in awe of General Simonitch that they concealed from him the little inclination they had to continue this war with the Afghans. * Saint*s tomb. to an Imaiun Zadeh. This brought him so near the gate of the town as to give rise to a hope that some lucky chance or clever <^cnfp de main might one day or other put the place in his hands. but before he could do so he fell by . and. with 200 recruits who had arrived in camp the evening before. had be been at all supported in his plans. and that his body should be exposed on a gibbet before the ramparts of the city. The Shah sent immediately for the criminal. The prime minister was well aware that his sovereign would have more than enough to do to annihilate all the traitors in his camp. he had by a series of intrigues forced him to abstain from taking further part m the active operations. M'Neil to hasten his arrival. and there took up his position. until noticed by Colonel Semineau himself. he determined to induce the Shah to participate in his views. perfectly regardless of the entreaties of the Hadji. who was returning from an inspection of his worfa. if he wished to prevent the fall of the town. that would have happened. the ground about it was undulating and very much hrokto. shortly after the arrival of the array. That officer was in a high position at court. for. and the ruins of houses and out-buildings.-|. the same sayage feeling was manifested. The first night he held this post was exceedingly dark. from that moment.situated about 11 yards lu front of his position.

conjuring them to stand. Meuhbalee Khan. would have beei^ massacred without dealing a blow even in self-defence. with orders to support the Colonel. and but for the energetic conduct of their commander. They could not return the fire because they had only their sabres with them. they fell short amongst the Afghans. an acknowledgment of the royal appreciation of his services. as soon as he heard the firing made all his preparations to escape in case the enemy should reach his position . when he heard that the men whom he had abandoned had been victorious in the struggle. seeing they were discovered by this rash action of their comrade. and after four hours' hard fighting. who was posted 200 yards in rear of the Imaum Zadeh with 300 men. COWAKDICE OF MEUHBALEE KEAN. they retired into the city. as they gained the top.a ball from the Colonel's pbtol. without even naming the brave Semineau. he could not believe it^ and gave as an excnse for his inaction that he did not consider himself in sufficient strength to advance to their assistance. presented the Colonel with a watch set in jewels. and consequently rendered them visible to the Persians. and gave hia sovereign a most flowery description of the courage he had displayed in the defence of the Imaum Zadeh. that he believed they were all killed. but these never reached the Imaum Zadeh . XVU. and. enlightened by more truthful informers. though the stupidity and clumsiness of the Afghans assisted them m no slight degree. A Persian proverb says. but the next morning. The truth was that this inaction fell in with the views of the prime minister as well as of this coward. which they had every inclination not to do. which restored their courage. Notwithstanding the flagrant falsehood in which this craven Meuhbalee . instead of executing the duty assigned to him. stood astounded at' being thus assailed by at least twice their number. A Persian Sertip. which is in Persia considered as equivalent to receiving a decoration. but the monarch. When they had repulsed their enemies with the bayonet. and still held k Chap. at once rushed towards the work. and a relation of the prime minister. he hurried with his feigned wound into the presence of Mohamed Shah. 235 the post intrusted to them. the Colonel placed them round the breastwork. and consequently that it was useless to try to help them. and therefore fell by hundreds on the work . The Afghans." and Meuhbalee Khan remembered it : hastily wrapping a handkerchief round one hand. would certainly have remained masters of it if Semineau had lost his coolness for a moment His recruits. under fire for the first time. The besieged threw fire-balls from the town to guide their party. annoyed as tiiey were by a well-sustained fire from the walls. seeing that it was impossible to overcome the resistance maintained by the little garrison. " It is not always those who sow the com who reap the crop. by whose bullets they were cruelly decimated.

ceased to take any part in the siege. who well knew the cowardice. and was perfectly murderous. His minister directed his conduct as he pleased. but that it had never been possible for them to escape from the city till then. the Khan allowed the Afghans to take the works constructed with so much ^nble and defended at such a cost of life. charge a whole corps of Persian infantry. harassed without intermission by sorties of this description. The neighbourhood of Herat liad supplied the bazaars of the camp very well for three or four months^ and these resources would have lasted three times as long if they had been properly managed . XVII. . this brave soldier hesitated iM)t to tell him his opinion. he yielded to the desire of the Hadji. and retired to his tent in disgust. a captain of artillery. sometimes a detachment would fight till the death of the last man amongst them: theirs was always band-to-band work with the sabre. and with the aid of 200 of their countryroeD. and treachery of the Sertip : in an evil moment. made a frightful carnage. when he waited upon the Shah. after which they retired with one prisoner. however. the Hadji insisted upon his remaining the colleague of Cblonel Semineau in the intrenchments in front of the Kandahar Gate. Nevertheless. a result which jierfectly fell in with the schemes of Hadji AgasEee. The weak-minded monarch bent his head and reflected . The too confiding Sertip allowed them to remain with his own meo. never had a moment's repose : it maintained itself with difficulty. the Sertip Hadji Khan. Chap. and knew how to remove from his mind the most unfavoiu'able impressions regarding himself. and carried off two giiD& Their commander. ignorance. and often intercepted by parties of Afghans who scoured the surrounding country. to the great annoyance of that officer. From that 'moment Semineau. assuring him that they had always been on the side of Mohamed Shah. for a few days after. for the provisions were brought from a great distance. who till then had constantly struggled against the cowardice and treachery of others.Khan was thus detected. who had followed them and crept up the hills to the works. who liesought him to grant them hospitality. and 236 THE AFGHANS SURPRISE HADJI KHAN. The Afghans distinguished themselves daily by the most daring attacks upon the besiegers : sometimes a handful of horsemen would issue from the town. in his absence. and point out to him that he was betrayed. and at midnight they sprung upon the piled arms of the soldiers sleeping beside them. never retire without making many prisoners or committing great slaughter . decamping with the men under his orders. killed 400 of their men. but never profited by the information and advice ^ven to him. had very impnldeotly at nightfall of the previous day admitted within his lines 100 Afghans. and the two guns that he commanded. The Persian army. One day they surprised two battalions of Chaghaghis posted on the Tallebbingui. and very unfortunately. but they were wasted and misused.

which was very brackish. Yar Mohamed filled up his ranks with tradesmen and workmen. The water in the canals which supplied the city having been turned off by the Persians. it was necessary to have recourse to that in the tanks. and the population was dreadfully reduced by hunger. and who affected to act in the name of the Shah Kamran. and seek for wild roots to satisfy their hunger. in which they were great adepts. They were in want of the first necessaries of life— salt was sold at 20^. but the chiefs. By marauding. The beleaguered city was in no better condition . of which they made coarse bread. were reduced to half that number in the first month of the operations. ordered some to be made. The original defenders of the city. were immoveable in their resolution . asses. but. an ounce . and mosques were crowded with sufferers imploring the pity of the serdars as they went by. Yar Mohamed placed sentries on all the cisterns that were supplied by springs. as from their losses in action. could only encourage them by words and their own stern resignation. and begging for food. Those who were for defending the place to the last extremity. as the Afghans are nearly all soldiers by birth. and tried frequently to give the city up to the besiegers . his cousin the Serdar Dine Mohamed Khan. so that but a handful of brave Afghans were frequently obliged to repel the attacks from the enemy outside the walls. 237 being supplied firom the outside of the town were soon dried up. had been consumed.and it was not long before the half-famished soldiers of Mohamed Shah were reduced to browse upon clover. mules. the horses. reduced to extremity themselves. and also insufficient. at the head of whom were the Vizier. X7IL DISTRESS IN HERAT. but either the materials were bad or the workmen ignorant. The bazaars. To all these horrors was at length superadded the failure of ammunition. owing as much to the defections produced by the intrigues of the Russians and Persians. they sometimes managed to procure a little com or barley. but this contest was of . it was true. and the water that rose in them was parsimoniously dealt out to the people every twenty-four hours. the Afghans felt the miseries of famine even in a worse degree than their enemies. were daily intriguing. and Captain Pottinger. for the powder burned in the cannon and left the ball as it was put in. and even animals reckoned unclean by Mussulmans. for most of them i Chap. and ate it ravenously half baked. but those who were for submitting. public squares. to prove their misery they laid out before them the corpses of their townsmen who had died of hunger. and this added one more to the terrible sufferings of the inhabitants. who amoimted at the beginning of the siege to 4000. and those from their countrymen within as well . Yar Mohamed Khan. camels.

for the traitors. but at last he was obliged to believe it Learning that the siege had commenced. the latter of Funrah. McNeil had remained at Teheran after the departure of the Shah for Herat. but he provided himself with a very indirect one from the Governor-General of India. M'NEIL IN THE PERSIAN CAMP. and continuing their rank in the Persian army when they followed him in his retreat It has been stated that General Simonitch and Mr. the former was governor of 1 238 MR. 1838. took refuge in the camp of Mohamed Shah. he attacked the question cf the retreat afresh with his usual tenacity. ^ In the present state of his finances. seeing the fruitlessness of their disloyalty. This welcome addition to his forces saved the king from the necessity of raising the siege so soon as from the utteily destitute state of his army he must otherwise have done. the maternal uncle of Mohamed Shah. under the walls of Herat. with the exception of their nominal chief Shah Kamran. were attached to the Persiaii party. would hare daunted any less hardened diplomatist than himself. a son. and used all the arguments that diplomacy or even threats could furnish to induce the . fortified places south of Herat They had brought with them 1000 Popokyes and Noorzyes." he said. The coldness of his reception. He had. no order from his government to authorize his taking this journey. he became so alarmed that he determined to visit the royal camp himself. XVEL Subzawar. though Yar Mohamed treated him with external respect. of the Shah Kamran . and the useless efforts of his agent Colonel Stoddart to induce the Shah to retire. Chap. and he afterwards proved his gratitude to these chie& by bestowing lucrative grants upon all. it was long since he had paid the least regard to his commands. even aft. he ceased not to urge the surrender of the place. who were a valuable reinforcement to the Persians . and he persisted against them so far as to doubt that Herat was attacked. but which he had constantly assured the Persians would never happen. Amongst the Afghans who had joined the Persian army were I)jelat Eddin Mirza. the latter greatly distressed at an event which he had long before announced by anticipation to his own government. where he could get drunk at his ease . '^ the Shah will never get 10. a brother-in-law. but. and the displeasure evident in the king's countenance.short duration. and that the place wa£ on the point of being taken in spite of his intrigues amongst the Persian chiefs.er the arrival of the army under its walls. it is true. but in spite of the insufficiency of his instructions. by the dever policy of Assaf Dooulet. and the Serdar Chems Eddin Khan. who was imprisoned and closely watched in the citadel. also 2000 Hazarak of Kalehuoon.000 men together to take into the field/' The facts had not justified his predictions. and arrived on the 8th of March. who.

but the Shah excused himself as he did to Mr. Petersburg. I hare only added circumstances that had been forgotten — for the asperity of his opinions I leave Mons. its length hsa obliged me to make a close abridgment of a portion . Chap. timidly it is true. namely. changing the concessions of both parties . XYIL . informatioa which. if he bad known he ' running the risk of loslug the friendship of the British Govt ment. Thomas respoauble. XTII. to address fresh reproofs to his agent. but when went into Herat he was always carefiil to take with him Mi D'Arcy Todd of the artillery.Shah to retire. from the city to the camp. and Great Britain. still he demanded. "pressed and menaced. he is afraid of giving umbrage to the Rusa Goremment by abandoning the place . ' Simple a propos de I'Histoire Diplomatique. but that has not prevented me from consulting it . the British Ambassador at St. to support 1 against Russia.* whidi has been my guide in all that concerns the negociations Uiat took place between Russia. M'Neil. The following extracts are from the work of M. by dint of perseverance i parley. Alexandre Thomas. for he demanded. M'Neil that the general offended at hb bad opinion of bim. carryi dictating. and that Count Simonitcb never given any sucli adrice to the ^lab as that which had b attributed to him. if Mr. 239 work is exceedingly dry. recommended him to be Euspidous for the future. when the Russian Ambassador reached the 1 sian camp . Durham. which I shall give nearly rerbadm. he would deast at once : he must al lutely be so spoken to. enclosing an extract from one from I. This excellent Cair. HIS PROCEEDINGS. "Mr. in order that he might assist Capl Fottinger with his advice. Persia. and to live on good terms with cuUeague . instead of extinguishing. and to the extracts. he would not have gone so far . therefore. and also that of the Russian deser employed in the army of the Persian sovereign . a despatch also arrived from Lord Palmerston da February 12. in which it stated that ' Count Neeseh^de said that he was convinced that minister had been misinformed. so treated by Great Britain. only ad 240 PROCEEDINGS OF MR. M'Neil was ii position to inform him that if be did not at once desist he wo be attacked by the British. MCNEIL. Ellis—' he is Dot a free agent. from M. but without success.* " Mr. de Nesselrode the recall of Cc iiinionltcb from Teheran. to seize Herat' Lord Palmen proceeded." says this author. 1838. the British Envoy had succeeded in settling the preli nariea of peace. this Dot prevent him from writing to Mr. tho it appeared that bis lordship was not entirely conrinccd by I Durham's assertion. however. However. M'Neil did his best and gained time : he went from beaegers to the besieged.

but be only sent the letters to the British envoy. and which only produce vexatious results. which for ♦ Despatch. and retire without having even officially opened any discussion touching upon Russian intrigues. while Mr. if British India. and insisted upon an apology from the prime minister . Mr. M*Neil lost all his. but Mr. He did break them.fuel to the fire. annoyances and aflbnts of all kinds were put upon the English . Its first effect was to break off the preliminaries of peace to which the British envoy had brought both parties to consent . March 10. it seemed to reduce the pacific conclusion of the whole affair to the secondary question of a good understanding between the two diplomatists. the Persian monarch had perhaps a ri^ht to be more indignant at this than he was. M*Neil continued to have secret correspondence with the besieged. McNeil had then nothing more to say .* He was almost driven to the last extremity — he ought to break all diplomatic relations with the Shah. and begged him not to expose himself to have others intercepted. for it contained not a word about Herat — no notice whatever of Russia . exacted the withdrawal of all the English ofiicers in the service of the Shah . just when Mr. Mr. and he adopted the refusal as the basis of his rupture with the Persian Government Without taking into account the continued hostility of Russia. and by one of those unhappy coincideDces to which Lord Palmerston always exposes himself by his consideration for doubtful friends. and the second was immediately to restore to Count Simonitch his influence in the councils of the Shah. '^ Mr. and finding that Qt only in conse<)uence an Qovemment not to »8e of itB pereeverance :amp which I felt was . Russia. Probably few sovereigns would have shown more moderation on such an occasion. leaus I could devise to e reparation and satisnger. This letter from Lord Palmerston deprived him of all power of action. M'Neil had received the order to leave them at the disposition of the Shah as long as he was not obliged to quit the Persian territory himself. and a courier with some despatches addressed to him was arrested by the Persian videttes . 1838. who recalled her deserters. and retired for a doubtful and almost insignificant affix)nt from the Persian court Notwithstanding the strict orders of Mohamed Shah that no one should have any communication with Herat. M'Neil considered himself aflronted by this act. the British officers were requested to withdraw from the camp before Herat. his credit fell rapidly when it was seen that he was not supported . 1838. June 25. which he looked upon as an infringement of his rights. bie rupture with tbat Mdhtd. this was refused.

and left for Tauriz. and it raise the siege. p Mr. Chap.' " THE ENGLISH OCCL"PT KARRACK. 1838. the iBsador struck his tents. to le 1 1th April. is in my opinion estore ub to our former credit or respectability. M'NEIL. and that Russia. and . i his adherents to induce them to renounce thdr rrendering the place. M'Neil obtained make a last attempt at le Afghans . fitr et to any one that tbe British GoTernment has been prevent its fall. Govemormed him of the rupture Bsing Afghanistan the lund his Lordship. Shah's camp saw with g a British mission as who ventured to hold i some of the members eatened to get punished y visited at my tent. he wrote as follows : ' The questioD :ms therefore to he the question of all Afghanistan. on the cootraiy." Thus was arrested the progress of an evil wluch it have proved immense. he passed ng bis promise. XVni. the d Auckland. On the re^isal of the Shah. it was lake presents to Shah DEPARTURE OF MR. ng discovered. where he lait for further iriBtructions from his Government. STU. " bad not reached Tauriz when he received from Lord lerston a reply to one of hia despatches.' I quitted the camp. has lus to see it in the bands of Ferma. "Mr. Cbap. M'Neil. who of the letters placed in they were tbc cause of B following year. The next day he went to the )ld him that the Heratees wouldnothearof peace. always been received according to the dictates of the laws of itality. anterior to that in b be had announced his rupture with the Persian Govenuuenl." says Monsieur nas. 13 after having stretched bis patience to the very atmost.the estimation both of and I am now ou my lOpe to receive further .t course the Persian iome public act of rePersia and of Central suited.

and English pride is not so hasty as to be unable isign itself. Mr. anned tlie last despatch that he had received. and that. ' that the British Government perceived in tliis dition a hostility entirely incompatihle with the spirit of tlie ice entered into between Persia and Great Britain. whose incognito.amp of Mohamed Shah. to a cold-blooded policy. but the power came too late. she dealt a side blow. but she 1 hardly attack the source without creating a fi'esh complin of interests. as if to and disconcert those who would be tempted to try to profit by manceuvres. M'Neil. As soon as Mr. was perfectly at liberty t or threaten as he pleased. tlioogh loosely kept. M'Neil received this intelce he sent Colonel Stoddart. as ihe rtunity was lost. infonning that sovereign that Great lin bad determined to arrest his projects of conquest in lanistan. has been stated that when the Persian army marched iron ran it was accompanied by a Russian officer named Vikoviteb. However that might be. if he did not immediately raise the siege of it. 'The Shah should have been told from the beginning.' said 1 Palmerston. 11 tl witl ihai ing fon ed of ■be . she respected. as the bearer of an ultimatiun. the rupture with Mohamed Shah wa« ilete. having had numerous audieuces of Che and his prime minister : very soon after he reached Kandahar. ifuitted it at Nishapoor.' At the same time an English fleet sent by the Indian Govern. the taking of Karrack by the English would be followed by er and more significant acts of hostility on their part" igland was not ignorant whence this injury proceeded. when desirable. and in his reply the British Envoy could only infonn Palmerston of the extent of the mischief. disembarked on tlie coast of Persia. that the British Agent received from his Lordship Krmission to act energetically in the name of Great Britain. Not \g to go direct to the Russian Court.I there was not the least hope of gaining his point by wisdom firmness. and took possesion of sland of Kairack. to .

that. as a fatal snare which Peraa mistrust for her own sake and in her own interest. le Shah is occupied in subverting those intervening states n Persia and India which might prove additiona] barriers of e for the British poBsessions. and as he has thought fit to enter course of proceeding wholly at variance with the spirit and of the above-mentioned treaty. Thomas. if not absolutely hostile. but a perfect right of intervention. M'Neil. at Britain. as he had ^ at the commencement. and that in these operations be enly connected himself with an European power for purposes Uy unfriendly. he discovered treaty of 1814. " replied to f'Neil on the 27th July." says Mons. it appears. " an useless effort be extremities to which he had been reduced with Persia. Thomas. i and without result. and that ^rsian Government should co-operate with that of Great 1 in defending British India.' ardship went further even than he had ever done before. not a reason for political inaction. whereas the spint and pin^rt of iaty between Persia and Great Britain is that Persia should efensive barrier for the British possessions in India. the English nment would not interfere on either side. July 27th.' Iiis was a great effort. ' If war. and.n Office. XVHI. but disturbed and threatened her empire in the »rd Palmerstoo." observes Mons. unless its pacific :ion should be solicited by both the contending parties. dated . to British intCTests. such mea- . and wishing to ward off perils. without reference to that treaty. Great Britain will feel bei^ liberty to adopt.o the Shah of Persia. on the contraiy. is what the terms of the treaty most po^tively deny : nothing e more clear. 1838.' it is said therein. ' should be sd between the Afghans and the Persians. nder these circumstances. as well as the embarrassments pointed out bj hii he at last gave up the reserve and teraponsing with which that period he had acted towards Persia. be loudly imed that ' the suggestions of Russia were antagonistic to the and prosperity of Great Britain. intent with pointing out Russian influence as a permanent ingbloclc in the way of Persia.! f< «tl] DECLARATION OF LORD PALMEBSTON. if it did not bear upon a point other bat on which it seemed to be directed. Cnip." The following is an t fixim Lord Palmerston's despatch to Mr. 1838:— "I have to instruct yon to .

Chap.- CONDUCT OF HADJI MIRZA. It was i uon caused by i . It ated ever aince the i jinet of London bi that of Teberui t Ireat BrituD had enraged to fumiih. and . and. bei 3 prisoner by th( leir service. itection of the 1 it then wished Jiis after having became necesear lad fallen by ac< lit was to be pe ness with vhich d was bitterly n listan as by a th pped by the im . who. was devoted ti: natian. who entertmned . M'Ni his govemmeo M^eeded in obta le Persian Com than ever.THE PEKSIAN ( stB and the secu Tbomas. which had a certain t upon the weak but goodnatured monarch. XVIU. was thought pr o vhat tliis new i to leave Tehera >yal camp. "had when it might md now that it i lin it. ted the Persian King with rough respect. inister had beei the Bnseian gn ir as Mr. not agtuDst Rui againBt Pema.

iling to his officers. the order wa£ immeely given to commence the attack upon the angle of Ehodja . [adji Mirza Agassee. " why should I exposea I'd of innocent people to perish for the fault of one individual ? — of Yar Mohamed Khan. amusing themselves with tiie women. according to the rules of war . but never received autho* to put into execution. Tlie General then desired Lieulcnsnt- SIEGE OPERATIONS KEKEWED. and as nothing more was wantingto ice the council to hold the eame opinion. and after having been sharply rebuked by the iian ambassador for all the deception that had been prac[ from the commencement of the siege. it would be impossible for to keep Herat with Persian soldiers. instead of paying me the tribute .ed him to hold himselfaloof after the first few days of the siege . He not conceal the vexation he felt even to General Simonitch. ammunition. le same time he submitted to him the plan of attack which be liad ented to the Shah seven months before. will come : some day and cut their throats. I represented to him that it would be folly Eicritice the public iDterest for the sake of individuals." ut General Simonitch was not to be impeded by this obstiI old man. who ought ave the honour of the victory. He immediately sent for Colonel Semineau. 3 advice pleased the King . without that circumstance in the t detracting from the glory that would belong to the geneiali. thus thwarted in hia scheme of retreating. for they have never anything to lose. ted himself as much as possible to get these orders revoked. He then tried to paralyse their effect by manifest ill-<rill in ishing the materials. but ain. you have not given the material support that you promised . whose bagi is light enough. thai 1 corps would take its turn in the trenches that I intended to 3. and who lorized all the pillage that has been committed by the Afghans 1 the Persian merchants. expldned his opinion to him very categorically. The Afghans. who takes all the revenues of the ince for his own profit. who the lent they are masters of the place will think only of eating pillau. whose ghtforward conduct had woo his esteem. Chap. The Colonel exculpated himself by showing OB not hia fault. and in some degree oached him for the tardy manner in which the operations ) conducted. and that in point of fact the could only be taken in the name of Mohamed Sliah.jecies of veneration for all those who had served under Emperor . And then. Besides. XVm. idle gluttons. as treachery and the general ill-feeling had 3. on the contrary. which ruins the country and tea difficulties with England. the Shah ordered the is of his army to act henceforth in conformity with the instiuci of the Russian minister. and stores requisite for the ts necessitated by the new arrangements that were adopted. " Why should ke Herat ? " he said to the dragoman . yon i taken away the Russian deserters : all this ought to induce Shah to raise this unhappy siege.

by tlie ur of the graas withered above them. The messengers :nt into the camp. which I raised to the height of 32^ . and fascines. and as be knew iull veil . which they had made in tae 1. which would have occupied several days. the iians had done the same . in the middle of a most difficult work. I placed in battery eight i2-pomider8 on each earaand made the embrasures 6 portth-e. palisades. of the four alions that ought to have marched. one . But unfortunately. ssing had been the demands. The Afghans had made eries mih fougaisei to defend the approaches. the former therefore were far from losing that this would be the moment selected for the attack. the Shah sent for me commanded me to throw a bridge over a ravine twenty miles a the camp. being his countrymen. Chap. A capotiiire. It was well len. from which they jd to obtain great results . this height was not sufficieot to enfilade tbe second covered .lul Ilamid under my direction in chief. the Karaguzloo. but one of our batteries had a plunging fire into the first and ditch. and ng my absence my trenches must Deccessarlly have been it andstill. using only ions. it was not difficult to discover. the direction they haa □ to their mines. and n was the hour appointed for storming the place. the entreaties of these devoted I for ammunition. would stir a foot.* and. Makooees. habitually gave up w hours to repoae in the middle of the day. IVDI. I opened my first trench at the farthest mine of the Meuhelle bba. and yet seven rounds per man was all prime minigter would grant them . the other battalions. but as these underground works W t eicecuted some time. till then. For example. and it was entirely owing to the determination of General onitch that I could partly surmount them. enabled the enemy to coniiDUiucite * Arab qu*rt«r. the 24th of July. one only. n THE ASSAULT. But I bad yet to >unter many a spiteful impediment in the construction of mj ches. for the Afghans.— as indeed a complete surprise. and in sight of my battery. to procure what I le- . and it was not till CTerygwas complete that I worked from this point to reach the edge he ditch of the angle attacked. that reduced by its losses to 400 men. having arrived within 437 yards of the edge of tbe ] ditcli. luse a happy conjunction of them ]vx)mised in&llible suncees. assault should be made on the following day. Happily Lieutenant-Colonel Blaremberg previuled a the King to revoke this order. I constructed large and spacious cavaliers. one after another. [Resequence four battalions were told off for the assault. appeared at the breaii. as well as along those of the secooA Ted way. and. he gave but four to each serbaz. overcome by the heat. From the cavaliers I had a good view of the prolongalion le curtains in the enceinte.

ed, always returned with a vague answer, and, in short, it impossible for mc to obtain anything. On the other hand, tlie rip Hadji Khan, who had behaved so ill some months before ? the Imaum Zadeh, and who had received orders to hold his ade in reserve to support, if necessary, the storming party, ffent uite a different direction, and attacked another part of the city, he hope of having the credit of taking it But this absurd Tsion injured far more than it contributed to the success of the rprise. The 400 serhaz who threw themselves into the breacif kly disposed of the guard in the covered ways ; they were lialf ep, and a crowd of their comrades, who rushed to their assst;, were swept away by our batteries, which then crossed their behind the point of attack. This brave band of Karaguiloos led the Persian colours to the very crest of the breach, and had courage and constancy there to maintain themselves for hours, ing for ammunition, in the mean time using their hajoneB, ts, and stones, to keep off the Afghans, who in ver^- superior ibers 6red on them in front and flank. The science of the ineer, and the devotion of the soldier, could avail nothing in I a position. The Afghan serdar Dine Mohamed Khan, who manded the defence, fought like a hero. With his pistol he at his feet the brave Nabee Khan, chief of the Kara.008, whose courage and loyalty merited a better fate, and

I THE PERSIANS REPULSED. Chap. XVIH. I saw him fall mortall; wounded ; I have always thought, from directiou the boll took, that it came from a Peman musket ; I can state as much with regard to myself, for I was hit in the ilder by a ball from behiod me as I faced the rampart The unhappy serbaz, who were as much disappointed at thit 1 misfortune, and as heartily enraged with their chiefs, as I wnc, ressed them in the most insulting terms, but tbey were at last ^ed, to their bitter regret, to abandon the breach they bad a) intly stormed and held for five mortal hours ; they slowly red the bugle that sounded the retij^t, and, mutilated u ' were, the shattered surrivors of this heroic battalion retired I mournful steps to their encampment After hanng mted tbe ister to report to him the result of tbe operationa, and re[HOSch with his disloyal conduct, I, like those brave men, shut mywlf in my t£nt, and I determined to KDounce the Persian serrice ever, and even my arrears of pay. I told Hadji Mirza tbstl lid resign, but the Shah, always kind and conaderate to me, ised me so much not to do so that I yielded to his persaas ; and as soon as he had obtained my promise to that e^ct, lent me the brevet of General and the r»l ribbon of the order :ie Lion and the Sun." leneral Semineau, having been in entjre ignorance of everylhiDg passed, had acted with his accustomed loyalty of character, and ^ially regretted that he had been refused the three days to cany fforks to the crest of the breach , for then treason itself could not e prevented him ftxim taking this important place. Undercom be nid de pie crowning the culminating point of tbe attack, be Id have established one or two pieces of cannon in battery, the

of which would have protected the troops in their descent into town ; this would not have been easy, because the interior side be epaulement was raised to the height of nineteen to twenty-tiro h pie, and supported by bnckwork which served as a couater. At the top of the epaulement was a banquette on which two 1 would have difficulty in walking abreast, and the Fersian fol-s in following this must have been under the murderous 6Fe of besieged from the surrounding houses, before tliey could get lo rampe which led into the city : all therefore was not done m the breach was gained. General Semineau, who devoted self solely to his profesaon of engineer, and interfered not in

ait was matum th war 2nd Ge Neeaeiro r him, t udes cb gep exp irernmeti himself with BUC obtiUDed Stoddart le Perua OCCOWpt Rufluai id: but

Bry way. >fYar A not imog J adnu sharpest arations mt to tb jdbyQ delay, if succe eacb,wb bed with not igE ry the a ti«ed eye soon perceived that, though made w Bupported : he saw the irresolute battalions q

wbat they ought to do, and could not mistal signa. British policy had once more the uppt "^ottinger had not prejudged the circumstancf

256 THE SIEOE RAISI the retreat of the assailaiita. In this ten women and all the children over ten yet breach to exert their feeble power in aii showered down bricks and clones upon thi had det<!niiined to slay all their women an each other, if the Persians succeeded in ^ Mobamed Shah remaned two month: of Herat after this assault, and in Septei siege and retired to bb capital. Scan when the Russian Goveniraent, not verj obliged bim to pay a fourth part of the e lated in the treaty of Turkomantchai. AVben the Persians retired, Syud Yaya Mobamed Omar Kban, the envoy of Kc Shah to Teheran, while Captun Vikov tbem at the royal camp, followed them tier town of fllerat ; here he turned t having examined in a strategical point passes by Kbaff, Birdjan, Duroo, and Fur There he bad Eeveral audiences of Kohem 5600/. in consideration of an engagement ( to recommence the siege of Herat, wb' Britain bad forced Mobamed Sbab to al the Serdar Mobamed Sedik Khan, the Khan, at the bead of three or four thousand of Herat and commenced hostilities. Ca] forty days at Kandahar, and when he I Teheran great was his astonishment, on a the army of Mobamed Sedik Kban enca unoccupied, except in the appropiiation ■ in the district by carrying fire and swoi had detached a small advanced guard, bi beyond the small town of Subzawar. 1 Vikovitch felt the full importance, brou, between that officer and tbe Afghan serd the prompt execution of the conventio Kohendil Kban, or, in case of further deli tion of tbe 12,000 ducats; but Mobamec indignant "Tbe money you gave mi provide my army with horseshoes. If y<

CHiP.XViri. DISGRACE AND DEATH OF VIKOVITCH. 25' give me as much again." Vikovitch, who knew well that to pa} more waa simply throwing' the money away, decisively rejected thu

proposition, which at one time the serdar seemed inclined t( enforce, and not by words only. lie even thought of plundering the Bue^an officer, and would perhaps have proceeded to persona mlence, had he not been restrained by the fear that the Sttai might make some retaliation upon Mohamed Omar Khan, then a big court OD a mission to that sovereign. These facts were toU me by the ruffian himself. Mobamed Sedik hesitated not to abandon the project of seizing Herat, and returned to his father to confer upon the plan foi of^Kkdng the English invasion, then vaguely rumoured in Afghan Jstan. As to Captain Vikovitch, he was obliged to continue hi journey without recovering the 12,000 ducats that were extortei from bim by the Senlars of Kandahar. After having visited thi fortress of Laush Jow^ne and the north of Lake Ruostem, he tool the road by Toon and Tubbus towards Teheran, and very sooi after returned to Russia, where, as the reward of all his exertlonii be found hinself in fatal disgrace. This crying injustice woundei him £0 deeply, that he put a period to his life with his own piste in a. hotel at St. Petersburg : it is stated that before he committei that deplorable act he destroyed the documents that he had col lected on his various journeys in Asia.



Chap. XIX.


CHAPTER XIX. The Fenians abandon the aiege of Herat— The Serdara of Kandahar and Captun Vikovitch — Deaolation of Herat — Yar Mohamed imploree the aaaietance of the neighbouring principalities — Yar Mohamed Bella the Heratees to the TurcomaM — The English prepare to invade Afghanistan — Misunderstanding between Dort Mohamed and Runjeet Sing — Intervention of the English — Their wint of good faith towards Dost Mohamed — Their partiality for Runjeet — NegotiatioM between the English and the Dost — Battle of Djamrood — Bumes at Kabul — He meets with Vikovitch, who is coldly received by the Emir — The Do*t

makes frank explanations to the English — He is supported by Barnes at Calcutta — Bumes is triumphant over Vikovitch — Note of Lord Palmenton to M. de Nesselrode — Reply of the Russian cabinet — The last attempt of Uie Dost to secure the alliance of the English — Efforts to the contrary on the part of Sir W. M'Naghten and Sir Claude Wade — Lord Auckland declares for Shah Shooja — Consternation of the Dost at this intelligence — Reflections on the English policy. It is impossible to conceive the reckless deyastation committed by the Persian soldiers in the principality of Herat during the ten months of the siege of its capital : they made a perfect desert of that once rich and fertile country. The city, torn up by shot and shell, was nothing but a mass of shapeless ruins, and the bouses, caravanserais, and bazaars, were all pulled down to repair the breaches in the ramparts ; it was in fact a heap of cinders, ruin, and desolation. To crown their misfortunes, the wretched citizens, who had been nearly starved during the sieg^, were for a long time short of pth visions after it was raised, and the famine was almost as bad as it had been previously, for the ground had not been tilled, and eTcry one had consumed the provisions he had laid by before the arrival of the Persians. All the villages, from seventy to ninety miles round, had been completely pillaged to supply the besieging amy, and the population of the country stripped of everything, as were the citizens who left the city before the siege, and now returned in crowds to Herat, where there was not a grain of com to support them. The famine soon made frightful ravages, and produced every day horrible scenes worthy of cannibals — in fact, its condition was fearful to contemplate. To put an end to this misery, Yar Mohamed Khan appealed to


INTO SLAVERY. 259 round Herat, and, in tbe name jlty, and entreated them to send same time he remitted the duty idabar, and the Elmak Khanats Ut much more with the view of f relieving 8uch bitter distress. having a groat in their pockets », in many instances sold themrattemens of com : fathers sold nd the children thankfully sanc-

them from the terrible pangs to this traffic, not, as his unhappy to replenish his coffers, the conbly exhausted by the war. He ees who were guilty of the most m they saw this, and ceased ing his source of gain, he sent i disorder, and by that means i market The slightest alterharmless group of citizens, and o pounce upon these unfortunate racted to the spot by curiosity urs afterwards sold or exchanged el, or a mule, or anything else ty young men was the price that irse, a hundred tomauns in value, nsiderable time, but the English ipto it, the inducement being a rt of Herat £ly escaped tbe Persian yoke, at liUes against which it had still to pay Russia and the Shah for all irmidable expedition to invade nportant act was preceded by if which I will endeavour to gtve ng, the ambitious Mabaradjah of , JTom the Afghans their finest

•" »

260 DOST MOHAMED AND RUNJEET SING. Chap. XIX. provinces, prepared to push his conquests still further into their territory, when his intention was seen through by Dost Mohamed, who, as the English said (but the fact has not been proved), sougbt the alliance of the King of Persia, and proposed to assist him in his expedition against Herat, provided that the Shah would on the other hand protect him against the Sikhs, who were supported by the East India Company. The English also reproached the Dost with having written to the Emperor of Russia requesting his alliance. This letter was, it is said, sent to St Petersburg by an A%han envoy, properly accredited ; but the assertion is denied by M. de Nesselrode, who declared in one of his despatches, bearing date October 20th, 1838, that this envoy was simply a commerciai agent, having no instructions or authority to meddle with politics. The adversaries of the Emir went so far as to give a copy of his letter, but Dost Mohamed declared that it was a lying invention of the enemy ; and to those who are acquainted with the extent to which false documents are made use of in Asia, and the advantages which the English have themselves derived fix)m them in subduing the

princes and rajahs of India, one doubts the propriety of giving an opinion on the validity of the one which the Emir is reproached with having written. This doubt is all the more admissible, inasmuch as at the epoch at which this document was said to have been prepared he was the warmest partisan of the English in Afghanistan, and remained so after they had driven him from that country. The following is the letter referred to, written in the early part of the year 1836: — " There have been great differences and quarrels between myself and the royal house of the Suddozyes. The English Government is inclined to support Shoojah-ool-Moolk. The whole of India is governed by them, and they are on friendly terms with Runjeet Sing, the lord of the Punjab, which lies in their neighbourhood. The British Government exhibit no favourable opinions towards me. I (literally the creature of God), with all my power, have been always fighting with the Sikhs ; your Imperial Government has made friendship with the Persians ; and if your Majesty will graciously be pleased to arrange matters in the Afghan country, and assist this nation (which amounts to twenty lacs of Semiilies), you will place me under obligations. " I hope your Imperial Majesty will do me the favour by allowing me to be received, like the Persians, under the protection


of R my ^ oper, ost U igso! ? in Runje Etonjei in eul efint jeet,* how ' laa it Zeman, who made him thrown o£f hia allegiance claimed himself sovereign

his power more legitimate has in hia favour the olc ancestors always had in hi the Afghan sovereigns ? The Englbb had, proba reason is a poor argumem )iad been wishing to hav( docile and submiesive ins! the spoUatioos committei Runjeet He had seizet Peshawur in 1823, and wnsent of Shah Shooja-( placed himself under his ] the English as the legiti by that title to make whi But why should Shooja bt more than any other of hit mood, for instance, who 1 itothing to disinherit their the throne ? Shah Kamr against the pretensions of the English be bo regardl< and the opinions of the {

262 LETTER OF DOST MOHAMED. Chap. XIX. concealed an ambitious project; the Anglo-Indian Govermnent was possessed with a passion for territorial extension, and in no way sensitive as to the justice of the cause of Dost Mohamed from the moment they found that he would not bend to their wishes ; and not being in a condition to depose him themselves, thej weakened his power as much as possible by means of their ally Runjeet, who annually sent an army to ravage some part of the Afghan kingdom. Although the Government of Calcutta showed a marked predilection for that ruler, it did not fail still to maintain its relations with and show some consideration for Dost Mohamed, who bad on his part been guilty of very great duplicity, if he had really written to the Emperor Nicholas the letter which they accused him of sending, for very nearly at the same time, viz. on the 31st May, 1836, following, he addressed Lord Auckland, who had recently arrived in India, in the most humble terms, as follows : — ** It may be known to your Lordship that, relying on the principles of benevolence and philanthropy which distinguish the Briti^ Government, I look upon myself and country as bound to it ; and the letters I have received from that quarter have all been replete with friendly sentiments and attention, and to the effect that, in the time of need, the obligations of friendship should be fulfilled. The late transactions in this quarter, the conduct of reckless and mis-

guided Sikhs and their breach of treaty, are well kno^in to your Lordship. Communicate to me whatever may now suggest itself to your wisdom for the settlement of the afiairs of this country, that it may serve as a rule for my guidance. " I hope your Lordship will consider me and my country as your own, and favour me often by the receipt of your friendly letters. Whatever directions your Lordship may be pleased to issue for the administration of this country, I will act accordingly." Lord Auckland replied to this communication on the 22nd of August, 1836, with the greatest kindness, very highly praised his discreet policy, and promised his impartial intervention to effect a reconciliation between the Afghan prince and the Sikhs. During the time that this correspondence was passing, the Persian expedition against Herat was prepared and openly encouraged by General S'yponitch ; but it was November, 1837, before the army of Mohamed Shah arrived under tJie walls of that city. Early in the same year, however, Dost Mohamed, grown weary of

Chap. XIX. SIR A. BURKES AT KAI the provocations of the Sikha, and findinj benefit, but rather the contrary, from the Auckland, determined upon avenging his upon the opportunity offered him in the mont cretJoD of the Maharadjah (who recalled his I frontier in order to celebrate, with the great of bis grandson Nahal Sing), to march 15,00 of Peahawur. They were commanded by JUohamed Efzel Khan and Mohamed Aktu the Sikhs at Djamrood on the 1st of May, II obstinate and the carnage dreadful, but victi of the brothers at the heavy cost of 7000 m< The Government of Calcutta, already suffi Fomn expedition against Herat, became b of the defeat of their faithful ally Runjeet, a speed Sir A. Bumes to Kabul, to eudeavoui of the victorious Afghans. The British Envoy arrived io that city received with great honours by Dost ^ Esteemed him. The iostmctions of Lord i was amply to enter into commercial relatio tioQ between the Emir and the Maharadjah : vasauthorized to do this in the interest of to avert his ruin. It was sufficiently surpr should use such language respecting a pi w well known how to defend himself, v demands but what were perfectly reasonal vith which be would, if admitted, have lai<I ta^ of Bumes was difficult ; but he was fort

XIX. The Emir has said that his interest was in the English alliance. has penetrated the country as far as Kandahar. and that for all he cared he was willing to dismiss the Russian officer. and his arrival the pretext for paying a visit requesting bis advice as to what be ought t Etances. and the conduct of Dost Mohamed was in every way ^calculated to inspire the English Government with confidence. Chap. Whatever might have been the real obje Vikovitch met with a cold reception. The Emir declared from the first I 264 COLD RECEPTION OF VIKOVITCH.* and he has announced himself as the bearer of most seductive promises. or arrest him on his journey . 1838. he exerted himself to establish a friendly understanding between the Dost and the Sikhs. namely. 18. and to smooth every species of difficulty. bearing presents for Dost Mohamed." ^ The reasons which Bumes gave to his Government seemed to him so conclusive. The Emir. The following letter from the Envoy to Lord Auckland proves this to have been the case : — " January 15. indeed. other foreign power than England. After him a Russian agent came. a witness .from the Emir a temporary suspension of while he was occupied in this negotiation arrived at Kabul. who took copies of all the letters brought by the latter to the Emir. It must be admitted that this was very extraordinary language for a man to use who had been recently accused of having written to the Emperor of Russia in the most respectful and submissive terms. but he was nevertheless obliged to leave Afghanistan almost immediately. he brought flattering compliments and offers of lasting engagements. that he would receive no foreign agent so long as he had the hope of conciliating the sympathy of the Anglo-Indian Government. not to adopt an alliance or political relations with any. but he was received with only the respect due to any stranger and the regular forms of hospitality. in December. by name Vikovitch . that he did not for a moment think that the authorities at Calcutta would reject the alliance of a chief so devoted to the English as Dost Mohamed . Nevertheless Vikovitch was allowed to enter Kabul. to treat him as Bumes might wish. ment of 1836. because no one invited him to come on to Kabul. fuserted that he brought the reply of the E letter the Emir bad written hb Imperial M. — Since I have been here I have learnt that a Persian agent. but only at the request of Bumes. and that he would not abandon that while he had a hope of obtaining it.

and even in acting thus it would be with regret to save only Afghanistan and my owir honour. they must also force the former to give me back Peshawur. body and soul. I should be happy to be advised and protected by her. and oppose any attempt of the latter to reduce Herat and Kandahar to a state of Tassalage : then I am theirs. who will never forgive me for having made common cause with your countrymen . which plainly allowed the determination of the British Government to act vigorously to be perceived." said the Emir to Bumes. It was quite sufficient to induce him to fall back upon the natural course of British policy in India. I shall never have recourse to others till I have lost all hope in you. and remained tbera when the latter went on to Kabul. I ask the English to protect me from the spoliations of the Sikhs and the resentment of the Persians. in alliance with the Persians and the Serdars of Kandahar^ ruined it on the other. UTie following is an extract from that document : — " The undersigned is further instructed to state that the British . " In return. and formed the subject of a note sent by Lord Clanricarde to the cabinet of St. 1837. — Ferrier. XIX. but his confidence in the equity of the Directors pf the East India Company towards him was not so great as that of the English officer. instead of joining with the Sikhs to attack it on the one hand." This frank and explicit declaration of the Dost's could not lea?e Lord Auckland in any doubt of his loyalty or sincerity. and to maintain the Afghan independence against every other state. not from ill-will towards England. Petersburg.of his efforts. 265 ha?iDg a vague suspicion that the Court would come to a partial determination. Knowing how strong was their predilection for Runjeet Sing. but that little is just and reasonable. and in return should make every effort to second her views. FBAKK DECLARATIONS OF DOST MOHAMED. which is the only point that protects my frontier on this side of the Indus. produced a lively sensation at Calcutta. " I ask bat little. The arrival of Vikovitch at Kabul. and the copies of the letters presented by him to the Emir. testified his gratitude for them . political and commercial. the Dost neglected no means of persuading them of his entire devotion. and * This agent arriyed with YikoTitch in October. « ■ ■■ Chap. while the Russians. On the contrary.

of which also Her Majesty's Government have a copy. was the bearer of letters from the Emperor and Count Simonich to the ruler of Kabul. which those 266 PALMERSTON'S NOTE TO NESSELRODE. the execution of which has been guaranteed by Count Simonich. XIX rulers engage by the Treaty tx> acknowledge. and to induce them to place their reliance upon Persia in the first instance. " If the British Government could entertain a doubt of the correctness of the foregoing information. " The guarantee. contains a promise to compel Pereia to defend the rulers of Kandahar against attack from any quarter whatever. but the intention of the parties may be inferred from the original draft of this treaty. if she adopts the guarantee. which tends to afford Russia. and that Count Simonich observed the most perfect silence towards the British minister at Teheran with respect to the mission of this agent . It is true that in this stipulation no specific allusion is made to England . and if his mission was to have no tendency prejudicial to the British interests. and the fiirther reports which the British Government have received of the language held by this Russian agent at Kandahar and at Kabul can lead to no other conclusion than that he strenuously exerted himself to detach the rulers of those Afghan states from all connexion with England. together with their other possesions. but sometimes calling himself Omar Beg. but to deliver over that city afterwards to the rulers of Kandahar. that doubt would. moreoTer. and of which the British Government possess proof in the report made by that agent to the ruler of Kabul. and ultimately upon Russia. and has given to this Treaty. to be held by them. a pretence to compel the Shah of Persia not only to make himself master of Herat. of tributaries to Persia. and in which specific allusion was made to England as one of the powers against whom assistance was to be given by Russia to the rulers of Kandahar." . in the capacity. be removed by the unfriendly language with respect to the British Government which Count Simonich held some time ago to the agent of Kabul at the court of Persia. in a great measure. and which was less cautiously worded. a reserve which might seem unnecessary if this agent was merely to deliver the letters of which he was the bearer. '' The undersigned is further instructed to state that a Russian agent of the name of Vicovitch.Goremment possess a copy of a Treaty which has been concluded between Persia and the Afghan ruler of Kandahar. ** But the British Government have learned that Count Simonich announced to the Shah of Persia that this Russian agent would counsel the ruler of Kabul to seek assistance of the Persian Government to support him in his hostilities with the ruler of the Punjab . and said to be attached to the staff of the general commanding at Orenburg. Chap. copies of which are in the possession of the British Government.

Vikovitch in Asia. it is calculated to pernicious an influence on" all our relations with Great Bri we do not hesitate a single instant to meet the Englisl wiUi a frank and spontaneous explanation. October 20th. The pc I'Ambassadeur. and respect 1 legitimately acquired by all other powers. rAmbaasadeuT. He desires only what is just and what is " If the British Government places in those principles Gdence which they are calculated to inspire. to be communicate Foreign Office." The Russian Govemmeat was not much disturbed by neTerthelesB it did vouchsafe to give a few explanations. that public opinion in ascribes to Russian influence a decisive part in the ev passing in Persia. or acts of Count Simonich and M. M. to the min august master. 1838 :— " You state that on this occasion Her Britannic '. to clear up the doubts which it . Rodofinikin to the Earl of Durham. "The idea of assailing the security and tranquillity of seasons of Great Britain in India has consequently D Knted itself. it will be jou. Monsieur le Comte. Rut the Rritish Government consii entitled to ask of the Cabinet of St Petersburg wh intentions and the policy of Russia towards Persia ai Britain are to be deduced from the declarations of Com rode and Mr. which the Emperor pursues in that q guided by the same principles which direct it in Euro from any idea of encroachment. and will never present itself. ** This consideration is so serious. The are some estracts from the despatch which that di addressed to Count Pozzo di Borgo. most ironical manner. most conduc interests of Russia.k f ■ Lord Clanricarde coDcIudea by declaring " that Rub to pursue with respect to the matters in question whatei tuaj appear to the Cabinet of St Fetersburf. and attributes to our Cabinet intentioni ous to the security of the British possessions in Asia. It denied facts as clear as the sui audacity so sustained and so calm that any minister le enced than Lord Palmerston would have allowed himf deceived by the language of Count Nesselrode. Principal Secrelary-of-State for Foreign Affairs did no from you. that policy has only for i the maintenance of the rights of Russia.

as to the Russians. if we point out the restless activity of certfiun unaccredited and unrecognised individuals. when necessary. we consider the British Cabinet to be altogether a stranger to the tendency which we have just alluded to. and that country would then become accessible to even' nation interested in the commerce of Central Asi^ The Emperor could not have any reason to injure England. XIX. " These remarks. they had wished to prevent the attack upon Herat . CABINETS OF LONDON AND PETERSBURG. it is certainly not our wish to impute to the Government to which they belong the blame of which they are deserving. as to the intentions of our Cabinet. ceived as to the conduct which we have adopted in the midst of the recent events in Persia. that if Herat were joined to Kandahar all contests would cease. Russia having no other object than to secure a market for . and to place in its true light the conservative and disinterested policy of our august master. He declares that the siege of Herat appears to him a thing just in itself. and the natural obstacles which separate the two empires render a collision between them impossible. Our attitude. he adds. they denied the existence of any grievances that could be brought against them . le Comte. M. XIX. I hope. above all. M. but defends himself from the charge of having instigated the Shah to undertake it Nevertheless. will serve. Simonitch and Vikovitch were pacificators . they had nothing to reproach themselves with . will necessarily be regulated according to the definitive determination whicb the British Government shall think fit to adopt. to satisfy it. It was therefore for England to refrain and be careful . On the contrary." After this display of principle M. how to manoeuvre up to the Indus. which the Emperor commands you to communicate with the most perfect frankness to the English Ministry. 2C9 and not to establish a treaty. and states that " According to Count Nesselrode it was England who had made the first attack.268 CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE Chjlp. M. so also are we entitled to expect that it will not raise a doubt as to our own. the latter had been charged simply to fix the extent of security that Afghanistan would grant to Russian merchants. or any other political combination. But in like manner as we place a just reliance on the rectitude of the intentions of the English Government. Thomas continues his narrative. and specifically with regard to the expedition of Mohamed Shah against Herat " If we adduce these facts. le Comte. and he finished by no longer concealing that Russia well knew. Chap. de Nesselrode gives his explanations.

Count Nesselrode announced the recall of General Simonitch. on the contrary. XIX Russia. to the last. and that Colonel Duhamel. commercial intercourse valuable to both countries. strove to preserve the illuaon that the Cabinet of St. which the Emperor commands your Excellency to communicate in full to the British Cabinet. ^ " ' These remarks. England could not complain. we consider that we have a right to expect she should not throw any doubt over ours. by their government — it is not because we wish to impute to the British Government itself the blame which belongs to them . was on his way to Teheran — terminating his despatch as follows : — " ' If we recall these facts — if we notice the activity of certain individuals who put themselves forward without having been accredited.her manufactures in Central Asia.'' Count Nesselrode. and place in its proper light the conservative and disinterested policy of our august master. Chap. or even recognised. must necessarily lead ber Majesty's Government to deprecate as a great misfortune any event which might tend to interrupt the good understanding which so happily subsists between the Cabinets of Petersburg and London. we consider the British Cabinet as being entirely above such actions as we point out . and I have great pleasure in being able to ^te to your Excellency that this communication has in its general result been highly satisfactory to her Majesty's Government. 1838 :— " I can assure your Excellency that her Majesty's Government bave given to this important communication all the attention which it 80 justly demands. but as we place confidence in the rectitude of her intentions. Petersburg was sincere. delighted to have succeeded in calming Lord Palmerston's fears. who. serve to satisfy it. Where is the government that is always served as it wishes to be ? Had England herself the power to control those turbulent travellers who continually excited disturbances in Asia ? '^ Further. wrote to Count Pozzo di Borgo in the following terms on December 20. Our attitude must necessarily be regulated by the definitive determination that the British Government will think fit to adopt' " But Lord Palmerston. who was appointed to SQOceed him. because an alliance of long standing between Great Britain an 270 CONDUCT OF RUSSIA. and common interests of the highest order. But as regards Russia this wish is peculiarly strong. I hope. The leading principle which invariably directs the British Government in the management of its relations with foreign powers is an anxious desire to preserve for the British nation the blessings of peace. will. If by accident the agents had slightly deviated firom their instructions. wished probably to make him feel that fixnn .

without its costing her the smallest sacrifice . 1839.*' Is it possible to show more ability. or ratlier deceptions. a reply which reads far more like a threat than an approach towards the good understanding upon which the Noble Lord seemed so self-satisfied:— " Those explanations. in her blind policy. she immediately abandons the Shah to his own resources and withdraws from him the Russian deserters. a . oard took poeseeeion of tbe i: for flat-bottomed steamers to f the river Karoon." remarks Count Nesselrode. ani le. subsequently to meet with the most dreadful catastrophe. more acuteness. who only triumphed for the moment. Our Cabinet. " have afforded to the two Cabinets the opportunity of receiving and of offering on either side assurances which bear the character of just reciprocity. coi fat to possess considerable a not common even amongst lot constitute any rerommend the East India Company . and in her retreat she shot a Parthian arrow at her ri?al. more subtlety. of four years' duration ? Nothing in her conduct can seriously give oflenoe to the English. 1 conviction felt that the p only be derived from them. than Russia did in these negotiations. Five of the Company s ships of war also entered the Persian Gulf in the spring of 1838> ED'S PROPOSITIONS. They reproach her with treaties made by ber agents . for after having received his reply he addressed the following diy answer to his Lordship on January 29. which they attribute to her . expects to receive the proof of its entire fulfilment. She has extended her influence to the frontier of the British empire in India. she fails. Wheo tl ^itjon was gtven up . the British nevertheless continued their preparations in India for the purpose of driTing the Emir Dost Mohamed and Kohendil Khan from the principalities of ELabul and Kandahar.the explanations he had given it did not follow that the Russian Cabinet was determined henceforth to concede to him on all points. in taking note of that assurance. de Nesselrode. They are offended at the siege of Herat. Though Russia and Persia had appeared to give way on all points. and Lord Palmerston had shown himself satisfied with the explanations of M. but thi with vigour to depose a pni come the ally of England. but she retires without shame and without loss. and which are inseparable from one another. it is true. she disavows them.

which favoured the secret views of the Directors. Thus : — Ahmed Shah and his descendants (Shah Shooja. and Sir John M'Neil. and tl rt Mohamed. the resident at Loodiana. they copfused the tribes with their subdivisions or branches. namely. that the government of In e made to injure or subvert it was far from entertaining t avidity had long meditated in the government of Afghan 272 DECISION OF LORD AUCKLAND. but the contrary opinion. " There is but oni ■ against the Russians. to strengthen hii ised by family quarreb. and that their numbers did not amount to more than 6000 . Lord Auckland laid the conflicting opinions of Bumes and of the Court of Directors before the English Cabinet. &c. M*Naghten. as Burnes had stated. as being the only rational and practicable one ." sstedness and so much good i A. XIX. Sir Claude Wade. that the Barukzy e tribe did not contain 60. ignorance : like the greater part of those authors who have hitherto written on Afghanistan. on the simple cone ops that I shall employ in tht idded. Sir Claude Wade.!e could enable him to fou I himself to be persuaded h last attempt to secure the ig him with a letter to Lore he. both of whom enjoyed in a high degree the confidence of their GovernmeDt. arose from one common source. and the branch or family of the Suddozyes. Hadji Djemal Khan and his posterity (Dost Mohamed.000 families. order to have the finances of that country entirely at its own disposal. Burnes conceived himself he could induce his Govern: at avul against a prior decisii Calcutta. Chap. who was the warmest partisan of Sliah Shooja. also tliat their chiefs were generally hated by the serdars of the other Afghan tribes. "that for the present b le restitution of Peshawur. " give me but two words ise me aa Emir of Kabul. supported by Sir W. encouraged the warlike propensities of the East India Company by leading them into the error in which he had himself been held many years by his protege. and Ii . &c) were . an %n me and the Shah Kami ish to his support with my bes of Persia. who decided in favour of that of the British ofiicer. prevailed. Opinions so different held by two officers.) were of the tribe of Popolzye.

which does conast of four or five thousand families. from a fear of displeasing his faithful ally. retired. constrained the Dost lative but ruin or war." but a ^' Mohamedzye chief. had not actually giveo his egative. first demanding. for in Afghanistan.land. written from Kandahar. He vras not friend of the English. Certainly that was etermined enemy. when he received informawhicfa left him no doubt of the fact 1 army at Ferozepore with the wellng Shah Shooja on the throne of this information the Dost received . and it is probably of this latter branch. and next. Bumes exerted all his powers of persuasion and argument. but in the most polite manner possible. in which to biin.of the tribe of Barukzye. Lord Auckland also took upon himself to offer to the Emir of Kabul the most merciless ultimatum. re now more than ever Runjeet's d him to the Afghans." In the same manner Ahmed Shah is not called Ahmed Shah Popolzye. that he should immediately dismiss Captain Vikovitch . though OF DOST MOHAMED. Bumes himself. Is with his remarks: — "The Dost I month agaioEt England. bat the Afghans would ever throw i Russians. when a descendant of Hadji Djemal is spoken of. who were their disposal. leaving Dost nat^mation. These letters decided him e broke off hie negotiations with his mission. because the noble Lord had determined not to interfere in his favour. that he should renounce all his rights to the Afghan provinces conquered by the Sikhs. which marked the intense interest he took in the cause of the Emir. They could at any moment troops at least with simple remonrained the Maharadjah of Lahore . The advice of Bumes was rejected and his acts completely disavowed. the Maharadjah of the Punjab. to induce him to accept these hard conditions. and that it lim. Wade intended to speak . however. ears at peace — after having forced im Herat — after having ascertained Dost Mohamed — what could excite ch a violent determination ? Why lad alt Asia risen in arms ? Had . but Ahmed Shah Suddozye. and the Jed him with terror. and the branch or family of the Mohamedzyes . that Sir C. he is not called a '' Barukzye chief. The Dost. and unite with the Per. 2T3 atment.

bad galloped up to Kabul. he had i le East that England considered herae ed to detach them from these intrigues esta.* It was naturally to be ehended that his Highness the Maharajah would not be bIov 'enge this aggres^on. he n more with the internal quarreb of a a on could only be maintained by neul oaely into the path of conquest.nt ally. am lian had set a foot or intended to set o Lee of bis genius would astonish and let imbering that such flagrant injustice is LORD AUCKLAND'S MANIFESTO Ca*f. informatioD was Ted by the Governor-General that the troops of Dost Mohamed n had made a sudden and unprovoked attack on those of our . the peaceful and beneficial OSes of the British Government would be altogether Irustrated. if he should evince a disposition to come to jurt reasonable terms with the Maharajah. it was only because a or suite.ed perils without end for the Britisb Dst it resentment and vengeance . Afraid REFLECTIOKS ON EKGLISH win^ the alliance of Russia in EDro] brtune to place faith in it. ' to ask in proper time for explanasould certainly have been given him ised. and tergiversated less. He never spoke in the name o had therefore never listened to him .Kandahar. on were purely of a commerdal nature. for the Maharajah. the Govemor-Geceral Ived on authorizing Captain Buraes to intimate to Dost Moed Khan that. was on his journey to Kabul. iitated so long before he interfered 1 less than six months a vigorous He required a war with Kabul. the Maharajah Runjeet Sing. XX. bis Lordship would t his good ofEces with bis Highness. usly threatened. Whilst Captain les. he at length took a t lerstoQ let loose the demon of war . however. and it was to be feared that. the Russians Bokhara lumes etdd. and the sdll j : a balance of power — i>eceeBitated to lign Office had been obliged during fo ce the Muscovite intrigues. the flames ar being once kindled in the very regions into which we were Avouring to extend our comnierce. with characteristic confidence which he has uniformly placed in the . trder to avert a result so calamitous.

w rhood wou . but had afforded evidence leing engaged in designs wholly at variance with the princi[dfs objects of its alliance with Great Britain. bulvark of his country.~-ArrMr. to the effect that in the mean I hostilities on his part should be suspendeAf It subsequently came to the knowledge of the Govemoreral that a Persian army was besie^ng Herat . bad been the fint to break bj I have no doubt thnt the Eogliah. and 1 beyond. { After much time spent by Captain Bumes in fruitless negoon at Kabul. § such as the GovenHH<leral could not. . and that the Court of Persia had Qot commenced a course of injury and insult to the officers of her esty's mission in the Persian territory. chiefly in iequence of his reliance upon Per^an encouragement and asaist!. axtoited I? An alliance which wna obligatoiy Ruqjwt. con^tently with justice and his regard for the Whst thsD of th« ■palutioD of ths on both purtita. it appeared that Dost Mohamed Khan. the Indus . persisted. U* iatioDs.— F^nvr. at once a£sented to the osition of the Governor-General. as respected his misunderstanding with the Sakh. aha had piomim wains that the Punjab would ere to I'eraia. aupported Ruiue«t in hia g The restitution of Pcahawor. uid which Englml um provincea r^iuiiiX bjRunjeet. — Fcrritr. be the ct liness .1 and friendship of the British nation. be tbeira. the aiibnd. to pa. thi injuriouB t at he open every fore hia undisg the unfriei : British p> egard of elled Capt ■ the objei jr interfer ng about i t Mohame wed too [ rnment. 3-POUCY. rgmg the most unreasonable pretenuons. — Ferrier. that indiguea ! actively prosecuted throughout Afghanistan for the purpoGe of nding Persian influence and authority to the banks of.

and who.ire would this place ct of the I rried ou 1 )Q it VB8 a md contii Btrances i ivery just [rejected. The neceseity under which t Briton is placed of regarding the present advance of the an anna into Afghanistan as an act of hostility towards herhaa also been officially communicated to the Shah under the SB order of her Majesty's Government. and to aid us in our just and necessary measures of nal defence. on his empire being ed by its present rulers. from their disunion and unpopularity. with une full knowledge of its opposition to the rights and interests e British nation in India. and to make a public declaration of a cessation of all intere between the two governmenta. by a e of disre . British mment. The chiefs of Kandahar (brothers of Dost Mohamed Ehan ibul) have avowed their adherence to the Persian policy. . de worthy . had found an honourable asylum in Iritish dominions. XI. M'Neil tiled. the British Govemmeiit . Yet so long as they refrained from proceedings ous to our interests and security. were ill . to quit tl Ironed the ^ LORD AUCKLAND'S MANIFESTO Cbap. and have been openly assisting in lerations against Herat. a monardi when in power. the Governor-Geneit the importance of taking immediate measures for arresting [ipid progress of foreign intrigue and aggression towards our territories. that the izye chiefs. to be usefiil allies to the. In the crisis of the affairs consequent the retirement of our envoy from Kabul. t had been clearly ascertained. His attention was naturally drawn at this conjuii(y a the position and claims of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk. from the information fiimidied le various officers who have Tbit«d Afghanistan.1 would yi to nuunta m British affecting 1 iicceasioD < lor-Generi >. had cordially acceded to the measures of united ance to external enmity which were at that time judged sary by the British Government. under any drcumstances.

UDanimous testimoay o lis determinalioD. and that a lasting lie and encroachment. and the independ tied. upo the Emirs of Scinde. as well as every consideration of policy and e. on of its present ruJei suree completed. 1-Moolk will enter Afg md will be supported opposition by a Britii y hopes that the Shah a subjects and adherei lower. the British army tl has been led to these i . or in be general freedom and 9 name and just influen iieir proper footing an [uillity will be establish dia. aod seeking to prontole les of conquest and a^^andizement After serious and re deliberation the Governor-General was satisfied that a ing necessity. than e British GoTeroment.(wiedged and respected their authority . whose popularity throughout Afghanistan had been proved OF HIS POUCT. f becoming a party to ugly deputed in June L lult of tuB mlsuon has y the British Governi] Moolk. oee iutereats with tboi >een made apparent t< independence will. and to be indispensable to our own safety. whereby biB Hi ioDs. warranted us in espousing the cause of Shah Shooja-oolk. in the place of chiefs ranging them9 in subservience to a hostile power. The welftre r possessions in the East requires that we should have on our rn frontier an ally who is interested in renting a^reaioDs establishing tranquillity. and has bound b the Shah to the throi iee of any one of the co lie frieudR and enemiea Bted which had been th( GoTemment and his '. but a different policy ired to be now more than justified by the conduct of those I. the ( Eit it was just and prope Runjeet Sing.

His whole fiunil. to reconcile prices." Nevet* «& he allowed himself to be persuaded. Chap. the taking definitive poaaesson was therefore postponed. ring the union and prosperity of the Afghan people Throughhe approaching operations British influence will be Eedubu^y oyed to further every measure of general benefit. and to put an end to iiatractioTis by which. to displeasing his friends . it will seek to secure liberal and honourable ment on their tendering early submis^on. the 9ind appeared to him too humiliating. Even to the diiefe e hostile proceedings have given just cause of offeBce to the ah Government." he said. to secure oblivion for injuries." le explanations that have preceded this nianiiesto do justice to Qaccuracies. but Mir stem of Khyrpoor. but he preferred exposing himself eir lively and incessant reproaches. 'hen the British forces entered Scinde this venerable cbieft^ led to all the sacrifices imposed upon him. " It is. H. and the Indian Government could not attempt to seize their territory without creating for themselves nuch emharraasment at once . and ceasing from sition to that course of measures which may be judged the suitable to the general advantage of their country. prevented than from g to that extremity. the welfere and incss of the Afghans have been impaired. but forcing the Emirs to consent to passage of the Britisb troops through their country was a tde thereto. be invasion of Afghanistan was only a prelude to that erf le. and my honour ds that I should trust that in the hands of strangers. When asked by the [ish to lend them during t/teir operations in Afyhanistaji the fbrof Bukkar. "at the bulwark and the heart of my country. r themselves on their knees before him to induce him not to t this extraordinary request. I shall not . for so many years. At one moment war was on the point of breakout between the East India Company and the Emirs of that of Sdnde which is watered by the Lower Indus. situated on an island at the mouth of the Indus. its reserve and want of frankness. but hf he wUl be enabled to MIR BOUSTEM OF KHTRPOOB. for they ^ticalty opposed the passage of an English army .fore comment upon it. their aged chief. but there existed friendly treaties with the Talpoora Emirs. but have reproduced it here to give lea of the manner in which the Anglo-Indian government proi in Asia. reigns of that country. and succeeded in condliating all parties.pon him of providing British crown .

" e English bad Defected nothing that could tei . ' le Persians hat tire force of S ank of the Indi ■General Sir J 1.CHEE. w )f November. and possessed The officers : unfortunate \ the clothes of tj d that the Ex 27. if he di m.000 men. He lent them hands since. and it now fbnns part of the Bril ! East Indies. and a week ■oesed the rive Shikapoor in " was precede in the pages of the brillii s situated abou dus. an 1 they despoile . on the Sc ith which Eng treaties of frii d be useful t Bteamboats hat two sepoy ref ssenger was se its position re he safety of tl It of the munii j[e required tl hour. to yield to th r of the fire < Dseession of tl AFGHAN SERDAES JOIN THE ENGLISB of Kurracbee.

better ahl . and joined without delay the lall number only. laws. he formed the nucleus of t •on as that was constituted.i tg — Their oupii tt«r in their ey< Is of Yar If ohai g — IgnonnMol Dirtj habits - iftt« houMi — the aoil — Pn lioJ position - At the conclusion of General Ferrier'a maDuscript ari Toted to a descriptioD of the Afghan aation. with a view of parading to the r and generosity of the English. they had exertei luction and corruption to induce the serdars ol tach themselves to their party. its productions.' or the present work. and be. nevertheless feared the consequences o le in favour of that branch. allowed themselves to be eai ese emissaries. &c. introduced a portion of that Addendum here. and a few of ial had responded to their ^>peal. and religion. having oo greater sympathy dzyes. climate. their ba iication. The translator h. A crowd ol jealous of those of the Barukzye tribe. I it to the translator to decide in which of the two "nnatioD could be placed to the beat advantage. and retired to their le course of events should be more decided bd en part )F THE AFG: A^huu— Thdi ilmans — Ttiau. whom the I greatly favoured. Among der Khan. ugh it certainly does interrupt the continuous cba ^ry.Bsfiil issue to this undertaking . they sent numeroui own country. and much other genera ■pecting A^hanistan. I e Mohamed Khan. but that it i icial to themselves to receive them. as they wo 'ation of th^ own royal family. therefore. f thus have an insight into the character of the A >re be enters upon that period of their history whicl rworen with our own. Mohamed Attah Khan. Popolzye . and to persui nly would all re^tance he useless. Isakzye . na I Joumeya. and joined Shah Shooja at Lot Qieir concurrence. who left their trib iir of the war.

Chap. which are fnll of fire. and displays jlf most readily in the attack . and well f< s and sometimes sallow complexions and stronglyures give their countenances a savage expression r black eyes. tod ngeance is a passion which they love . all that is brutal and savage in ther ture is manifested with the most perfect calmness. and is in the most cruel manner. while the Afghans do the very reverse — . and show no perseverance. they act inversely to the cutfoats of Europe. An injury is never forgotten. Their step is full of resolution. would . d!y brought up. without pity. To make them serve the rules of good breeding. are tinged wil this. 1 CHABACTER OP THE AFGHANS. energetic and •n for war. perfidious. even at the cost of their es they will satisfy it should an opportunity present itself. is shaved off from the front to tl i. but it is the Icano slumbering beneath the ashes. in their opinion. In the ter they differ from their neighbours the Persians. and curious excess. coarse. Courage is with them the first of virtues. as great scoundrels as themselves. They are sober. individual who is merely plundered considers himself extremely ■tunate. hewer. They are brave even to rashness. i id. but this remark applies rather to the rich in to the people in general. In reli^on they are )re tolerant and well disposed towards those who profess a dif-ent faith than any other sect of Mussulmans. like the people of >st Eastern nations. an ^e same colour. are they as easily discouraged. XSI." Force is their only argument. who are. or even common civility. They posseaa all the qualities essential to cany it successfully. the difficulties in rendering them submissive to a code just laws would be almost insurmountable. J apparently of an open disposition — great gosaps.lion of it and that sad military catastrophe whicl it ever remain so deeply interesting to every Englis 'he Afghans are tall. ^rprising without the least regard to prudence. their black beard is worn short. active." the 'ghans take life first and then the purse. on the contrary. exceedingly inclined to theft and pillage. as they are soon elated. Their anger is not betrayed by any sudden burst of ision . abstemicras. and usurps the place all the others j they are cruel. for. but rough. excited by the stnallest triSe. who demand " your purse or your life . or I te. for they endeavour by every sans in their power to conceal their knavery under the appearee of law or rhetoric. robust. generally speaking. There is no nation in the world more turbulent and less under bjection . " Give. as. they are also addicted to a enme which it is t Qecessary to name . and say. but are utterly ignorant how to take advantage (^ 1 turn them to account : their courage is impulsive. gives force and adds beauty an liancy to them . and it justifies everything . if that fails they are easily disirtened.y at once place the knife on your throat. the remainder at the sides being allowed to&U i r the shouhlers.

The chiefs and upper classes are more dviUKd. bat HANS. Chap. the people are as gross and coaise savages. that unfoi ihed .rhaps he still more difficult . under ■ history. XXI. Al 8t and th )m they I forbid it )urage of ish to est itlQUOUS c r ol the u it matten imer direi m to play CHARACTEB OP THE AFGHANS. 'eni them if he pays tbem well and does not interfere with d»r . a a now hai a the par hen. adeness o the com he has a :his privili conversat st hesitat I hiniBelf hem unii B moat p< the rich tbiB ind( este and ' ives whic iportance lour" ar highest ost alway retty near it has be ig states 8 e to pure ia.

and Attilas are never wanting amongst them. as others have fallen to-day is? bere b no shade of difference between the character of the in or the nomade.aion for rapbe and devastation. it can be adted that an Afghan has a conscience at all : it is imposuble to ' on their promises. once in the victors' power. there is no tie they ild not break. the god of the human race . to gratify tbrir lity for wealth. devoid of a right-minded feeling. even prostitute the honour of their wives and ghters. Thb surpasses all that can be imagined . and yet the examples aie t. fightjng. io order to give tbem a sacred racter. one is nevertheless frequently liable to be a in by their apparent frankness . Accustomed from their childhood to see humui IJood CHARACTER OF THE AFGHANS. ' allow themselves to fall into these snares. Gold in Afghanistan ii. Towns and villages by hundreds have endered on the fiuth of such obligations. and bind themselves by the most mn oaths to respect them. It is extraordinary that. The majority of wars which they wage against one another generally termiiute me or more of these massacres. and to satisfy it they are capable of conunitting the atest crimes. and ya animated by the most ferocious instincts. for who knows whether he will not fall arrow by his neighbour's sword. and di»bancee are at timee necessary to their very existence. to which they affix their . a town life does not soften their habits. n they can cite an example of a town which they have depoited and razed to the ground. no duty they would not desert. but nevertheless perjure themselves with an impudence "ectly inconceivable. stipulating that the i of tbe inhabitants should be spared. Ce*p. XXI. Pillage. Murder is a game. 'hey submit to the laws only after they have tried every means vade them . and. and glory in the idy and cruelty which tbey show in their acts of devastation . Their cupidity and avarice are extreme . live there as they live in a tent. and are owed by lon^ days of repose and idleness. always armed to the teeth. ready for the onslaught. during which they i on the fruits of their depredations. but a traveller is not long ictim of their clumsy cheating. it sUfles the I small cry of every man's conscience. transcribe them on a Koran. which can succeed only amouget . Though they full of duplicity. and lequently they have no scruple in despoiling those who are ker. knowing their own bad fiuth. a slaTe to his passions. Huns. they have not been aterated. and they ice a feeling of vanity when they commit one. or their fidelity. tbeir friendship. they imagine they have given grandest idea of their power and valour : tbey are. in shoit. if^ indeed. it is ttiable. they consider it perfectly lawful in thoee who are tiger or more powerful than themselves to plunder them. ■e than anywhere else. that. They enter into engagements. whom they frequently put to death after they have iived the price of their dishonour. For it they will sacrifice all — their native and ependent pride .

&c. particularly Europeans. and if are bo liberal as to present you with an egg. Jiey are sure to have an interested object in view . 289 little soup. they put all reserve aside. no praise. they rarely work . and. If with some bread they give a Chap. The common people are not alone in this love of putting their hands into other people's plates. They are hospitable to travellers. and when they have the good fortune to meet with a table well furnished. the rich lise it only from ostentation. at any rate it is a fact that never came within my knowledge . are ly the result of a natural and sincere feeling on their part. however expressed. Strangera. for their minds are rather heavy than acute. THEIR FOOD. the highest personages do not object to refresh themselves at their neighbour's expense . are obliged to enter into the most minute lis of their housekeeping. who pounced upon and cleared them off in the twinkling of an eye. and an easy host. their kiod lUons. those who are in good circumstances consider it a burden which they would ngly cast aside. they have the reputation of being exceedingly hospit« able . and always parsimoniously. easily see through them . or an appearance of politeness to an individual. their greatest anxiety. and I have more than once seen the Vizier Yar Mohamed Khan. and when the amount of plunder is insufficient for requirements. and other chiefs. after having finished their own repast. howevo'. present the remains to some of their guests. has cost them nothing. you will find that the or whatever the service may be. make an enormous feed. were it not that they fear public opinion . ileness being the dominant vice of this people. but if to these they add a ration of rice or meat. will go from door to door in the hope of getting a dinner: [ers-on are indeed so numerous that the chiefs. rice forming the best and most appetising part . in all J they take every means in their power to evade it . they are always thinking of some expedient by h they can procure money . as they themselves express it (kharabi singuin).iselves. it is because expect to have an ox iii return : if they are of any service to and they ask for nothing in exchange. after 3g provided for their wives and diildren the barest pittance. This habit of living at the expense of other people forces the Afghans to practise sobriety and firugality. ascertain how they can get their daily bread without having Ly for it This is their one only thought all their lives . It is rare indeed that an Afghan's appetite fuls him. bat because this is an ancient custom. seizing the bones with as much alacrity as woiild have done the most &mished poodle. which has the force of law. They live on fruit nearly half the year. would be su£Sciently strong to mark the estimation in which their generosity is held.. and even the reiga himself. many of them generals. governors of towns. XXT. her trouble or money. and give instructions to their servants D the character and quantity of the food they are to place ■e their voracious visitors. is not a virtue which springs from the heart .

no matter how dean he may be. or the kalioon of the Persians. In eating. They will not eat meat unless it is /lalal (lawful). mixed with a substance which in the East is known under the name of kechk* The flesh of the abeep or goat is what the Afghans prefer . one at noon. the rich only can afford to purchase it: the ox.of their food . as with the rice. and then stuff it into their mouths. the following sacrificial words heing pronounced during the operation. It is only persons in easy circumstances who can afford. the camel. the other at nine o'clock at night. but notwithstanding the low price at which it is sold. but the dirtiest and the most disgusting : it is sufficient that they are Mussulmans for them not to feel the least annoyance. or simply bread. They make two meals. is the animal food of the people. however. bruised between two stones. as they say it produces diarrhoea. The highest personages not only permit the lowest to eat with them out of the same plate. but they like to be within a circle of ideas of the narrowest kind They have neither the genius of creation nor the faculty of imitation. but. on which they pour rancid grease. that age or infirmities have rendered unfit for further service. and yet they will be scrupulously careful not to eat with a person who is not of their religion. they frequently smoke the tckilimj a kind of water-pipe. which does not. TTiey season it in their pilaus. with their heels tucked under them. They refuse to take the least trouble to learn anything which would open tlieir minds and add to their well-being. that is. and convey their food to their mouths with their fingers.— Ferritr. It would be difficult to conceive the ignorance of the A^hans. and its throat cat in a particular part of the neck. XXI. but very inferior to the narghile of the Turks. which only fatigues and enervates those who pursue it. convinced that science is a useless burden. '^ Are not these Europeans foola^" . and are satisfied with the bigoted and confined views which have been handed down to them by their ancestors. The principal food of the villagers and nomades is koarooty a kind of pudding made of boiled Indian com. Meat is not much liked unless it is swimming in grease . unintelligent. and the horse. knead them together with their fingers.to cat it every day. then it is delicious. they are brutes. like them also they take their meals sitting on the ground. Chap. however. like the Turks and Persians . prevent them from being excessively presumptuous . they mix one dish with another. animal must have its &ce turned towards Mecca. not. without making them at all happier. U 290 THE AFGHANS : THEIR IGNORANCE. in accordance with their law and rule of faith — Bismillah rahman rahim (In the name of the most merciful God). the * The lettlement in whej. They throw away the lean.

In summer they are made withoi hmDg. and their correspondence is carried on in * They oannot Trinity. and history. particularly so. and the feet with slippers without quarters. fo squat on the ground without taking the least thought wfaetfa spot on which they sit is clean or dirty. They consist of two rohes. Arabic. the outade one and times a thud robe is used as a cloak. for the most part. They believe also in magic. is rilk. will not. and soil them the very first day they are put on. but some young chiefs have their ornamented with gold lace or embroidered with gold thread. while they are preparing for themselveB the most dreadful punishments which they must suffer for ever in another world. or. called barek : this is the dress of the people. only di&rence in the garments of ^e rich is in the material. They never changi garments. aetronomy. They liare a few works in tiuB hinguage.say they. and consider lux this respect as enervating . o cloth. and hang a number of amulets about themselves and their horses. which reach the bands. The former is open at the side fri neck to the waist. not even the shirt. until they are completely won . but these ^ M of fictions and deficiencies. the great families speak it. medicine. open at the foot. The shirt is very full. whii eiceasifely large. which is a mixture of ancient Persian. for they cannot. and hare through them formed imperfect Id geography. The Persian language is met with all over A%hanistan. which is wound round the body . The head is covered by an enormous blue or turban. *' to give themselves so much concern in acquiring aB these things here below. have not materially assist dereloping their faculties. for refusing to believe the unity of God* and the power of our revered prophet Mahomet. especially.— Ferrier. MT cachemire. but they read Persian authors bj jmference. but in the winter they are wadded with cotton or line fur. and falls over the trowsers : these. and are drawn in at the vilh a string. are in great reputation amongst tliem. and Hindoetanee. The classes are. THEIR CLOTHING. The Afghans wear their clothes long. and the sleeves. The Afghans are not careful o1 clothes. very ample. The under garment is confined by a piece of muslin. the language of their nation. ' done in the harems by the women. and a person would b adered wanting in politeness if in visiting a superior he d! put it on. and are either of cotton or a cloth me camel's hair. undertake anything without consulting the stars and the auguries. on whom be praise ? " Their wise men are the moUahs and astronomers. the hist. in the least imagine in what way we comprehend the CHiP. cloth. 291 that tffligue: the people are acquainted with it. who excel in this kind of particularly in Kandahar. simply dressed. but they prefer gpeakbg the Ptuhtoo.

and as they very rarely wash themselves. It is probable that the Afghans are not more persuaded than formerly of the infallibility of Islam. and inspire them with a hatred of Europeans. who belong to that of . though they are not on that account guilty of hypocrisy. —-"V-^v. though in some cases they use their traditional laws. where the laws are construed to the benefit of the judges in an unjust and violent manner : they are always anxious to find the accused guilty. they say. It sometimes happens that the person on whom this duty devolves is a child. which the criminal is obliged to make in a sum of money or in land. administer the ordinary law. but when the AngloIndians withdrew from Afghanistan. While the English occupied their country they relaxed considerably the practice of their worship. God. and after their conquerors the Moguls: this assertion is in contradictioQ to their own. great and small. e profess the faith of Islam. Justice is administered amongst the Afghans according to the commands of the Koran. XXI. but. Chap. He possesses the right to grant the murderer his life. as the mollahs are supported by their chiefs. who worship 292 ADMINISTRATIOK OF THE LAWS. The Afghans are Mussulmans of the sect of Soonee. They are religious more irom habit than conviction. called Ali-illahee. this system much augments his revenues. they have resumed their previous habits. The Parsivans and Eimaks. under him. The Eazi is the head of the religious tribunal. and the murderer is put to death by the nearest relation of his Tictim. excepting for a compensation. and everything is comprised in the most rigorous observance of external formai Let the English return. who are subject to the Afghans. which have. but be^des the two sects just men some of them are of a third. and. the Ealehbeghi and the Daroga. wi exception of the tribe of Beritchees. They make the five prayers every day. and they would again relapse into indifference on this subject. as the sovereign inflicts heavy fines. but is nevertheless true. The lex talionis is rigorously observed amongst the Afghans. the sovereign. but there is no instance of this ever having been exercised. and. and the influence of the moUahs was much reduced . but it is not the same in Kandahar. and from that moment have endeavoured to excite a spirit of fanaticism in the people. The Afghans of Herat and Kabul may congratulate themselves on the equity and justice with which they are governed. The Afghans did not embrace Islamism till very late. they recovered it with a powerful hand. aometimes he gives one of his daughters in marriage to the son or . descended to them from the remotest antiquity. observe the fast of Bamazan. when the punishment remains in abeyance till he is strong enough to hold the dagger which is placed in his bandstand with which he performs the office of executioner. they are constantly o with vermin.

stabbing. no difference is made between a crime !%sult of passion and premeditated guilt. but if this has any to which they are most disorders. these nr. the badness of their foo dirt. effect upon the eye. wfaid lorance of medicine. and a further repetition of the offi :!ountry where the population is so people's property. No extenuating < ire admitted . the second ia tre rith the addition of a fine . n II alkaline. without the father being < rith great leniency : for the first th rtore the stolen property to its own emal admonition . i ent is pitiless. I other barbvitjes of the kind. impaling. The diseases rs. or any other punia the consent of the injured party . crucifying. Ecidpin<^. and the little care they take to prevent their d The nomades are generally of a sickly complexio: attributed to the pernicious quality of the water. cutting off the nose. the probability that he will one ds am that he is too severe. for the geBerality t ty be placed at the bar than on the led that torture. ]g to their bilious habit. cutting the throat. they cannot mitigate . or hand . boiling in a caldron. stoning. hanging (generally w TOwards). a bastinado. and othen in France would be brought before our courts of assize. and then hanging him up till death releases hi: rings . between r and murder : from a sentence there is no appeal. it is n( . and especially the waters of the rice-fields. ears.[SHMENTS— DISEASES. the t ) . quartering. it is not surprising ich forbearance. ired man. stra alive. Afghans are afBicted with dreadful diseases. opening the ) inal. J icted for political crimes. cutaneous and nervous he last they attribute to ink .

it consists of flour beaten up with the yolks of eggs. As they have a great dread of the Evil Eye." They have no idea that there is any difierence between one medicine and another . they ought not to be bled in the same vein. in their opinion they all ought to produce the same results. will swallow it on the spot. they keep the arm elevated as much as possible during absorption. and. To carry a Koran in procession. to apply a piece of an old waterskin. or to place it under their heads when they go to sleep . resoftened by soaking. There is. The dressing of a broken bone they remove every three or four days . there is no < arid in which diseases of the eye and lose of sight ai 204 SURGERY. they use only as aperient medicine. and they have a blind confidence in them : even when in perfect health they will ask for a medicine of some kind. they administer mercury internally. the latter. dressed afi. or this or that conjunction of the stars. " I am not ill. which they obtain from the enormous tails of their sheep. Every European is a doctor in the eyes of the Afghans. XXL frequent thaa in A%hamstan. if possible. be it what it may. a schism amongst their doctors as to the treatment of wounds. They pretend also that. but that they say is infallible — it is. however. Chap. i . or vice versa. which they place on the part afiected. bat if they do not do so. some of them affirming that it is dangerous to wash them. of iced water. either to heal or to draw it. as they say. For the cure of wounds and abscesses they have but one receipt. *' but I may become so. the water may not fill up and mix with the remainder of the blood in the vein. according to the quarter in whidi the wind sets.er raw. and. swallow four or six pounds of it at a time. For fever they recommend cold baths. and. They are very careful not to eat sweet food after sour. When the Afghans are bled they generally avoid drinking for twenty -four hours after. or the matter. which they consider a specific for setting a dislocated or fractured limb. when melted. and that the blood. in order that. Rancid grease three or four years old is in their eyes more easy of digestion and more beneficial than fresh . to repeat one thousand times the name of God or the Prophet Mahomet. but in such quan« tities as generally to bring the most serious consequences upon the patient.rious to that organ than the incredible treatment i at the hands of thdr empirics : in fact. ought to be left to coagulate on the surface to reform the flesh." an Afghan wiD say. are infallible means of curing any malady whatever.

in this manner they wi one. They win the con6deoc< ig them they have aeen their d re thoroughly acquainted with them. in central Asia. anc ((hanistan with many fine buih noeques.PUBUC BDILDIMGS— BOAD! iselves and their domestic anii larlatans whom they look upon »n medicineB from India. amply owing to tb' boat. or roadmaking. all trafiic is interrupted foi iliea who eatablish themselves i cultivating it find their way : as they can. but entirely b. hai cb. Such is the organisation of the pont9 et chaussees. caravanserais. and the nexi the enow be^ns to melt. one country without finding any ott de. thir le other are led over it to tram 296 PRIVATE HOUSES. of utterly ignorant. well-directed. the next traveller. At every step may be see e been magnificent. The same system seems to have been followed for ages in the . Chap. Tartar. remain perfect terc&ts are most concerned are the name can be given to path ^ of caravans. whatever i ing for . XXI. traces of their large feet never disappear. and give thi aeir nature or doae. are traced at equently turn miles out of the lat might have been removed ai and oflen. reservi ng since been in ruins. The wretched patienti Qgtead of dejtendingon the efibt ould triumph over the malady d with a resignation worthy of i ice of the Persian. would have le agriculturist. The and destroy everytliing . hut nont or there the ground b Btrei istance an aqueduct has fallen lilapidation of the dykes.

All over the East they make an exceedingly hard cement. and one is surprised to find in the interior every Asiatic comfort combined with much that is luxurious. like the Persians. it is folded and turned JOLOGT. garden. and in which there is very rarely more than one entrance. however. The rich use plaster . as there is little rain. except at night : when it becomes a little solid on one side. by a high wall which encircles the whole. Afghanistan are the camel.construction of their houses . the effect is not unpleasant to the eye. and uninterruptedly. Water is then poured upon them and they are well kneaded. thoroughly sifted. rarely consisting of more than one floor. kitchen. and. nothing can be bolder or more graceful than the form of some of their cupolas. care being taken to moisten it occasionally lest it should become too dry. but they are quite ignorant of any precautions against the cold. the rich have them burnt. each having its own rooms. An Afghan house is usually divided into several parts. They roughcast the wall with mud and chopped straw mixed . sun-dried bricks are the material ordinarily used. after which the mass is beaten for six days by two men with large sticks. and the Kandaharians espedally decorate their rooms with great taste and talent Their houses are generally low. the . never severe at Herat or Kandahar. and by some with two parts of lime to one of ashes . and the third is washed < immaterial . and powdered lime . The great scarcity of wood in this country has obliged the Afghans to build vaulted roofs. &c They perfectly understand the distribution of the apartments^ with regard to preserving them from the intense heat of the sun . reservoir. for liDiDg it is laid upon and spread with a flat and polis ded with the hand. bat they occupy a great space of ground . court. which is ca scriptioo called saroodj maghrebi. 11 the «xth day. they excel in this art. up to the present period but little use has been made of hewn stone. the inside is concealed from the gaze of the passer by. which they use as mortar. this su£Sces to consolidate them. When thus well mixed. as it would b ssively. and to form the lining of baths and reservoirs : it is made by some persons with equal parts of woodashes. but in either case these materials are well mixed. wl other . Even a royal residence in these countries looks mean externally compared with an European house. and. which is. when it is ready it is laid between the bricks. bemg neatly smoothed with a trowel. composed of one third of hot h pounded brick. when it is dry notl dity of thia cement. it is turned over and beaten on the other.

and a few fine mules. g a. but. they must have found it impossible to select a spot near a natural stream which they could turn to purposes of cultivation. Chap. the portion south of Herat and Kandahar also conasts of immense plains. >e found. They dig a deep hole at the foot of a mountain where they expect to find water. The soil of these plains is sandy. Before a population resolve to undertake such a work.ass. running from East to West.ue8 in a day without feeling fatij e great heat of the sun . the wild goat. indeed every variety of g ce. Those from and wiry. XXI. having saoceeded. jackal. and. nevertheless. forestSy having between them vast argillaceous plains well supplied with water. of Afghanistan are the royal ti f. wild boar. they rarely make a mistake. as they are called. I ]. and the inhabitantB are obliged to obtain by long and toilsome labour that which nature has denied them at the surface. and le horses of Kandahar and Kabul Herat. and amongst the Hazar obably the 6ne6t and most capabi Asia. covered with fields. but generally arid. The Afghans take man iiey are bought by the English d particularly for the artillery. for very few of them understand anything of the art of taking levels . ds of scorpions and reptiles swam ■eer. and absorbs so much water as to create a great scarcity of that necessary of life within their limits. or karii. and bordered by a chain of sterile mountains. and wild aes t is di£Scult to form an idea. He rds. though small. and susceptible of every species of cultivation . polecat. It requires much time and trouble to make these wells. outh bank of tlie Helmund. lead it to their villages by a subterranean canal connediog a series of wells. and if the country unhappily becomes the . embles that of the rest of the g IVithin the principality of Kabul erat are high mountains covered ' 298 SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS. The camels are of two so country of the Hazarahs are exa not very active. Experience is generally their only guide in performing these works. and iiicredibly swift . these id those of Turkestan as beast ^ in the transport of goods. fos.

quicksilver abounds . The winter is tolerably mild . and within this confined spac^ the climate varies amazingly according to the locality — the heat or the cold is felt in different spots in the same latitude with very different degrees of intensity. over this province. the mountains. which is called singui pembe. In Kandahar the latter are superior to those grown in any other part of Asia. The Afghan plough is simply a piece of wood sharpened and hardened in the fire. cotton. according to the configuration of the country. but of the other crops they raise only enough for their consumption. on which the sun darts his burning rays.W. Id the mountains of Afghanistan are found vast quantities of iron. XXI. also asbestos. on the plain the snow melts as it falls. and gigantic mountains where summer and winter seem to stand side by side. GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION— CUMATE. and fit)m the sesamum and palma-christi oil is expressed. It is always part of a bargain that. the Centigrade thermometer never stood higher than 37^ in the shade. The rice from Jellalabad is esteemed the best. contain much of the precious metals — but all this mineral wealth is useless. and does not lie long even on the summits of the mountains. therefore. From the commencement of May to the middle of September the wind blows constantly from the N. barley. and rice. maize. They rear also a few silkworms. Chap. and that rarely . It is to this unhappy mania of destructiveness. uproot trees. The Afghans cultivate wheat. and often with such violence as to prostrate houses. for &e Afghans will not take the trouble to turn it to account Afghanistan lies between 32^ and 36^ of north latitude. they belong to no one — the land is valueless and cannot be sold . and deprive the people they come to attack of their supply of water. whether in a well or from a river led by conduits to the spot that it is required to fertilize. in the July of 1845. that the depopulation of A%ban* istan is principally to be ascribed : immense tracts of country have in consequence been abandoned and become arid . especially in this particular form. the first operation of the invading army is to destroy them. excepting the gooseberry and strawberry. Notwithstanding the bad quality of the soil in Kandahar. and sulphur . are found in Afghanistan. are table-lands at a very high elevation. sesamum. 299 AD the fruits of Europe. the water shall belong to the purchaser. tobacco. Three years out of four it does not freeze hard enough for the . vegetable productions are extremely good and cheap. whenever land can be irrigated by this water. but the absence of these is amply compensated by the water-melon and the pomegranate. and 60^ and 68^ of east longitude.theatre of war. lead. and cause much devastation. At Herat. water only has a value. it more frequently ranged between 32^ and 34**. Asafoetida is exported. and palma-christi. Gold and silver are washed down in many of the little streams . By the side of plains.

always obliged them to make a long circuit with their armies to reach Herat. This occasioned a loss of time which the insurgents turned to their advantage by strengthening their position. the mountains which bound it on the north attract much rain.inhabitants to store up any ice for the summer. The population of Afghanistan is not in proportion to the extent of its territory. is the difficulty that has been always experienced by the Suddozye monarchs of marching from Kabul with sufficient promptitude upon any part that might be in a state of revolt. much charged with electricity. That which has contributed more than the tiirbulence of the serdars and the rivalry of the tribes to break up the Afghan kingdom. but snow is rarely seen there. and is at any time difficult to pass through. and the nights are even more beautiful than 300 DIFFICULTIES OF COMMUNICATION. XXL the days. but during half the autumn. and the conditions which govern this question contribute powerfully to arrest its development. and even I cause a sensible diminution of its numbers. For nine months the sun shines with the greatest possible splendour on Afghanistan. The atmosphere is. This principality is bounded on the S. In the fortress of Girishk. during the night. and the least friction will draw sparks from almost any object whatever. and then only in small quantities. Chap. by the deserts of moving sand of the Seistan. and the climate one of the most agreeable in Asia. the ground is covered with snow three feet deep. and keep the three principalities separate. The inhabitants . in the month of August. wind of the spring and summer is as violent in Kandahar as in Herat. The province of Kandahar is Everywhere subject to intense heat. with a slight noise like the breaking of an osier twig. and it is delightful to reside there in that season . and half the spring.W. It is difficult to determine the boundaries of the three Afghan principalities from each other in those parts where there is neither river nor mountain to fix them definitely : in such case the frontier of each is defined by an imaginary line which shall just include the ground on which a tribe subject to its power has planted its tents. The extent of the Paropamisus. but the winter is still milder . and is on this side open to violent winds. which is very injurious to animal life. travellers can journey in perfect safety by the brilliant starlight only. In Kabul the climate is very temperate in the summer. the winter. on the banks of the Helmund. and the roads are impassable for five months in the year. The N. in general the temperature is moderate. which is occupied by independent tribes. the Centigrade thermometer stood at 48^ or 49^ in the shade. surcharged with exceedingly fine sand. The frost is constant and intense.

an is q>ecially inhabited by nomade tribes. the 1 the descendants of the ancient conquerors of the country.000 inhabitanU. they share with them the appoint of the public service. and the Tajiks are subj* them both in Herat and Kandahar. and the fortified position .200. . to i ^y assimilate in religion. XXL POPULATIOIT. Shiahs.700.0O0 „ and Kuziill I Total 2. an^ m&y be subdivided into two classes — the Parsivans. hold to the Tajiks.000 families.000 Oeneral Total. and numbering 12. At Kabul their su numbers. The Afghans i the present time the dominant race. and the Eimaks or nomades. There are two causes which make it very difficult to estimate Chap.* or inhat of the towns. the Afghans.000 „ S00.600. both races being of the same sect is to say.000 1. secondly. the mount""'""" country of the Paropamisus is very imperfectly known. secondly. to ascertain the number. properly so called . I In ths province oTHerat 300.000 „ 300. their warlike instincts.withdraw more and more from the agitation and instability that reign there . * Th« meaning of which ii. and in the political troubles which often the party to which they give their support is very frequentl. the itinerant character of the nomadic portion of it. a fourth part of its fighting men have either been killed or taken service in Persia or in India in consequence of the intestine or foreign wars 'with which Afghanistan has been afflicted.500. The Kuzzilbashes or Persians established in Kabul by ] Shah. but approximately on! the amount of the population in Afghanistan.000 Afghans. maphant. 4.000 P&mTuu or EJmak I „ EaDdaiw fiOO. The population of Afghanistan is divided into two very d parts : first. The following may be considered. " speaking Peniui. of which it is impo eren approximately. and 600. 801 the popalation of Afghanistan : first. have obtained for them the sami Tileges as the Afghans ." — Farrier. they occupy in that city. for the passion for change of place is pushed to the greatest extreme — a remark which sometimes applies eTCn to the inhabitants of towns .000 „ fielooo I „ Kabul 1. nevertheless Yar Mol Khan has in the former city shown them great consideratloi pennitted them to obtain an infiuence which may at some 1 time become fatal to the Afghans.

The goYernment of the Afghan proyinces has somewhat of a monarchical character about it. The sovereign is absolute. Religion is the counterpoise to his authority . turbulent. and vainer still would be the attempt to infringe and invade the rights and privileges of the serdars or chiefs of tribes. the dictator of which is established for life. they are jealous. and makes any and every change which may appear to him necessary or proper in the government or the administration .302 OOVERNMENT OF AFGHAN PROVINCES Chap. one that he might try in vain to subject to his will and pleasure . for each of them governs after his own fashion . this gives the cler^ great influence. he can dispose of the lives and property of his subjects. and is kept within certain limits in these respects only by the calculations which prudence dictates. XXU CHAPTER XXIL GoTemment of th« Afghan proTinces — Power of the Emin — Influence of the prieeta — Turbulence of the serders — Ideas of goTemment — Conduefc of public affaire — Stability of power unlikely to last — Mode of obtaining it — Character of the serdars — The producing classes — They cannot leara Kandahar — Clannish feelings — Mercenary qualities of the serdars — Fidelity of the troops never certain — The result of their numerous wan — The sovereign and the serdars — Superiority of the Mohamedzyes — The power of the Banikzyes — Probabilities of their retaining it — English marriagei in Afghanistan — The Afghan army — Manner in which it is composed — The oontingents easily assembled — Ignorant of military discipline. and the sovereign can restrain and keep them in some . and despotic republic. and inaensibla to its advantages — War a necessity — Cavalry numerous — Mode of fighting — Rights of individuals unknown — Construction of their towns — Tribes of the south — Strength of the Afghan army in each principality — Yar Mohamed'i troops — Money — Prices of provisions — Wine — ^Weighis and measures — Th« Parsivans — Mechanical arts — European manufactures — Taxation. nevertheless it is rather a military. aristocratic. and ambitious. who would never consent to resign a certain influence in the affairs of government. It may be said that in Afghanistan there are as many sovereigns as serdars.

which is an element of order and securit] gOTernnent. The c taries of power.order only by taking advantage of their rivalry and feuds and opposing one to the other. a example. the effect of a permanent state of disquietude and trouble. 30 wars. the most turbulent nation in Asii the most difficult to govern : they always welcome. CONDUCT OP PUBLIC AFFAIRS. and throws the country into a state of anarchy and pertwtitji confunon. and when no opportunity presents itself of getti of their over-excitement on their foes without. To seize « CCTemony apon the property of other people is an example the Afghans receive daily from their chiefs. This system of spoliation and embezzlement is practb fimctionaries of every class. They art have already remarked. is to them portable . In Europe ciTilizatioQ has regulated everything . and this supplies all the of tbe army. If courage is to them the first of virtues. they mak npoD one another. the arts. and ajneliorate the habits and condition of the p when war bursts forth only a very small portion of the popi aim for the defence of the country. instead of occupying themselves with their w onlytlunk of enjoying themselves at their expense. instead of giving them. it may be sa . everything depends on the pleasure or caprice of a number of despots. and it appe them a practice both convenient and just . by their own conduct. or who shall hiaudf tbe most. But in Afgha the ideas and object of the government and the goverm vholly different . but a reign toe or a peace too prolonged with their neighbours. is the guardian and watches ov< interests of the nation for the general good. an< enthusiasm. a constant feeling of irascibility is the result. and ameliorating the condition of tbe people them with exactions and enrich themselves at their cost. which finally leads to sanguinary dvil r Chap. which serves only to benefit their oppressor draws upoa themselves additional persecution. and prefer idlen an industry. There is no unity. the arrival of a new sovereign. it is who shall labour least. in short. XXH. nothing is permanent. there each man thinks only of destructia ditnganization . industry cooimerce. they t egotistical and avaricious in their turn. always at variance with each other. making their tribes espouse their personal quarrels . the mi of ber dtizeos are devoted to science. who follow the example of their guperiors : that the great. and has a sad effect upon the of the masses. vhich enrich and conduce to the well-being < nations. and by the most culpable means. instead of leading those under them in the path.

his crimes or his virtues are of little importance to the people . In Afghanistan everything that saoceeds is legitimate. He who possesses a little money and can scatter it amongst the crowd wiU soon have a sufficient number of partizans to assist in raising him to power . The sovereigns of Afghanistan bestow every kind of title with a prodigal hand. for the most part. Chap. clad in rags and covered with vennin. and their aristocratic pride is sure to pierce through their plebeian garb. and in this way success favours the greatest rascal . with inconceivable ^rapidity. who are overthrown almost aa soon as they are set up. but let his purse get empty. degradation. and though this power is hereditary in Afghanistan. There are hundreds of khans who take service as private soldiers. and has always favoured the candidate who piud the soldiers best tiiat adhered to his fortunes . hence it is that one sees so many obscure adventurers. and hence it is that in this country are seen so many nobles in rags. and be reduced to serve. they are always wonderfully vain of their birth. the result is rarely doubtful. XXIL THE SERDARS— THE PRODUCING CLASSES. even the highest. XXH. but no matter what may be the misery. 305 eerdars. and even servants of the lowest grade . that it has completely lost the consideration properly due to it The chance which every energetic man has of rising to power. the regular succession to the throne is by no means liked and is the most uncertain thing possible. ▼iolence arige which produce a change of goTennnent. and the sovereign. a species of familiarity which is seen in DO other country. and with it a change of sovereigns. and is obliged either to expatriate himself or retire into a greater obscurity than that from whidi he sprung. take whatever complaints . has established between the people. enriched by razzias^ suddenly elevated to the supreme authority.that agitation is for them a first necessity . a serdar to-day wealthy and powerful will to-morrow be despoiled of everything he is possessed of. thus ecei 304 * INSTABILITY OF POWER. or adversity to which they are reduced. been little better than avaricious and sanguinary tyrants. and that of khan so much so. he at once becomes an object of contempt and aversion. The legitimate heir is always obliged to submit the question of sovereignty to an election and the chances of war . Individuals of the lowest birth and class. Afghanistan is of all countries in the world that in which a man's position is the most uncertain . and in a subordinate rank. if he pays well he is their idol . These have. let a reverse of fortune overtake him. the Chap. and the facility with which he attains it. till then. and upon such perfect nobodies. had obeyed his smallest wisL The members of his family will be dispersed and reduced to the greatest privations. those who.

generally speaking. every Afghan can go where he thinks fit . They. however. therefore. are retained in the principality agamst their wishes. which makes a man detest the neighbouring one. no one has a right to interfere with or restrain him . enter at once and withoat preamble into their story. Each subdivision of a tribe is. nevertheless. especially those in Kandahar. the sovereign certainly would not. they would not obey even the sovereign of their choice but with reluctance . who form the industrial and producing class. prompt to take arms and defend him when a good understanding exists between them. when he has one. XXII. and discusses every petition even on the most insignificant subjects. As the Afghan chie& are never sure of holding for a length* eoed period any great appointment in the state. which consumes much and produces nothing : but this is not the case either with the Parsivans or the Hindoos. they approach and seat themselves before him without ceremony. neither authority nor passport is required to enable hira to do 80. merely gives effect to the decisions of his master. they are as ready to revolt against him when they find. interest alone effects a passing unity X 30« THE SERDARS— THE TROOPS. there is.they may have in person to the king . they have the smallest interest in doing so . The aoTereign sees. according to . from whom they hope to obtain greater advantages. they are always impatient to see him replaced by another. any measure may appear. as we understand it in Europe. that every tribe of Afghans has its own clannish feeling. and are severely punished when they attempt to leave it It cannot be said that there is. in anything. and with that easy nonchalant air which is so characteristic of Afghan human nature. settled in the country. they will always sacrifice it to the most trifling present benefit. and it is that which protects the nation . and the purchasers then consider that tliey are justified m committing every kind of fraud to reimburse themselves the sums they have paid. to which they are disinclined. no matter how small. or think. they fight much more for their own interests than for their independence . Individual liberty exists nowhere in the £ast so perfect as in Afghanistan . and his minister. receives. however great and politic. any national spirit amongst the Afghans . for an Afghan is a very unprodQctive article. or a jealous pride in. and of iiiture advantage. Another mode of enriching themselves is putting up the public offices for sale to the highest bidder. The serdars are at one and the same time the strength and the curse of the monarch . something which resembles it. he can leave the kingdom with his family if he wishes. Chap. of purpose. his own tribe. moreover. though not commonly felt : this is a sentiment of affection for. and when that is satisfied the malries of different castes and clans re-assume their sway. their first thought is always how they can fill their own coffers and ruin the country. though of the same race : it may be afiirmed.

without feeling any compunction or incurring the least disgrace . then he is attacked. and vice versll. commanded by one or more serdars. though of a different countiy and religion. or some collateral branch. such as it is. they will desert one party and attach themselves to another. This resistance is natural enough. may be compared to the dukes and barons of the middle ages in France — the more powerful to the knights bannerets. but these reasons nevertheless cannot always save him from ruin . The consequence of this is that a sovereign is never sure of bis troops. 307 aelTes. when the sovereign has tried to give them a chief of his choice. These chiefs. and those having authority over only a few families to the esquires — who in time of war enrol themselves and their men under the orders of the chief that inspires them with the greatest confidence. In war. he has received his power and authority through a long line of ancestors . To accept a leader who was imposed upon them would be to abdicate their rights. without the slightest scruple . the question is simply one of speculation. namely. The wars that have reddened the soil of Afghanistan for the last seventy years have so completely decimated the old families that many of them have become extinct. he who holds the command by right of election defends his position and privileges with greater tenacity. The soldiers imitate on a small scale that which their chiefs do on a large one. which has always ended in the triumph of the chief elected by the tribe. whereas. he is of the same clan as them- Cbap. in short. the chief of Kandahar. and there is no shame in conforming to it. Tartars. the love of money enables them to overlook all these considerations. if any one else will give them higher pay or treat them better than he can. as in peace. and are accustomed to obey and respect him from their infancy . XXII. and his right to govern. an uncle. Sikhs. and. an admitted custom. no matter who may be the . and driven forth. The authority of the chiefs of tribes is much more effectual over their subordinates. the Engliish. that is to say. instead of one of their ovn. the Persians. these consider the chief as their father. They have also the characteristic which was common to the old Italian condottieri. RESULT OF THEIR WARS. passes to a brother. it requires very little to excite discontent . so that the feudal rights remain in the family. and can pay them the best. that they will sell their services to the highest bidder. or whether they have even to take arms against their relations or not . they will pass over to his camp. they are ready to pass from the ranks of the Emir of Kabul into die service of the Vizier of Herat. On some occasions. to deliver themselves up to the tender mercies of the prince . to any one. some dreadful and bloody conflict has ensued. and several tribes have remained without a head. or Belooches.its numerical force and extent of territory. it is indifferent to them whether their fiiend of to-day is their enemy to-morrow. followed. whom they sometimes rule with a rod of iron .

The princes actually reigning in Afghanistan have time repressed with as much good fortune as sevcritj that have taken place in their states . numerically sironger they control the other tribes. who attaches them to his interests much more by the concessions be makes than by the fear which he inspires . and suppress all revolts with alacrity and vigour. and h is the ambition of these men that gives birth to the numerous cb^il wars in Afghanistan. he remits the whole of the taxes. generally occupying Bome eminence. This wretched system gives too much power to the serdars . and t1 the reasons why each tribe is continually agitating and ing to raise its chief to power. if they have not as often deposed and recalled the X 2 Sm THE M0HAMEDZTE8 AND BARUKZYER. 'Hiey i ascendancy over the other chie^ and know bow to a by the divisions which they bo adroitly excite and maint them. where in case of attack they can the more readily and continuously resist the efibrts of their enemies. Mi tbey have broken up into sections or disperseil. and by settling or encamping the tribe of the ' to which the Mohamedzyes belong. in ordei almost impossible that they should render mutual a each other. in their fortified villages. T position enables them to move their forces rapidly to ai spot. Mohamedzyee. and with a riew to preserve a nominal authority over them. and they dislike the prolonged stay Aey are obliged to make when once they are there. reach as far as Ghuznee.individual who attacks him. The visits of the serdars at the court of the sovereign are rare. They prefer residing amongst their tribe. the sovereign is at their mercy. in the plains and t lying south of Kandahar. and imposes in their stead the obligation to famish a contingent of troops in the event of war being declared against him by his neighbours. f<Hr they are generally apprehensive of falling into some trap which is often laid for them. it is because that family ia as it were t to the AfghaoB in general. and they thus hold them in check with grei The clan of which the sovereign is a member always greatest privileges and advantages over the rest. for they are constantly in revolt. but though this . ordinarily. and those who compose it superior intelligence and energy of character. It has been shown in the course of their history to what an extent they carried their excesses under the dynasty of the Suddosyes . The most powerful amongst them are caressed by the sovereign.

they had still less consideration. the husband sold oonour of his wife. XSir. they live on from day to day in y position. turbulence famitidam returned at once . were mea of bad faith : they expected and hoped for gold . and tl first sovereign who made them understand the swee and introduced abundance and security amongst thei f did they treat him when the hour arrived for them t< t gratitude ? this chief was abandoned for Shah Shooj: '. and their fate is dependent on the caprices of / the good pleasure of their enemies. Christians. which is as much a necessity in the Afghan i the effect of a vicious social organization . Burnes has affirme Mohamed is held in veneration by the Afghans. but in this. and one eaw a circumstance till then unheard DQmber of Englishmen.them to hold the reins of govemment for many yea . the father that of his daughter. aa as thej were given any they accepted it and said nothing . restless . and what might i I affirm and assert that they were then received with a and protestations of irieiidship and devotion withoi solicitation on their part. The English took [ Kabul without meeting with any eenous resistance on t and in spite of what has been said. the salaries and donations which received after this reduction were even then much higher those they obtained from their own sovereigns. their avarice. as now. even the bigoted feelii ^oaticism was hushed in their breasts . become the legitimate husl of Afghan women who professed the faith of Islam. Uiut. Then. directly the order was pven by the East India Company to n the subsidies which had been paid to them. and this firom chiefs who s declared them to he their enemies. Mooej made these savage A^hans as tame and submissive as sheej. not imagine that the Mohamedzyes have stifled tl rebellion. coDscieaces were dead within them. the Baruk: ■ overthrown to-morrow. TfiE ARMY. as : other circumstances. their unstable. the brothel of bis sister.

1 intending to share in the profits of the enterprise . and becomes afterwards the appanage of bold adventurer or soldier of fortune. brought about the iosurrection which re-establ Uie power of the Emir Dost Mohamud in Kabul and th Kohendll Ehan in Kandahar.fickle character. attaches himself to some chief as soon as he can hold a mi As ^e troops have no regular pay. — it is frequently brought to a close with th of the possessor. it is difficult t which is the most disastrous to the people. and followen rching pell-mell. turn their backs on on the first occasion . ordinarily spea I BtreDgth of the anny of each principality ie dependent on the )babilities that exist of maintaiiuDg it in the district . and leave b the most fearful traces of their passage . who are not attached to any ef. and without order. devastate the country. for every man is born a soldier. regulating their proidingB according to the morements of the army. are often the most numerous . ich. It sometimes happens that these ^gulars unite in parties. and yet how ^Dce that period have they not revolted against these chiefs I ' vill. under whose command they place themselves . Tbete elements united. and in \he greatest confusion. or all together. it is all that in con reason they can expect. It will be impossihle either for I or Yar Mobamed Khan of Herat to establish a dynasty foundations of which shall be sufficiently solid to enable b transmit it with any degree of certainty to their legit! hara . sometimes disunited. and if these princes have the good fo to tenuinate their troubled lives in power. for both one and the other abandon tliemi to all kinds of excesses. form an Afghan army. but in addition to it is another class of combataota. cr efs. each briDging with him ! number of men in proportiun to the nature and importaoce of command. associated together. if one can give ■h a name to a collection of men. but moie en they are broken up into small detachments of friends ts [uaintances coming from the same locality. The A^han army might in case of necesssity consist o whole male population. These contingents united form the army. and elect a chief. as the iuhabitants of towns. thougli not the best. its own army or tl a foreign enemy. Their return was celebrated every circumstance of pomp by their subjects.to wUdk a going. as they have already done before. It reqmrea . properly called . animals. At the first news of war the serdars hasten with ttdr seTersl itingents to the camp of the sovereign. and duriug their peril service generally speaking live on plunder. BU(^ for tance. solely for the pleasure of making it. the sovereignty in this country exists only on conuden purelyindividual. and in the hope obtvning large booty. or leaving it en it suits their views and convenience. they march er their own fashion. individuals who make war on their own account and at their n expense.

when the majority of the volunteere qi .army and return to their homes j the serdara. the chiefs. or to look af^r the baggage. whether on the march w camp. are exceedingly Irugal and temperate en they are on a journey . they form i advanced nor rear guards. badly equipped. such ptrsKta 1 sponges when at home. difibund succesaire portione of their contingents to obtaii . uudislincd and impracticable. great rapidity and orer immense diBtancefi : the inhabitanta [ Tillages fly at their approach. and those whose means enable them do so. who carry witl . All these form a mixed and noisy rabble. ich is slung behind the saddle. it gei ends in a combat in which a very small force is engaged on eide. for try man of the tribe is always ready to mount his horse. but move straight on withoi least uneasiness or apprehension until they meet the enei ^ matters little to them whether or not their communicatio . are all that remain with their colours. Sometimes a dearth of pro j is felt in the camp. and taking no prei^ons necessary to their own security. The Afghans. are also oblif . even when in presence of the enemy. and they can live almost upon anything and a long time . Neverthela^ lugh in this miserable and confused state. and •h of them carries his proviuons with him in a kind of havrttae. THE ARMY. thing that lies on their road. for they destroy and pillage . and ( I less number. go that it often happens that only a fourth. XXII. In the field. the Afghans neyer think of afcertainiog B going on in their front on the line of march . their powers of abstinence and enranee are great. the army mores with CfliF. ouly food enough for their personal wants. plies. that diiriug the whole the operations they generally exceed in number those of the liting men. vu takes place between the Afghans themselves.y a few days for the serdars to assemble their cuntjngenta. are accompanied by so many servants for their personal [uirements.

In the camp each contingent • ■ an irregular circle. which. hut the ground ii ocmpied. at the first place they come to. but I : ference near villages. it I occurs that the various contingents marching in several co! Sliding the springs or wells near which they intended to e ! exhausted.iaTty remains in possession of the springs. the spot on which they find their suhsistence is fo j tbe line of operations . and the nature of the climat Mil. As this is in some parts very scare t to be found only at certain points well known to all. retire upon the adjoining ones. XXII. but this is m L 312 MODE OF FIGHTING. and a bloody conflict is tbe result. Chap. and where wt Ef^rce. under a burning sun. Tbe mass of the Afghan army is composed of ci aitd the national character. they pitch their camp by hap-hazard i out system or order. the baggage and the chiefs tent being 'pntre. and the other iintisue its search elsewhere. when the str . and where th also sure to find water. excepting in tbe mountains north of 1 i» held in little estimation amongst them : there the caui difficult and the climate temperate. which they can plunder. With a little forethought and arrangement these ob voold readily and promptly be overcome.left open . hut in the other pa Afghanistan the people do not fancy traversing on foot mil milbs of desert plains. country in which psople care to overcome difficulties : anything that is easy of execution and can be effected in a brief space ot . are tbe prindpal reasons that lead them to prefer tb: to infantry.

" Before they encounter their adversary. and when they say of any one ^' chemchiri adam est" (that man is a swordsman) they have paid him the moat flattering compliment. or will tend to their advantage in victory. they pounce upon their enemy like a tiger and make a horrible massacre. in the words of the proverb.time is much more to their taste. MODE OF FIGHTING. For the theatre of combat between their armies the Afghans always select large plains. It cannot be denied that the Afghans are excellent skirmishers and experienced foragers. in order that their numerous cavalry. their neighbours the Sikhs. previously subject to them. they always attack in line parallel to t)iat of ' the enemy and on all points at once. they never eeek to turn a poetti^m or tu make a diversion . however.XXJI. Strategy and . and after he has wandered for days in the desert they have made. War to them is a trade. but not any clever dispositions or a knowledge of military operations . each detachment fighting after its own devices. for they possess the necessary qualifications in a much greater degree than Europeans. if they could charge regularly and in line it would be perhaps the finest cavalry in the world. in no one instance has so little desire been shown to augment the means of resistance and aggression. the majority of them confiding in the talents of their chiefs. or estimating in a military sense the features of th« ■Vflir. " the hull by the horns. on which they place a blind reliance. destroy the aqueducts . taking. The reason of their succesB against the other Asiatic hordes up to this day has been their Am in the attack. in dieir eyes the shortest road is the best . but then they are subject to regular discipline. their courage. md not even by compulsion could they be initiated in these power- . or sometimes endangering the lives of their comrades. may be able to deploy freely . so that their courage is limited within proper bounds. directly they had obtained even a partial knowledge of European tactics. Their instinct tells them what movement will ensure their safety under defeat. directed by one impulse. out of which they cannot step without compromising their discipUne. defeated the Afghans and seized some of the most valuable provinces in their territory. expel the inhabitants. 3(3 ground . European soldiers would certainly effect as much as they could under the same circumstances . they bum the villages. they endeavour to weaken him by ruining the country in his front. nevertheless. so that he cannot maintain himself. unrestrained by any subordination and discipline. and which prove that their chiefs are completely ignorant of the first elements of the art.tactics are unknown to them. those who command them not being any wiser than themselves. The sword is their favourite arm. panting with thirst and extenuated by hunger. They have no idea of the advantages of position. for it would be impossible to give the name of science to the thousand absurd proceedings which they employ. They are perfectly independent in their manoeuvres. The love of war is felt much more amongst Afghans than all other Eastern nations.

whose artillerj' cleverly served. These are ready to rush forward and plunder if their comrades in advance are victorious. and the length of time they bup. The artillery especially. The Afghans never disband until they have failed in three charges successively. inspires them with no less.fat agents in obtaining victory. according to the degree of ardour they may possess. that terrible arm in the hands of Europeans. like themselves. To express any humane or generous sentiments after a victory is in their eyes the greatest weakness . more or less distant from the first. and are constantly repeating thift. but because they did not. But this impulsive ardour. fate. and infantry squares solid u walls. convert it into a vast desert. deluged with the blood of the inhabitants. but their presumption is greater . this daring bravery. made fearful havoc in their squadrons. In the Afghans enthusiasm and impulse are not the result of . and the most courageous place themselves in front . certain of the hardest possible toil and the most inhuman treats ment : a large ransom is the only chance of liberty. They will have independence of action. opportunities of displaying their address and their physical etrength . and a hundred times better is it to die on the field than sunriye to be his slave. averdon than it did formerly Montluc or the Chevalier Bayard. They have no idea of the rights of individuals. Chap. nor any regard for public opinion. and the second said it was a shame that a brave man ^onld be exposed to die by such a miserable device. 314 THE TOWNS. because they believe that talkh. The chiefs are far more mtent upon signalizing their personal courage than upon directing their troops. XXJI. but after that it becomes inaposeible to rally them. is agsunst them. it is not because they evacuated the oountiy. if other nations were. they never cease to boasl. Their valour is incontestable. and that they would offend God by longer opposing his decrees. and reject every idea of combination and unity in tbeir movements. and if they have lost the ideas they first formed of the power of the British. they place the triumph of individual courage far above that of science. or to run away if they are beaten. till then there is no quarter from him. When they attack they utter loud cries. the rest form a second or third line. woe indeed to the conquered! for an Afghan ceases not from slaughter till his arm is wearied with strikiug . slackened when they bad to meet the firitish. But if they gain the day. they could give laws to the world. the first of whom looked upon it as an invention of the devil. of which ihey were so proud. armed only with the sword. or fear of reprisals. the information they are to afford being iDtimated by their numbers and position. before they left it. who are not under any control when they have been a short time in action. In time of war the Afghans carry on their communications by signal iires on the mountains. Agdnst cannon the Afghans feel that tbey cannot trust to the prowess which they value so highly.

suddenly. A great proportion villages in Kandahar and Herat are. or stratagem. in their eyes. but more or less perfect in their form. by escalade. the walls are of conaid solidity. and in some instances there are no turrets except angles. for the plain and ^ple purpose of satisfying their ferocious instincts. having proclaimed Djehad. and justifies all their actions. the last argument of a nation who respects itself. like the towns. and but rarely of fanaticism . The tribes of the south are lees qi some and less able to support the fatigues of warfare than . enclosed by one very thick and high wall of earth. those at the angles being laiger. however. The ditch which surrounds the enceinte Chap. SOUTHERN TBIBES— ARMS. and having a banquette within. they are seldom protec a ditch. which at stmcted in positions defended by nature. but not to those in the mountains. surprise. War. or more often by lying and false oaths. on which two men. the climate be very hot and rain so very infrequent. solid. Nothing is more natural. enclose mud walls of about 12 or 15 feet in height. The gates are strengthened with large nails and bands of iron. ""* *" give them greater security there ia a portcullis with loo above it to defend the approach. The majority of their towns are square. is with them the first and only one. or soldiers of the Faith. The inaptitude of this nation for discipline and military c sation arises from their spirit of impatience under the sli idea of restraint . the numerous battalions of the Infidels are powerless a a handful of the Ghazeee. — thi is indispensable for effecUng a practicable breach. It is by long blockade or treachery. and to this feeling their relipon contribut they are taught to believe that. at most. that they possess themselves of a fortified place. like the tiger. embattled and loopholed. the Afghans are remarkable for the obstinacy of their resistance and the correctness of their aim when they are behind walla When they are the assailants they always attack. and 4 in thi at the base. but they are all that is required to sustain the m' attack customary in the country .noble sentiments. These remarks apply to the towns and villages situated plains of Kabul. force. than to seize upon a neighbouring state. or even. but narrower at the top . without having received the slightest provocation . 316 b flooded in time of war whenever water can be obtained. XXII. and constructed for artillery. and are difficult to destroy with artillery only. can walk side by side : at intervals are placed small hollow towers . Though they are entirely ignorant of the art of attack and defence of towns and fortresses. even upon that of an ally. These defences would be inefficient against artillei served. they are excited by the hope of pillage. but veiy seldom succeed. The c and nature of the soil have also a great influence on the « habits of Uie Afghans.

In KANDAHAR there are 12. and not the least rema one is. and entered the service of Dost Mohamed.(. Dosl Mohamed. They also carry a shield. and Herat .000 Mohamed Akbar Khan. or a ptur of bad pistols . Chap.* present the following effective force : — KABUL 15. as soon as he had in some degree established his power. of these. they were drilled by an Englishman of the name of Kervel. a foot half in diameter. sovereign of^iis principality.000 Af>. Infantry. or the hide of eitb elephant or the horse. or Usbeks. who. 6. Total 18. most of the I are Turkish. he attempted to train the Afghan cavalry to move in squadrons — but all his efforts failed against the power of habit He was more successful with two battalions of Parsivans. Infantry. Hazarahs. perceived the great advantages which order and disciji^ine gave (o the British army. the troops called Defteris.000 Parsivan or Kuzzilbash Horse.of the north . 3. Total 31. 6. Kabul.000 Afglian Mountaineers. 4. The arms of the Afghans are the flrelock. These battalions.X^^ In 1833 Kohendil Khan. and those who inhabit the southern banks Helmund are conadered by all the others as an eSeminab There is more than one instance of this pemidous influe climate upon the human character. became a Mussulman.000 Bolooch Infantry. 3. and rilled. covered with copper. which is very hard.iiau Inlantry.000 Afghan Horse.000 Af«rl an Horh?. Kandahar. who were not so intractable as the Afghans under the discipline that he introduced. and. that the Roman legions gradually lost their courage as they carried their conquests eastward. the carbint swivel-guD. having been wounded and made prisoner at the time of the disasters in Kabul in 1841.000 Parsivans. XXU. manoeuvred badly enough. son of the Emir. The whole Afghan army consists of the three diviuc 316 STRENGTH OF THE ARMY. The fire-arms are coarse and heav hammers of the locks being very defective . sometimes a bow. obtaino . or a with a bamboo handle. as it is said.

Kabul and Kandahar have also a few pieces of artillery. In 1838.the assistance of a few Europeans to instruct and organize n^ army. 4. • Which receive pay. and this released him from the exactions of the serdars of his principality. In the organization and drill of these battalions there was much room for improvement. Total 22. recruited these corps from the Parsivans exclusively. forgetting all he had learnt. « 10. and fought independently. but after one volley was given their natural instinct of se\f*dependence was at once in the ascendant . whom he numaged with so much tact that he made it impossible for them to injure or even to disobey him. finding the A%hans ill adapted for making disciplined soldiers.000 Of the three A%han princes the Vizier Yar Mohamed Khan ^ the one who has placed the most confidence in his infantry. by putting arms in their hands. XXTI. TAR MOHAMED'S TROOPS. and their number is double that of the Afghans . such as it ^asj about 2000 Afghan infantry.000 Parsivan Infantry. who learned.000 Afghan Horse. Any other chief Imt him would have already paid dearly for this imprudence. every man left the ranks. and was killed in the last campaign which the Vizier undertook against the Hazarahs in 1847. but they have done pretty good service. served by Afghans. notwithstanding the little favour vith which it is viewed by the people. Yar Mohamed Khan has restored to them their prestige and power. Chap. he has succeeded in forming eight battalions of 1000 men each.000 Hazarah Horse. which they know how to use. and he prepared the way for much future embarrassment in Herat. t . The Vizier. — Ferrier. and after five years of continued exertion they succeedec in bringing into some slight degree of discipline. how to serve tbem during the occupation of Afghanistan by the British. 317 In HERAT the army consists of 8. The Parsivans are the conquered race. the orders of the oflSoeis being drowned in tumult and confusion. these battalions met the enemy for the first time. but . for by it Yar Mohamed committed the same fault that Marius did wlien he received slaves and freedmen into the Roman army. and he persists in keeping up this arm. when Mohamed iS^^lj^ Khan advanced to Subzawar with the intention of taking Her tt. He accomplished this with the assistance of a Hindoo Mussulman. who had been a sergeant in the East India Company's servile . to a certain extent. But if this plan had its advantages it had also its evils. this man arrived at Herat in 1829.

two chahees make one abbasee. et cetera. eiea then but poorly rewarded. and the number of men they can bring into the field. and they indemnify the men by small grants of land. who make but poor artillerymen. and afterwards supported him against Shah Eamran. which are served by the infantry. At Kabul the rupee is worth two shillings. Fractions of the chahee and abbasee are represented by a copper coin called potU or pdiseh : its value is never fixed. and two abbasees a djindek or fourpence . and two rupees of Kandahar to one of Kabul. and varies according to the abundance or scarcity that exists in the market at the time. The gold tomaun and the silver kr(m d Persia are also in* circulation. Small silver coins called i^mtZei are struck at Herat. permission to work at a trade. called chahee and aibasee. and give him their staunch support . In the three Afghan principalities the chiefe are too numerous ^ proportion to the number of the troops they command. The princes of Afghanistan have not coined gold pieces . right of pasturage. and that 318 PAT OF TROOPS— MONEY. Chap. 18 particularly the case in Herat The Vizier is aware of thisy but could not avoid recompensing the brave soldiers who so valiantly fought the army of Mohamed Shah. The tax due to the state is deducted fix>ni. but at a depreciation of a tenth of their value. and with rare talent provides against. for which reason they always take great care of them. and no notice is taken. the yoke of their cruel oppressors. eventualities that might be fatal to him. but it is rarely they distribute the whole to their soldiers — more than half remains in their own hands. the pay when the serdar receives it. There are two fictitious light coins cuirent in the three principal cities. This value is determined every three months by the sovereign on the report made to him by the chief agent of police and the five principal merchants. whereas that of the ducat and tellah is augmented in the same proportion. Hence the superabundance of officers. there are three Herat djindeb in the Kandahar rupee. and he always foresees. 6. Each Afghan is obliged to furnish his arms and horse at his own expense.liis policy has been so clever that he attached to himself by the ties of gratitude a race that till then had never borne. thoie which are current in that country are the ducat of Russia and the tellah of Bokhara. also of silver. and having no permanent command. and of the value of a shilling. The ordnance of the Vizier is composed of sixteen pieces of artillery. who previous to the audience consult their fellow merchants of the locality on the subject . but with impatience. It is probable that 80 long as he lives these battalions of Parsivan infantry will always be faithful to him. in value about fourpence. and 12-pounders. The pay of the contingents is given to the serdars by the sovereign and is never fixed : it varies according to the influence theie chie& possess. XXII. 8. iand at Kandahar rupees. but his vigilance is unequalled.

or in any branch of industry . s. is of the seven pounds. that is to say. Chap. but this copper coin has no currency except in the towns. The country-people will not take it. be is one of the grea bibbers in that city or the principality. XXII. with which they make thei i silver moDey . the one which is generally used is th< battemen of Herat. As to the consumptJon of it. a man may llvi pence a day. and the miscale into 24 nookooda. where Yar ] hi monopolized the right to make it. and are only qualified .ery low price . and this has broug a considerable profit by farmiDg that right at a very hig others. the sir int tola. which.There are from three to five pouls in a chahee according to drcum stances. and if the ] int them with some article th of food there are only two thii 1 sugar. Everything. This is divided into 40 nrs. at Herat the contrary is the case. or sell their provisioris to the caravans and travellers. the rest never occupy themselves ii S20 PARSIVANS AND mNDOOS. is sold by i A^baoistau . where it is compulsory to receive it. Cloth and manufactured articles are measured by which is 3 ft. tbia is the only measure sanctioned by the govemn nre that an Afghan will purchase cloth in the bazaar is measured from the hand to the elbow. The Afghans who take any part in commerdal affain tew in number . they are principally the Babeeg. asl have just stated. 3|in. It is divided into 16 guireh or k one of these is subdivided into 4 nokteh or points. The Following b the current value of tl mentioDed articles of first neceasity in Afghanistan in the y It is strictly forbidden to make or drink wine at E Kandahar . they have in fact the greatest repugnance to every kind of occupation. whether solid or liquid. who 1 wuth of Kandahar . from the elbow to the very extrec middle finger. unless they obtain in exchange a piece of coarse cotton cloth manu&etored GHT8 AND MEASURES. and more esp bis own. ihabitAnts are so idle and po J ^ .

all commercial affairs are in their hands. they employ therefore these Syudi their agents. and rel from that town with English goods to Afghanistan. To the Parsivans must be added some few Hindoos. The Paravans in the towns as well as in the villages are. exact in fulfilling their engagements. Directly an Afghan receives a concession of land from his chief. and sets out to plunder his neighbours. but once invested with the least power. who tills. the industrial class . and the nomades or country people who have pasture or arable land never farm this themselTes. for they Tenerated By the tribes. sows. and some of them are immensely rich. The Afghans are incapable of imitating them . for i wodd be stripped before they had traversed half the road betw Kandahar and the Indus. they know only how to fight. vould be hazardous for Parsivans and Hindoos to undertake sim eipedtiioos and embark in an import and export trade. They are considered extremely honest in all business transactions. The mechanical arts of indispensable utility are but imperfe kaown in Afghanistan : they manufacture inferior sabres. in a word. the Parsivan is in like manner the shepherd . Everything about them denotes the greatest humility. it is their activity and intelligence that support the country and those who govern it. XXir. that does not give them much concern. They taJie these horses to Shikapoor. he procures as best he can a horse and arms. TuriomaDs. gl . and affecting great simplicity in &eir dress. and live from hand to mouth. MECHANICAL ARTS— THA1>K. as we have already stated. rarely making a competency when they have no public appointment . who are attracted to the Afghan towns by the hope of gain . if they have flocks. always ready to enter into comaiercial transactions. and evincing like the Israelites the same intelligence and activity in all their operations.either to make war or to plunder. which does not however protect them from the contempt of the Afghana Nevertheless. all manufactures . and they console themselves if it does by filling their strong box with Russian ducats or Bokhara tellahs. as forming part of the commercial and industrious class. and if the Afghan is overtaken by poverty. and when the crops are housed he has a third of the produce for his trouble . generally speaking. and reaps it for him. he places it and a few oxen in the charge of a Parsivan. even those most addicted to pillage. These are especially employed in the somewhat unsaintly occupation of horse-deeding with the Hazarahs and Cjiap. Their titl Syud smooths all the difficulties of their journeys. they are here what the Jews are elsewhere. displaying the same poverty-stricken appearance. and devoted to those to whom they have once attached themselves. Syuds or descendants of the Prophet. The very few Afghan merchants that are met with are. Those who inhabit the towns are habitually in the employ of their wealthy countrymen. they enrich themselves by every species of exaction. who will not profane their holy origin by serving any master.

rich and heavy slk goods. woollen \ cotton goods. of which they make their robes and cloaks. those that I saw tbei« were generally speaking of French manufacture. and more in demand than the same aitkles of English make. spectacles. who have established thi tthes at Kandahar. called kourk. cloth. muslins. a fruit which grows with pecu luxuriance near that city : workmen. is their principal article of ma bcture. Herat. or coarse cotton cloth. she might hope to introduce several millions of francs of merchandize into Central Asia annually. which they purchase in i laige quantities. is used by the oomades for their te Masonry. which are very handsome. eiport a pretty large quantity to Turkestan and Feraia. for turbans and sashes for the trust. if France had a commercial treaty with Persia. Fowling-pieces and watches would find a re. and carpenters' or joiners' work are pretty genen viderstood in thia country . have not been able to obi the same results with the pomegranates grown in those provii as they did with the fruit of their native city. coarse cloths of goats' bur. and which are not produced even in si quantities in their own country. The Emir Dost Mohamed and Yar Mohamed have endeavoured by every meam Id their power to encourage their subjects in manufacturing some of the articles which they require from European countries. A thick cloth^manufactured from the long coarse hai tbe camel and goat. and others of cam bur. they raise and weave a little ^Ik of a li teitnre. ' kerboa. have a gi reputation all over Central Asia. and Persia arc excellent markets (a England and Russia. with the wool on. Delf. and there only. cutlery. Turkestan. they also work tolerably well leather . who have nearly monopolized the tnde of those countries . the Paravane responded more readily to thii appeal. but on such subjects to speak to an Afghan or a deaf man is alnolutely tite same thing . The Afghans purchase in Persia. This is done with considerable art. the lower and middle classes wearing scan •njtbing else. XXH. and dye it of a red colour : the women's chemises are m of this. 322 POBEIGN TRADE— REVBSUK Cuat. woollen or cotton. a number of articles of European manufacture. but they were very soon disgusted with the knowledge they acquired. and sugar might be imported with advantage. particularly the latter. . silk goods. Amongst these the following i be mentioned — metals. and with it they make their shirts and trousers. paper. wl they cannot do without. Bale in A^baniBtan . and the do nude with these skins. and sheep-skins. and more eapedi ID India. for it was only a source of misery to tbem : under oat pretence or another the wealthy and powerful claaees made them work for their benefit and without sufficient remuneratioa The best gunmaker in Boindahar was incarcerated in the fortrfM of . and at Herat.delf. It appears that their supei quality is to be attributed to the fact of their being prepared v the rind of the pomegranate. aiid ttui avoid the high prices at which they are obliged to purchase tbem. Afghanistan. are beautifully drea *t Kabul. called barek. Turkestan.

For a camel ani mare. whether male or female. The Eimaks. a he-goat or a sheep is free of t For all animals without distinction. on the abeard pretext that he was bom at a village within his jurisdiction. pay the contribution dte ser khaneh. and the fifth is that of the south from India by the Indus. firoro which the Afghi : of the tax. a te: of their value is paid when they are sold in the public market. . think themseWes fortunah of what they should legally pi »r part it is true are of the sect J the kharadj. or fourb ■hillings and eightpeoce for each family : orphans and widows i free of this impost. sixteen djindeks (fire shillings and fourpence) . by "Bokhara. Foreign merchandise arrives in Afghanistan by five dlfierent routes : the first is that from the west. the third. by Bokhara. who were living only ten hours' journey from Girishk. or the race of persons by "bom it is inhabited. to Kandahar. for a o three djindeks and a half (one shilling) . The revenue in Afghanistan varies according to the abuDdana of water which irrigates a locality. empt from the humiliating tribi of the ser khaneh. and the man eventually expired under the harsh treatment be received for having attempted to make a visit to his wife and children.Girishk by the Serdar Mohamed Sedik Khan. and Meshed to Herat . An Afghan. who thinks that any debt be am his country is repaid by the fact of his arm being at her 8em<* always finds some way of avoiding the payment of a portion of the XES. for ao ewe or a she-gc twenty alussees (or two pence) . or capitation t se tax. t the Eimaks and Pursivans. Karchy. to Eabul . who are exempt by placing the ■eWee under the protection of some Afghan chief. £c. Moorgbab to Herat . and Bolan. Balkb. also from Turkestan. the khan gave this unfortunate artizan scarcely bread enough to eal. pay an annual tax the horses or other animals which they keep. n ople. not as it iB collect itiea of Herat and Kandahar. and Ehulm. The ser khaneh is not paid under tfaia name by the Parsivi and Hindoos living in towns. but the bo rdgn repays himself by the tax levied on their shops. Sbikapoor. the fourth is the eastern one. which amounts to forty-four djindeka. Merv. which traverses Persia by Teheran. the second is from Turkestan on the north. from the Punjab by Lahore and Peshawur to Kabul . At Herat Afghans and Parsivans. they pay under another name a contribution two shillings for each tent or bouse. or the nomade Beloochees.

which. but the information I obtained by careful inquiry justifies me in supposing that it is nearly in the same manner as in Kandahar. and that provokes them. — Ferritr. this measure comprises a space sixty paces long every side. When an Afghan proprietor or fanner lets his land • The duty upou uitt. When the travellers are men of rank they have a long train of attendants. and leaves one-fifth for his tenant But when the Parsivan takes the land only. though they pay less than the Parsivans and others. but it must be remembered that the smallest payment seems onerous to an Afghan . Having merely passed through the principality of Eahul. they were left in peace and idleness to enjoy the fruits of their speculations or their misdeeds. the former claims four-fifths of the produce. the sovereign takes as much of the crop there was seed sown. A sa general rule. after they had paid it. Fruit gardens are taxed by the (oief. they work so little. a Parsivan. in proportion to their resources. that they feel the want of the least thing that is taken from them. of whom a great number are servants of the government. but they cannot often elude the vigilance of the head of the village. The inhabitants of the country pay also another indirect tax. the tax of meidane* is levied on all the ot animals at the rate of five per cent In Kandahar and in Herat it is only on cultivated land t taxes are levied . he takes three-fifths. and oxen to work it. XXII. Kitchen gardens pay twelve shillings and «xpe per cord. at ten shillii each . and every time they pay a tax they exclaim against what they call violence and tyranny. it is true they sometimes avoid extortion by concealing themselves if they have timely notice. and also eight djindeks (two shillings i eight pence) on the produce of ten battemene of seed sown. all of whom the villages are obliged to feed. Chap. or cord. but they are subject to the exactions of subordinate agents. In the eyes of an European these taxes appear trifling. and also their horses . it waa impossible for me to know positively how the taxes are levied there. this is violence and not hospitality as they like to practise it. hut it does not seem oppressive to them. The re- . and furnishes seed. 324 TAXES. who almost always extracts something from them . and gives two-fifths to the landlord. and are therefore so poor.Id Kandahar the tax upon animals is only paid upon sheei: nipence a bead . if an Afghan is obliged to work one month in twelve he considers himself most unfortunate. is rather heavy. They might perhaps become reconciled to the impost if. because it is engrafted on the manners of the nation : it is the hospitality they are bound to exercise towards travellers.

. Chap. who are attached to the soil..000 t» In Kabul 140.000 and £24. To live in perfect licence and never to be asked for anything is what he would call the proofs of a paternal government Nevertheless. . .8 10 An aas load ..20 Every horse sent to India for sale pays ]/.. 1*2 % A horse or mule load ..000 »> 32.pression of crime and levying a tax he designates as zalm^ tyranny. . . whether entering or leaving the oountry. Ad. The revenues of Afghanistan are : — In Herat £56. the heaviest demands are not made upon him . d. ... There is no 826 REVENUE— MINERALS. XXII. .000 .. pays . only just so much as is necessary for the maintenance of themselves and their families. . A camel load. to the chief of Kandahar when he leaves his territory.000 in com.. the Parsivans.. obtain for their labour in cultivating it. r. 4^. .000 ft 60. In Kandahar 48. .

but in the A%haD style. these revenues covered all their expenses. this was one of the principal reasons that led to their disasters in that country. because every one had enjoyed the augmentation. all the machinery and tools requisite to carry out such projects. but withuut aucccM — The £ cit.* who are unacquainted with metallurgical operations . We have said that the minerals in the mountainous parts of Kabul and Kandahar are not worked. in a country devoid of everything. he must also understand the price of labour. The results. owing to the ignorance of the workmen. however. and is as brittle as glass even when hot. — Rcstontion of Shah Shoi the British — The latter intarf* BwulU of thii — Tha privt* an of the Engliah dlsappomted — Hi I — Means employed to nuee the . the advantages which be possessed in this source of wealth. et cetera^ he will then have an idea of the real value of sums which appear so small Under the system followed by the Afghan chieis. to erect cannon foundries and small-arm manufactories. also spinning machinery for cotton. and with the assistance of one man. the silver is not properly extracted from the lead . of the requirements of the people. have been but moderate as to profit. of materi^Js. saw better than either of his neighbours. he would like to establish cotton and woollen factories. Yar Mohamed would like to have all this without spending any money. and reTolted when the tinte came for retrenchment. Miroh through the BqIui pMa — Bfection of the Afghan chieb — ipitulktea — Auault luid fall of C ■tiate. and wool . The Vizier is most anxious to increase his revenue by these mines. who must be acquainted with every department. and left them a very pretty profit The English. silk. and who would find by enchantment. ^EK XXIII. and has for some years past worked an iron and a lead mine near his capital. of cereal and other products. of Herat. and thus have satisfied every one. instead of following the same system. :AVE 8H1KAP00B.it Whoever looks only at the amount of this revenue will never be able to form a correct opinion of its importance . the iron can be broken. thought it necessary to increase the expenses which such a revenue was not able to meet. paying the officials regularly and on the same footing. Yar Mohamed.

&c.be treat. and his cause might firom that hour . followed its course to lake Roustem. Kaukeree. situated between the provinces of Fars and Kerman. At Dadur. I the FQad winds aa (bj at e of fitty-two nulea. despairing of then defeuding themselves and their families with success. Noorzye. he had scarcely reached the valley of Pisheen when the ranks of his army were thinned by numerous desertions. Ghildjzye. and gave them the revenues of the whole of that district. Surkanee. &c. He ha mined upon shutting himself up in his capital tilt his bi 3JS MARCH THROUGH THE BOLAN PASS. on this side the mountains. However. The English advanced eerious opposition. Tl h. amounting to 12. Chap. Akhter Khan Alizye. Pelstalab Khan. Ramazan Khan. though two hundred men well posted mi. Ser Firaz Khan Isakzye. and thence leads to the grei land of Central Asia. Kabul should arrive with reinforcements to his assistance. a — Iletunu to the proTiace of Kal iglish — Deeerted 1^ hia oouotryD It to ladia. he bestowed upon them as a fief the little town of Sher-babek. Isakzye. annilulatcd them. Notwithfitanding the advantages which tliis defile the A%han8 scarcely defended it.. this was the signal for the disorganisation of the Kandaharian army. n towards Kandahar. and his brothers. Koheudil Khan decided upon assembling all his contingents and marching to meet the enemy. and entered Persia. was the first to pass over to Shah Shooja with five hundred picked horsemen . The Serdar Hadji Khan. who brought with them a detachment of horse to Shah Shooja. and after pasun^ Dadur. iistoT^ which was interrupte the last incident ntenttone sb force at Shikapoor.. and Kohendil Khan.000 tomauns annually. distressed as they were by a punAi amidst the natural obstacles with which the pass is thickly erery step. Habib UUah Khan. and became on friendly terms with hir always did when threatened by serious danger. but the Dost having been detained by a movement which the Sikhs had made in favour of the English on this side of Peshawur. more than 5000 feet above the levi sea. Kohendil Khan bad ceased to intrigue Dost Mohamed. — Refuial of the Eugliah ioua proeelytism — English coDue: kingdom — Tha Doet at Bokbantnbat at Karohjr — Mohamad Shah leased — Uia pariloua poiition nea. the army having cleared the mountains. while violent snowstorms fell OQ the way-worn soldiers as they advanced along the Bol On the 24th of March. after eight days of a most barasffln from Shikapoor. determined upon flight. XXffl. The flight of the Prince of Kandahar was followed by the immediate submission of the Serdars Hadji Dost Mahamed Khan. the ther stood at 102° of Fahrenheit. They gained the Helmund. where the Shah received them most kindly.

as if conscious that his claim to the throne was not very legitimate. he sent his bn Khan. as ambassador to Sir William M'l nisaioner. the great number of camels. ippoaed that the town of Ghuznee waa not i rounded by a wall and a ditch. Shah Shooja. the King and the Army marched on the 27th of June. numbering 2500 energy. Sumner. was crowned in the mosque of Ahmed Shah on the 8th of May. The march of the troops had been much impeded by the difficulties of the road. who comi jr . more numerous even than the soldiers. Shah Shooja wished to put him to dei he greatest difficulty in making him reno g the defection which had so seriously w il. and the crowd of camp followers. " This town. about 60 . After naming his son Timoor Mirza governor of the city.be looked upon as triumphant in Afghanistan. in the direction of Ghuznee. 1 839. hut bavin i of the fall of Ghuznee. but no resistaooe worthy of remark opposed the progress of the army. and e of the sons of Dost Mohamed. and the King and General Sir John Keane made their public entry into that city on the 20th of April. and on the 23rd of July in the streets of the town. and sixty-eight from Kabul : although ten days ought to have been sufficient to reach Ghuznee it was not till the 2 1st of July that Sir John Keane arrived before that fortress." says Mr. to meet the British Army . hoping by that ceremony to render his claim more important in the eyes of the A^hans. and he marched at the who remained faithful to him. '* is about one hundred and sixty miles from Kandahar. — it is stated that almost all ti the bayonet. fortune of war. and very few received | lelesa. in which the En^ The Afghan garrison. To attad -guns that the Anglo-Indian army had wit e of the gatea was destroyed with gunpo ! second night. The British Army thus took possession of Kandahar without opposition. to negotiate with Shah Shoqje ed the Nawab with being too warm a pa whom he had for some time kept up a co is he was ofacoaciliatory disposition and { ace-maker in the quarrels between his bro . the Afghans were vanquished. Dost Mohamed would not abandon his I . i EFECriON OF AFGHAN CHIEFS.

Aziz Khan. but the Emir Nasser Ullah Khan Bahadoor having despatched a messenger to offer him shelter in his dominions. but finding that he had escaped he sent Colonel Outram with one hundred and fifty British cavalry. He made. The Anglo-Indian army entered that city without opposition on the 7th of August. who had already felt the power of English influence. analogous to that which hi held under the Shah Mahmood. This result was . and proclaimed the definitive re-establisbment in power of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk« The General-in-Chief had hoped to take Dost Mohained prisoner. he delayed his journey to Teheran. Kaukeree. commanded by Hadji Khan. that i He also demanded the restoration of bis i 1 his wives. had reason to consider himself firmly seated on the musnud. As soon as he was gone. and returned full of hi few days before. he made a forced march. — ^moreover. and seven hundred Afghan horse. and gave up the idea of making heat] ly with so small a force as his own. and his little escort was reduced to half its number by the time he arrived at Balkh. Before he could reach Khulm he had to repulse several attacks of the Hazarah Deh Zinguis. Ghildjzye. ed to submit on these two conditions .een the serdars of the different tribes. replaced on the throne of his fiithers. and caused them considerable loss in their attack upon ELabuI. now openly espoused the party of the invaders and made their submissioD. who had been made prisoners . to whom he proposed that h er Shah Shooja. for they were but fourteen miles from the fiigitive Emir. Chap. and escaped the danger that threatened him. this ] The Dost could not have made a better ct s adversaries. the 330 RESTORATION OF SHAH SHOOJA. His first intention had been to gain Persia. The Nawab met with an icy receptioE Imost insulting. XXIIL ■ part of which were demoralized. he could only expect fresh defections. Shah Shooja. Emin Ullah Khan. who might still have created fresh difficulties for the English. Logheree. but a short stay in Kabul. therefore. held the first place in hii ed bis steps when he heard the result o . but having received secret intelligence of this by a messenger from Hadji Khan. Abdullah Khan. and with the exception of some partial outbreaks of little importance. 1839. and went direct to the court of the Usbek Emir. and Khan Shireen Khan. in pursuit On the 21st of August they had nearly attained their object. Etchekzye. Kuzzilbash. was soon surrounded by the greater part of the Afghan serdars. accompanied by his family and three hundred and fifty devoted adherents. and abandoning that city retired beyond the Hindoo Kooeh into the dominions of the Emir of Bokhara.

and yet thi Cing to his own ideas of Government eutral. where all had been d 'ithout wounding the prejudices of a pt nd more easy to manage than the Afghai lanistan they put native officers at the ■artments.ted a great deal of digconteut toding the smothered displeasure that p ied themselves firmly established in the "t of their army to India. but they re^ ing the chiefe that were rebellioue in theii . for as soon as he knew that that chief had arrived at Bokhara. but they were there like puppt tion and only following blindly the di . had determined to leave him nothing but the semblance of it — and Sir W. he wished to exercise the sovereign authority to the exclu^on of his protectors. though afironted at this iTeed< penly repress it.due to the conciliatory conduct that he at first manifested. hi . on the previoua evening from the British C were too clear-ughted not to perceive ti eir disgust in stroog terms at all time i English. which was a very different condition of md brought into general contempt with itives who accepted office under such drci m gradually disturbed the good understai h Shooja and the English . He gave all his orders through BRITISH INTESPEBENCE. or o> t Mir in pladng with his officials others moi ives. who was associated with them. M'Naghten directed everything. at his durbar. and his good understanding with the English. and still had the presumption to m ling. w] eutenant-tJoremor of the citv of Kabul. the Shah testified his great it counteracted every measure that origin. In doiuj appeared to be guided by the remembr >od the Ghildjzye had done when he et in Persia .rs on the contrary thrust their own will upt i. they wished t the courage to act openly. They detcm ithout the least consideration for the ee administrative reforms which they ha lian possessions. but he only acted thus from an apprehension that Dost Mohamed might be near at hand. on the contrary. selected the former from among th e always accustomed to bend to a conque . lO every morning repeated. They. 'or example. Sir Alexander Bumes. lest their own intcrfe should become too manifest. but Sir William forgot. This bastard system alienated fro id the court .

Sir W. and this party cared not in the least to conceal or dissimulate its intentions. which stipulated that as soon as Shah Shooja yfd& firmly established on his throne. It was in yain that they distributed food gratis to the .332 RESULTS OF BRITISH INTERFERENCE. and not as yet completely experienced in the duplicity of the government of Calcutta. no one paid any attention to his injunctions. The Shah therefore found himself Chap. and Sir W. secretly authorised his agents to levy higher duties than those which had been determined on. In vain did the Vizier publish an order placing the sale of provisions on the old footing and forbid monopoly . XXIII. 333 obliged to arrest the monopolists. XXIH. M'Naghten. " they dare not" The result proved that these gentlemen were no nearer right than was the Due de Guise. The uneasiness at length became general. little initiated in the intricacies of politics. a new and reduced tariff for the merchandize imported into Afghanistan. and by public auction. the maintenance of the British army had nearly exhausted the provinces. and a cry of distress was raised everywhere. M'Naghten and Sir A. The Afghans. but they despised the information they received on all sides. but Shah Shooja seeing that this was done simply with a yiew of encouraging the interests of British commerce. and the agitation. the Anglo-Indian army should repass the Indus. On the other hand. Bumes were made aware of its existence. A party had been formed by the Vizier with the hope of withdrawing the Shah from the influence of the British. and confidence existed amongst the English only. remembered the article in the treaty that Lord Auckland had concluded with their king. at first confined to the towns. The English were ill-judged enough to interfere in their favor. whose com was re-sold at the tariff price. soon spread into the country. it is true. Chap. alleging that they could only do so for an independent sovereign. but it was not thus that the Afghans had interpreted it . they answered in the famous words of the Due de Guise. The Mollahs would no longer recite the " Khoutbe" (or prayer for the King) in the Mosques. RESULTS OF BRITISH INTERFERENCE. and this officer gave them the bastinado for appealing for justice to strangers before they had applied to the Royal Government. and they were impatient for the hour that should rid them of their protectors. The injiu-ed merchants complained to the English. and that Shah Shooja was not independent. At length an almost open rupture took place between MoUah Chekkar. which increased the irritation amongst the people. The Afghans anticipated a catastrophe. by whom they were referred to the Minister of the Shah. all the necessaries of life had quadrupled in price. This word ^^ firmly^ gave him. and they were accused of wishing to create a famine. the Shah's Prime Minister. a great latitude. and when their partisans endeavoured to make them see the extremities to which impunity would encourage the Afghans.

and for valuing things only because they are expensive. or otherwise occupied by the English. forced rather than convinced. and that depreciated the value of money . This new and insulting injunction irritated the Shah to 334 KELIGIOUS PROSELYTISM. even. tenfold what the Afghans had ever received before. The deplorable mania which the English have for scattering gold by handfttls in Asiatic countries. without any reason for doing so other than to gratify an useless pride. the British Commissioner had obliged the King to give his officers. and found themselves superseded by Ilazarahs and Parsivans who up to that time had been looked upon as a conquered people.necessitous. resigned himself to their tutelage . But here the English meddled again. as much pay for a month as they had hitherto received for a year . that virtue is practised in a diflFerent manner by the A%faans. could not obtain the men that he required. It is true the English had calculated on an excess of receipts consequent upon the regularity of their administration. But Sir W. but his reiterated complaints created in his subjects the most hostile feelings against the English. and signified to the Vizier. Perhaps the English were not wrong in having a better opinion of these descendants of the Persian colonists. because he could not pay them on this footing. and with an appearance of such method and calculation so totally foreign to Afghan habits. but such a step shoidd only have been . and that the English could not leave him without support as long as there was a chance of the return of that chief. Chap." The English also paid for every species of labour. and their exasperation broke through all bounds when the people saw that the invaders considered the Afghans incapable of serving them. the last degree. and an amount of revenue founded upon the information given by Shah Shooja when he was at Loodiana. and the English lost more than they gained by granting benefits to one class only. he even earnestly required of them the promised evacuation of his dominions. and to pay them the ordinary wages of the country. But in that as on many other occasions they were wrong in not ren^embering the maxim of Machiavelli. ^' that it is dangerous and imprudent to undertake an expedition upon the representations and hopes of exiles. they should pay them themselves. so that all the workmen were glad to be employed on the fortifications. and paid according to the English tariiF. the populace valued not this concession as proceeding from charity . Shah Shooja. and hands were therefore soon wanting to till the ground. created for them in this instance one of the most formidable difficulties they have ever had to encounter. objecting. XXIH. and that without baring previously ascertained that the revenues of the country would admit of his so doing. The officers were prodigal in their personal expenditure. and from that moment he seemed to be indifferent whether or not he was on good terms with his protectors . and place the sum to the Shah's account. and he was therefore obliged to overwork the labourers who were engaged in the repairs of his own palace. M'Naghten refused to comply with this demand. that he could not be *' firmly " seated on his throne while Dost Mohamed remained at liberty. that if those who complained were not satisfied. Shah Shooja. civil and military.

REVOLTS. or rather the English. and after they had become perfectly established in the country. and the j result was that the women soon gave themselves up to the English for money. Previously to the time at which the English entered Afghanistan. inspired a still greater distrust and hatred of the English : who never looked with the least anxiety at these various indications of approaching trouble. XXIII. While they were reforming the administration. Lieutenant Lynch. The commandant was one of those men who were tired of the ascendancy so arrogantly maintained over their sovereign by his foreign ally.taken with the greatest prudence. The Afghai^ have little or none of that feeling which we understand by the word patriotism. aiKl replied that he should do as Lieutenant Lynch demanded as soon as he showed him an order from Shah Shooja. The MoUahs did not omit to rouse the anger of the faithful. The repeated threats. fathers and brothers sold their daughters and dsters. provided their own is in the enjoyment of personal freedom . and these fears being worked upon by the partisans of Dost Mohamed. 335 —but as a set-off. for they are quite indifferent as to which or how many of their tribes may be subdued. and distributed everywhere the Bible translated into Persian — a proselytism that was more injurious than profitable to them. and not carrying out the menace. one of the political agents in Afghanistan. their misaonaries attempted to meddle in religion also. This might possibly have prevented the development of the revolt in which they were overwhelmed at a later period. made a military reconnaissance on the side of Kelat-i-Ghildjzye &nd summoned the inhabitants to open the gates of their fort to him. Lieutenant Lynch was not satisfied with this answer. and without further negotiation demolished his fortress . of separation from them created serious alarm. and they excited on all sides a fanaticism which manifested itself in the provinces by assassination and partial revolt. they are the most covetous upon earth. for many officers were legally married to Afghan women. but this indifiference as to who governs them. Colonel Herring was murdered at Ghuznee. The fortress of Kelat-iGhildjzye also rose against Ihe authority of Shah Shooja. and it was a novel spectscle to see Christians become the legitimate husbands of Mahomedan wives. Another error was their constant habit of threatening to send some of the restless chiefs to India. the inhabitants might have been considered as the least fanatical of any people professing Tslamism Ci£AP. or his son Timoor Mirza. and that in the mean time he would visit him the oext morning as a friend. and the circumstance that led to this was one of the unnecessary acts of rigour. against this tendency to encroach upon their religion. and it was only with great difficulty that Colonel Orchard and Major Mac Gregor quelled a seditious movement excited by a certain Syud Kassem. but slept on in perfect tranquillity. even with the knowledge of their hushands . of which they are so often guilty in Asia. gradually. therefore. is accompanied in each individual by a deep attachment to his own tribe.

it became evident that his offer of an asyium vas intended to draw them into a snare. His messengers were frequently crossing those of Shah Shooja. and allotted a daily sum for their maintenance. was followed by aggravated insults. accompanied by his second eon Akbar Khan and one hundred Afghan horse. and the two monarchs had concerted together one of those vile plots by means of which Asiatics so frequently endeavour to effect their objects. he had every day to repulse some new demand Irtn] his tyrant . as they might some day enter bis om dominions. A detachment under Major Clibbome was cut up in the south. XXIIL o<i the Dorthem frontier. Cbap. his life even was in danger. they took their revenge by massacring all the English that fell into their hands.with his artillery. and that officer lost his life. and after a desperate encountor near Larchy. attracted tlie attention of the Emir Nasser UUah. to leave Bokhara. however. :(3 THE DOST AT BOKHARA. but from that conduct five or &ix days after. well acquainted with t)ie Uzbek Emir's character. and immediately ordered tbe lad. The two brothers were tlien brought bati prisoners to Bokhara. Sultan Djan. The position of the Emir Dost Mohamed had now become mo^ distressing. who had raised a small body of troops of his tribe in the district of Zemindavar. and there was not a moment to be lost in j. and Yar Mohamed Khan secretly sent him reinforcements. but were eocm pursued.rc|ktring to meet the Btorm. The Emir of Bokhara had received the fugitiye Prince and bis family in a suitable manner when he arrived in lus captal. and the chief and many of the garrison lost their lives. The survivors. but as soon as the opportunity presented itself. The Serdar Akter Khan. the Emir Dost Mohamed re-appeared in arms :'. They did so. and the youngest. refused to let him go. and one day sent an officer to the Dost's house to bring Sultan Djan to tbe palace. wished to make himself popular in the eyes of the English by showing hostility to the Emir of Kabul. His father. so foreign to the Mussulman ideas of hosptality. held the English in check in that quarter. for &ough the English paid him large sums of money the discontented A%hans always found help and shelter in his dominions. for Kasser Ullah Ebaot besides his hereditary hatred to the Afghans. Hie greater number of Dost Uohamed's sons accompanied him to Bokhara. who was remarkable for his personal beauty and graceful and distinguished manners. Thb indigence to misfortune. This monster was addicted to the most horrible of Eastern propensities. Alizye. for their allowance was stopped and the Dost was left to his own resources. when the Shah of Peraa wrote to . in which tbe Afghans lost two-thirds of their party. who were of the Ghildjzye tribe. bent for a time to the storm. In the midst of these serious difficulties the British were surprised by fresh troubles. and it is unnecessary to gay what was the &te of the youngest at the hands of Nasser Ullah. the remainder were obliged to lay down their arms.

when he reached th< of the river. though they were active enough when they saw a ch . for the partisans of the Emir h ceeded in agitating Kohistan. he took off the female attire in which he had e mounted a horse. an indiscreet remark of the wretoh intruated n detestable commission made the Doet. the chief pronoce. w eluded the vigilance of the authorities of Bokhara. was by no means easy at the approach of the Engli had already reached Bamian. suspicious of some lurking danger . and a i from the south travelling to Samarcand coming up at the t nioceeded in escajnng with it. which place he did not think it prudent to enter. iotentioD of doing. The moment of the Doat'a arrival coi have been more propitious. and. Hi had left that city after him. Mir Walee. on pain of being A of his Khanat. allowed the Dost to leave Bokhai he was even then actually planning the death of this unfc chie^ and taking measures to make it appear the result < deui Before the departure of the Dost he sent a man banks of the Oxus who. Alarmed therefore at his threats. they rejoined him seven mil Samarcand. but for a brief space oi tboQgfa this Khan detested the Emir of Bokhara. he dreai power. disguised and in a litter. The Shah also enjoined him to set that chief and his family at liberty. emanating in appearance from Shah Shoi Rally from the English. Discontent was general in thi A^han provinces. and command I>Mt Mc^iamcd and his sons to death. Hfqipily. having sent a messei desire them to alter their route. and concluded by gignifying to the 1 Bokhara his royal deteTminatioD of making war upon bh did not comply vith hiB injunctions. however.Nasser Ullah Khan and informed him that he diould hold him responsible for anyeril that mightbefall the Dost. of which the population ref obey the orders. and proceeded to ask hospitality of the i Qier Sebz. afr^d openly to manifest his indignation the Shah of Persia. whom he declared he had taken under his own special protection. fumishi with the means of reaching Khulm. and take care that the £mir should reach the shore alive. and if the orders of the latter were sti! upon it was feebly and with repugnance on the part of t (^als. as he had expressed Iiis I CUF. in order that he might make a pilgrimage to Mecca. he secretly sent away his guest. in concert with the ferryman. ESCAPE OP THE DOST. Naaer Ullah. who generously granted it. was > to upset the boat. and he had made warlike prep to receive them.

and revoked them almost as soon as given . 1839. at Pervaneh Deireb. hoping thereby to eradicate the evil. did not daunt the Emir. nor whom to tn •^'i^ RETIREMENT OF THE USBEKS. ever suspicious. Two other Ghildjzye serdars. and he fell back upon the main body of the army. where the majority of the chiefe declared for him. but Sir W. but did not succeed. and also sent to India In Kandahar severity was pushed to its utmost limits . who had taken refuge with the Sikhs. for showing too much independence. were. and he likewise was unsuccessful . Akrem Khan. Hadji Khan. convicted of having taken up arms against the invaders of his country. after which the Usbeks retired altogether. Noorzye. other reinforcements from variooi^ districts also came and ranged themselves under his standard. that he had been poisoned. and it was almost with hesitation that on November 2nd. The Dost and his companions. however. Hadji Dost Mohamed Kiian. who withdrew into Kohistan. On the 30th of August. attacked the British post at Badjguiah. k < . given up to the English. Dost Mohamed waited a few days longer. M'Naghten knew not what to do. Kaukeree. and being suspected of having pursued the Dost too leisurely in order to give him time to escape. who were most of them about the person of Shah Shooja. Abd el Rahman Khan and Mahme. and the people. was arrested. and blown from a gun. and at last determined on rigorous measures. Such was the position of affairs when the Walee of Khulm and Dost Mohamed took the field. Izakzye. and on Uie 18th of September accepted the offer of battle given him by Colonel Denny. XXIIL those Afghans who did not betray him were indifferent to the disaffection that existed and the progress of revolt: he gave orders. contrary to all the laws of hospitality. was arrested and sent to India.oomnutting some extortion that might prove a benefit to thei Sir VV. the first of the Afghan cfaiefe who joined the English. though it was never proved. still presented an effective force of 6000 troops . and missed the real culprits. second son of Shah Shooja. ddest son of the Emir and conmiander of the advanced guard of Usbek A%hans. believed. This check. and their men. In doing this he made several arrests of very doubtfiil legality. Chap. were alarmed at tbe probable result of such prodigality. died almost at the same time in the prison of Kandahar. who well knew the power of this toudh stone of honesty over the mind of an Afghan. M'Naghten cooled their ardour for the cause of their ancient chief by lavishly distributing gold amongst the hostile tribes. he engaged General Sale and Prince Fethi Djing. added to those who joined him at Elhulm. Mir Efzel Khan.

We have seen that this chief was taken prisoner by the Bokharians after having sustained a bloody combat with them at Karchy. where he was pensioned. Dost Mohamed was honourably treated while he remained in his own capital. XXm. taking advantage of an accidental meeting with Sir W. Their noUe chief was at length utterly abandoned. M'Naghten to make his submission. and was consequently prevented from leaving it with his father. The English diplomatist immediately returned it. Dost Mohamed now retired to the mountains. On his retium to Bokhara he was imprisoned by order of Nasser Ullah Khan. 339 The Doet's soldiers performed prodigies of yalour. who broke them at the onset. in which he was accompanied by a few brave men who remained faithful to him. But a short time after the flight of the latter the surveillance to which he was subjected was relaxed. that he only escaped death at the hands of his own mutinous troops by a rajnd flight. The advantage of the day remained with the Dost. and the Anglo-Indian army would have been completely beaten had they renewed the combat on the morrow. Chap. especially in officers. and had much to sufier from privation and the rigour of the season . — ^he found himself hunted by parties of Afghans. and mancBuvred so well and so quickly. 1840. and they rode into Kabul together. which mark of respect gratified the Emir exceedingly. returned to their homes. he gave up his sword to the envoy. and this led to the resolution which he finally took of placing himself in their hands. his sons. and then engaged the in£BLIlt^y. whom he had left in Afghanistan. his partisans. and wandered amongst them for some time . who hoped to receive a large recompence for betraying him to his enemies. but success being doubtful they determined to conquer with gold . their agents entered the camp of the Emir. with the exception of Akbar Khan. gave him . and being also little inclined to fiice the hard winter in the hills. haring succeeded in making his escape he reached Qier Sebs : but the Elhan of that place. afrud to grant him an asylum for the nine reasons that prevented him from sheltering his father. soon joined him in his exile. hot this was not all.Chap. declaring at the same tijne who he was. upon whom he inflicted considerable loss. who were gradually detached from his filling fortunes by English bribes. On the 4th of November. led by the Emir himself. and carefully guarded by the political agents of the East India Company . he went almost alone under the walls of Kabul. and z 2 S40 THE DOST SETTLES IN THE MOXTNTAINS. and. XXHL SURRENDER OF THE DOST. and the 2nd Begiment of Bengal Regular Cavalry wavered and fled before a charge of eighty A^hans. and was afterwards sent to India with his wives.

power in India. inasmuch as the tranquillity of the country could not be disturbed by any pretender to the throne. every day they in some manner wounded the self-love and disappointed the ararice of the Afghans. a ot bi» oonntry bj th* lg"g'<»'' — TheiT inTiden impoM ft Tiaer on Sbah Shix^a — i«7 — Complwnte of the Afghan cUaA to with them agiiiurt the BnglUh — Abdullah i — CarelsBgnea of the Engluh — Subaidiai QlillctjEf es '— Qensral Sals marchsa agaiiut Islabad — Feeling of security in the English iCTolt at Eabul — Attack on ^ A. demanded for the second time the fulfilment of the tr^ty . Emir. &c. when he sought and obtuned peroiisGdon to join his fiunily at Loodiana. but. P snAH 8HO0JA. and would some day be the masters of the world. magsziDea. where the Walee received the (ugitive. The Emir was completely amazed at all he saw. the air of which was more favourable to his health. on various pretences. and continued to carry out those injudicious reforms which had already alienated so many from thor party.an escort of two horaeroen as far as K>"'1'". who. Notwithstanding the strict watch that was kept over him. took him over all the arsenals." After several months' residence at Calcutta the Dost fell ill from the effects of the climate of Bengal. Barne^B r — Tiia ^^e^■T*' are driTen from tho eity b. thinking the Englieh had no further plausible motive for refusing to evacuate A%hauistan. at Calcutta. It might have been suppcwed that they were striving to destroy their own influence by adopting measures ao &lae and ill adapted to the objects they had in view. Doet Mohamed was treated with great consideraUon and respect b. and expressed the conviction that afterwards fae often repeated to his sons when they wished him to make wu with the English. Shah Shooja. Lord Auckland. and several of his dependents who jcuned him there. they again rejected this demand. wishing to g^ve him a clear idea of the British. that they were " invincible. dockyanls. tham — Commianriat atom pUli««d man Klun proclaimed King — Continual ihinitone — Conduct of the 44th Begtmant han retoRu to Kabul — IncUdaicn of Um — Plan ot Fatreat abandoned — EmbaiBMtioua of the Afghan* — Heetiog between the ination of the former — M^or Pottinger — ngliah retreat — Akbar Khan unmaaked — h him — Engliah anny annihilated — Akbar ictiona between Shah Shooja and Zeman Charaater of that •OTereign. and expected them to change abruptly the . — Subsequently he was allowed to settle in the mountains.

and threatened to make use of them against the chiefs whom they compromised and who were far from dodle under their rule. in India. who consulted his master simply as a matter of form.habits. was the soul of all his intrigues. in truth. be 342 ^ FORGERY OF LETTERS. this warlike attitude was almost a challenge to their adversaries. by recompenang the individuals that delivered this packet of pretended letters^ the contents of which were. The British did just the reverse in Afghanistan. drew upon themselves the resentment of those who up to that time had been devoted to their cause. moreover. and on which a new u had been forced.aod he kept all their letters . and ideas that had existed amongst them for ages deed. and eventually demanded his dismissal. XXIV. the opposition must. being himself a slave. that in several instances they were able to prove his hostile intentions. to be indulgent to minor offences. obstinate . who talked of this discovery. MoUah Chekker. the wiseftt policy would^ therefore. but having himself made him minister. held aloof. and. finding himself supported by them. M*Naghten was far from approving of the vizier's conduct . who scarcely dared to accept it The English. and to strengthen his own party . the new minister. above all. country so recently conquered. The king resisted to the utmost of his power. Sir W. a veil o?er the past. ELaukeree. they endeavoured to make them do so. Shah Shooja profited by the errors of the English to alienate the minds of the Afghans from them. and cared so little to spare the protectors of his sovereign. his vizier. and who were afraid of being sent to join Hadji Khan. to throw. these were found in a little bag on the field fiiter the battle' of Pervaneh and given to the English. the fabrications of some artful and avaricious intriguers — a fact that was proved in the sequel. but Shah Shooja informed them that he could do nothing. to prevent any surprise on the part of their conquerors. After his flight to Bokhara. But this indiscreet conduct brought about a result very difierent from what they intended. have been to attach the people to them by kindness. Chap. and the Nizam ed Dooolet. and was guilfy of many acts of tyranny. committed spoliations and exactions of every kind. if possible. Dost Mohamed continued to correspond with the Afghan serdars that surrounded Shah Shoo]a. of necessity. . but was at last obliged to accept a vizier of their choice . This miserable wretch. always appearing in public attended by an escort ready to fight . for the serdars who were hostile to them. entirely followed the instructions he received firom the English. be could L . surrounded themselves with their followers. and. customs. those whom he plundered sometimes found the means of bringing their complaints before the king .

' if Sir W. economy to be practised in the ns were carried out by the British ligence. I resolved that the death of Sir lediately . and Mohamed Hoosein Ehan. Sikander Khao. Etchekzye ief of energy and resolution. all of } Seidal Khan. E^ould be h Khan called together at bis own ttah Khan. Chaf. ia Company. whom it would mt to condliate.hat the pecuniary interests of the Haserah and Kuzzilbash cbie& rhich irritated the Afghans to the J met in Kabul and Shooja. who could only reply that . Logheree. who well ifficer had taken to support Dost was very anxious to prevent his is court. M'Nagbten.* and communicated to them the intentions of Shah Shooja : to which . and Abdul Selam Khan. Alikiooeye. who have a habit of t only by the revenue it produces. Erz BegU. who be that man. found themselves ose of others were considerably . he ■om this shameful state of depent utt«red in vaia Amongst the was Abdullah Khan. XXIV. Mir a. 343 To these causea of discontent and «ater one. be described at the deficit which lad occa«oned in their treasury. Ullah Ehan. for the king. Chiefs. which was to be postity should render success certain. £min 344 CARELESSNESS OF THE ENGLISH. that it was impossible for him to [t is your own fault that I have doned me to the good pleasure }De man of spirit amongst you. ed of for some time. In the afternoon Shah in secret conference in the a revolt.' AFGHAN CHIEFS.

and swore to oya*throw the British power in Afghanistan.they agreed to conform in every particular. Thus the two officers. and the seal of each of the serdars present was affixed to it The secret was ill kept. of all the causes that contributed to the British fidl in Afghanistan. and exasperated the serdars by the most ill-timed measures of economy. He would not even allow the Koran to be seized for the purpose of learning die names of the conspirators. They made their represen- . Though be did not see that the storm was so ckise at hand. who to this Chap..000 nipees = 4000/. By this marrias. when they at once hastened to Kabul to ascertain the motive for this alteration. 1841. Sir W. he was fully aware of the difficulties that were to be surmounted. and soon came to the knowledge of Sir W. were never agreed upon the most judicious plan to be adopted for the general interests. invested with special power.— /Vrri^r. and modified in a degree the reduction in the pay of the Afghan soldiers ordered by Lord Auckland . being fully impressed with the idea that it was impoasiUe the chiefe should undertake any serious measures. tfie best mode of proving to the discontented that the British were not afndd of them . be made no further objection to the instructions that the Directors had given. The wife of Dost Mohamed who had been chiefs of Kabul and Kandahar ars both previously married to Mohamed Azim equally anxious to attach him to their Khan. This oath was written on the leaves of a Koran. The Ghildjeye serdars. and this want of good understanding between the Resident and the political Envoy wae^ perhaps. but Bumes took quite an opposite view of the case. if three or four of the conspirators had been arrested and sent to India. but from the moment he received notice of his nomination to the post of Governor of Bombay. and unhesitatinj^y reduced all the subsidies which had been pointed out as supers fluous. that they must submit to a reduction of 40. REVOLT OF THE GHILDJZYES. 345 mouBtains between Kabul and Jellalabad. the one that hastened it the most It is impossible to doubt that. were informed at the commencement of October. who was not in the least alarmed by it.e sho had a son cause. lest that act should be construed into evidence of timidity on his part : an appearance of perfect indifference was. M^Naghten. in his opinion. XXIV. it would have been sufficient to put a stop to these intrigues . who occupied the defiles of the Khyber * This serdar was the brother of that day has influence in Afghanistan. but instead of adopting this vigorous course. called Sultan Djan Khan. M'Naghten gave them ample time to bring them to maturity. and held them open or shut at their pleasure.

choked in these defiles. Chap. . the conspirators at Kabul had sent emissaries to all the Afghan provinces to prepare the tribes for revolt . and was very far from expecting to meet with the terrible resistance it found there. by whom they were haughtily dismissed. already discontented.XXIV.tations in the first instance to Sir W. here they rested a few days. on the other side of the gorge of the Khoord Kabul . that when the Ghildjzye serdars returned to their homes. Once in this infernal region. and he referred diem to Shah Shooja. but a few amongst them he secretly received. ^ 346 REVOLT AT KABUL. entered the mountains the same day. On the first day General Sale was wounded and obliged to abandon his conunand. however. this small force quitted Kabul on the 11th of October. On the other hand. if the expreseion may be used. as those had already been between ELabul and Jellalabad. initiated them into the conspiracy against his protectors. Sir Alexander Bumes. Never were troops in such a precarious pontion . and during eighteen days they were. they alarmed them still more by persuading them that their chieis were to be banished to India. where every step of their way was disputed foot by foot. though he did not succeed in preTenting them. and that the British yoke. and wae the signal for a serious disturbance which broke out in that citj. General Sale ^^ sent with a brigade to reopen the latter and force the passage of the Hmdoo Koosh . and then left for Jellalabad. that Shah Shooja was a mere puppet who would soon be upset. and arrived exhausted on the 2nd November at Gundamuck. they raised their countrymen and CQt off the conmiunications in the mountains. the consequence was. without actually foreseeing the consequences that would result from these retrenchments. which enabled them resolutely to oppose an energetic resistance to the insurrection in which the rest of the army perishecL The news of these conflicts of the mountaineers with GeDeral Sale's brigade arrived at Kabul on the 1st of November. From the 1 2th of October the ^foops could advance only three miles and a half a-day. rushed to arms. and assured them that for &e fiitiffe their interests would be cared for. for caravans brought them supplies for three months from Peshawur. so heavy only in a protective character. would be far more so when it became absolute. still harassed by the tribes m rsFdlt. M'Naghten. which greatiy wounded their self-love and disappointed their cupidity. nevertheless opposed them with all his power. and a fourth Pfirt of his brigade was exterminated. and the communications hetween Kabul and Kandahar were closed without delay. and after having reached that town took refuge within its walls with only three days' provisions. the Indo-British troops could not '^trace their steps. The nomades responded immediately to this appeal. but a most happy incident came to thdr aflostance.

and that the British army might be withdrawn firom their garrisons. ih^ attacks being generally made at night As soon as the signal of revolt had been given in the country. and obtained brfwmatioD wbicb left no doubt aa to the Berioua paaif'~ tliey were id . and. M'Naghien wrote more confidently in the same strain : all had fidlen into a fatal slumber. conceived that moment had arrived to execute the project of open revolt. paid no attention to these threats. November 2. This enlighte him as to the snare which had been woven round tbem. Abdullah Elhan. and tl Mlowera and servants. Stc. and other places . The British Commissioner had. They watched attentively the Indo-British troops. .Tellalabad. Sir W. conadering them as simple boasting. the head of the conspiraqr in Kabul.000 rupees = 10. be at last became rery uneasy. "There b notiiing for it now but to quit this counti The next day. the mountaiD passes being obstructed by the snow. in the first instanoe. he saw that the conduct of Abdul Khan was comiected with the rerolt in the hills. Kelat-i-Ghildjzye. Of the thirty-two politjciil agents scattered over the country. but they rejected every spedes of temptation. they knew that these detachments could easily be cut o£F. be c one of hia aervaats to the house of Abdullah Khan to request t diief to come to him. the most bloody of all wars. . in all nearly one faimdred and thirty persi . Mohamed At Khan. without lose of time.000/. for wt be was so well prepared . and also that it was impossible that reinforcements should reach them from India until the month of April. not one perceived the least symptom of the excited state of the public mind . seeing that the serdar's insolence r (kiP. BUBHE8' HOUSE. TTiis officer. Sikander Khan. Abdul Selam Khan. attempted to parley with the Ghildjzyes and induce them to return to their duty. blinded by his excessive confidence in the nsJ&f% was the first to report to the Indian Government that the A^i^ chieb were sincerely attached to Shah Shooja. and exclaimed. and continued to make war upon the invaders. Charikar. S47 increased diuly. Kandahar.The unconquered tribes of Afghanistan waited only for the sigDal to be given them by the Khyberees to rise simultaneously and commence a war for their faith — a religious war. ATTACK ON BIB A. though warned. suspecting that Bur intended to seize him and send faim to India. &c. Emin Ullah Khan. early in the morning. moreover.. but. hia first act was therefore to kill Bum< meeaenger. from which they were aroused only by surrouodiog massacre. and saif openly that be would kill Bumes before eight days were over. who were imprudently dispersed in the several garrisons of EaH Ghuznee. XXIV. he proceeded to his residei ueompanied by Seidal Khan. ofiering as one of the most persuaave arguments 100. the unfortunate Bumes himself. 1841. but the aerdar. took do further trouble to conceal his intentions.

the delay thia occasioned enal: Barnes. combustibles were piled against the great gate. but while putting on an Afghan dresa to ef his retreat ondiscovered. requesting that a battalion of infantry and two pit of artillery might be sent to him without delay. CHir. as well as tlie dregs of the pei^ now surrounded the remdence of Bumea. BURKES. and thus remained passive spectator the struggle. a hnnd timea worse than death. On the way tbov they killed the British officers and aold whom they met in the streets . emboldened by the simply defen^ve attitude assumed by his couutrfiueii. Hazarabs. and the naHon rose as one man agaiiut their foreign invaders. on which nde to expect the attack. and Parsivans. for had the British troops appeared in the streets of Ka 10. the shopkeepers and workmen. for the life of one man.000 Kuzzilbasbes. had thought </ retiring to the cantonments situated three m from the caty. but sent messenger after messenger to Sir M'Nagfaten. a drcufflstance which might have arisen from hb having been gorancr of the city. beleaguered officer never arrived. the. who might have made them ] dearly for their interference. hedtated no longer . and frequently obliged to punish them with severity. From th*t moment tfae impulse ^ven to tlie revolt wu inplacable and irresistible. The mob showed great perseverance in their endeavours to break thw way into the house. at last had recourse to olliff neans . « prranise tbe honour of the Britiah name. leamt from the hollow sound of the blows that were struck against tihe walls. and. no. to tfike it by assault. "] I cannot play the coward. this damped the connge d tbe others. and to them were eoon joined the suburban popnlaDon. And ns right. and the insurgents n tberefinc a long time before they could force a passage. and when a bole was made." With these words be put on his uniform agtun and remai at his poet. twenty-three in mraber.the nucleus of the insnrrectJon. To crown hia misfortune. but the besieged. the artillery sent for by 348 ASSASSINATION OF SIR A. Were I to escape tl the Afghans would believe that I was frightened . to barric the large outer gate of his house. but seeing that the £ng did not take the initiative. who bad been informed of these masBacrea. and tlie mob. the prestige of my authority would kxt. and said.XHT. who retired to recommence operations at some (rikr ^t. shot the fiistmu who presented himself at the opening . they feared to commit themed in the eyes of the Afghans. The inmates had by thit . and wba it was entirely consumed they rushed in a mass through the piwp md gained the interior of the house. for with these cDoudeT^d be should be able to put down the insurgents. conmsting of a few officers and servants. and the Afghans having lost many ma in their attempts to force an entrance. the inhabitants rose in all parts d ttie uty. would have rail round Bumee and supported him . and ten sept^ bj applying their ears to the ground. ml showed themselves exceedingly vindictive in this conflict. he changed bis mind. The defence was thus prolonged from eight in the monmig till two in the afternoon. But to continue my narrative.

XXIV. This moyement was the only measure the enroy adopted. had long lost the qualifications neoessary for so responsible a command . have followed if bolder measures had been adopted. were eluded. and it was with great difficulty and loss of life that they subsequently retook two small redoubts tolerably well provisioned. while it was absolutely necessary to proceed by the most opposite means. in charge of the Treasury. thrown into the garda >f his own house. but General Elphinstone. and.:ime exhausted all th^r ammunition. taking himself to task rather late for the numerous faults he had committed. without doubt. whose repeated messages announced his critical position. Another depot. in which was the residence of Shah Shooja. like his requests. — Ferrier. and which had placed some thousands of his countrymen in peril. who wu the wounda. borne down by age and infirmity. mi le died instantly : his body was then backed to pieces «iA repeated sabre cuts. The staff of the General-in-Chief did not prove itself more competent than their commander. Eiohee. all seemed paralysed around him . strove to repair his error by the energy and vigour with which he conducted the defence. horribly mutilated. totally regardless of the state of the city and the earnest demands of Bumes. Greater success would. 349 On hearing of the outbreak Sir W. were the cause of all the calamities which overtook the British army. and a few other officere. wfstt Ibrtunate enough to reach (he cantonmenta His house and tbt y( Bumes were burned to the ground. the ball struck him in the right eye. Hb rooelved bjiW-'™* fIooa«in Khan. the Resident considered the small party in charge of it as sufficient for its defence. and the principal magazine was in Kabul. but the indecision of the officer jn command led to its evacuation. and some irregulars under Captain NichoU. with his family. and remained complacently satisfied with his defensive attitude. gallantly defended. These disasters. and Sir W. Chap. and the military ctot nagannea. But his efforts were vain. and commissariat stores of proviaons pillaged. the result of want of foresight. instead of procuring the slightest amelioration of their position. j Three-and-twentj persons perished with Bumes. he appeared to have fidlen into a state of lethargy. It was the greater error. and this occasioned fresh disasters. was carried by assault. because provisions were short in barracks. which enabled them to subsist some time longer. amongst wM vere his brother Lieut Charles Bumes and Lieut Broadfnt] [I^ptain Johnson. and Bumes received a pw t>laDk shot from a pistol . escaped by a nine* [bptam Trevor. M'Naghten detached two regimentB under Brigadier Shelton. M'Naghten. .* * These detoiU of the deaUi of sole gurrivoroftbenusBicnui ^ 3ume« ware pven me by Hohuaad hoiue. WEAKNESS OF GENERAL £LPH1NST0NE. his orders. or timidly and inefficiently executed. to occupy the citadel of the Bala Hissar.

* who possessed immense wealth and had attached the people to his party by his largesses. received a ball in the forehead and died within two days. He then . He first permitted the unhappy Bumes to be murdered. Mohamedzye. * Son of Nawab Aasad Ullah Khan. at the head of his partizaas. in inducing the Afghans to proclaim him king. for the English never followed him. half-brother one of the"* deceased brothers of Dost of Dost Mohamed Khan. asd he surrounded himself with all the pomp of royalty. — Ferrier. Mohamed. daily exchanged a few shots with the English. This diief. XXIT. succeeded. but General Elphinstone would not give his consent. sharp discussions took place. for he occupied the citadel with a devoted garrison of a thousand men . but though he captured and murdered a few officers and soldiers who imprudently risked their lives outside tlie camp. the Mohamedzye chief experienced only reverses in Ids repeated attacks.! both influential personages. At the sight of one battalion and two or three pieces of cannon. After each defeat Zeman Khan retired into the dty without being disturbed. and his cousin Chems Eddin Khan. they should at tiie outset have displayed a little more energy in endeavouring to dislodge the Afghans from the houses in which they were regaling themselves upon them. with the help of his uncle Nawab Djabbar ELhan. In one of these Abdullah Khan. nevertheless Shah Shooja was not sufficiently clearsighted to discover that they only looked upon him as a tool to be set aside as soon as the annihilation of his protectors was accomplished. who were shut up in their cantonments. 350 WEAKNESS OJP GENERAL ELPHINSTONB.On the 4th of November Zeman Khan. Many times did the officers suggest it. — Ferrier. though he could have saved him with the greatest ease. and it was the step they most dreaded the enemy would take. but it seems that he lost confidence in his accomplices while that act was being p^petrated. t Son of Emin Khan. Chap. and the rising of the Khyberees induced the king to throw himself into die aims of the national party. and the army saw itself reduced to procure proviaons with gold and presents from the insurgents — the conduct of the general was indeed incomprehensible. Etchekzye. and there was very nearly a rupture. he fell into a far more dependent condition than that from which the latter had intended to withdraw him. the originator and promoter of the conspiracy. which they could have done without difficulty . and as they had committed the serious iault of establishing their magazines of proviaons at a considerable distance from the cantonments. the cause of which was probably secret information that he received from the Serdar Mohamad Attah Khan. and conspire actively himself. After Shah Shooja had concerted with Abdullah Khan the revolt against the English. they would have fled : they admit it now. The Etchekzye serdar and other conspirators had shown themselves exceedingly overbearing towards him.

The British soldier has proved in all times that in bravery he is second to none in Europe . they scarcely made any resistance.M. CONDUCT OP 44th REGIMBNT.Cbap. and a thousand other stimulants. or when the partizans of Zeman Khan came within range: then the Shah entreated that the sharpest and best sustained fire possible might be kept up. though thus reinforced. as they would then have tiie town in their power. fixed upon the townspeople. Several British officers. believed that when order was restored the Afghans would hail him again as their king without the concurrence of the British being necessary . XXIT. M'Naghten. hoping by this means to secure the support of his own subjects. cast down by the example of their chief. but it was quite a different matter when the insurgents cut down the trees in his garden under the guns of the place. XXIY. lost all energy. and to this must be attributed the feeble and pusillanimous conduct of H. he had despaired of success from the commencement. he therefore abstained from helping them. and could.'s 44th and the 37th N. iTotly pursued 352 AKBAB KHAN RETURNS TO KABUL. and waited to the last with the inertness and cold apathy that are the result of a fixed opinion. the General lost all confidence in himself for any useful purpose . when attacked by the insurgents in a small entrenched camp on an eminence which protected the citadel . Ue even thoughtlt very wrong when some of the English troops. 351 thought it prudent to dose the gates of the Bala Hissar before the mob oould reach it. obtain supplies and provisions. his beer. Chap. but rejected by General Elphinstone. by threatening its destruction.I. proposed that the army should occupy the citadel in which he still resided. After this. shut up in the fortress with him. the aamhilation of the doomed army under his command : the troops themselves. but this is under certain conditions : he must have full rations. in his blindness. his arrack. There is no doubt such was the condition of the force at Kabul. This plan was warmly supported by Sir W. who gave as his reason that the discouragement amongst the troops rendered the execution of it impossible . to whom the treachery of Shah Shooja was now evident. that had been sent to the Bala Hissar when the rebellion broke out. indeed he acted in direct opposition to this sound advice by ordering a regiment. the privation of which induces discouragement and indedsion. and turned their artillery upon the city . the efforts of Brigadier Shelton to animate them were useless. and. and cavalry and infantry gave way and fled in great disorder to the cantonments. to return to camp. .

and near Balkh. was withdrawn. and Shah Shooja abandoned to his own resourcesi It has been mentioned that Mohamed Akbar Khan. that Akbar Khan returned to Kabul accompanied by one thousand Tartar horsemen who had been sent to him by the Russian Qo- vemment. had been well received by Mohamed Shah. who made 'a special treaty with Sir W. on what authority I know not.* where he found everything in the greatest conftision. M'Naghten repelled this adrice.b. hoping that that monarch would not do less for him than for them . and his cousin Zeman Khan declared king. he changed his course. and arrived on the 25th of November in that city.secured to the Anglo-Indian troops. the serdars of Kandahar.. who carefully abstained fit^ any material intervention in wovi « the conquered. which he received from all ades . alive to the mournful turn that the military operations had taken. but the assertion » nt*«^ incorrect. the Afghans. a bod of Dost Mohamed. Akbar was obliged to recognise the election. but the disastrous intelligence that was brought in from outlying garrisons inclined him to eDte^ * The newspapers and some other publications that have touched upon this revolt have stated. — Ferrier. where his undes. and in a few days. indeed he was on his road there. but only with the secret determinatioD to reverse it on the first opportunity. that he had little difliculty in creating for himself. but for the intervention of the insurgent Scrdar Osoum Khan. without regard to the superiority that some chose to arrogate to themselves over the rest For several days Sir W. Though smarting under this vexation. in virtue of which a few days of comparative tranquillity were. ^ never received assiBtance ^^^ Russians. I. when. Not having been able to procure from Mir Walee the assistance he required to maintain the old soldiers of his &ther who had joined him in his exile. ' Many British officers. which soon overcame that of all the other chiefe. Isakzye. and such was the diversity of opinions and interests at this time amongst the Afghans.arrived with tweW badly equipped Afghan cavsliy. a powerful party. based upon the evacuation of the country. M^Nagfaten. were of opinion that negotiations. . He . ought to be opened with all the influential chiefe in Kabul. and foreseeing the result which the weaknes and incapacity of General Elphinstone must produce. hearing of the insurrection in Kabul. who would perhaps have forced their enemy's position that day. After this check the 54th regiment of N. had retired to Khulm after his flight from Bokhara. which occupied the Bala Hissar. he resolved to go to Persia.

On the other hand Captain Woodbum. be fe I gallantly with all his men .4 CaiP. and. being obliged to abandon tl town. had been arrested in its march by the great depi I itf mow which bad fallen and the insurrection that developed itse I ererjirhere with a ferocity and . but there vas forced to return. Hie first idea of Sir W. and this impracticable project was ^ven u] It was impracticable quite as much from the nature of tlie groun as from the ill feeling of the tribes. M'NAGHTEN. and having only twenty-five car ndges a man left. was besieged with two hundred and fifl iKn ID a miserable fort.-. which he defended many days againi three or four thousaod Afghans. which he had fortified. surroundc b. officer. XXIV. also resolved to try and cut his way through tt enemy. 3 tain pacific measures more iaTourably. with the help i piides. was to force his way through the Khyber Pass and joi General Sale in Jellalabad. Captain Ferris. M'Xaghten recalled from Kandahar to the assistance of tl dinuon in Kabul. had been ordered to Rahul. whence. and. cor maoded by Colonel Palmer. Chap. but wise coQDBek prevuled. the second division endeavoured to t^tun bat only five Sepoys escaped to tell the tala Another Englie I officer. and took refuge in some ruins. throwing himself into the mel^. one led by himself the otbi I by a native. wit^ a year's provi^ons.excitement difficult to ima^n Tliis column had pushed forward as &r as Ghuznee . eubsequently. was baraEsed on tl road by the insurgents. The brigade of Lieutenant-Colonel M'Laren. they were pretty vt proTisioned. . The troops at Ghusnee. must hare encountered aJso. but the ladies were tied behind two native horsemen an {daced in the centre of the square. on hearing of these dii asters. a broken wall. for the Englieb had loee to deplore in e»ery direction. who le Ghuznee with one hundred and thirty men. The plans for the retrei therefore were for the moment abandoned by Sir Wm. for he had with him his wife an ber Bister. M'Xaghtei 2 A 354 SUSPICIONS OF THE AFGHANS. EMBABRASSMEST OF SIB W. th^ retired into the citadel : however. besi^ed by four or fire thousand Afghan I be made a sortie in two divisions. M'Naghten. they made their way to Peshawur. Here. b could not leave. and after a frightful conflii tbe little party reached another fort. SXI7. whit Sir W. who were in arms all alon the pass. it made its way back i Kaodahar. if it had been ordered to met them. and afler having thrown 'a garrison into Ki Ut-i-Ghildjzye. This was no easy matter. which Sale's brigade. and the deep snow presented aggravated difficulties ( every kind.

And then his father. obliged to conciliate the invaders of his country to preserve a hope of delivering his father. his cousin. '' Better die than follow you. and a few other officers. knew that the return of Dost Mohamed would bring down the crazy scafiblding on which his own dawning royalty 'depended. he could only do so at the risk of exciting the suspicions of his countrymen. — it flashed in the pan . But Akbar. the loyalty of which has been diversely appreciated by those who have considered the subject Many diiefs had openly 356 ASSASSINATION OF SIR W. M'NAGHTEN. for it is very improbable he should have forgotten that the ruin of his house had been brought about by those to whom he bad ofiered to devote himself." . and the most inclined to negotiate. but was killed on the spot by an Afghan bullet. and in conformity with ike almost universal opinion. although he well knew that this chief every day joined the insurgents who fired on the soldiers in the cantonment. by whom the propositions were favourably received . having assured him that he acted thus only to pacify the other serdars his rivals. consisting of twenty articles. instantly dismounted to go to the assistance of his chief. As to Captains Lawrence and M^Kenzie they were seized. with whom the English Commissioner proposed to conclude a treaty.and not without regret Subsequently. Zenian Khan. he succeeded in gaining the confidence of the Commissioner. and when he promised even to deliver up the murderers of Bumes? This is doubtful. the seoond laid the Resident dead at his feet.Akbar Khan instantly put his pistol to his breast and fired. M'Naghten himself. particularly with Mohamed Akbar Ehan. and tied on horseback behind two . XXIV. stripped. he sent Captains Lawrence and Trevor. Chap. for. the head of his family. who were desirous that tranquillity should be re-established in the country. and in several conferences that followed. preferred treating with him. this induced Sir W. was he not still a prisoner in India ? It is impossible to deny that the position of Akbar EJian was most embarrassing. who was at a little distance. Sir W. who were but too well inclined to mistrust him. M^Naghten. he would. to make overtures of peace to the Afghans. and an almost friendly understanding was established between them. and therefore he neglected no means of alienating the Afghans from Mohamed Akbar Ehan . have completely succeeded if the latter had not. M^Naghten to place himself in direct communication with the chiefs. The pistols which the chief used had been presented to him only a few days before by Sir W. perhaps. Captain Trevor. seeing that Mohamed Akbu* Ehan appeared the most powerfiil amongst them. to save his life. but the envoy resisted and exclaimed. adopted an energetic line of conduct. insisted that the terms of the evacuation should be definitiTely and promptly decreed. many of the serdars. These were all accepted by him and them. having seen the first hostile movement of the assassin. who sought to degrade him in the eyes of his countrymen by representing him as a traitor to the national cause. by the arm to take him into 'Kabul. the Emir Dost Mohamed. Was Mohamed Akbar in good faith when he promised entire devotion to the English.

called the Tchar-«ook. the direction of aflSurs was placed in the hands of Major Pottinger. one-and-twenty miles north of Kabul. Of this event he was ignorant. who had infinite difiiculty in saving them from their infuriated followers.000 insurgents. and the liberation of Dost Mohamed. the evacuation of Jellalabad by Sale's brigade.000 bodies of men and animals infected the air and aggravated the sufferings of the 5000 unhappy survivors. aud afterwards thrown into a dry well. Major Pottinger had bat very imperfectly recovered from his wound. who was to protect them as far as Peshawur. M^Naghten. with the green spectacles on that he was in the habit of wearing . After the death of Sir W. two small towns situated in the mountains. The cold had become intently severe . they were subsequently imprisoned in a fort. he found himself alone in the smoking ruins and in the midst of the insurgents. and foiled in his ambitious views in not having been permitted to treat singly with the invaders. insisted on taking part in the treaty. They all ratified it. to escape and reach the house of Bumes. he did not care to assemble the escort immediately. bat the other Afghan chiefs who vrished to prevent the concentration of authority in the hands of the son of the Emir. that now formed the army. and about three from each other. fuel. Sad as had been the result of the confidence which Sir William M'Naghteu placed in Mohamed Akbar. when tiie heavy task of directing the political afiairs of Kabul fell upon bis shoulders. that was to driye the English out of their country. but after some days recovered their liberty. THE ENGLISH RETREAT. commanded by Akbar Khan himself. however. that Major Pottinger could see no Chap. almost by a miracle. The head of Sir W. and who were worn out by the resistance they had maintained for two months against 40. and that of Captain Trevor: the bodies were left there three days. which had been sacked and pillaged shortly before.chiefs. The garrisons which held them were after a gallant defence overpowered about the same time that the revolt broke out in the capital. On leaving that city he came to Kabul and was appointed governor of Charikar and Istalif. and he arrived. completely exhausted) in the British cantonment. was enabled. who had defended Herat the preceding year. as well as his corpse. such was the desperate position of things. as had been his self-love. . and be accompanied across the Khyber by an Afghan escort. from whom his lucky star and excellent horse saved him once more. M^Naghten was carried through the bazaars on the point of a spear. XXIV. Wounded. provisions. and the articles were nearly a repetition of those which had been imposed on Sir W. though wounded by a ball in the thigh. namely. but Major Pottinger. 867 better course than to renew the negotiations with that serdar. it was subsequently fixed on the roof of the Bound Point of the bazaar. but on his arrival there the traces of the disaster were still fresh . M^Naghten. 10. The Indo-British had lost up to this period twenty-eight officers killed in action or assassinated . but this time it was agreed that the English should keep their arms.

recommenced their deadly work at sunrise. and endured the most cruel privations. and the troops being completely discouraged Major Pottinger did not think it advisable to wait any longer for ttie promised escort. XXIV. and. before they could rest their weary limbs on the frozen earth. was not so ignorant of the misfortunes that befell iheta as he wished to make them believe. when the rear guard was attacked by the Afghans . and those who had saved anything valuable were here obliged to abandon it. The heights around swarmed with their enemies. under a humiliating capitulation. General Elphinstone and the army he commanded quitted. and the British soldiers sinking under cold and hunger had scarcely strength to carry their arms : the most frightful disorder reigned throughout the frozen and iamished multitude. scarcely cleared the cantonment. Afghan escort which Akbar Khan had promised should protect Ihe retreat appeared in larger numbers and hostile . the rear guaid was harassed that day by several bloody engagements. On the 7th the division marched upon Barikhar. and some of his men. felt convinced they should never readi Jellalabad but by fighting every inch of the way. and the army marched only five miles that day. to this was added the want of provisions. encamping at the entrance of the defile.and ammunition failed. On Thursday the 6th. he gave the order for departure. adding that he alone amongst the Afghan chiefs had the power to prevent the attacks made upon it. without waiting for the escort which was to protect the army. On the morning of the 8th. an officer of the 5th regiment of native cavalry named Hardyman. on the 5th of January. and before morning dawned several hundred men and women had died from cold and hunger. The sky was clear. and he offered to control the insurgents. From this momeot the English. and moved off on a road a foot deep in snow. were killed in this affair. they there passed a more terrible night than the first Those who survived till day-break. vlx> was seen encamped on an eminence near. He blamed Major Pottinger for his precipitation in quitting Kabul. until Sale's brigade . and who» while afiecting a great sympadiy for them. accordingly. The force had. but the cold intense. Chap. however. and the 358 ENGLISH HOSTAGES. and decided upon making a desperate rush through the midst of the enemy. and when they arrived on the encamping ground the soldiers had to clear away the snow. In this extremity the Englidi were obliged to enter into a parley with M ohamed Akbar Khan. who had indeed placed but little confidence in the promises of the Afghans. the intrenched camp of Kabul. provided the English consented to give hostages that they would not go beyond Tezeen. the bewildered Sepoys burnt their clothes to warm themselves. the division could not advance one single step. who having suspended their fire during the night. and the enemy carried off three mountain guns. 1842. after having sustained a siege of sixtyseven days. found the ground covered with corpses .

of caniaj^ and pitolees cruelty were renewed at evei tbe column. XSIT. To assure himself therefore that the engagement would be faithfully kept. this day brought with it the climax of their misfortunes. that of dc work in tbe eyes of God. Lady M'Ni^hten. Brydon. notwithstanding the treaty just concluded. Akbar Khan having in his camp the hostages tba . but attacked on all sides. by overwhelming numbers of merdless enei natives only and one single European. As soon as they were placed in his hands. The tbe Indo-^tish army. want of food and fuel. On the 9th Akbar Khan acknowledged that he w powerless to restnun these Ghazees. It is evident that the serdar feared the junction of the two divisions in a place that was fortified and provisioned. Maiowaring. and above all the hope of boo them utterly deaf to entreaty or command . destitute i reckless of order or discipline. Reduce cartridges per man. the feeling of revenge. they gorged themselvei and plunder. i seemed to deplore tbe conduct of his soldiers and hie ctnnmaud over them. but was subsequently satisfied with* Major Pottinger. Mobamed Aibar Khan had n over his men. and was i annilulated. and tbe storm whicl over the wretched troops for three consecutive days end the most terrible military catastrophes on record. exhausted by forced marches. and Captains lAwrence and M^Kenzie. Mr Mrs. and Mrs. reac bad out of a body of five thousand men and a much gre of camp-followers. who renewed tbe f previous day with increased fury. and thei knew no bounds . scenes \ Chap.had evacuated Jellalabad. they were obliged to charge with enemies sheltered by rocks and well provided with i while women and children pierced with cold were deriog distracted and at random through the fire. who lost their lives in this butchery. Dr. and they were p treated by him. t diao^anised troops. ENGUSH ARMY ANNIHILATED. the. cn^ed hj the rolling fire of ita inviai length abaodoned the guns to the Afghans. and in which they could pass &e winter in safety. and in the height of this bloi offered shelter to tbe English ladies. Reid. he demanded at first six hostages. promising to pro the peril of bis own life . the offer was accepted amongst whom were Lady Sale. and agonizing sufferings of every had no longer the strength to defend itself. and wait for the spring to resume the offensive. troops moved forward towards the famous defile of Khoord Kabul. for they had proclaimed tbe Sjehad or had become Gbazees or soldiers of tbe Faith.

vered to him, also General Elphinstone, Brigadier Shel Johnson, and a few other officers, remained two days ground, waiting for the evacuation of Jellalabad by G to whom be had sent a copy of the treaty condud himself and Major Eldred Pottinger. But that Gem

360 SIEGE OF JELLALABAD. Chap. XXIY. refused to abandon the place without an order firom the GoTeroorGeneral of India in Council ; and fortunate was it for him diat he came to this determination, for the Afghans had laid a plan for exterminating his corps to the yery last man. After the disaster in the Khoord Kabul, Mohamed Akbar Khan marched his prisoners to Tezeen and JugduUuk, and then to Thigriy a fortified town situated in the rich valley of Lugntan, where, after much hesitation, he determined not to forward them to Jellalabad, but sent them to Buddiabad, a large fortress recently built at the upper end of the valley. On the 11th tbey were moved to Zindeh and placed in charge of the chief, Mohamed Shah Khan. The death of General Elphinstone from natural causes occurred on the 23rd of April following, and Akbar Eban sent the corpse under escort to Jellalabad ; but the Ghazees met it on the road, attacked and dispersed the guard, tore the body from the coflSn, and stripped and stoned it The massacres in the Khoord Kabul greatly increased the power and influence of Mohamed Akbar and his party became daSy more numerous ; the Ghazees on all sides responded to his appeal, and the irregular cavalry of the country in the service of the English deserted to join his standard. His army then amounted to seven or eight thousand nien, and with these he laid siege to Jellalabad, being fully convinced that General Sale would never evacuate it in virtue of the treaty. This brave officer had entrenched himself in the place with the two battalions under his command, and for more than two months had been living on half rations, determined io hold out to the last man. Jellalabad (Glory inhabited) is situated west of Peshawur, at the opening of the Kliyber Pass. In the summer it contains but 2000 inhabitants, but in the winter nearly 20,000, for the severity of that season in these mountains obliges the inhabitants to take refuge in the towns ; General Sale anifed at the period of this augmentation, and was necessitated, for the security of his brigade, to take steps to prevent this increase in the population. All Akbar Khan's efibrts to dislodge the gallant General proved ineffectual, and instead of succeeding, as be hoped, he was very nearly losing his life here either by mischanoe or treachery. The rifle of the Isakzye chief, Mohamed Osman Khan, the first of the insurgent serdars who made a treaty with Sir Tto. M'Naghten, went off accidentally — such, at least, was the statement of that chief— and the ball lodged in Akbar Khan's arm, who pre-


tended that the injury was premeditated, and that Osmau Khan had been bribed by the English to assassinate him : he, therefore, put him to death. While Akbar Khan was thus harassing General Sale at Jellalahad, 2^man Khan, the newly elected king of the Afghans, occupied the town of Kabul and besieged Shah Shooja, who from the citadel kept up a cannonade upon the city ; several thousand lives were sacrificed in this struggle, for each day brought with it its own combat The cause of Zeman Khan, however, prospered not ; he became anxious and disappointed at this useless waste of his fortune, on which he depended for success, and by which alone he had secured partisans ; he, therefore, deemed it prudent to accept the propositions made to him by the Shah, laid down the royalty with which the nation had invested him, and consented to become the ]Rime minister of the Suddozye prince. In acting thus he thought he should be able to prevent the re-establishment of Dost Mohamed if he should return, and also to reduce Akbar Khan to obedience, being well determined, however, to take the first favourable opportunity of overthrowing Shah Shooja and seizing the crown once more ; but the events which followed completely neutralized his deep-lidd schemes. The Shah, on the other hand, was not more sincere than his vizier, and promised him what he never intended to perform ; he made these concessions to his adversaries for no other purpose than to extricate himself from his present embarrassing position, intending to get rid of them all if ever he should find himself firmly established in power. To complete this apparent reconciliation, he named Akbar Khan, Serdar Serdarhne* and sent his appointment to him at Jellalabad ; bat that chief would not accept it or sanction the treaty concladed with his cousin, unless Shah Shooja agreed to support him in besieging that town. It was hardly possible that any proposal should have better coincided with the Shah's own views, for he ardently longed for some opportunity of leaving Kabul till he could return in force, supported by the English, whose assistance he saw, when too late, was indispensable to him. The conditions offered by Akbar Khan were by no means favourable to the intrigues of Zeman Khan, and the vizier, therefore, advised the king not to accept them, or at any rate if he did to leave him, during his absence, in com-

• Qonend of the Qenerals. — Ferrier,

362 THE KING ASSASSINATED. Chap. XXIV. mand at Kabul ; but tbe king, who perceived the drift of his advice: simply sent him orders to accompany him to Jellalabad, and to prove that he was in earnest in this decision, he appointed the son of the Serdar £min Ullah Khan governor of Kabul while he was away. Zeman Khan, uneasy at the Shah's persisting in his determination, resolved to ascertain the cause, and found that he had been deceived by his sovereign, whom he had himself intended to betray: he, therefore, to nip the evil in the bud, determined upon his destruction.

Shah Shooja, in pursuance of his intentions, left the dtadel to join his small army, encamped about a mile and a half fix>m the Bala Hissar, with the declared object of leading it against tbe English, but in reality to use it as an escort on his way to place himself under their protection ; he had, however, scarcely started when the Serdar Shooja ed Dooulet, a son of Zeman Khan, accompanied by four servants, overtook him, and fired point blank into his palanquin. The unfortunate monarch was wounded by several balls, and still breathed when the assasdns took him out of &e litter and threw his body into a stream that was near the road, finishing their atrocious crime with their sworda This event took place in February, 1842. The character of Shah Shooja has generally been too severely criticized. Even his adversaries, the Mohamedzyes, who now govern Afghanistan, admit that he was a very remarkable man, and the only one of Shah Timoor's sons who was capable of reigning. He had both ability and courage, and redeemed more than one vice by the qualities which tbe Afghans delight to see in their princea. He was after the manner of that country a good administrator, and understood how to conduct a war as well as an A%han can ; he oDly wanted a little better luck ; such is the opinion of all Afghana Several times beaten and driven out of the country, he never considered himself vanquished, and took the field twelve times in his endeavours to regain the crown. It is impossible to look upon this perseverance as mere obstinacy ; it denotes great energy of character, and if he always failed it was because he never would permit the smallest entrenchment upon his absolute rights. When we Europeans form an opinion of the acts of the barbarous nations of Asia we always do so according to our own standard of morals, and political passions, without making the least allowance for tbe difference that exists between our habits and feelings, and theirs.

Cbap. XXIV. HIS CHARACTER. There is no questioD that Shab Sbooja, like every other * was cruel and also despotic, but let us review the position : he was placed, and it will appear that having to goven fiv whom force b the only law, it would have been for him to act othenrise than as he did. The Mohai whose influence in the government was so great, were conspiring against him during his firBt reign. After the Ahmed Shah, the descendants of that great prince had alwi subject to the caprices engendered by the ambition of the who left them only the shadow of regal power. Sbab rensted their intrigues with greater tenacity than bis pred had done, and was therefore more especially the object machinationB ; he would have been foolish indeed to allow hi be beaten without piaking an effort to foil them, and coercion only means by which be could succeed in concentrating til in his own hands : be believed be should secure this objt

did so, and therein was his error. Had he reflected I tribes, attached to their chiefe by so many ties, would give a feeble and uncertain support, lie would certainly have al from using force for the purpose of attaining it ; but weal his part would have been worse, for then he must have sue at once. His conduct during his second reign is a proof independence of character which was ever bis misfortune nant under the yoke imposed upon him by the Engl the vices of his Afghan nature broke forth ; he betra bene&ctors, resisted bis liberators, and died by the hi assassins — for an Afghan he could have no more glorious such acareCT.


CHAPTER XXV. Pethi Djing Minsa suoceeds Shah Shooja — Combat between that prinoe aodZeman Khan — The former la beaten — Akbar Khan returns to Kabul and foroei Fethi Djing to retire to the citadel — The fonner becomes ius Yixier ind recogmses him as King — Akbar plunders Fethi Djing — Flight of the Prinoe — Akbar remains master of Kabul — The English in spite of the insurrection maintain themselves at Kandahar — Foresight of Major Rawlinson — Occurrences in the neighbourhood of that city — Persian account of them — Akter Khan, Alisye, beaten by the English — Plan of the Afghans to seise Eandahsr^ They are defeated — Second expedition of the English to Kabul — Akbar Efasn is repulsed at Butkhak — Opinions of the press on this second expedition — What is true and what is false — Mistakes of the journalist in militaiy matten — The English evacuate Afghanistan — They place Shapoor Mirsaon the Uurane of Kabul — The English give Dost Mohamed his liberty — Akbar Khan retuiOB to Kabul and seises the sovereign power — Restoration of Dost Mohamed at Kabul — Self der Djing is driven firom Kandahar by Kohendil Khan. Shah Shooja left several sons, of whom four took part in the political events that occurred in Afghanistan during the English occupation ; these were Timoor Mirza, Fethi Djing Mirza, Seif der Djing Mirza, and Shapoor Mirza. Although the Shah had appointed a Governor of Kabul pre-

viously to his violent death, he had also for fiirther security placed his second son Fethi Djing in the Bala Hissar. When this prince heard of his father's assassination he shut himself up in the citadel with one thousand men of Arab origin who were devoted to bim, and sent money to his partizan Emih UUah Khan, Logfaeree, who occupied the suburbs with three thousand men, to distribute among the people in his name, and induce them to rise against Zeman Khan : this he did, and a bloody combat was maintained for two days and two nights, after which Emin Ullah Khan was obliged to retire to the Bala Hissar. Mohamed Akbar had scarcely recovered from his wound when he heard of these events, which determined him immediately to retire from the siege of Jellalabad (an undertaking that had hitherto proved to him only a source of disappointment), and return in baste to Kabul, which he reached twenty days after the death of Sfaab Shooja. Whether it was because he did not consider himself in

Chap. XXV. FLIGHT OF PRINCE FETHI DJING. 366 sufficient force, or tbat he thought the moment unpropitious, the eerdar did not assume the soyereign power, but resolved in the first instance to beguile his enemies into destroying each other, and for that purpose allied himself with Zeman Khan, and prevailed on him to aaast in seizing the person of the Prince Fethi Djing. Wiiii their united forces they made four unsuccessful attacks upon the Bala Hissar, but at last succeeded in blowing up one of the towers of the enceintCy when they rushed in and either killed or made prisoners all who were within its walls. Zeman Khan wished to put Fethi Djing to death, but to this proposal Mohamed Akbar refused to consent, and not only took that prince under his special protection, but made the liveliest protestations of devotion to his cause, declaring that he would never recognize any other Afghan as his sovereign. The object of this apparent generosity was simply to crush more decidedly the power of Zeman Khan, who, divining his intention, fortified himself in the suburbs of the town, but in vain, for Mohamed Akbar attacked and drove him back at every point, and he owed bis safety to his formal renunciation of his claims to royalty and the post of vizier. After this success Akbar Khan married the daughter of the Serdar Emin UUah Khan, an alliance which greatly strengthened his party; he was also appointed vizier by Fethi Djing, and maintained in the general command of the army. But these concessions did not affect his original project, and he prepared to bring about the downfall of this prince, who, warned of his danger, once more retired to the citadel, from which, however, he was forced to retire after a siege of forty-eight hours. Akbar immediately seized the treasure that Shah Shooja had left his son, but suspecting that Fethi Djing had secreted a part of it, he ordered his guards not to lose sight of him for a moment, nor to allow him to sleep until he had given up all the diamonds which he acknowledged were in his possession. For three days and nights had the unhappy Fethi Djing Mirza heen thus tormented, when Khan Shireen Khan, a Kuzzilbash

Krdar, who was secretly of his party, and supported the English, found an opportunity of conveying to him two hundred ducats with which he bribed his janitors to facilitate his escape. His prison was one of the large towers in an angle of the citadel, and happily for him a window in it overlooked the town ; from this he was lowered by a rope at night, and took refuge in the quarter

f f



Chap. XXV.

inhabited by the Kuzzilbashes of Djevanchir, a gun-fihot from the place, where Khan Shireen Khan secreted him in his own house. When his escape became known, Akbar Khan sent in pursuit of him in all directions ; the strictest search was instituted for about twelve days, but without success, and when all hope of discovering him was lost, and the search given up, Fethi Djing left his retreat, and under the escort of one hundred Kuzzilbad) horsemen, reached Jellalabad. It was not known till some time after that Khan Shireen Khan had assisted the prince in bis escape, and though Mohamed Akbar's resentment was great, he concealed it, as it was necessary for him to keep on terms with this serdar. Are not all these intrigues and counter-intrigues the best evidence of the instability of the Afghan character, and of the turbulence, constant craving for change, and uncontrollable lore of bloodshed innate in it ? The flight of Fethi Djing Mirza wa« the last episode connected with the occupation of Kabul by the British. More fortunate or better prepared at Kandahar, they succeeded in holding that city ; a result which was due to the firmness of Greneral Nott, and, above all, to the indefatigable activity of Major Rawlinson, who administered the affairs of that Residency with great ability.* The war in this province was the more difficult to conduct because the principality had never been entirely subdued. The Serdar Akter Khan, Alizye, who had retired to the district of ZemindaTar, kept up an unceasing conflict against the English, and though con-

stantly beaten, he, in the most undaunted manner, as oonfltaotl;

* Major RawlixiBon is one of those rare characters who are equally capable of everything — honourable, firm, enlightened, and conciliatory — ^he is universally beloved. The remembranoe of his government, which even in 1845 the autiior found fresh in the memory of the Kandahariana, and could well appreciate, tells far more in favour of the learned and celebrated decipherer of the Cuneiform inscriptions than anything that can be said in commendation of that officer's talents. The manner in which he defended Kandahar against the insurgents will give the reader only a poor ides of the merit and courage of

this brilliant officer. He may justly be classed amongst the great men tlisfc have been distinguished in the wrfit» of the East India Company, and it ii impossible not to feel asto p ishin g pt^ that after such a splendid defence of the post entrusted to his care, his talents and fideUty should reouin lo ill-remunerated by his government But, however that may be, such men are always elevated above their feUov men, and whether they are or mw d<>* the objects of Qovemment patromgi^ the esteem and admiration of the world are theirs. — Fenier,


Chap. XXV. FORESIGHT OF MAJOR RAWLINSON. 3(;7 retitrned to the charge. When the insurrection broke out in Kabul the number of his adherents was considerably augmented, and the serdars Seidal Khan, Mohamed Attah Khan, Saloo Khan, Mir ESsel Khan, and others, with large contingents, then joined him. Seif der Djing, the third son of Shah Shooja, who lived at Kandahar, fled from the city to join the insurgents ; both fiither and son thus repaying their benefactors the English, to whom they owed everything, with the blackest ingratitude.

Immediately the news of the rising at Kabul reached Major Rawlinson, he secretly despatched messengers in every direction to call in the scattered troops under the guns of the place. He likewise ordered the removal of all the provisions from the different magazines to the citadel, in which he resided, and these wise dispositions were completed before the report of the rc?olt was known in the city. There were at this time in Kandahar and the suburbs, 4000 Afghan horse, in the pay of the state ; these troops were the cause of the greatest uneasiness to Major Rawlinson, and, in consequence, he sent for Mirza Mohamed Rhan, Popolzye, the Vizier of Timoor Mirza,* and desired him to say whether he was or was not true to the British cause ? To this question he replied in the affirmative, when Major Rawlinson desired him to give instant proof of his devotion by leaving Kandahar with his cavalry, and attacking the Serdar Mohamed Attah Khan, who was advancing on the city from Kabul at the head of the greater part of the insurgent horse. Mirza Mohamed, having first received a large sum of money, at once set out with his division, but, instead of fighting, joined his force to that of the rebel chief. On hearing of this piece of treachery, the Resident adopted a measure most imperatively necessary to preserve the corps under General Nott from certain destruction, and ordered the greater part of the inhabitants who were of Afghan origin to leave the city in the shortest possible space of time, permitting only a few to remain besides the Parsees and Hindoos. At Kandahar the English had nine incomplete battalions, two batteries of artillery, and a few hundred Indian cavalry, but the atter were outside the town and held the country under the com-

* The eldest son of Shah Shooja and nallj bo, for the English had more OoTemor of ELandahar; but only nomi- power here than at Kabvl,— Farrier,



mand of Mr. Pattinson. During my residence at Kandahar, I read a Persian account of the moumAil event which led to the death of that officer and one of his comrades named Goldiog. The simplicity of the document tempted me to translate it in the most literal manner, and I giye the Persian text in order that those readers who are able may judge of the correctness of mj translation.

Dou fooudj Djanbaz ez merdum Afghan-farsi-Kabouli der Kandahar boudend. Douta saheb meuseb inglich serkerd^ emin dou fooudj djanbaz bond. Yeki ismecb, Golding boud yeki Wilson. Pattinson saheb serkerdi Kull, der tchader Goldiug saheb boud. Biroun dervaze Herat tchader zed^ boudend. Emon cheb k^ mi khastend 8ub<^iah beurevend der Guirichk, fooudj Gohiing aaheb rikht«nd bala tchader. Er dou saheb Khabid^. Boudend der tchader. Dest b^ chemchir bala inha rikhtend, Golding saheb kuchtend, Pattinson saheb ez tchader biruun amed. Tozdeh zakhm chemchir dacht. Yek noouker ouchiar dacht ; asp hazer mi kouned, v^ khodech poucht saheb savar micheved. Emon cheb oura avourd der Kandahar. B^ on saheb diguer, k^ Wilson saheb bached, khaberdar micheved; Khodechm b^ tchader saheb misresoned — mi bined khoun busior rikhtest v^ saheban em nistend — ^mustereb biroun mi ayed ; mi bined yek fooudj djanbaz ^mm^ reftend. Mi ayed miyan fooudj khodech, mis;ouyet: her guiah chouma em nemek beharam estid, roera ben kuched, vd khod-tu beurevid ouha der djavab mi gouyend : Khouda n^ kouned ! ma nemek b^ haram nistim — migouyed herguiah nemek b^ haram nistid ba men bi ayid, k^ beurevim khoun b^raderan mara biguirim. In savar ez emin fooudj aspha khodra zin mi kouned, b^ kadr sed savar emera on mi revend, dou sed pindja savar ez rassal^h. Hindi, alidja mejor Ilawlinson, . be Komak on mi funisted, ve gafeul mi rizend bala emon fooudj gurikht^. Fursed tulfens indakt^ nd boud, dest b^ chemchir gati mi cheved, alidja Wil-

Two squadrons of Afghan borse, DfanbaZj composed of Parsivaos of Kabul, were at Kandahar with two English officers, Messrs. Golding and Wilson. Mr. Pattinson, who bad the chief command, was in the tent of Mr. Goldiug, and the squadrons were encamped outside the Herat gate. On the night precedin}?

and finding that their squadron of djanbaz had deserted. he at once returned to his own men and said. and l^efore leaving the ground two hundred and fifty Indian cavalry. Gelding's squadron rushed into the tent in which these officers were asleep. Wilson he immediately rode to the tent of these gentlemen. XXV. and getting up behind him. mi leased. He withdrew from the tent deeply moved.the day on which they were to march to Girishk the troopers of Mr. AFGHAN FANATICISM. "If you are traitora kill me and be off . kuchU chndi ez asp mi indazed eukm mi dM.'* but the troopem replied. about one hundred in number.* " Well then. aer yeki-ra mi bonrend: — KaleDder Khan ismech boud emin . ez serkerd^h — buznik-ia luchemchir mi zened. but found only the proof of the murderous onslaught in their blood on the ground. having subsequently left the tent. Seta. joined Mr. " if you are not traitors follow me and let us take revenge for the blood of our comrades which has been shed. SG9 son nheb chir del ewel savar bond. found his servant an intelligent.* said their officer. Wilson. Pattinson. fell upon them sword in liand and killed Mr. who was wounded in eleven placn. he brought him in to Kandahar the same night. this man assisted him to mount. immediately saddled their horses." ITie men. with his horse ready. Golding. whidi bad been sent to his assistance by Major Rawlinson. and faithful man. when they at once set off in pursuit of the Chap. " God preserve us from bein? any such thing. Mr. Hie news reaching Mr.

the Terse of the Koran which says that to kill an infidel is an act pleasing to God. An ofiScer of the English commisBariat was making some purchases in the bazaar. eukm Kerdend ke si oil rouz der bazar avizou Kerdend. this waa by order placed on a hpok in the bazaar to remain there three dava. from amongst a thousand. and they returned to Kandahar laden with their apoila. Wilson. it excited every mmd. and stabbed him in the abdomen . bringing back with them the head of Kalender Khan . '* This is the punishment of traitors. the lion-hearted. It was no affair for firearms. rouh b^ guriz mi fnuarend. will give an idea of the state of public feeling at this time. He pursued them until a great number were killed. which had fled in diaorder. when one of these fanatics came up to him. He then ordered the head of one of them. was added to it Aroused by the moUahs. aigaib icban mi revend ta busior ez ichan Kaltl Eerd% y^ enldj^ bosior mi averend. the very exalted Mr. was the first to close with them. Djartchi Djar k^hid der bazarha k^ aezaye k^i k^ nemek be banmi mi kounend. go to the Garden of Paradise. and fimatidsm. after his death.' 99 Treachery was indeed the order of the day with the Afghans . for these sanguinary ministers of Allah unceasingly repeated to the people in their sermons and on all other occasions. who had excited the men to mutiny. chikeat khourdd.fesBad-ra on Eerd^boud Bagui aavar. bermiguerdcnd aer boarid^ Kalender Kiian-ra avourdcDd der Kandahar . Kalender Khan. striking them off their horses. deserters. and killed three of the principal chiefs with his own hand. and a crier stood near. who continually announced to the paaaers by. and live in the midst of houris always young and beautifiil. till then ahnost unknown to that people. and that every Ghazee will. to be cut off. and followed the rebel squadron. Is it astonishing that such teaching should instigate this barbarous people to indulge in the most deplorable excesses? One example. they came upon the rebels aword in hand .

having heaped upon the Resident every opprobrious epithet he could think of. the faggots. to the mountainous district of Zemindavar. commanded b^ General Nott. who wished to save his life. whither the British troops had the imprudence to foQow them. At two o'clock in the dark winter morning. On this occasion Major Bavlinsoa showed as much intelligence as coolness and decision. advanced to within a short distance of ILandahar on the 9th of January. and declaring themselves friends of the English. . which most imprudent conduct. having fBiiled in his enterprise. they asserted. when General Nott immediately took the field to drive them back. He had only eight incomplete battalions with him. and rapidly returned with the bulk of their troops to Kandahar. with a single officer. no." replied the Afghan. the opportunity of beating thenL They. 2 B 370 ATTACK ON KANDAHAB. however. Chat. a servant of the English. When the insurgent commanders saw that they had succeeded in drawing the enemy thus far firom the city. Mohamed Attah £Lhan. the garrison of which then consisted of only seven hundred sepoys and one hundred Englisli soldiers. I would do as much for you. undertaken for the purpose of raising an insuirectioQ there. eagerly. and my hands were free. XXV. as will be seen. foolishly believing their story^ gave them permission to lie down within cannon-fihot of the place. and a few horsemen . if I had my knife now. and who. The Prince Seif der Djing. bound.with his knife. neariy led to the capture of the city. brought. just in time to give a small body of six hundred men. amongst these were a hundred Beloochees. The Ghazees retired slowly on the approach of General Nott. But to return to my narrative. they had reoouTBe to an artifice in which they very nearly succeeded. The sepoy sentry on the rampart. and persevered in trying to carry out their design of taking the city . the few British at the gates . three days' journey firom Kandahar. but wisely judging that their numbers were quite unequal to accomplish this object by force. ** far from repenting of what I have done. Towards evening some Afghans appeared at the Herat gate with mules laden with firewood. added. A body of from eighteen to twenty thousand Ghazees attempted to ravage the environs of Kandahar. ** I have all my senses about me . akirmishing all the way. for the use of the town.*' and. and other insurgent chie&. were not demoralued by this check. which they had secretly piled against . they left a few caTafay in his firont to occupy their attention. 1842." exclaimed a certain Mirza Jan. after having united their forces. He was immediately arrested. and brought before Major Bawlinson. commanded by the same Aga Khan whom the English sent into the south of Persia in 1841. Akter Khan. and with these dispositions once made waited the arrival of the enemy in stem tranquillity." The villain was subsequently blown from a gun. '* No. joined them agidn. the Hindoos on the walls. He placed his men most judiciously. who asked him why he had committed so idle an act ? ^^ He is mad.

& heavy ba^age and guns to Shikapoor. where they were soon di Tie oxnbat. and after sax hours' hard fighting they retire< more than twelve hundred dead under the ramparts. were fired. but mard Kabul. however. commanded by Mohamed Akhar Khi 2 B . prevent a few ti tntiog to the centre of the city. etill raged with fiiry round th< ^tish artilleiy. They were receive ^larp ToUey. the bodies formed a rampart for the besieged attacks whidi they made at other points were perfec cenfiil . as I hi remarked. Mohamed^e. The Afghans.the gates. DEFEAT OP THE AFGHANS. ably served. mowed down whole ranks of and 80 many Afghans fell there that. entirely obetr entrance. ditiw obtained permis^on to pass through the domini Maharadjah of the Punjab. XSV. iW the English mfuntained themselves in KfrntlnK: the whole period of the troubles in Kabul was due. nevertlideea. commanded by the brother of Aga Khan. four battalions of the garrison and t cavalry. where thiey effected their junction with the coi wludi had advanced from Feshawur at the end of month. I: of what was taking place wae immediately sent to Gen tbe rapidity of whose movements soon brought him bac dahar. The five renuuning battalions of General Nott's ( quitted the city on the 8th of August. near which the Afghans dared no longer re therefore turned their efforts against the little fortress i Hiig had been confided to the charge of Mohamed Koc UQ of the fiiinous Vizier Fethi Khan. 1842. whence they pr India. As soon as informatJon of this l at Kandahar. and a detachment of the insuigent arm/ < Chap. the young serdar be intimidated either by the threats or by the greatly sup which held him in a state of nege for many months. and crossed the Indus about of the summer of 1842. and at the close remunet the place. attached himself to the Sritish cause . rushed forward at a concerted ^gnal and threw tbenu the opening made by the flames. to the talent and courage of Major Bawlii measures enabled him to sormount the most serious diffic wit till the relieving army from India arrived to re-et prestige of the Indo-British arms in that principality. which <Ud not. du be made a heroic resistance.

and children.* The battle of Bootkak. a distance of fourteen miles from Kabul. has four different serdars. He had procured their liberty by his interposition with Mohamed Shah Khan. those who had been made prisoners on &6 same occasion. and has authority the Afghans. But when the British force ap« proached. Akbar Khan. and he at first thought of putting him to death. but the fear of reprisals which might be taken on his family.^ffrrier. Atchar.372 ENGLISH PRISONERS. having abeady arrived there. Khan Shireen Khan. therefore. offered the English to raise two thousand men and deliver the prisoners. and after his flight to Khulm he sent this officer to the British camp. but after the exchange of a few shots he passed over to the English with the fire thousand horsemen who were under his orders. Hoosein Khan. whom he had taken prisoner in the beginning of the year. Mohamed Akbar had removed them from Zindeh on the 28th of May. Chap. but never paid. when Mohamed Akbar Khan. Khan Shireen Khan caused search to be made for them by the Kuzzilbashes. Six iBaju}ieB. They were. dispersed in various fortresses at about an hour's distance from Kabul. the brunt of which fell entirely upon the light troops. He had with him at this time a British officer. in order that they might be the more closely watched. for two chiefs had. is one. retired to the mountains and thence to Ehulm. capital to meet the English. the Kuzzilbash Serdar. lasted nearly five hours. still in India and in the power of the English. both men. sent them away on the 29th of August towards Bamian. thousand more famioyer one thousand . women. Aflier the battle of Bootkak.000 rupees in cash and an annual pension of 2000 more were promised. however. of whom thousand families under his command. near the river Logur. where they arrived on the 3rd of September. and at this time they were better lodged and better fed. had joined him. * Khan Shireen Khan. renowned for and is much looked up to and feared by his courage. who brought them safely into camp at Kabul on the 21st September. it was said. escorted by tvo Afghan horsemen . and that he should then lose the best ground for any stipulation he could hope to make for his exiled family. and fell in with them at the village of Bootkak. the Serdar lies of this tribe are distribated amongst Serdarane Gholam of the Kuzzilbashes. completely beaten. XXV. dreading that they might be earned off. and met with far worse treatment than they had ever experienced. suggested to him a nobler line of conduct. to whom 20.

honour has been respected. having desolated the country. the Bengal light cavalry and the Srd Irregular cavalry. who was herself one of the prisoners. Still I say that Akbar. the great emporium of this part of Central Asia. destroyed our army — letting only one man escape to tell the tale. &c. ottah. were treated in the same manner. where they arrived almost without resistance on the 18th. I shall never forget the injury he has done to Eogland. having done this. XXV. but I do not hesitate to repeat that we ha^e always been as well treated as captives could have been m sach a country. and oil. and all the houses were reduced to ashes — this was the concluding operation of the retributary e:ipedition. but nothing can satisfy mine against Akbar. five companies of Her Majesty's 26tli and SSrd. rice. and the force commenced its return to India immediately after. exposed to beat. but it was so greasy and 374 EXAGGERATIONS OF ITOE PRESS. . As the inhabitants had fled at the approach of the British troops. burnt the residences of the native chieia and the villages on their hne of march. under General Pollock. but what we denominate such are unknown to Afghan females — they always sleep on the floor. and lately fruit. sit on tbe floor. but so were their own women. After having destroyed the city. It is true we have been taken about the country. too. ghee. disgusting. 878 The Indo-British army remuned some days under the walls of Kabul before they entered tbe city. C^ap. and was followed by that of General Nott. &c The wuzeer gives us rations of meat. and soon after that of a mosque near the bazaars . and having got the families into his possession — I say. I shall close this episode of the war in Kabul by a quotation from the work of Lady Sale. as Dr. On the 11th the destruction of the magnificent and glorious edifice of Ali Ifurdane Khan. He has given us common coarse chintz and coarse long cloth. At first our food was dressed for us. he has ever since we have been in his hands treated us well — that is. and Mobamed Shah Khan. arrived at Jellalabad. was effected.Chap. and who thus speaks of their captivity while sojourning in the mount^n fastnesses of the Kbyber : — " A woman's vengeance is said to be feaHul . and it was not till the 9th October that Sir R. having for his own political purposes done as he said he would do — that is. the army retired upon Gundamnck. wherewith to clothe ourselves . the bazaars themselves and every quarter of the city. and nothing was left but a mass of ruins. coldy rain. with the exception of the Bala Hisear and the houses of the Kuzzilbashee. that we asked leave to cook for ourselyes. On the 2lBt the 1st division. which reached it on the 24th. LADY SALE'S NABBAHVE. XXV. But while rendering to Akbar Khan the justice that is due to him. . Brydon did. It is true that we have not common comforts . On the 25th October the engineers blew up the bastions of Jellalabad. and five companies of the Slst. Sultan Jan. Shakespear receired orders to take in a company of sappers. there was no one to fight : but this officer's instructions were to destroy several parts of this fine city.

In truth. or did contun. but such invectives will not repair them. JOURNAL DES DfiBATS. but by his own hand. instead of becoming barbarous ourselves in defending barbarians. in the kingdom of Lahore. is the final evacuation of Afghanistan. Cbat. therefore his name will be devoted to eternal opprobrium. though written with » certain degree of asperity. but here he stands by his own avowal. adding a few remarks of my own :— " The principal fact that we find in the Monthly Mail from India. 1842. and this induces me to insert it here.* " TVee towns. one of whidi contains. and found that all loudly declaimed against the second expedition to Kabul — ^those of London as well as Paris. indeed more than easy. which brings us intelligence from Bombay up to the 1st December. He treated with his enemies and betrayed them. even excesses according to our ideas. vhere it was espected the last brigade would arrive between the 20th and 25th December. Akbar had shone as another William Tell : he had been the deliverer of his country from a hateful yoke imposed upon them by Kaffirs . and especially (lie English opposition press. But why so much heat ? so much party spirit? why distort facts or exaggerate them? It is certain that &ult8 were committed. and it was not the Afghans who set the example of this cruelty." I have examined most of the journals and reviews of die time^ in which the British occupation of A%hani8tan was discussed. all had been fair. prepared to return within the boundariea of Ritish India. 1843. is on the whole the most moderate that up to that time had appeared on the subject in France. " The eventB by which this evacuation will ever be remembered are deplorable. Li the course of this narrative blame has been awarded wherever it was justly due. freely made. whether in the field or the passes. for they had returned safe and sound ihepriaonePB of 1841. Let us state them with the calmness and dignity of civilized people. and impartiality renders it equally a duty to correct the overdiarged statements of the events and circumstances that are said to have occurred in the second invasion of Kabul The article in the Journal des Dubois of January 8. he masBacred under his own eyes thousands of men and women dying of cold and hunger. let them have used what stratagems diey pleased. were the consequences of that expedition. whom he had promised to feed and to defend .000 in- . 60.Had our army been cut to pieces by an avowed enemy. the assassin of the envoy. if we wished to take our revenge for the declamations of Lord Palmereton — if we wished to fling back upon En^and all the accusatifHis unceasingly made by her preae against <nr generals and the syst^n of war&re which they have been forced to adopt in Algiers — the ta^ would be easy. The retreat of General Pollock's force was marked by barbarities as odious as useless : every man who felt into the hands of the troops was put to death . and that bloody catastrophes. XXV. not by proxy. 876 " Early in NoTember the Indo-British army of tbe Indus was concoitnted at Peshawur.

have been reduced to ashes. town of 15. and why ? for what end ? For the fruitless pleasure of satisfying the least honourable passion <if our nature. in defiance of & capitals but would that iiave been the case if tioa. but in ordering tiiese burnings and massacres. and proceeded to put to the sword every one who had not succeeded in making his escape. and thus burned the dead and dying. it is troe . then. the passion of revenge. agreed to bj themaelien and theit Dost Mobomed bad not been the priehisft. imif to the very last mauT The Eng- 376 JOURNAL DBS D^ATS: Chap. honourable. call down a curse on the descendants of thoee whose remains were thus disposed of without the honours of sepulture. It appears that even the dead and wounded were not respected. find consolation in the hopes of a brighter iiiture . they have the right to believe that they will some day rescue that colony from its barbarous condition. ' b a pretty littie * Bnt were tliev not the earns Af. massacred that Ferrier. If the barbarism of our enemies. in which the country looks for better things than the gratification of brutal passions . The sepoy soldiers. The ever increasing sacrifices made by France stand as pxtofs to the world that it is a real and serious inidertaking. after a trifling engagement. to »oner of lie Eait India Company t — nuke good ita retreat. what it is to make prisoners — if the hard necessities of "ai forced our generals to adopt measures of extreme severity — 4ey are.' As. A brigade. in the excess of their munitigable cruelty. XXV. against whom we had nothing to say unless that their town stood half way between ELabul and Chankar^ where one of our Goorkha regiments (irregular cavalry) t was destroyed the year before by the Afghans. in pursuit of a definitive object — po«tive. like the A^haoa. at least. set fire to the cotton clothing of their victims. After the slaughter six hundred women remained in the . at least. to allow the BritUh arm.Ueh prinonen were returned. Istalif was punished. "It was not thus that out soldiers and generals behaved in Africa. which would.habitants. In those severities the ministers of France may. under the orders of General M<}a8kill. according to their superstitious notions. gloriona. they were pressed for time and could not push on to Chaiikar. who knew not.' says the letter of an English ofiGcer.000 * inhabitants. gliuta who. what object could that general possibly have who was inuaediately to evacuate Afghanistan for ever? " ' Istalif. entered it early in September.

as had been the European ladies who fell into the power of the A%hans afi. Mr. for. ' "llie work of destruction there was accomplished finement of systematic barbarity and cunning which ii to believe.hands of the victors. re. guards were placed a and the soldiers forbidden to pass them : it might hav poeed that it was a Mendly army. ACCOUNT OF BKITISH PROCEEDINGS. Istalif was givei flames. but scarcely had he time to present them to the lady. ' Ah. ^' Two soldiers of the 9th infantry of the Royal army had at the same moment seized a pretty girl of fourteen years of age. the exi had already made put the whole population to flight. purchased for his sultana a magnificent trousseau of the embroidered vests and tiousers worn by Afghan women of rank. not wishing to fight for the possession of the prize. as she disappeared .— -Ferner. * At the outside 4000. Allen took advantage of the inactivity ol during these few days of rest to preach several sermoi mercy of God. an army of pious d the Rev. oruited in the hiU country at the biw t InfEUitry — admii*able troops. and men selected from the . that the winner should make her an honest woman and marry her the first time he should meet with a priest to bless their union.er the disasters at Kabul the winter before ? It does not seem that the soldiers saw their prisoners taken from them with much satisfiu^tion. when he received an order to set her at liberty. he was obliged to give her up. and it was not without regret ^' A captain of the 26th. The dice thrown. Tlie event was celebrated by a solemn eervii all the troops attended. who set them at liberty. they would never 1 me bnying these garments. who had permitted the return of tl comrades. In vain he entreated and asserted his good intentions. when the order arrived to set her free : she did not require to be told twice.' " After being regularly jnllaged. — Dranshtor. Were they respected. XXV. the English found it deserted . and the brigade of General MClaskill retume< whete another tragedy vaa to be performed. they agreed to decide it with the dice. which after the sack of the town were sold for next to nothing . but fled as fast as her legs would carry her. Arriring under the walls of the capital on September.of tiie Himalaya.' Bud the captain. and. ' if I hai the ingratitude of the female heart. entitely irith the recovery of the English priaonet Pollock had never manifested any evil intention agair the army was encamped outside. — ^with this condition. Cbip. having selected one from amongst a group of distracted beauties. the sue* cessfiil player was walking off with the bride elect on his arm.

and their provisions in them. and a great many ventured t then. and the quarter inhabited by the Kuzzilbashes. When. of a cri hostile to tbe Britiih. Ge harassed by the Ghildjzyes. restored in some degree the <x the wretched inhabitants. he was compelled to drive out the inhabitants. the most odious feature in these cruel transactions is that. always been friendly to the English. and not the tribes who in 1841 destroyed the army of General Elphinstone. in conducting the war as they have done upon the inhabitantB of the towns only.houses. " At' Jellalabad the same scenes were enacted. to destroy the city ap to the flames. but they supplied him as well as they were ableThese Kui^bashea are the iiams &Touriiig whom he con lie th^ Lord Ancklud aocoaed of Hohuned guilt.XXV. Frightful as all this is. and almost overcome by nui MDted himself at the gates. the English have punished the inoffensive part of the population. Why then was this town so completely destroyed and burnt?* *' Here then are 100. with the exception i Hissar. that is to say on the 9tb < that General Pollock ordered Colonel Richmond Shi enter Kabul with his brigade. and in a country too where diat season is almost as severe as in Russia. as in Algeria. the warlike tribes .infantry sang the Psalms. and. The strict discipline of the these religious exerdses. and found that. in the November of 1841. to avoid being destroyed 'with his small garrisoa by famine. on credit When he afterwards saw that he could not be reliered before the spring and must therefore pass the winter in the towD. In A%hani8tan. the inhabitants opened tl without resistance. and ii still more difficult to understand why that place was t such severity. and in Lordabip't Simla nu^eil •sing 378 JOURNAL DES D]6bATS : Chap. they left their homes without a murmur. It was tlien. He had brought with him only twc vidona.000 people whose houses have been burnt just at the commencement of winter.

the Mohmundsiy the Othman-Eails — ^all those^ in faict.— . Armenians. who. slaves. workpeople. t Utterly erroneous: the inhabitants of Kabul were as warlike as the nomades. General Sale only did what the dictates of prudence commanded for the safety of the troops under hia orders. the Afreedees. it was only what Davoust did in defending Hambui^ and what any other general in the same position would have done. and who have nerer been known to have a musket in their handset *' In all the wars of which this unhappy country has been so long the theatre. and are mors dangerous and ferociouB in a revolt. — J/errier. the towns are inhabited only hj Jews. and with his knowledge of the A&han character. who hj nature and interest are peaceable. and in the whole prindpalitj there are not six Jews or Aimentans. these are the people who have to bear the biunt of British vengeance : it is unworthy of the nation. quite as warlike as those of the countxy. Tajiks. those who should have been pursued were the Ghildjzyes. ai we have already said. Hindoos. After all. XXV. and instead wreaked his vengeance upon the citizens. whom General Pollock took care not to seek in their mountain fisistnesses.^ Ferrier» r Chap. merchants. In a word.wander about with their flocks . he has conunitted barbarities without excuse. handicraftsmen. that is to say. in Algeria. As they had determined that revenge they would have. I The case is quite othennse^ far the townspeople in Afghanistan are. the Chinnarees. ACCOUNT OF BRITISH PROCEEDINGS. having to punish a revolt of the Flittas or Beni-amers. Cashmeerians.} << Nevertheless it should be said that public opinion in India has * The necessities of war are inexorable . should bum Mostaganem or Mascara . by strangers.Fferrwr. . General Pollock has done that which a French General would do.

by. it introduced disorder i var there for three years.* " Doet Mohamed and his &mily. from whom I sought to procure evic vluch to test the truth of all the facts that have beei reipeddng the English occupation of Afj^ianistan.already raised its voice agfunst these ignoble and atrodous e neitiier do ve doubt that id England indignation will be felt bv ereiy generous heart However. that were captured at Ghuznee. they were the English. whi( is said. and thi four pieces of cannon taken in 1839 from Dost Mohame Uet detail is not the least curious part of the ceremony veil known that the English army returned from Aff baving lost its own artillery there . ii the cruelties and excesses of which. unfo omfinued them.don on the Sikhs. through whidi the army of the Indus is to defile. the latter showed themselves more humane tl bave been expected. InvitationB have to all the native princes to attend the military fStes."t Tbe Afghans. will be present at these fetes. a magnificent triumphal arch is now in couts etfnction. after i Goremor-General will allow them to return as they may to their own country. in 1841. the naiivi . the gates of the tiHub of I the Ghajmevide. and that it was just. the GoTernor-Gena ElleDborou^ is preparing a magnificent reception at F< for the Tictorious army of A^haoistan. and all the Afgh tHvouers in India. but with various modifications. "The govemment of British India will then believe i d all obligation to A^Voistan . which con leaeen iite gravity of some of them. They affirm that. eclipse the splendour of tlie courts (^ the anciei Emperors . the guns were either die Af^^iana or destroyed by order of the British Gen€ Dad DO means of transport for them. and lefl anarchy which may age8. because they i deserred tbe utmost punifjmient that could be inflicted up * All this duplay wm indead mia. as trophies of its victories.

000 when the EngM attacked it. and whatever be the occupation of an individual of that nation. at Kabul the Jews are not tolerated. but I name but one. But the greatest misconception that exists on the subject is to attribute generosity of feeling to Akbar Khan. a lover of pillage. punfol to and doubtful allies. As to the sack of Jellalabad. As I have said before. where the houses were not burnt any more than at Istalii^ for the shnple reason that. but from which they were driven after only six hours' fighting. who especially outraged the English^ and who therefore. the death of the unfortunate Bumes. it was sofflciautl. Hon vu intended to nuJce an imprea- 380" THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY Chap. perfeotl tittle or no fighting. as well as some of the adjacent houses. the history of that episode has also been exaggerated. that they abandoned the capital. as stated by the Journal des DAatSj that 100. » there had been t This i« true. who was attacked in his house by these same shopkeepers who are depicted as such peaceable people. and at the outnde there are not more than two or three Armenian families there. — Ferrier. deserted their homes to take shelter in Istallf. because he took the English ladies under his protection and preserved them from outrage. But the proooa. and many suffered the fortune of war . and if it held 15. the English sooti undeceived them. The mass of the population is of Afghan ori^ . and the adjacent houses fell with them. but the A%hans do not estimate their loss. The frigitives proceeded to this little town with their families and baggage. without object aa the gratification o: ■ddingthe mockeiyof a triumph which canity. it was these shopkeeper or merchant soldiers* and other Ghazees.Ftrrier. andthat radnced to the hard neoasaity of so been quite as muck Lord Etle MTBrsiy paniahiiig tiie Afghana. on their second arrival. XXV. believing they would be safe from any hostile attempt .K'wed. it is to the emigration from Kabul that the augmentation must be ascribed. being built of earth.000 persons were left without shelter. which were considered the finest in A%hanistan. they are not combustible. both at Istalif and Kabul. a small fortress which they thought was impregnable. It is therefore untrue. murder. were mined and destroyed. The population of that town is 3000 or 3500 souls . and devastation. The fortifications that General Sale threw up for his own defence were demolished in order that the A%han8 might not benefit by them. turbulent. . ODuM Dot exist. higher than four hundred and fifty men. Proof of this might be found in a thousand instances. It is also untrue that the Afghan towns are inhabited by inoffensive people . But it is true that the bazaars at Kabul. he is above all things warlike.

for if this possession had not proved a dead weight upon their treasury. and it was averted only by a riot in Kabul which suddenly called Mohamed Akbarto the scene of action. for they could have exchanged the Dost and his wives and children for them. however. One night in particular. for he had more than once in his own mind divided them amongst the harems of some young serdars. these ladies were in the most imminent danger. and that they were perfectly able to take and occupy their country whenever it might please them to do so. he allowed but little to be said on the subject. but until the Caucasus is completely subjugated. upper part of the Indus they have and could take A^hanistan in less than commanded all the countries on the a month. I am * Since the English conquered the right hank of that river east of Kabul. So convinced of that fact were the Afghans themselves. and when they undertook the second expedition to that country. FOR THE ENGLISH. It could be of no use to them. for the same reasons that caused Akbar to respect them . and with great care. — undisciplined militia. XX7. in a manner which admits of no doubt. it is unlikely that power should undertake any enterprise in earnest in Central Asia. every species of information connected with the second expedition to Kabul. although they were respected. But they did not hold it. each man lives in Ferrien Chap. and his confidential conyeisations with others were irequently enlivened by the prospect of this distribution. and the British might again have held Kabul by adopting wiser and more politic measures than they did after the first invasion. it was not because it was impossible to deliver them otherwise. The English might have been reassured as to the fate of the captives in A%hanistan. because he remembered that his father was in the power of the British. this chief was not excited by wine. When.* In Afghanistan the soldiers are not his family. and he dreaded how far the Dost and the females of his fiunily would be made to suffer if he carried out his brutal intentions. his debauched companions. that. excepting as an advanced post against the ambitious schemes of Russia . after a series of orgies. For himself he had reserved the daughter of General Sale. 381 It has been ascertained by the author. it certainly would not have enriched it. that they laid down their arms immediately after the battle of Bootkak. that fact in no way redounds to the credit of Dost Mohamed's son. . but they were determined to prove to the Afghans that the disasters they had suffered in 1841 were not of a nature to damage their power. and were certainly right . — Ferrier. they are an seTeral thousands of them in a town. and from this time till then Kabul may be left to itself* After having sought. and there are somettioo formed into regiments.

coDYinoed that I have obtained proof that the acdons attributed to the English. unhappily by experience. One would have a relation. 888 to the former ftll reprobation — to the latter. who possess the miserable courage to speak in favour of barbarians. and be indifferent or forgetful of the cruelties that the victims who preceded them had suffered. while they can find only an accusing voice when they speak of the soldiers of their country. In vain may we declaim against bloodshed ." or ^^ the French have bathed in the blood of the Arabs !" or ^ the English have sacrificed myriads of Hindoos to their cupidity . for their many BoOeriiiga and hardabipe. took place. human and divine. War has its severities. where all parties are bent upon the interchange of civilities. and then the Indian soldiers. we shall never be able to convert the battle-field into a drawing-room. in the majority of states. that I believe it would be impossible for their commanders to stop the fearfril deeds suggested by their love of revenge. another a friend." I cannot refrain from cursing the people who say so — men. and I have not failed to admit that I never approved the one imdertaken by the English against the Afghans. with their religious ideas. or rather that feeling which they believe to be their duty. XXV. who withholds the infidel arm that would have killed them — ^that their religion enjoins them to massacre without pity or remorse? The remedy lies precisely b that in which you see the evil. and they are great. but I have seen war in Asia and in Africa. view these things so differently from Europeans. and which are to be r^retted. and know. where.British army could follow the one that had been exterminated in that country. the rights of individuals are respected. I am far from constituting myself the apologist of these severities . Unhappy madmen that ye are I do ye not know that such enenues take your clemency for weakness." when I hear it said that the troops of these nations '* are the scum of the earth — ^wretches who have outraged all laws. For the rest. But the acts of a government are not to be confounded with those of its soldiers: ] FOR THE ENGLISH. but hare been grossly exaggerated in their consequences. that is saying enough. therefore it ought not to be undertaken but for sound and legitimate reasons . your forbearance for fear ? — that they have no gratitude but to the God of Islam. or rather not men. haying stated the pro and con. When I hear it said. to avenge .882 THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY Chap. each reader must form his own judgment It will be most difficult to bring those who know the character and policy of the Afghans to believe that an Indo. that it is impossible to conduct it as in Europe. a few eDcouraging worda is tw more than their . ^* how many thousands of Circassians the Russian soldiers have slain.

and induced one writer to say that "the English retired from Kabul with a precipitation resembling the retreat of a beaten army as much as the march of a victorious one. and obliged him to take to flight To the English it was now indifierent . and set bounds to nothing but the prosperity of y<Hir country . I have not pretended to justify it . Before the English left Kabul they pressed Fethi Djlog Mirza to re-Bssume the regal authority. Chap. wbeD fdtting by the fire in a well-etuffed easy chair .' he knew full well that. and Buasian generals. for scarcely was the last detachment of the British army out of sight and across the Indus. then it can only be said that they were not more lbrtunat« in the second expedition than in the first. as soon as his nominal protectors had departed. Shapoor Mirza. wearied to death with waning against Mussulmaog. His elder brother's anticipations were realised . attacked and beat the Mirza. to have exalted their deeds — ask them what they tbink of your system ? Ask the many English. he should have Akbar E^an upon his hands. but. DQ the contrary.due. and in a very humane point of view. but if the govemneQt of Calcutta had other and mere positive reasons for Uunching into such an increase of expenditure. accepted by his young brother. Go. and. however. It ia easy to forget them Id the lazy traoquillity of the cloeet —it is easy to judge (^ focts. at Tiflis. and when you return let us resume the conversation. if such was their intention. receive a aword-thrust or a bullet in the breast — who have BQbmitted to tortures worse a hundred times than death. and the <lestructiaa of a bazaar and a few houses. French. the public had on its side a nght to be surprised at the precipitate return of that army vrithout having effected more than the death of a few hundred men. who was very soon destined to see the entire destruction of the ambitious hopes in which his inexperienced miud had indulged. being determined not to expose himself to the danger of a repe* tition of the treatment that he had received from that Serdar. but thoee who endure the misay — who. with his own troops and their moral support. It was. as the reward of mercy shown in the heat of battle. carried off his riches. bear the musket for a couple of years only in Algeria. and they will tell you what is flie fhiit of your imprudent comments. you wretched Bcribblers. XXV illusion . I would order you no other punishment than to practise the generosity that you preach with so much volubility. or why they came back. be might miuntain himself in power after their return to India. But that prince was not dazzled by (he splendid 384 RELEASE OF DOST MOHAMED. he declined the offer. hoping that. or coosult the writings of others. when Mohamed Akbar reappeared at Kabul. had I any authority over you. or Calcutta. and who tben see themselves calumniated and slandered by those who ou^ht. You destroy die energy of national spirit." Neither can it be believed that they went simply with the intention of re-establishing the le^timate dynasty . This leaves ground for the supposition that they never knew too well why they went to Kabul. In asrigning to the English expedition of 1842 the probable object of re-establishing the reputation of the Indo-British arms in A^^utnistan.

The fact was. Intelligence of this fact and his cri- Caw. then Maharadjah of the Punjab. accompliBbing the distance in ten daye great esertioos <^ the princes were indeed i auae. succeeded in reconstituting the party of Zeman Khan. XXV. his son Mohamed Akbar Khan had infinite trouble in managing the various parties that had been formed in Kabul. Mobamed Akrem Ehan. 385 tKAl podtion reached the Dost et lAhore. the Emir hesitated not a moment. Mohamed Azim Kkn. for when they anived Mobamed Akbs . the serdars » changed their horses at erery village. though at first subdued. to the ase leagnered brother. accompanied by Captain Nicholson. and the proof of this assertion is that Dost Mohamed arrived on the 19th December at Shikapoor. and. both nephews of Dost Mohamed. but instantly took the road to Afghanistan. who. Shooja ed Dooulet (the murderer of Shah Shooja). son of Zeman Khan. pu jooniey night and day. that they did not know what to be about. but this was only one of the grievances of which they always assume the existence when they wish to obtain possession of a country. the Directors were so astounded at the deficit in their treasury caused by the Afghan war. and were highly indignant at the brilliant reception given to the Emir of Kabul by the sovereign of the Sikhs. ecarce drew bridl Eabol.whether he held his ground or not . they had found out though late that Burnes was right in rejecting the idea of restoring the Suddozyes to the prejudice of the Mohamedzyes . and forced Akbar Khan to retire into the citadel. During the time that the Dost was whiling away precious hours in the enjoyment of the pleasures of the court of Lahore. sent his four song. were now becoming rampant. which. Funutiied with a finnan fi and with one attendant only. heing unable bimBelf to go with sufficient rapidity to. who was attached to his escort. SEIF DER DJING. and the English conjectured that these princes made a secret treaty. and was some days after formally set at liberty. On his arrival at Lahore he was received with great state by Shore Sing. where they besieged him for seventy-three days.Kabul. Mohamed Efzel Khan. And Goulam HMdar Khan. Free to go where he liked or to do what he pleased. and Chems Eddin his cousin.

from which he bad ™uBhed. and a n aCTF HER DJD. and by thus dividing the power betv *ho had always been faithful to them. MohamtHi A/iui . to remain at the head of affaire Bot the prince coveted not the cares of a throne '^al honours of A^hanistan were lost for ev he thought that dynasty ought to give way b Md refaged the offer. Major RavlioBon tried to induce Timoor Mil ^h Shooja. and he made his submJ tliose whom he had previously abandoned. preferring to return to Ii to live a life of tranquillity. he at once applied himself to the I ud traces of the anarchy brought into bts doi liah invasion. the Mtnpletely destroyed it. Upon bis declimng. which was also abandoned. son of the vizier Fethi Khan. These been brought up in Kabul. T Kooli B^an. the English pro] ^^ der I)jing that he should assume the '^er will remember that this prince had tl)eni. much more in accc twites. and their appearance at once cai favour of thar brother.The return of the Emir himself. and made common cause with the insut With the latter was not of long duration . i Maister.G. and were beloved «bo bad had many opportunities of witnei courage. who eventually triun ■nie*. put an end to all further a mounting the throne.ciladel with only two days' proviuons. whi shortly after. Akrem £J]aii. ^» n^afity tD-EaboL flenf hi$ four ^iii*. At Kandahar.

^ « mP liwa < . «di awn \nmtj. irifj 1*' : *• . . pureuiiifr their aiwiojAK i iajj flcaroe drew hridle tiU tbey rt5a«..o. » ? ■- 1 •» ftxhe .Klum. iJth». wiiim .< 9 i"^ i '.^ .tiL'j. -^ . ta ^ . al imtiir come. ■ml^u|liH^ ovr «.:. ^ al efwy village. ooly. the serdan Bet out iuiujediaU'ly. tiier yi.i jj^ a Kabul.11* jwj 1. to tbe asistaace of tlw^ir bts with a finnan from the Maharadjaii..lit*d ^ the distance in ta davf frum Laiiart*. ^.^ i of the^ Emit mmntL ^^-mtii ua> x. who cvBatualt. 'J'l^* the princes were iDdoed al] important u» tii*y arrived M nhifJ Akbar wnt at lm\ u. and. u «. r BppearmKm ac uk aau«jc t di^trrt. and weve i«iiiv«i h\ Uh. turn. -. ' .^j^\ t»u*^f . ..^ ^^.^-. Ut* m days' provisioHL Tie* four youur iiw.iiJiiaJ/:utni ay opportnni:as if •ranfiBjijif..

•■ot«f on. State of Kabul after the return of Dost Mohamed — Antagonistic feeling between the Emir and his son Akbar Khan — Ambitious projects of the latter — War between the Dost and the Walee of Khulm — Reasons for this rapture — Akbar Khan wishes to disposseas Kohendil Khan of Kandahar — Also to join the Sfkhi against the English — His rupture with the Dost — BCarriage of Akbar with the daughter of Yar Mohamed Khan — Intrigues of Kohendil Khan to prerent this union — Demonstration of Akbar Khan against Kandahar — He requests the assistance of the Shah of Persia — Favourable reply of that soTereign — Akbsr obliges his &ther to withdraw f^m the direction of affairs — Death of Akbar Khan — Bevolt of Mohamed Shah Khan — Dost Mohamed forces him to retuin to his duty — Alliance between Persia and Kabul — The English are alarmed — Embarrassment of the Emir — Sultan Mohamed Khan returns to Kabul — Reception by the Dost — The Emir appoints his son Haidar Khan yisier — Tlie Dost joins the Sikhs against the English — Antipathy of the Afghans to the . •^T j4*^. -rfthe I * ■ 338 STATE OF KABUL. CHAPTER XXVI. XXVI. Chap.

and nice vend — ^Doet Mohamed takes Attock — His cavaliy is defeated by the English — Owes his escape to the fleetness of his horse. by the support that he gave to his owe ft^owers. but still it was found impossible to re-establish the same governmental unity tiiat bad existed before the English invasion . though he was fiilly sensible of their superiority in the arts of war and government After he had entrapped and murdered Sr W. Akbar Khan. and. ruined. rendered an obedience &r leas implicit than before. he detested the Englidi. it at least produced a suspension of hostilities amongst the various parties -in the state. the Dost found that he had lost much of that veneration of which he had formerly been the object This was a consequence of his residence in India: in the eyes of the Afghans he had contracted a kind of pollution from which he could never purify himself. the serdars.Sikhs. the wise and beneficial measures concerted by . who lariahed upon him mudi of the afiectio: hitherto been bestowed upon the Emir. espedally those belonging to the Ghildjzye tribe. He commenced his preps inflaming the minds of his soldiers with the wildest seductiTe promises. the heir-presumptive of his power. denoted his firm deb not to rest until he had given them a check sufficienUy to disgust them for ever with the idea of attempting fi) . while bis &ther spared no pains in c iog to cahn his imprudent ardour and that of his adl extinguish the feuds of the various parties in the princij to re-establish security in the hope of ^ving a salutary the interests of commerce and agriculture. was for from approving of the new policy. and that his enemies could not without dia- Chap. though always commanding the respect of his people. If absolute calm was not the immediate consequenoe of the return of Dost Mohamed to his dominions. they could not for^ve him for having appreciated British civilization. XXVL AMBITIOUS PROJECTS OF AKBAR KHAN. quests in the north of Asia. 888 honour abstain from taJdog rerenge upon him for that detestable crime i thus circumstanoea quite aa much as his own desire threw him into a line of conduct difierent from that of his fatt perseTered in his oppontion the more tenadously inasi was in unison with the opinions of the greater numl countTymeD. Tie majority of his countrymen rallied round him. of aU his father's remonstrances. Strongly imbued with the same prejudices as the mass of the A%han8. M'Naghten he felt persuaded that the blood he had shed must be redeemed by his own. But Moham who saw everything through the prism of his own fimatici and was dazzled with the enthusiasm that his success stant oppoation to the English had exdted in the nui A%faans. Mobamed Akbar tow«1 therefore an implacable hatr the English. and looked upon his efforts for their improvement almost in the light of a crime. and the tenadty of his oppoeitioD to them.

XXYI. and endeavoured to interest the yi^ier in lus schemes.890 ILL FEELING BETWEEN FATHER AND SON.for the imfffovement. he interfered only so far as to induce the Dost to endeaTour to calm the excitability of his son. he wanted his unde Eohendi] Khan to join him. was at one moment on the point of breaking with his fietther completely. after Runjeet Sing seized Peshawur . who promised to send five hundred A%han horse to his brother and former enemy. and requesting he would assign him a district in his dominions where he could establish himself with those A^hans who were attached to him and intended to follow his fortunes fiat Yar Mohamed saw many objections to complying with this demand. gave him great influence in the a^rs of govenune used this in a manner very detrimental ^ /their fiiture He indulged in dreams of re-establishing the Afghan k: the plenitude of its ancient glory and power. much cause i / . the Usbek Kb Punjab. Li be urged against those day dreams if he bad intendec them out in the spirit of ameliorating the condition of t whom be intended to subjugate . This serdar was serying with the Sikhs. and as Nawab Djabbar Khan. for he had been invested with the govemmeDt of Rotas. and prosperity of his i The poet of vizier which had been conferred upon Mohan I^ Fethi Djing. for the latter. and Beloochistan . was suspected of having preserved some sympathy for the English. He would probably have carried this threat into eiecution. hm. also a brother of the Emir. rejoicing that the Emir oppoeed. seeing that Dost Mohamed opposed his marching to the assistance of his n^ghboura. Sultan Mohamed Khan. Chap. Abdol Ghyaz Khan. even these would not satisly hii and British India was in his e^es a prize on which he that be diould be able some day to lay his hands. the command of these five hundred cavahy. independence. Mohamed Akbar sought to compromise him in their eyes by intrusting to his son. informing him that he had decided on withdrawing for a time JTom Kabul. and on his refusal threatened to invade bu territory. with unshaken firmness and a sincere deaire for peace. The disorganization of the Sikhs and the inroads of the Briti^ on their territory were the ooca^ons of the first serious outbreak between the father and son . and was unalterably determined not to take the imtiative in any act of aggression which could again bring the Knglish upon hiia. But this demonstration against the Anglo-Indian government was not sufficient to satisfy Akbar Khan . and obta sesedon of the other Afghan principalities. and the difficulty was overcome by a concession on the part of the Dost. and in which his father so imprudenti. He was at this time about to marry the daughter of Yar Mohamed Khan. but for an unforeseen event of which it is supposed the Dost was . tiiieae warlike and unreflecting manifestations of Akbar Khan. but as he would only ha^ the bloody episodes that have rendered moumfidly celel reigns of Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane.

did triumphs over the English. which afforded h in his dominions that frontJCT town. H^ also wished to occupy Balkh. and nuuufested a desire of taking revenge by proclaiming war against him. " I ^itt him myself. Doc to this arrangement." he wrote to the Doet.not altogether ignorant . and the Walee of that priacipslity poeitively refused to allow the Afghans to pftSB through it. and in this wish he contrived to indulge him in the following manner :— Dost Mohamed had not forgotten the iU-treatment he and his family had received firom the Emir of Bokhara. The five hundred cavalry 1845 to assist the former under his c not arrived in time to be present at 1846 determined the fate of the Pi to enter Lahore as conquerors . ing his propoaition. and the cesnon of Pesha [sice of his armed intervention. where his brother contii money upon the creature who had b< When Akbar Khan found that h( exasperated Walee of Khulm. his son desired war at all risks. XXTT. 361 vas necessary to trareree the territory of Khulm. he cl ever to his project of joining the Sil English. be returned therefore to to Kabul. "If you have any co™"'»'"* oomi™* »h» Fmip nf Bokhara. On leav brong^t with liim from tJieoce a yoi that district for a purpose which sha of snffident hnportance to induce th Akbar sent his brother. but bad only to present himself and bis them out. so he preferred se . then governed by Ichane Suddotfj under the suzerainty of Nasser Ullah. nerertheless h him with the Engliib if he received Ibs co-operation. for his rear Bokhara. but without deciding the f^aca Khulm became uneasy. unwilling to ^ve np . war between the dost and KHULM. Akrem Kha bmae against the Usbeks." The o^otiations stood thus. well knowing what would be the result if he consented. but if you riolate against you. Three be 1846. when Akbar E been grateful for the generous con complicated the whole a&ir by con in the opinion of many A^hans. and bered the Walee's kindness to him. but to reach that town t Ceat.

when they were unable to defend it . negotiatioDS were. and. and before the marriage took place demanded her for one of his om song. had become all powerful at Herat. 393 ne henceforth placed between two fires. To make up for this disappointment. he thought he would strengthen his policy by the alliance of which the Dost had himself laid the foundations in the preceding year. but none of these defections was so grievous to him as that of his step-son. after having dethroned and strangled Shah Kamran. alleging that his uncle had sought the alliance of the British and fomented discontent in Kabul. But his representations . ur^ng his poution as a neighbour of the vi^der'a. but Akbar persisted in his wish to cross the Indus. which he conadered a just ground of preference. but on her return she was detained a long time at Kandahar. and it was important that the Emir should secure him in his interest. he CB4P. deceased. and the Vizier's son. Several serdars deserted the cause of the Emir on this occasion and passed over to the service of his brother . This insurrection was attributed to the intrigues of Kohendil Khan. who had not the experience of the Emir and was of a restless domineering spirit.392 MARRIAGE OF AKBAR. in utter disregard of his father s disapprobation . espoused Ooher. In this purpose he was foiled by the Dost. never hesitated for considerations of any kind. the Serdar Syud Mohamed Khan. This young serdar had proceeded to Kandahar with five hundred horse. DEMONSTRATION AGAINST KANDAHAE. not. as his dominions lay between Kabul and Herat. a half-brother of the Emir Dost Mohamed. dedded on advancing upon Kandahar. to drive matters quite to extr^tj. XXVI. and ended in doing moire good to their enemies than to themselves. which prevented her from oontiDuiDg her journey. and his son was obliged to delay the execution of his projects. Yar Mohamed. Akbar Khan's mother went to Herat to bring her daughter-in-law to Kabul . and the Emir had infinite difficulty in preventing him from taking this step. therefore. Akbar married in 1846 Bobodjane. Akbar. the eldest daughter of Yar Mohamed. commenced between the two feimilies . He complained loudly to Y«r Ifohamed of his having given hie daughter to Akbar Khan. and been well received by Kohendil Khan — in Akbar's eyes a sufficient cause for declaring war against his unde. the Sultao Djan Khan. being supported in his violent opinions by chiefe as turbulent as himself. which had brought about changes most disadvantageous to the interests of Dost Mohamed. in consequence of an insurrection that had broken out m the district of Kelat-i-Ghildjzye. however. XXYI. he determined upon marching against Kandahar. These difierent views on such serious subjects kept up the irritation between the father and son. who secretly retarded the recruiting of the army. who dreaded the result of the alliances recently concluded. for. Chap. only daughter of Mohamed Khan.

who advanced by fon on Kandahar. neglect with which you allow the faithfiil to be swept away by the infidels. XXVI. Yar Mohamed Khan.'* The Shah of Persia. and such of their brothers. he became daily more discontented with Yar Mobamed and Akbar EJian. Akbar Khan now became anxious to support his father-in-law and march against Kohendil Khan. The moment Dost Mohamed was in the Kandaharians had retreated. and the inhabitants of Kelat-i-Qhildjzye haring heard that the Emir had thousand horsemen from Ghuznee to march agunsi matter ended by their opening the road for the affian Htjiamed Akbar Khan. Akbar Khan. and the Emir resigned hi punve position in which his son's conduct placed him. and made fresh incursions upon the territory of Herat. To relate all the rash and foolish undertakings ] Akbar Khan from this period would be impossible . The euYoys of Herat and Kabul were well received. uncles. to Akbar's int imperatively recalled him to Kabul. the result of which was that the vizier advanced upon Wachir and Girisbk. Allah will require you to acco 394 THE DOST WITHDRAWS PROM THE CITADEL. example. he. It was with this object in riew that at 1846 be sent Akhood Zadeh Azim as ambassador to Persia to conclude an alliance offensive and defensi nioiiarch . As to Kohendil Khan. and richly jewelled swords and decorations were sent to Dost Mobamed. and made feariul reprisals. the missive concluded in tl "If your majesty heritates to take part in the « against the English. but Dost Mobamed opposed this. in the district of Gulistan. and to enter Afghanistan . and also sent an agent to Teheran fiir the sa These two chiefs wrote a joint letter to Mohamed Shal {H^ng tenns. without granting the assistance demanded of him. Seizing on thi fne himself completely from the authority of his fin BgniGed to him in the haughtiest and moat insolent keocefordi be intended to do as be pleased in the prini Kquested him for the future not to interfere in its i^n nately Mohamed Akbar Khan was sufficiently powerful Isiiguage to his sovereign. and they revenged themselves SOTCTal thousand cavalry to ravage the pltun of Bakooi to Herat (adcUng that tijey intended to seize the t when they were arrested in their project by a divera favour of Mohamed Akbar by his brother Haidar E head of eight thousand horse. At this the indignation of tl Kandahar was great. was neyertheless quite inclined to join the projected alliaooe. and other serdais in the principality as were fiavourable to the cause. showing him how the English were ca conquests along the whole course of the Indus.[R«dnced no alteration in the arrangement. t i^ same tune originated several ahle measures for the < <rf his power. Chap. his father-in-law. and a sharp altercation took .

a chief enjoying gn with ihe mountain tribes.place between the father and son. Mohamed Akbar threatened. some serdars. Some lay it to the charge of the English. though Dot M much as he expected to enjoy. This quarrel at length opened the eyes of Dost Mohamed. so that th JDgtly considered each other as brothers. he could not induce the Kuzzilbash to give up his guest. whom Akbar delivered from the tyranny of the Englieh only to make tbem feel hie own more heavily. received him with all the warmth and respect due to his rank and great misfortunes. without being able to produce any proof thereof . during which the latter bitterly reproached the Emir with cowardice. intending thus to secure it from any covi on the part of his own brothers. He had followed tiie fortu Kohamed and his &mily when the English seized '. Opinions are divided amongst the Afghans as to who was the instigator of this deed. and died three hours afterwards in horrible convulsions. as we the insurrection of 1841. but his party was not. as it is said. where Khan Shireen Khan. when they retunted to Khulm his assistance was mt in organizing an attempt against Shah Sbooja. which were given him by a Hindoo doctor. and the difficulty of at mountaio-home. of which he took two himself in the presence of his victim. that he placed all his wealth in bis b acquired it. and to what extremities he might have preceded is unknown. by taking two aphrodisiac pills. Mohamed Shah Khan received an importac in the hill country to the north of Kabul. and even threatened to imprison him. he thought that in forming a powerful party which would obey his warlike instincts he could oppose his father and the English also. and sligl Emir . During t of Akbar. or even from the Eng they ever return to Kabul . amongst Mohamed Sfaah Khan. the evil disposition of his son . but in vain. finding t^eir plans defeated. This man had them in a box with some others. To this senlar Mohamed bound himself by an oath of friendship and brother npon the Koran and legally attested by a mollah tulman law sanctions ties of this description. Ghildjzye. retired in disgust to their domains. for he was carried off by a sudden and wholly unexpected death. 395 it to hare been comnutted at the instigation of Dost Mohamed and his BOta. others suppofle Ch4p. others revolted against his authority. and disdained the prudent warnings often given him to be careful for his personal safety. and such « reposed in him by bis friend. The conduct of Akbar Khan had scarcely left him the chance of dying a nataial death . However this may be. the Doet obtained some liberty of action after his decease. he withdrew therefore fixim the citadel and took refuge in the kaleh of Djeyanchir. the Kuzzilbash chief. XXVI. wbo therefore swallowed those offered to him without suspicion. the good understandii these two cbie& continued uninterrupted till the death a . namely. caused. DEATH OF AKBAB KHAN. and proved to him what he had up to that time earnestly wished to doubt. Akbar Khan was dead.

troops were therefore obliged to return and wait for rrinforoements. who bad hitherto only been able to maintain themselves against their foes by the mountainous character of theur country. Dost Mohamed. and which originated in the just. and the compromised serdars. who had been on his embassy to Persia. The Anglo-Indian Government watched with some uneasi- . and left him only the govemmeDt of a small mountain district — measures which rendered another revolt on his part almost impossible. andsuppor hostile demonstrations. the Emir oould not possibly do otherwise than approve of the conduct of bis hte son's envoy. After that event Dost Mohamed dmn perty that hie son had confided to Mohamed Shah Kb latter obstinately refused to give it up. but it was numerically insufficient to repress th< it had to operate in a country full of difficulties. and the Emir was obliged to send an ai ^m. concentrating his troops. there he applied himself earnestly to repair the injuries that years of civil war had inflicted upon some of the finest* provinces of Afghanistan. that the latter was obliged to surrender at discretion and give up the disputed treasure to the lawful heirs of Mohamed Akbar. had under his standard 25. who. The Dost also obliged the Khan to enter into and accept other conditions sufficiently humiliating. alleging th which bound him to Akbar constituted him the legi to the deceased serdar. after having installed his son Goulam Haidar Khan at Jellalabad in the chief command of the Ghildjzye territory. redoubled his efforts to collect a sufficient force with the utmost rapidity. though dangerous. dreading the loss of their property. and the Emir now determined to strike a dedsive blow. and that the Emir could not with refiise him the titie of vizier which he had bestowed U] likewise that it gave him the right to marry all his widov ence to the Dost's sons— Mohamed Shah Khan set up. returned to Kabul. Chap.000 men — veteran warriors brought up in hatred of the Ghildjzj-e tribe. he moved towards the point at which Mohamed Siah Khan had encamped with the greater number of the insurgents. therefore. who was quite alive to the serious diaracter of the circumstances. or lives. With this large army he moved against a comparatively feeble enemy. XXYI. It was at this juncture that Akhood Zadeh Azim. hastened to join the camp of the Emir. and in the month of April. 1847. he seized his sons as hostages. antipathy to the British alliance that always existed in the mind oT his son Mohamed Akbar. returned immediately to his capital .Akbar Khan. The Qhildjzyes responded b in crowds. liberty. infinity ofthemoet unreasonable pretensions. and he accordingly ratified all the steps that Akhood Zadeh Azim had taken to perfect a strict alliance between the Afghans and the Persians. The reduction to obedience of this rebellious tribe gave peace to the principality of Kabul. witl always fighting under great advantages of grount: 396 REVOLT OP MOHAMED SHAH KHAK. and pressed him so vigorously and closely.

nearly all bis hrothers were he and the one whose hatred was the most unremitt placable was Sultan Mohamed Khan. XXVI. at lea In tbie. however. if he triumpl difficulty. Such a man at tbe bead of aff^rs in Kabul was almost a piece of good fbrttute for the Company. The English thoroughly understood that the tram gfaanistan was no advantage to their cause.ness the increasing good feeling between these two nations. their anxiety was not extreme. who contended tbe last for tbe sovereignty of Kabul. for they thought his eccentric schemes would probably commit him sooner CaAT. ALARM 07 THE EKOUSH. and Shere Sing the last Sultan Mohamed Khan drew upon himself the e Sikh vizier Eljovaker Sang. and fought many a battle. tbe powe: dpality would be increased tenfold in a short time . and. had been guilty. whose constant enmity and oppositioi was well known to them. I>< might poeeibly be forced by them to accede to tt which. M'Naghten. and it ia doubtful whether his violent death was in any way satdafactory to them — at the ut ' seem to avenge the murder of SSr W. therefore. as &ct8 Bubaequently proved. and was in consequence tal and detuned a prisoner there. It has been shown in this history that before D( attained the sovereignty he struggled through yea and wars. XXVL . Chap. was the case. It has been st serdar was obliged to be satisfied with Peshawur. him the chie& woidd more easily become united. OF MOHAMED KHAN TO KABUL. and constrmned to cede that province to Runjeet Sin) him governor of the fortr^ of Rotas in the Punja death of the Maharadjah. and this led them to hope th be able to make use of him to counteract hts plai solicitation. he was not beholden to his family for be obtain that result. But the English watcl for no one could better carry out then: designs thai hamed Khan. Tbey might also hope that Doi now emancipated from the thraldom of his ovei would preserve his neutrality towards tbem. tbe Afghan serdar was set at I was believed that he received from them the prom 898 RETURN. while they had always been quarrelling : neverthelesB. But although the hostility of Akbar Khan had been anything but encouraging to them. 397 or Ister in Bome maimer very detrimental to his power and introduce perpetual discOTd and confiirion into the Afghan states. there lurked perhaps a greater under the able adminiBtration of the Emir. andTn pi Khan ]Ht>vided another brand of discord.

and endeavour to induce him to return to Kabul. The entbusiaam excited l^ this auccese. and he sent his eldest son Mohamed Efzel Khan to Kohat to ^ve his uncle every possible guarantee for his security. that he should delegate his authority as a general to his third son Goulam Haidar Khan. and having lived several months at Peshawur retired to Kohat. In this reconciliation the EmirVas sincere. The first act of his administration was to aBsemble the chie6 of all the tribes. but testified no resentmeptr—far from it. and their hatred of the English had been deep and coiutant On assuming the rank of vizier. and Mohamed Shah Khan placed himself once more at their head. Haidar was dear to them for the same reasons as Akbar. Dost Mohamed was not blind to all this. Dost Mohamed now declared his military career was over. xxti. and go to the Dost He kept this promise. and the warl of tbe^ new chief. and was besides the son of the same mother : their bravery was equal. whom he speedily reduced to a condition that rendered it hopeless for him ever again to raise the standard of rebellion. a small town situated to the south of the former city.sion. and he endeavoured on various occasions to eflfect a reconciliation with him . The i for many years ofiered to restore Peshawur to him in i the aaeiEtaDce he had formerly given them. This last step entirely succeeded : the old serdar at last promised to forget his ancient hatred. and make them swear fideUtjr to his family and war to the unsubdued Ghildjzyes. the defender of Ghuznee agamst the English. but the intractable pride of his brother was inaccessible to every attempt of the kind. and should reserve to himself the administration of civil affairs only. and he ao\ . After Sultan Mohamed was deprived of the government of Peshawur the Emir's heart was softened by his misfortunes. the unanimity of feeling. he won the affections of the army by increasing the pay of the troops^ and took advantage of the popular feeling expressed in his favour hy at once pursuing Mohamed Shah Khan. The return of Sultan Mohamed Khan to Kabul took place at the period at which a fresh revolt of the Ghildjzyes occurred. and a short time after the same roof sheltered these two chie& of the family of the Mohamedzyes. that it was impoesible for the elude or delay the executioD of their demands. Goulam Haidar Khan espoused some of the wives of his deceased brother. cbat. When he saw him return from Lahore he was not too proud to take the initiative once more with the same object in view. and amongst them Bobodjane. led the Afghans to deuie a fresh fie employment of their arms : they loudly called upon Haidar Khan to lead them against the Eoglisb . after this he returned to Afghanistan. dost mohamed attacks attock. The serdars received this semi-abdication with favour . Can the same be said of his eldest brother ? That is a problem which can be decided by time only. and.

Chap. they were tbei len concerned than they had been at the advance of Dost IV NotwithstamUng the prospect which now presented itae Emu. and displayed no deare to support the insurrectionary movement of the Sikhs. Doet Mohamed and his son were utterly unable to their soldiers. ii showing the glighteet dispoation in favour of the Skhs. but this was not the case with his soldiers . XXYI. however. and drive the A%hans beyond the passes of . he would perhaps have alie affections of his countrymen and lost the throne of Afj hr his family for ever. had he done otherwise. he appeared by no means anxious to proceed beyond Ae limits of his re-conquered territory. ' their allies. Tchatter Sing and Shere Sing. 1849. they had not followed him simply to encamp on the banks of the Indus. who. and violated their wives and d in revenge. where he could concentrate a force sufficient to protect him from a coup-de-main^ satisfied his emabition. Having at this time to keep in check Sang and his son Shere Sing. was obliged to B and the Afghans occupied it immediately. who disarmed the remainder of the Sikh army. they pillaged thei th«r way into their harems. Lord Gough. to march against Attock and Peshawur. But the serious nature of the position in wl found themselves led the Sikh chie& to shut their eyes enormitiea. b^ng abaolul oat the means of defending the fortress. and the English were thenceforth convinced cmisequence of their religious antipathies.to accept the proportion which be had till then steadily for. namely. Februaiy 21. When the British generals who commanded in thi learnt that Doet Mohamed had descended into the pla Indus with 15. he received orders from the General-in-Chief. they then found they had lost all their positions and the greater part of their artillery. they were anxious as to the < might take. ahd surrendered to Sir Walter Gilbert.of seizing Caiiimeer. Tlie poseesaon of Attock. kept the field for another month . This event having set his division at liberty. aa they said. However. subeequently marched against Attock. and crushed the A%hans and Sikhs together at Goojerat. kingdom. and to pacify them he sent a contingent of cavalry to Shere Sing. of having kille all the mosques on their route. The vanquished were hotly pursued. no alliance coulc exist between the Sikhs and the A^hans . but the Sikh commanders.000 men. who had just beaten the English at C!hillianwallalL The latter. who had raised the Sikh them on all sides. having taken poseesnou of the fer of Peshawur. andently a province of the 400 FLIGHT OF DOST MOHAMED. they were in no pontion to oppose the of the Afghans. for the unheard-of insult of w accused the army of Shere Sing. and were obliged to excuse these esceweE as th<7 could to the allies whose cause they had been to defend. and inhabited the town. tl manded by Colonel Herbert This officer. soon took their revenge.

and. the English DDer to prevent all chance of their being and Dost Mohamed reached Kabul. The English detest him for btme arms against them in 1848 : to the A%faans he is ao of suspicicm. the the Emir and his kingdom is a problem which time only ve. — DtMt HotuDud loMi PMhnnir »nd iittoak — 1 Eob«iidil Khaa nt Kaadahti after his return r of af&in 4t Hant — Tk Mohamad Khu Kid and Colunel Stoddart — The latter laavea fur Cqor Fottiiiger and Sbera Dil Khan — Bedoua I — Conduot of Tw Hohamed — H^or Todd at Shah Kamnn — Tv Mobamed all-powerful in Br Mobamed'i dinner-table — Intrigue* of that I Kamna — Hiaundentanding between H^or ohamed Khan — Approbation of Migor Ti>dd'a BaA India Compu. TER XXVII. aud leta to attack the English. who it was ugerouB than ever. but his gallant horse eventually distanced them. — Official inatraotiooa to [ohamed — Difficultiea of IC^jor Todd'a poaition I— Subaidj to Shah Eamran and hia oourt •h demanda upon Hqor Todd — Counter prore* Herat and i« eaoorted out of the ol^. If Dost Mohamed had cherished a hope that the English would leave him in peaceable possession of the towns which he had just taken. the idea was soon dispelled. perhaps his life. and less satisfied as to the yais. If he has to regret that he could he haa at least' the satigfaction of havlat be was right in hia judgment. and for two hours the Indian cavalry sent in pursuit of him kept within gunshot of the fugitive Emir . and appear as if they were not likely to :n nor his troubles arrive at any satis&ctory conclusion . > than ever. His defeat was r policy . having changed that.A%hanistan. and tbey will ever suspect that he is ready and to treat wilb the East India Company. for to attack and defisat him was with them an operation equally prompt and easy. he ^he w<R^ possible portion. and saved his liberty. Indeed his prospects sides are indifferent. )NQDER THE PDNJAB. He was even driven to seek safety by a precipitous flight. »f Peshawiir and Attock. .

It has been shown fter having beaten the Prince Seif der Djing. Lord Auckland did not the less persist in a most unjust invasion of territory. The vizier completely neutralised the precautiooaiy measures taken by Kohendil Khan by settling Akter Khan in die district of Gour. After this he found that. which the tribe of Alizye had quitted ahaort entirely to join its chief in his new abode. and describe the events diat took place ui that city after the siege was raised by Mohamed Shaib^ the period at which the English proclaimed the restoration of Shah Shooja to the throne of the Suddozyes in Kabul. notwithstanding the services that he had rendered to his prince when he assisted him in re-consolidating his power. but. the Alizyea. put down amongst the Hazarahs Poocht Kooh and the Beloochees who were under his jurisdiction. and the family ties that existed between them.position or Kobendil Khan at Kandahar is far from being arrassng as that of his elder brother. here he was established in the heart of his tribe. and escaped to Herat Thia vas a most fortunate event for Yar Mohamed Khan. and the extent to which he might turn it to his own account against his adversaries. A wish to avoid the necessity of returning to the histciy of Kabul and Kandahar has induced the author to carry it on without interruption . his political talents are not nearly so good as those of the Emir. when he was obliged to fly. Although the retreat of the Persians and the relief of Herat ought to have satisfied British susceptibilities. A%hanistan being pre-eminently the country in which nothing can be foreseen. who was not ignorant of the influence whicii this serdar exercised over the A%han tribes established in the south. Kohendn Khan determined to expel him from the district of Zemindavar . and therefore he has a far less difficult task in carrying on his goTemment than Dost Mohamed . This fact was not calculated to re-establish the good feeling that had so long been interrupted between Kohendil Khan and Yar Mohamed. the chie& of Kandahar. be had revcdts to 2 D 402 YAR MOHAMED KHAN AND THE ENGLISH. and from this time their intercourse was characterised by constantly increasng asperity : but it is very difficult to foresee the results of this rivaby. and the independence of Herat imder Shah Kamran. . Ceap. but they are sufficient for his portion. he now proposes to return to Herat. situated on the frontier of Kandahar and near that of Zemindavar. but. But the serdars of his proTince are not the same turbulent characters as those of Kabul. The Serdar Akter Khan was the only one who could give him die least annoyance. as there is nothing frurther to add to it. XKYII. he resumed ion of his prindpality. and towards the close of 1847 was attacked by him with a very superior force. besides hie 8 with Akbar EUiao and Yar Mobamed.

and. M^Naghten to delay and amend the plan first conceived of a military occupation of Herat They therefore trusted to diplomacy to upset the vizier .XXVn. XXYIL graDting a pension to Shah Eamran and the principal chiefs of Herat. in order to put a stop to it This measure. was the protection they gave the townspeople agiunst their tyrant . would feel grateful for the assistance that be had received from the EngUsh. first poeseased himself of Kandahar . but the council at Calcutta had reckoned too much upon the cooperation of fortune. besides Shah Shooja had publicly expressed a hope that his nephew. the motive for which.CHAP. who remiuned at Herat after the siege was raised. whose fidelity was very doubtfuL The correspondence of Major Pottinger. the British resident at his court. and the vigilance of the distrustful Yar Mohamed Khan baffled all their calculations. he had at lliat time. and in concert with Sir W. and those of Colonel Stoddart. who joined him there after he had carried to the Persian monarch the ultimatum with which he had been intrusted. 403 It has been related that Shah Shooja. which up to that time had smiled on the execution of their projects in Afghanistan. finished by stating him to be the most accomplished villain in Central Asia. MAJOR POnUNGBR AND COLONEL STODDART. contabed asswanoes which alone caused the delay of this measure. Several reasons apparently combined to induce him to give up this project. and preventing Yar Mohamed from selling them to the Usbeks . the importance of whidi was thought secondary after the departure of the Persian army . the English were under the necessity of 2 D 2 404 COLONEL STODDART LEAVES FOR BOKHARA. and the vizier had no means left of raising any funds except by a continuation of this inhuman traffic. eaoorted by an AngloIndian army. and to anticipate the annoying and disadvantageous moral effect that the truth would produce upon the Afghan allies. However they admitted the power of upsetting him simply with the aid of Kamran and the Heratees. H'Nagbten that Yar Mohamed might be considered the real sovereign of Herat. howe?er. and the British officers soon complained of the ill treatment they had to submit to from Yar Mohamed . agreed that a few battalions. but as the revenues of the state were exhausted. They informed Sir W. Chap. sufficient to seize Herat. Major Pottinger ccmtinued to pay the troops at Herat with money supplied by the East India Company. After the retreat of the Shall of Persia. M'Naghten. in 1838. were mainly directed to saving the wretched Heratees from famine. in their opinion. But these reasons were given only to disumulate the real state of things. did not attain the desired object. after having described him as a man equally energetic and opposed to their ambitious views. Shah Eamran. should be detached from the expeditionary army to occupy that city. and that of Colonel Stoddart. and that was the real motive which led Sir W. His efforts.

went to Bokhara. thenceforth ceased entirely with Major Pottinger. and only rendered him' liable to insult The consequence was. his attendants dragging after them the luckless servant of the Major. where he had a mission to fulfil. The Afghans are not conspicuous amongst mther European or Eastern nations for their politeness. XSYH. The vizier rejected each and all of these propositions. and it is said that the chief executed his mission with such brutal rudeness that Major FotUnger ordered one of his servants. and the aerrants of Shere Mohamed Khan. beaiing hie shouts. and it was only by great good management that Pottinger could obtain leave to remain at Herat. rushed tu the assistance of their master and rescued him &om his undignified position : the eerdar returned furious into the presence of his brother. a Heratee. well organized.After haying well investigated the matter and obtained information from the best sources. and also the fear of the British army in the neighbourhood of Kabul. finding that he had failed to obtain any one of his demands. The concessions in question were. which impeded rather than served his cause. a scuffle ensued. Stoddart. which the Persians had held ever since the close of 1837. and the good understanding with him. already compromised by Stoddart. must bring Yar Mohamed ELhan to submit to their wishes. the recapture of the fortress of Gorian. and finally. where he soon had smous difficulties to contend with . his imprudent conduct placed his comrade Pottinger in a frdae poation. of a violent disposition he frequently gave way to passion before the vizier. «bo9e hand was immediately cut off by order of the vimr for having dared to place it upon an A^ban chief. and officered by Englishmen. he sent his brother Shere Mohamed ^ Chap. 1839. Kaleh Beghi. these gentlemen hoped that gratitude for the support the government of Herat had received from that of Calcutta. looked upon this suppresnon as ill^al and unjust On the 30th of January. moreover. 406 Kbfto to Major PottingeT to demand specific explanations of his ulterior intentiona. The latter. Colonel Stoddart especially would assume to himself the position of a Mentor who expected to be obeyed . these had reference to some concessions that he demanded fit>m the vizier in consideraticHi of the pecuniary aid that he received from the East India Company. thus dismissed. CONDUCT OF TAR MOHAMEU. conceiving that the payments which had been made gave him an acquu*ed right to their continuance in future. and confiding the administration of it to British agents. He then ordered Sertip Lai Mohamed Khan. I have come to the oonclunon that they were in error. the reform of the government at Herat. but Yar Mohamed. the occupation of the citadel with two regular battalions of Heratees. that an imperative order to leave Herat was ^ven him by the king. ceased to pay the subsidy hitherto furnished to the Afghan chiefi. to surround the British . to ^w htm the door . therefore.

he was one of the first to send his congratulations to Shah Shooja upon hia success. and his ministers. and from the month of Mardi. Although that prince. and the tanUness displayed by the Shah of Persia in producing die subsidy required to carry on the war. Mohamed was never thdr dupe. Yar Mohamed Khan was most perfectly informed of all the intrigues set on foot by the Kitish envoy to dejHive him of his power. -for they well that their generouty was exercised much more in their Dterest than in that of the Heratees. perhaps worse. and he therefore was not sorry to have an opportunity of making him feel that as yet it had not suflbred the slightest diminution from his proceedings." sud Yar Mohamed to the author . that he obtained his liberty. Chap. For his part. avarice being. " They wanted to despoil me. to ruin me. XXVH. his court. temporarily interrupted. absolutely maintained hy the English.officer's house with a guard of two hundred men. however. no one appeared to »ate that frict. and never to lose sight of him." Major PottiDger had a perfect knowledge of the character of the Asiatic Muesulmans and the versatility and pliancy of the intellect requifdte in treating with them . or to esteem them for it. while asserting Ins independence and resisting the demands of the English. he contrived. he had been in correspondence with the court of Persia endeavouring to obtain support against them. In adopting this line of conduct he had no other end in view than to enrich himself at their expense. to bend nfficiently to allow of a reconciliation after this rupture. Yar 406 MAJOR TODD AT HERAT. but it was only by continuing the payment of the iiubsidies. well resolved that "be would have nothing more to do with them from the day that they should cease to supply his treasury. which he found the most profitable of the two. Having formed his plans upon the events of the moment. he was therefore soon relieved from the supervision of his guards. induced the vizier again to attach himself to the English alliance. It was at this time that he offered Mohamed Shah to unite his army with that of the Prince of Kandahar and oppose the invaaon of Shah Shooja . " I must have been a great fool not to be beforehand with them. but the rapid march of the British on that town. and renewed his negotiations at the court of Shah Kamran. 1839. which order was acted upon forthwith. Major Pottinger knew not which way to turn in the midst of all these fluctuations in the . a dominant feature in bis character.

policy of the viaer. The following were the instructions be received : — Ist To ascertain the intentions and sentiments of Shah Kanum and his court towards the English Government. 1839. and he was therefore selected as envoy to the court of Herat. the last paragraph of the third article leaves the snppontion — however that might be. to ascertain the cause of discontent. To negotiate a treaty of alliance with Shah Kamran. To make known the objects of the BritiBh policy to the chiefs □f Bokhara and Khiva . 407 Gth. and to establish a cordii itanding between the Shah Kamran. To fix. to return to Kabul. the frontier vhidi separates Penu from the priocijKilit. and he afterwards went with the army to E^ndabar. To take with him engineer and artiUery officers to restore and repair the fortifications of the town. where the embassy of congratulation sent to the Stiah by Yar Mohamed had alr^idy arrived. and. if he found that in spite of the benefits they had received from it they favoured the Persian Government. of the artillery. and hinu his efforts were at first crowned with success. To give Yar Mohamed a written indemnity for his past conduct. XXVIL TREATY WITH SHAH KAMRAN. Major d'Arcy Todd. and the most substautial advantaj . 4tii. for in Augu he concluded a treaty of alliance and friendehip with the I [nince. To pay attention to the financial relations of the East India Company with the court of Herat. CHiP. which he had acquired when in the service of the Shah of Persia. Tlie independence of the principality of H gnaranteed l^ England. This officer possessed an intimate knowledge of the Persian language. of Herat ?th. M^Naghten. Major Todd Herat in July. in order to obtain his confidence for the future. his viraer. assistant and militiiy secretary to Sir W. 5tb. 3rd. and after having carried out these initnictioia. if ponible. and to do everything in his power to remove it 2nd. was the officer charged by the Qoveraor-General to accompany Shah Shooja frtnn Loodiana to Shikapoor. leaving Major Pottinger «a the repreBentative of England at Herat Such were the instrudioos that were tranemitted to th Envoy . but it seems probable that there were secret 01 at any rate. but wUhent ucuring to him and hU family the perpetual government of the cmntrg. and the affiiirs of CentnJAsia. 1839. May 15. He exerted himself to the utmost oat the misfflon confided to him. and it was with a feeling of inexpressble pleasure that he heard the East India Company were about to release him from his fetters by sending him a sucoesBor.

was so intoxicated as to fall senseless under the table. he tiie English in it only because they satisfied bis thirst 408 LOYALTY OP MAJOR TODD. the vizier. the land covered with crops. were constantly originating reports hostile to the English. and amongst them Prince Mohamed YoosBOof (grandson of Hadji flrooz Eddin). and the Shah would not commit himself to it unless the English oo* operated with him. abounded in intrigues. Chap. It is trae they constantly endeavoured to induce Shah Eamran to displace his despotic minister . could it have been possible for that officer to wish to terminate the question in this manner. being but a bad Mussulman. both of them warm partisans of the Persian alliance. indeed. equal to the revenues of the prindpality I mege. constantly pressed by his partisans to consent to the assassination of the vizier. Alikioozye. on condition that the traffic should be abolished and that all correspondence with otb should cease unless carried on with the consent of the Britii A monthly sum. were his declared enemies . and every desonption of tax was remittei the harvest of 1840 . it was due only to the loyalty of Major Todd. large sums of money were likewise in repairing the fortifications. and the Ichik Agassi Feiz Mohamed. The East India Company also made considerable advan agriculturists. However. being obliged to At up with him the whole night to save his . and the Major had the greatest possible trouble to prevent the company from adopting his proposition. the they tulopted produced the happiest results for the Afg] town was quickly re-peopled. 1 resumed its activity. rendering all hope of coming to a cordial feeling utterly abortive. Hassan Mohamed. another guest. and. for. but that sovereign could see no other way of disposing of his vizier than by putting him to death — a measure which Major Todd. was granted for the nuuntenance of the govemmen soil had remained without cultivation for ei^teen moi labour of every kind had been interrupted from the comm of hostilities. But the sacril by the Company were never compensated by any of the a they had expected. and the Kazi of Herat. the Serdar Dine Mohamed Khan. who. Herat. suggested that the head of the unconscious minister ought to be cut off at once. so that it was very difficult to come to an understanding when the views of both were so conflicting. The Anglo>Indian Govemn: hardly have done more had Herat been a British posset there can be littie doubt they hoped that it would soon be as they behaved with so much liberality. and shopkeepers to enable the GCMnmence Ixudneas. of course. caravans poured in rapidly. XXVH. would not sanction. Yar Mohamed made not a single c and remfuned absolute master of the principality . merchants. nothing would have been more easy. as constantly rejected the idea with indignation . Here was an opportunity: many of the guests. at one of the dinners that he gave to Yar Mohamed Khan. sec confidence were completely re-established. The Serdar Shere Mohamed Elhan.lated in &vour of its chieb. brother of the vizier. and. if blood was not shed.

pains to conceal his opinion . and took no . 409 irftaterer the. the Shah that he was accredited by his GoTemment . But tlie English required also the radfication of his minister. and contrary to their religion and the rights of men . and it would have been e Shah to hare had Yar Mobamed arrested and strangled . and for this reason only several serdars were subsequently much less favourably disposed towards the Ed^H^ — ^that the death of the vizier in a chancemedley or an apoplectic fit would not in any way have distressed Major Todd is higtlj probable. alto the residence of the king. and the miniater would never ntity The goTemment of India considered it a crime in M that he did not g^ve up the old king and try his powi sQuion and ailment upon the vizier . a niade a report to his sovereign on the position of a^irs i his servants always remained at the gate of the citadel. XXVI[. It was in vain that he represented to these chiefs that such actions were reprobated by Europeans. SHAH EAHRAN AND TAR HOHAMED. he thought no more about the Persians after they had retreated. and when he found the Feringhees paid him his pension with such perfect punctuality and supplied him so lavishly with wine and spirits. desired. and the sube the vizier for his sovereign would have alienated from M the party that supported Shah Kamran. his doty to carry on his negotiations in the regular c if Shah Kamran had retuned any of the rigour of hii would at tlie very commencement have settled his different minister. they looked upon his conduct as simply pusillanimous. which constituted the charm of hiB existence. it ^ tan. he became their warmest partisan and granted them Cup. Furthermore.life. Every morning the vizier had an audience. The king was exceedingly ill-disposed towards Yar Mohamed before the arrival of the English envoy. but there is no the BritJeh eoYoj had any chance of success with hin Mohamed had already come to a detenninatjon respecting that the English wanted to exert over him.

having been informed that the vizier hs 100. were the co It happened thus : — Shah Kamran." be sud. and was quickly followed by another event. and soon fell into their projects. and he ranged himself amongst the adversaries of Yar Mohamed. XXYll. being cc intoncated. This serdar was the true type of an Asiatic warrior ^-one of those intrepid and fiery chiefe whose sw^rd leaps from the scabbard ere the hand of its master reaches the hOt . who maintained the most perfec " Strike. for none could promote his ambitious views better than he. Yar Mobamed was at the time his knees and heels before his sovereign. and afterwards of his life. and I have none of i to you. Howevo-. replaced the dagger in his belt. Chap. and allowed Yar Hohamed to depart After thia the vizier kept a strict watch o?er his sovereign. and the wily vizier neglected nothing that might attach Dine Mohamed to his cause. Notwithstanding this rivalry the two relatives had not ceased to meet and maintain the appearance of friendly intercourse. I have money for the good of the state. Towards the . his audadty had no equal among the Afghans.least assistance could reach him : but instead of taking he threatened him in the most violent and absurd nu towards the close of 1839 proceeded to such lengths th of his own liberty. but neither menaces nor promises had any the prime minister. demanded that they should he dehvered t the minister replied that they were in his charge not on but to use for the expenses of his administration. seized his minister by the beard. but Dine Mohamed submitted to the influence of their persuasions and their gold. In i with Eastern custom. After the death of Attar Khan in 1830 his fath^. and none knew better how to infuse his own courage and enthusiasm into l^e breasts of others.000 rupees. and never entered the presence alone to converse upon matters of state policy. ten years." Kamran. soon repented that he had given up the powerful portion of vizier to his cousin . dragged h towards him with one hand. " my &te is in your hands. before proceeding to ext endeavoured to make him restore the sum that he though had extorted . This incident created a further estrangement between Major Todd and Yar Mohamed. i^aken by that extraordinary fircm meaoour which had maintcuned so great an influence ov 410 DINE MOHAMED KHAN. the Serdar Dine Mohamed. Yar Mohamed might perhaps have succeeded in security his assistance if the English had not attached him to their party. drew his dagger with the [mpared to strike. of which the Engli^ were accused of being the instigaton. his ambition had increased with age. who.

commencement of 1840 this serdar sent a messenger to the vizier with an invitation to a feast at his house. and other poKs. Scenes of this description were constantly occurring. When IS Todd informed the English Betddent at Kabul of this treachery. XXVn. and he o^red to place himself an< country under the protection of Mohamed Shah. they also eanctioned all the expenses incurred and promised tor forti^inf **'" town. and spedally insisted that the Company had no d of reaping the fruits of its expenditure nor of establishing a tnaoent and solid influence without the presence of an A ." that of Major Todd was barely toleratei was fiir from commanding. be stated his oinnion that to maint^n friendly rel« widi the court of Shah Kamran was no longer poeaible. and take him prisoner. of this the minister received warning only at the moment he was passing the threshold of the door." The C ol deceived themselves wonderfully in expecting "powerfii fluence at Herat . BAD FAITH OP YAR MOHAMED. the letters which be wrote to Assaf Dooulet. and added greatly to the difliculties that the British envoy had to contend with* Much that I have stated relating to Major Todd was taken from an article in the Bombay Times of November 14. when suddenly retracing his steps he returned home. 60. and arrangements were made by him to seize his cousin on his arrival . and despatched a body of five hundred infantry to surround Dine Mohamed's residence. and at the very moment they supposed had his bon&jide support be made iresh propositions to the Pe court. concluded between thrir Enroy at Herat and Shah Kamran . so unworthily treated by the ungrateful Grovemment of Calcutta. " We continue to attach the greatest impori to die secnri^ of Herat. they wrote to Major Todd to compHnieiit him on the atrilitj that he had displayed m these negotiations . 1847. 411 TTie Secret Comniittefl of the Conndl there had approved of the treat. But Yar Mohamed appeared indiSerent to the liberality o English Government. The treaty approved hy the Co was concluded in August 1839. He' showed also the preca *^ useless position of himself and his mission in that tov Comparison with and in despite of the enormous outlay tl: entailed. Caip. hut the aacrificea that we male for Kamran will give you the right to a powerful influence ove councila and conduct. Gove General of Khorasaan. and added. and in the Octoher fbllowiof Mcrifioes to wtuch they alluded in their letter to their € amounted to sixTacs of rupees. and ti was indispensable to the security of the dominion of Shah S U> mmex tfte principality of Herat.000^. and we hope that he will show himself g fid fi)r ^ the British GoTemment has done for him. By incorporating that narrative with my own notes I have hoped to make a simple and explicit statement in defence of that hrave officer. for the majotenance of the Heratee troops. bore in every word the stamp of impla hatred to the British. which was accepted.

amounted to 100. Yar Mohamed.000/. But on so serious a subject the Directors thought fit to take time for reflection. XXVII. M'Nagbten supported the opinion of Major Todd ^ Court of Directors. the payments made to the Shah Kamran. they persisted in maintaining the inde] race of Herat. and declared that he permitted^e British envoy to remain at Herat from mere motives of courtesy..Indian army to awe the vizier. large sums alone would satisfy him. While Major Todd awaited his reply the difficulties became daily greater at Herat The vi^er. and Major Todd was content to pay them to maintain his position.ouId probably have behaved with a little more humility afterwards if Lord Auckland had better appreciated the reports of Major Todd . the Company would prepare diffieultiei for i *«foM which would attain a fearful heiffhi. instead of proceeding with the duplicity and suspicion which had hitherto marked his conduct towards the Company. exasponted on learning this fact. but he could not induce him to forego his intention until he placed his pistol at his breast. but the British envoy staked everything upon that last throw. Chap. his avaricious minister. and recommended him by every means in his power to endeavour to bring the minister to a cordial and friendly state of feeling with the government of India. that. He concluded by saying th contrary to his advice. that his Lordship might determine what was proper to be done under the circumstances. and added that he conddered the annex 412 TREACHERY OP YAR MOHAMED. In January. this attempt was undoubtedly imprudent. in considers- . necessary to the complete consolidation of the British dominion m Afghanistan. but his Lordship's incredible weakness in his treatment of this barbarian encouraged him to re-assume all his former arrogance. awed by his courage and inflexibility. Lord Auckland added. and his starving people. Major Todd. In his reply to the British envoy the Governor-General said that he could only attribute the treachery of Yar Mohamed to a vague idea of danger. and so great was his hatred of the English that he offered to give up the city to the Persian garrison of Qorian. At the same time he wrote a letter to the Russian minister at Teheran asking him to send an agent of his nation to Herat. and yet before that month had expired Yar Mohamed addressed another letter to the Shah of Persia. and after haymg lost some months in deliberation determined upon placing the conduct of Yar Mohamed before Lord Auckland. in which he called himself his faithful servant. knowing that his treachery had been discovered. and make him clearly comprehend the benefits of the British alliance. rendered Major Todd's residence there more and more disagreeable by making fresh demands in a most imperious tone . Sir W. and he w. dared no longer resist. 1840. went instantiy to the vizier to expostulate with him.

XXVIL TREACHERY OF YAR MOHAMED. though the English had obliged him to promise that be woold besiege the place.Chap. 414 DIFFICULTIES OF MAJOR TODDS POSITION. at the same time that Yar Mohamed's offer to give the place up to the Shah of Persia arrived there. which necessitated only a trifling expense. but the cash once safe in the vizier's treasury the preparations. Lieut-Colonel Sheil. and his resistance to ibe Persians of several months' duration. and advanced two lacs of rupees to equip the force. and Yar Mohamed seemed apparently sensible of Lord Auckland's kindness . and in a short time he announced on the most frivolous grounds that the undertaking was abandoned. it was considered as included in this act of oblivion. Major Todd. almost in despair at such utter faithlessness. He gave the vizier the most positive and solemn assurances that every past infraction of the treaty was forgotten. as charge d'afiaires at Erzeroum. and with it his request to that sovereign to occupy Herat This coincidence had caused much altercation between Major Todd and the vizier. for. 1840. and therefore proceeded on his old plan of profiting by their folly to fill his pockets with their rupees. The Major. he should' extend his pardon to every offence of which he might have been guilty before that letter was received. trusted to his sincerity. 1840. and Yar Mohamed's last treacherous proceeding took place in January. but when the latter received full pardon for his delinquencies from Lord Auckland he professed unbounded gratitude for such generosity. promising that he would employ it in an expedition against the fortress of Gorian. Chap. After his rupture with the court of Persia Sir John McNeil had returned toQlngland. and swore to prove it by some brilliant act of devotion . the good understanding between England and Persia remaining dependent upon the evacuation of Gorian by the Persians and its restoration to the Prince of Herat Demands the most urgent on this subject were sent to Teheran by Colonel Sheil. whatever might be his future conduct to the English. he might dismiss from his mind all fear and uneasiness on the subject. and Major Todd was obliged to fulfil the painful duty imposed upon him. But as this despatch only reached Herat in February. he therefore requested Major Todd to advance him some money. but unhappily he was secretly convinced in his own mind that. 1840. This took place in Julj. leaving his Secretary. who thence kept up an active correspondence with the Persian minister. for he did not intend to keep his word. proceeded slowly. by which time the sums spent in efforts to consolidate this most unproductiye alliance amounted to 190.0OOiL . in his anxious portion. 413 tion of the yizier's former good services. XXYU. wrote to his Goremment that the expedition had been given up under circumstances of the most perfidious nature. he had acquired impunity for his evil deeds. It was afterwards proved in the clearest manner that Yar Mohamed had written to the Persian Governor of Gorian to inform him that he need not be alarmed at any news of a warlike character.

no one would go to their houses. ^uhKamranhimselfe^keofit. 415 him from at once taking part against the English . and Yar Mohamed. ii month of August their imprisonment was so generally expected. seeing the perfect inutility of this vast expenditure. Never was the poatioD of a British agent in <he East so exasperaling as that of this officer at Herat Exposed to the craft and cupidity of a man who saw through the ambitious views <^ the Anglo-Indian Government upon his country. by relating it to Major Todd. At this period clouds hung over the political horizon of Afghanistan . that he was their &i and that not one of them would have been alive then but fo int^iNvnce in their iarour. . while every check or rerene experienced by the British troops in A^s^banistan was exaggerated by the vixier. but it must be added that he plucked them firom the major^s hand rather than received them from him. took upon himself to reduce the monthly payment to the court of Herat to 2500/. the le^i. and the viaier pin^ posely embittered every hour of every day that he remained at Herat. with whose asnstance he could easily disturb the tranquillity of ^oee prorinces and impede the eetabliehmeiit of the dominion of £liah Shooja. it is true. and represented as a triumph of Tnlamiflm over the Infidels : he went so fiir as to say publicly that he should seise the opportunity of the first great disaster of the British arms to join their enemies.The British enyoy. but Yar Mohamed had the address to turn even this perfidious action to his own account. the foreign minister of Mohamed Shah. advanced on erery posmble pretence. XXVn. that IV Todd could retun his footing in Herat at this critical momeni While thus conUnaing to draw upon the Company's ex(die< Yar Mohamed actually (Uscnssed in coundl a jROJect for attac Kandahar. It vas only by eatisT ' the rapacioos and exorbitant demands which Yar Mohamed d nay. not even persons under great gations to them. The quarrel between the vizier and m cousin caused the former. wrathful at the reductioD. the less did Yar Mohamed dissemble his hatred and hostility to his improvident protectors . a scheme that he would assuredly hare carried o Dost M(^>ained had not been at hand. and rendered endurance scarcely possible. but he indemnified himself b^ attaching to his party all the discontented spirita of Kabul and Kandahar. and threatened Kabul : in the south the detaduneDt of Major Gibbome had been cut to pieces. and publicly added. almoat hourly. and KelatH-Ghildjsfe taken from the invaders. This deplorable condition of ai . who was at Meshed at the time. the envoy was entirely at his mercy. At his request Mirza Maasood. and pretending that it had been done unknown to him by his brother. and prevented Chap. Dost Mohamed had unsheathed his sword m the north. and both these increased. TBEACHEBY OF TAB MOHAMED. came as &r as Gorian to meet in person an agent from the vizier . During all this pt scarcely a week passed that he did not speak of his alliance Ferraa and his intention of arresting the English officers . the Serdar Shere Mohamed : he obtained fresh advances for this apparent frankness. renewed in the following September his intrigues with the PerHan monarch.ation had nothing to fear. The larger and more liberal were the concessions of that Government. some uneasiness.

however. due on the Ist of February. 5. money spent upon the cbieft and fortifications of Herat amounted to 300. as Gi b of Herat When Major Todd was certun of the object of expedition. and leave him under no apprehenmon for the fiiture. That the British envoy should hand over a written agreement not to compromise Herat in any foreign war till after the harvest in July. Shah of Persia. caae-hardened by impunity. 2. that Major Todd replied it was impossible . to ask for pecuniary assat and ax guns from the . a small fortress in advance of Kandahar. looked upon this suppres^on as merely temporary. After his recent infraction of the existing treaty these terms appeared so exorbitant. expected he should be pardoned his last breach of fiedth as he had been all former ones. That the fortifications of the town should be enlarged and finished at the expense of the East India Company. 1841.bad reached such a point that a crisis became inevitable. fix>m the East India Company for the payment of his personal debts. 4. 416 PROPOSITIONS AND COUNTER PROPOSITIONS. to enable him to n againat Girishk. iu no way prevented Affdiamed from continuing his intercourse with the Persian a and in January. and that it should provide the Government of Herat with the necessary funds to enable it to reconquer several places which had thrown ofi^ their obedience to it 6. Following up this declaration^ Major Todd withheld the payment of 2500/. 3. The viaer. That the Company should pay and maintain the Heratee troops while in the field. and that so flagrant a violation of that solemn engagei would be more than the long-auflering and patience of his Goi ment could submit to . 1841.000/. he despatched a confidential agent w numerous suite to Aesaf Dooulet. he represented to the viaer the danger to whicl exposed himself by this new infraction of the a^th article o treaty. That he diould receive immediately 30. which. and on the 8th of the same month addressed to Major Todd the following fresh demands : — 1st That the British envoy should pardon all his past conduct. he also declared that be should not con himself bound to continue the allowances he bad paid up to time — that all the treasure of the Company could not Buffi( BBlastj bis requirements — and that the vizier must provide fo expenses of bis own government until such time as he shouli fit to act strictly up to the conditions and stipulatioDs of frient existing between tbe two nations. Chap. XXVII.000Z. to the court of Shah Eamran. That his monthly pension should be augmented and paid a year in advance..

who immediately made known his intention of ma agunst Kandahar . That the Serdar Syud Mohamed Khan. he sent his own brother. Mobamed appeared quite satisfied. as mi expected. Vizier pretended. and a request that a subsidy might be given undertake the expedition he had projected. as ambassador to the court of Per»a. but Major Todd knew 01 veil the character of the man he had to deal with to gr request. even in a modified form. his eldest son. 2. certunly falsely. 5. XXTU. 3. and in order to leave no doubt on this a of his sincerity. Chip. that Major Todd bad accounts charged the East India Company with much large than he bad pud to him. the funds appropriated to the maintenaDce chiefe of the Court of Shah Kamran. seven miles south of the city. and the result was a most animated discussion. should be made over to the English to build barracks upon for their own troops. with the land belonging to it. should take a contingent of troops to Kabul to serve in the British arm}'. and its conclusion was. and substitute that of the Coi Finally — and this seems to be true — that the envoy con plotted with Sbab Kamran the fall of the Vizier from — and the angry minister declared to Major Todd that hi seoce and that of his subordinates could no longer be tol in Herat. That the Vizier ^oiild never again expect to receii distribute himaelf. MAJOR TODD ESCORTED OUT OF THE CITT. and that he had used the difien la^esKs to ihe people in order to excite them to overti Government of Herat. and that the sums allot that purpose should be pud to the individuals themselves agents of the Company. and that he must depart with the least possible de Thus ended the anxious and onerous intervention of the British Govenuuent at Herat. marked by several acts of rapacity on the part M(^med. unless it was for some corresponding advantages. and that the royal residence of Booz-bagh. That as soon as this serdar had arrived at his destination the envoy would pay half the vizier's debts and augment his monthly allowance. But it seems t . the Serdar Sbet hamed Kban. 4. These proposdtions of Major Todd's were approved by Si liam M'Xaghten. That the citadel of Herat should receive a British garrison. provided the sums h demanded were paid in advance . That Yar Mohamed should never again deviate from the spirit of the treaty between the two Governments. but he ofiered to grant several of Yar Mohamed's demands if he made the following concessions : — 1.to suppose his Government would consent to make fresh sacrifices. while the Governor-General of India upon it as a matter of regret that they bad been made. with pi for the Shah.

Chit.diat in making this demand the Vizier was really not more 1 than he had been with the English . his only object was to from both as much money as he pos^bly could for the pur] strengthening his poation in his own country. with an obje< 2 B 418 PILLAGE OF THE GBANARIES. PetenbuTg — Captain Abbott not recompenaed — Riuma create for EhiTa — The Shah demanda the Penian alavea — Captain Cono Khin — He ^il« in the object of bia miaaion — RequiremeDta of tl . decided upon the latter. also accompanied Major Todd and his party to such a distance on thor road as secured them against any act of yiolence. sent with him the Serdar Fethi Khan. a Vimer having provided him with the transport necessary i journey. but the granaries were pillaged by the people even befisre he had left the town. REACTION AGAINST THE ENGUSH. XXYIL is easy to understand. Major Todd had. The British envoy being driven to the alternative of makinj ■acrificea or taking his departure. collected a considerable quantity of corn at Herat . and they would certainly haye proceeded to do so if the Vizier had not lined the streets and bazaars with troops. h Chip. CHAPTEE XXVIIL Baotion ^aiaat tiie Engliih kt HgnC — lagntitada of the But Ixu to U^or Todd — Dekth of tlut ofBoer — Runun expedition igai: OoMnl PsToffeki leavea Oreobarg — DiHutera and retreat of the I — Apt Kban nlses a revolt in Kerman — The Kasi of Herat CoDTaiMtioD with the Khen — Diignce of Yacooba Hehter — AlUli Kttpti (he Engliah alliuioe — Siure laid for the Kitii — Capta Khin — Hi* miaeion there — Intrigiiea of Tacooba Hehter — Ca] loTca for Roaaia — The Uabeka take hltn priaoDer — Akhood i Khira in aaarch of him — Meeting of Akhood and the oaptive — Tb and Hanu Bohadoor — Fresh complicatioD — Captain Abbott rei — LJBuleaant Shakeapear anirea at Kbiva — Obtaini the liben Baauaa alavea and bringa tbem to Aatnkan — Lieut. Shakaapear'i St. one of iiis c as his escort to the frontier. the Serdar Syud Mohamed Khan. the Heratees determined to plunder him of it. His son. and a report having been spread that he had carried away four boxes of treasure. SSmt.

Chap. or were reputed to have done so. and the freedom in which the new treaty with Persia would oblige the Persian monarch to leave Yar Mohamed Khan. There were but few merchants in ] had not transacted business with Major Todd. But that was an erroneous anticipation . attach^ to the British embassy in Persia. and their wives. would put a stop to the intrigues of the latter. Hassan Mohamed. and travelled post to Khorassan. these the vizier confiscated or gr tued to his own profit. they were stripped erf a fortui lUg to 20. and slave to make them disclose where the chief judge had se wealth. and his so Zadeh Saleh Mohamed .. Amongst the families wbo were the greatest sufferer of the Kazi of Herat. if the measures which the British Government wished to adopt in the prindpality should be received with suspicion by Yar Mohamed Khan .000/. who had retired to Erzeroom. to be there at the surrender of the place . The Court of Directors hoped that this arrangement. and his life was saved ocly by the arrival of of 1400/. or wbo. robbed of every thing. the corrupt generosity of the English. and his Lordship observed that by such recall the vizier would be made to feel his false position and to defend the independence of his country. daughters. and the departure of Major Todd from Herat a year after- . Dr. and insults and oppression during several months. Riach. and rediu deepest distress. XXVIIL out of. But on the arrival at Calcutta of the news that the differences between Persia and England had been terminated by the restitution of Gorian to Shah Kamran. It is worthy of remark that nine months before the departure of the misdon from Herat. this proposition was abandoned. and it was in the midst of a sea of blc seized the property of so many unhappy people — spoils tJ ndered le^timately to belong to him only because they r 420 INGRATITUDE TOWARDS MAJOR TODD. received pensions : ■crested. imprisoned. this had been stipulated for in a treaty concluded between Great Britain and Peraa. the latter being compensated by the restitution of the island of Earrack to Mohamed Shah.Atteb the departure of the Britieh Envoy a grievoua ree place against all thoae who had participated in the liben Eoglish. having served them. This venerable old man was actually con( death. was despatched to Teheran in the month of January. 1841. some of node large fortunes . sent by Major Todd to procure his relei ▼illanous nature of Yar Mohamed resumed on this occa wiginal cruelty . Lord Auckland proposed to the Court of Directors that Major Todd should be recalled.

Major Todd bad long been reinstated in the esteem of countrymen. however. so much devotion to his country. and because he does not obtain it — because he did not rid them of Yar Mohamed. they cast upon him the imputation of dishonourable conduct. his laborious life ro] on filled with bitterness. becility they displayed. which in fact they themselves deserve for the notorious folly and im- CaAP. he met a eoldi death. not in the afi^rs of Herat 'only. whose faith in him had for a moment been shall and they now respect his memory and take a deep interest in events of his distinguished career — an interest which will. Strong in the consciousness that his conduct at Herat had b strictly irreproachable. scandalous. be not well estimated the circumBtaoces when he advised tl should take ererything out of the power of Yar Mohamed i occupy Herat with a British force ? Are not those Directors in pable whose avarice was in no degree lees than that of Yar i bamed. men who demand of a worthy man full of intelligence and capacity an impossible result — more than impossible . c stantly oppressed by thoughts of the infamy with which they 1 so unjustly sought to blast his good name. 80 many dangers braved. Before. The £ . occasioned the East India Company bitter disappointment — even resentment. Here. bo guilty ? I. then. was the recompense which this officer received for so much labour and anxiety. XXVra. and just at the moment when Lord Auckland had succeeded in obtaining an amelioration of his position. but.wards. British Resident at Kabul. that the late envoy at Herat was considered as incapable of filling a political appointment. and ought to rejoin his regiment vnth dishonour. i allowed the vizier to believe that he might do as be pleased v perfect impunity ? It is disgraceful. but all the other proriDces of Afghanistan in which they hac policy to carry out. who knew not how to value their envoy's advice. He went into the field Feroeesbah with the impression that he should there lay down life. Such are the Court of Directors. then. the unfortunate Major D'Arcy Todd rejoii in India the corpe of artillery to which he belonged . and was conducting himself in the most gallant manner vi the iron messenger from one of the enemy's guns realised in a i ment his mournful presentiment. and the Secretary of Government received orders to write to Sir William M'Naghten. be eten It will be remembered that when Major Todd went to Herat instructions were also to make known the objects of the British po in Central Asia to the Khans of Bokhara and Khiva. that writers sho have been found in the British press suflSciently stupid and hast sanction the blame with which they sought to tarnish the name an intelligent and honourable man — blame which could ne conceal the black ingratitude of the Court of Directors. to whom Major Todd was attached. Was Major Todd. and it wsb with real pleasure that received orders to take pert in the war that broke out in It between the English and the Sikhs. DEATH OF MAJOR TODD.

by one of those strange chances which occur from time to time. It was at the commencement of the winter of 1840 that General Perofisky left Orenburg at the head of 6000 in£Bintry. and the cabinet of St Petersburg gave a very reasonable motive for this new invasion of Tartary. a fresh advance of the Rossians. in consequence. . but. and were no Ion satined that the possession of A%hanistan efficiently secured tl Indian dominions. and achieve what this had just £Euled in doing. even insurmountable. Moments even appeared precious. and the difficulties that under ordinary circumstances would have been by no means serious became terrible. Several thousand soldiers were frost-bitten and lost their legs and arms. thus avoiding worse disasters. Co 422 RETREAT OF THE RU8SIA17 ABMT. Chai^. but this. laden with large quantities of merchandise of great value . both of men and animals.000 camels and their army of drivers. remembering that another expedition could be sent which might meet with fewer obstacles. at the time when the Shab retired from before Herat. Turkestan was the barrier tbey now wis to raise against Russia. The cold was intense. and the greater number. . and their satisfaction was proportionably great when the discmnfiture of the Russian army became known . for Allah Kooli Khan had obstinately refused to give Us consent to their release. if possible.lish suddenly passed from a state of the most confiding pef fidnesB to that of the most exaggerated fear. for. but. consisting of 200 men and 800 camels. lAea General Peroflsky wisely retreated. and the Emperor therefore determined to employ force to obtain his just demands. This season was chosen for the expedition as being the one in which the troops would be less distressed than at any other by the want of water in the arid steppes across which they had to march. they hastened to prevent. to conquer the ohstinate reastance of the Usbek sovereign. accompanied by 10. A great number of Ru&»an subjects had been carried off by the Usbcks and sold as slaves in the markets of ELhiva. instead of rendering the Khan more reasonable. by completely establishing their influe in the Usbek Kbanats. this winter was remarkable for its inclemency. XXVIIL Simoiiitch boldly announced that a Rusuan corpB tarmk was kanng Orenburg and marohing upon Khiya» to reduoe the Eiuui of that country. perished even before they readied Ak Boolak (a station on the extreme frontier of Russia and Khiva). only irritated him. and the mercury at 40^ below zero : snow covered the earth to a considerable depth. Gbaf. and the wind swept with incredible violence over the naked steppes. XXVHL . Nothing could have served the purposes of the English better. and all negotiations for their deliverance had hitherto proved unsuccessful. by endeavouring to induce Allah Kooli Khan to give thea 424 CONVERSATION WITH THE KHAN. and had detained at Astrakan ever since the year 1833 a Khivan caravan. The Busaan Government at first sought a remedy by making reprisals.

assured me that my troops were not required to save the place — ^that the Albans were all-sufficient.rafen Kadjars. it is Allah who has sent them to us. The Kazi. When the rafezist Eadjars % laid mege to Herat. After the customary compliments. The Kazi. and I then returned to my own dominions. the Usbek prince assumed an air of severity. It is not I who brought them. tion. whidi letter be gave him. Persians. who has no equal {bi nazer). joined the. Oh Euud. frequently /l^rrtfr. The Kazi. the Sindians. What did the Frenguis then. had need of your help» Zeman Khan or Shah Elamran ? Why attend to the words of the former. you would never have brought these Kiaffir Frenguis * into the country of Islam. by asEUiing me that you are still a Mussulman. The Khan. How darest thou thus pro&ne the name of Allah. Boyereign belongs: thna they call tfas t Heretics. but. Rund|jeetB. Kadjars. oof illustrious sovereign. they procured us the * Infidel Europeans. in speaking of a na. Talpoow.Mohamed Hassaa left him to imagine in the first instance that he was simply the bearer of a letter from Shah Kamran. if you were so. Mcdiamed Zeman Khan. and questioned him closely as to the object of his journey . Strengthen my belief in you. Yet. Never did Mussulman ask my help in vain I My victorious army marched immediately on my reception of the fint letter of Shah Kamran . I now relate as the Kazi himself related it to me i-^ ' The Khan. I only tell the truth.— proper name of the tribe to which the . Prove it. when the fearful extremity to which the latter was reduced was known to all Asia f Not only did you abandon our causey but you forbade your subjects to bring us provisions. The Khan. who. the KaadBlisnio>i X The Afghans. whom you call EiaffirB ? They came to aid the true children of Allah. and I can prove it to thee. Serdar of the Djemcheedis.Mohamedsyes. This unhappy example was followed by the Bokharians and the Mohamedzyes. veritable pillars of Islam : Did you come ? The Khan. then. most mighty Khan. which then took place. when I arrived at Pindjdeh. designate it by the the Sikhs. by connecting it with such a bad action ? Hhe Kazi. &e. and the following dialogue. instead of coming to our aid. sent letters to entreat you to come to our assistance — ^to us — Soonees like yourself. And who.

who disttngoished themselves by their justice and equity. C2HiP. This had been prepared for him by the governor of die tovm. who brought back to us abundance and tranquillity. and their mtdlect. and from that time he treated the Kazi with great respect. who was kept at a distance from the scene of negotiations. It was they who lent the helping hand to the mifortunate. that these Frenguis are sndi as you describe^^m ? Has Islam found support in them ? At this point the Skizi. The Khan took it. whidi nearly proved &tal to him. and whose part you take . the Kazi promptly set out on his return to Herat. broke the large seal of the British arms with animation. which contained proposals of friendship and alliance. Is it really true. saying. and handed it to him. and whose help yon may want ere long to arrest the progress of the Russians ? The EJum. his contracted brow gradually expanded. and also of active mediation between him and the Russians. unde of Yacooba Mehter. Mohamed Hassan seized this favourable opportunity for complaining of the insolence of the vizier. Niaz Mohamed Khan." The letter was enclosed in a silken bag embroidered with gold. After having arranged the preliminaries of a treaty. 425 com that you refused . XXWUL reached Merv he fell into an ambuah. XXYJIt. which brought upon that functionary a severe reprimand. its words are so many predons pearls that he has woven into the wreath of friendship. after having perused the missive. DISGRACE OF YACOOBA MEHTim. their blood. and in connexion with which he offers his prayers with thine to the Almighty to grant thee a long and glorious reign. ^^ Doubt it not for a moment. great prince . and the English cause was further benefited by the disgrace of Yacooba Mehter. deserted as we were by our brethren. and. Oh Kazi. to defend our ramparts that were crumbling under the bells of Mohamed Shah. at the sight of which the whole court went into ecstasies . and protected the true Mussulman agunst the heretics. The audience terminated in the delivery of the presents sent by Major Todd to the Usbek prince —optical instruments and splendid arms. seeing that the warmth of his discourse had made an impresaon upon Allah Eooli Khan. then. they brought us their gold. Which. God sent to protect us. their most dangerous enemy. drew from his pocket the letter of Major Todd. who inflicted upon us erery kind of misery. to render to the British envoy an account of the results of his embassy: but when he 426 CAPTAIN ABBOTT AT KHIVA.CsAP. the esasperated . receive this letter that the most exalted elchee (ambassador) accredited to our powerful sovereign addresses to thee . or those whom. are the infidels. — the Persians. and are now rising again under their beneficent care.

being unac. Captain Abbott commenced his journey very early in 1840 — and at a most auspicious moment. to request Major Todd to send him a further supply of money with the utmost dispatch : he did not. but. Fortunately some persons who were near. they certainly were not less so in their endeavours to effect their object in Kurdistan . Niaz Mohamed. however. to induce AUak Kooli ELhan to release the Russian prisoners . the injuries received by the Kaki were intended to impress upon his mind the disgrace he had brought upon Yacooba Mehter.ing work. of . though with some severe oontusiona. and therefore a &ir field lay open to him in which to bring hia negotiations to a favourable conclusion. and delivered him out of the hands of his aasassinB. that at Merv be was obliged to dispatch Akhood Zadeh Saleh Mdiamed to Herat. His information relating to five of his journey. had the hypocrisy to pay a visit to his victim. as soon as be had attained that object. If the English were prodigal of their gold in facilitating the conquest of A^hanistan. however. bat continuing his journey to Khiva. who had been reinstated in the favour of his sovereign. heiukig ^m Kazi's shouts. In defiance. wait (on this. So lavish was he. for the array of General Peroffisky had just been decimated and obliged to retire. and for some time they certainly answered their purpose. and. he dispAched Captain Abbott to Khiva. however. appeared to indicate the contrary . as if to testify his regret at his misfortune. and this in spite of the intrigues of Yacooba Mehter. but no one was deceived by that act of apparent courtesy . XXYIU. which had been detained there seven yeani by the Russians. hasten^ to his ami stance. CHAP. HasBan the author oonld not avail himself of Mohatned. aelf in erery way to prevent the liberation of the Russian daves^ which the English affirm he did only to give the Russians an excuse for marching an army to Khiva. As soon as Major Todd was informed that the ELazi had succeeded in the object of his mission.minister.the Britiah negotiations in Khivaia given quainted with the English language. and his son Akhood Zadah the advantage of reading that interest. justly or not. 427. and Captain Abbott freely employed this means of persuasion. HE LEAVES FOR RUSSIA. was received there with distinc^n by the Khan.* His instructions were. he exerted him* * Captain Abbott published a narra. and who. was considered a warm partisan of Russia.Saleh Mohamed. One fact. — Ferrim. if possible. to go to Astraluui and procure the liberation of the caravan. as he received it from the Kab.

But Hassan Bahadoor refused to accompany him.— eure food and lodging for ambwadors Ferrier. not finding any vessel here. foreseeing the difficulty in which Captain Abbott would be placed if he could not find a ship. and Captain Abbott was therefore obliged to continue his journey without any escort : as to his servants they were like himself^ strangers in the country. His new hosts behaved to him with great cruelty . though it was on that part of his road that those who had sworn his destruction were lying in wait for him . they were seized and stripped. named Hassan Bahadoor. and consequently ignorant of the road. but such he trusted would not be the case with Captain Abbott from those he intended to spread for him. occupied by the Russians. and he was not more than ten hours' march from Dach Kaleh when he and his servants were assailed by a party of Usbeks. procuring what he required on the spot. — the mehmendar being an officer of high rank. be set out for Astrakan. CHAP. it is true. were made the slaves of those whose hospitality they had daimed. accompanied by seven servants. they at first made a vigorous resistance . tiie Kasi €£ Herat had. While Captain Abbott was thus treated at the instigation of the villain Yacooba Mehter. the vizier did not connder himself vanquished . After having obtained a positive promise that the Russian slaves should be restored. and in thia miserable condition he was carried to a camp of nomades ten miles to the north. sent forward a messenger with an order that every vessel that might be there should leave the port The unsuspecting officer of course saw no danger in going on. almost on the borders of the Caspian Sea. escaped his toils. but. being in the end overpowered by numbers. Captsun Abbott lost two fingers in the mel4e and received a gash on the head. Nevertheless. against whom ♦ An officer whoae duty it la to pro. but. briDging . determined to proceed to Dach Kaleh. a mehmendary* and a few horsemen furnished by the Khan of Khiva. Akhood Zadeh arrived at Khiva. This official conducted Captain Abbott in the first instance to the port of Guedik. would not wait for the return of Akhood Zadeh with the money from Herat . alleging as a reason that his orders from his sovereign were not to go beyond Guedik . and near it was encamped his own tribe. four days' journey farther south. the British officer.XXVm.travelling in some pwrta of the East. the Khan made the concessions required of him by Captain Abbott with a view of settliug the differences with Russia. and although the definitive convention was drawn up. The mehmendar was acting upon secret orders from the treacherous vizier.the minister's opposition. who. of whidi he was the chief. 428 AKHOOD ZADEH GOES IN SEARCH OP ABBOTT. Captain Abbott. anxious to terminate his important mission as quickly as possible. his servants being all taken from him and dispersed in different campg.

who gave Imn a draught of water and a handful of maize. XX71II. he felt himself. he reached the encampment in which Captain Abbott was detained by the rascals who had plundered him. finding him resolute. Akhood Zadeh then . acting upon secret orders from Yacooba Mehter. and my arrival is the end of your misery. It was a rough task that the son of the Kazi of Herat undertook . But he did not the less perseveringly continue to scour the country in search of the British officer. and when he proposed to follow him. However. and he deter* mined to press on without delay to the spot indicated as the place of his detention. and having frequently to contend with the ill-will of his escort. that he would have died rather than have failed in it At length. perishing from inanition. and on the fifth day. though being written in English he could not understand their contents. *' my eyes are gladdened. he first came upon traces by whid he trusted he should at last discover Captain Abbott. His sufferings in consequence were terrible. he was informed by Yacooba Mehter of the report of the unfortunate officer's death : the vizier at the same time ordered all the letters from Major Todd to Captain Abbott to be taken from Akhood Zadeh. 429 ^e abandoned his camels and provisions to the nomades of Mau^ keglag.with him a thousand ducats from Major Todd. Hourly in dread of being robbed and murdered. On the seventeenth day after he left Khiva. Thus slightly supported." The effect of this most unhoped-for deliverance upon Captain Abbotf s feelings may be imagined. he continued his weary search . MEETING OP AKHOOD AND THE CAPTIVE. The unfortunate officer was lymg on a wretched carpet. Akhood Zadeh stood before him. ignorant of the couDtiy and the Tartar language. Allah Kooli Khan at first attempted to prevent him fitnn risking his life in so perilous an enterprise . for I have found you. *^ Barik Allah. at the close of the fourth day. at the encampment of Maukeglag. asserting that this part of the country was in such a state. r?HAP. refused to accompany him. or food to alleviate his hunger. he sanctioned his departure. when a Kossack entered the tent^ and said. suffering much from his wounds. and under the influence of this hope he formed the generous determination of going immediately in search of him. and departed alone on his uncertain way across the steppe." * exclaimed his friend. the noble Akhood Zadeh was not daunted by any of the dangers that were pointed out to him. for. After Akhood Zadeh had been ten days at Khiva some information he received led him to suppose that Captain Abbott was still alive. when a traveller on foot happily crossed his path. ^' They come to deliver you . but. and expecting his death every moment. but his utmost diligence had not enabled him to reach that town before Captain Abbott's departure . that to go there was to expose thanselves to certain death. he was obliged to wander from tent to tent over the arid steppes by tracks scarcely to be distinguished." and he had scarcely uttered these words when . and ordered him a guard of eight horsemen for his personal security. such was his devotion. often led astray by faJse information. when the escort. destitute of water to quench the burning thirst of either himself or his horse.

were rewarded libenJly. quietly sending reports from time to time to the British Legation. the latter presented to the chief of the horde the firman of which he was the bearer . ♦ Olory to God. This act is the more striking. and conducted him two days' journey on the road to Maukeglag to another encampment . XXYIH.•placed in his hands the thousand ducats which he' had concealed in his belt during the two-and-twenty days that had elapsed after he left Khiva. they had exposed tfaemselyes to the anger of their sovereign. for he could so easily have said that he had been robbed. and in 1847 he was guilty of an act of bad fflith that was punished by the bastinado. in thifl Allah Kooli Khan enjoined his subjects to aid him in disoovering Captain Abbott^ who. The nomades thus perceiyed. t HiB oonduct benefitfOd liim but little: others. This ingi^titude on the part of those he jierred so well changed his character. and the responnbility therefore was likely to fiedl upon themselves. Few. and which he all the time dreaded would be taken from him. Beseedung Captain Abbott to pardon them. are the Afghans who would have acted as he did. whose services were not to he compared with his. Assaf Dooulet. indeed. to make him restore some thousands of francs which had been given him by the English for the purpose of proceeding to Khulm to seek for some £nglish prisoners who were said to be there. but remained at home. and no one would for a moment have doubted his word. Akhood Zadeh received the money. as if he had really been occupied in the transaction he had engaged to carry out. that in obeyhig their diief and attacking the British officer.t When the first outpourings of the heart between Captain Abbott and his gallant and self-denying deliverer had passed. 490 THE YUSS BASEL Chap. while he obtained scarcely so much as he had a right to expect. in the eyes of those who know the Asiatic character. under the orders of the governor oi Khorassan. this was composed of two . for it was clear he had been quite ignorant of this miserable business. though rather late. as well as his serrants^ were to be deliyered up to him if ever they were found within his domimoiis. than his devotion to the British cause and Captain Abbott. — Ferrier. they overwhelmed him with attentions.

but for the intervention of Akhood Zadeh. He reached the Russian fiMtresB. decidedly refused to avail himself of his offer. where his finger was amputated. and rejected the invitation. and Major Todd. LIEUTENANT SHAKESPEAR AT KHIVA. greatly distressed at the misfortune which deprived him of tiie co-operation of so good an assistant and compromised the negotiations entered into with the Khan of Khiva. soon reached Herat. Yuss Bashi gave bis guest the wannest reception. and possibly you may lose by their fresh intrigues the fruits of your previous negotiations. *^ Allah Kodi. immediately dispatched to his court Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear to com- . Hold. " is not ignorant that the letters I brought for you were taken from me by force . 481 tbe reports of Haasan Bahadoor.portions of different tribes. and blood would have been shed. on the ground that he was his mehmendar. XXVUI. and he will not foil to be influenced bj Chap. and be prepared for whatever may occur. go on to Dach Raleh and Astrakan. Captain Abbott now wished to return to Khiva. with an escort provided by Hassan Bahadoor. The report to which Yacooba Mehter gave currency.' said he. to what you settled with Allah Kooli Khan . he hastened to inform him of the fact. that Captain Abbott had been killed. and by so doing eventuaUy lost all benefit fi^m his clever and courageous conduct on this anxious and dangerous embassy. who is so interested in exculpating Umself from his criminal proceedings against you. wha could do them the greatest possible injury in the estimation of their sovereign. the other by a son of the villain HasBan Bahadoor. while Akhood Zadeh returned to Khiva. and it was in the tent of the former that the travellen took up their temporary abode. remaining in the daytime with Yuss ' Bashi. and as soon as his wounds were healed proceeded to Astrakan to confer with the Russian authorities. who at last prevailed upon his friend to inhabit the tent of Hassan at night." This adyice the English officer adopted. and the son of Hassan Bahadoor soon paid him a viot . one of which was commanded by a chief named Yuas Bashi. while I return to ELhiva to watch over your interests. that in the short interval of four days Hasaan Bahadoor arrived at his son's camp. When he had pitdied his tent he pressed Captain Abbott to be his guest. and also that their enemy Yuss Bashi was colleetiiig evidence against them to aggravate his crime. however. then. and that it was his duty to watch or&t the safety of his peraoa This officer. for the purpose of preventing Captain Abbott from returning to Khiva escorted by Yua Bashi. at the head of 150 horsemen. Yaoooba Mditer will help him. but when he fiNmd the British officer intended to make his fiither lesponsible ftr the treatment he had received. The meaaenger who carried this letter made such dispatch. but Akhood Zadeh dissuaded him. Yua Bashi supporting his refusal and riiarply reproaching Hasssn Bahadoor with his prerions conduct The discussion grew wann. swords were drawn.

lieutenant Shakespear.. by giving him. a bill of exchange for 4400/. with some apparent ill-humour. — " you who. and to ascertain what had really been the &te of their lamented brother-officer. and. been . remained in disgrace for eight days. and wish to send them back to their country and their families ?" Allah Kooli. endorsed by the Eazi of Herat. aftor the dose of this conference. he proceeded with the business that Captain Abbott had so well commenced. and having hired camels and men. seek the deliverance of so many unhappy beings. accompanied by the Kasi Hassan Mohamed. Chap. the wife firom her husband. he learned that a Russian woman had . should wish so much for an alliance with me ? " ^' We possess India.plete them. as a guarantee. which was to be paid in case the caravan should not be restored after the Russians were given up. B(4diara. why dost thou not become a Muasulman ? Why dost thou remain an infidel ? " " Which of us is the infidel ? " said the British officer. arrived at Khiva at the commencement of June. Up to this time the Ehivan prince had always insisted that the Tzar should return the caravan that had been detained at Astrakan before he set the slaves at liberty. he had the impertinence to say to him." he said to him one day. and fix)m him they heard of the dangers that had befidlen Captain Abbott. daily put sUives to the torture." replied that officer . " Thou who wishest to ally thyself to a Mussulman nation. Allah Kooli Khan. tear the daughter from her father. ^ that your nation. and. whateTcr his minister might do to induce him to adopt a contrary part Yacooba Mehter seeing all his phins defeated. at the moment when the treaty was about to be concluded. and sell them to the highest bidder in your bazaars . who was at heart fiivourably inclined towards the English. but on arriving at old Urghendj. sought in eveiy way to multiply diflElculties and embarrass Lieutenant Shakespear. driven by insatiable aTarice. ashamed of the humiliatbg reproof that his vizier had drawn upon himself. and he even took pleasure in conversing with Lieutenant Shakespear on matters eonnected with their policy. on the same day that Akhood Zadeh (who the reader will remember was the son of the kazi) reached it from Mankeglag. which showed him diere was a possibility of obtaining support against tbe Russians^ 432 LIBERATION OP RUSSIAN SLAVES. '^ a vast garden. renudned from that momeBt perfectly willing to treat. ^^ How is it. 1840. like myself. for fear of a surprise. satu^ed by this answer. XXVIH. we wish to surround it by walls. or those who. — those walls are Khiva. but Lieutenant Sbakespear triumphed even over that resolution. and KabuL'* The Elhan. When Lieutenant Shakespear was thoroughly satisfied of his countryman's safety. soon gave up the prejudices that his vizier had instilled into his mind against them. left Khiva. Herat. and of his unlooked-for deliverance. This arrangement being satisfactorily concluded. amounting to four hundred and twenty-four. dismissed him with these words : " When will you cease to expose our vices to strangers? this is one who will make them known to the whole world/' Yacooba Mehter. which is so distant from mine. the British envoy collected all the subjects of the Tzar.

in spite of the remonstrances of Yacooba Mehter. Sir Richmond Shakespear. and. and restoring them to Russia. to punish him for being so useful to tixe English. can we do otherwise than admire the nation that obtained that result. makes a journey to Khiva. which 18 a guarantee for his success. that the woman was set at liberty. those who prepared the way for him. if there was danger for him in ofiending Russia. the English expected to preserve a powerful influence over the latter. At the capital he was received in the most courteous manner by the Emperor. Allah Kooli was made to comprehend that. but that expectation was completely opposed to the one entertained by the court of St. with other wounds — such is the gratitude of governments. and he now vegetates in poverty and misery at Meshed . . there was equal risk in seeking support at other hands than hers . Petersburg. praises. What a sad comedy is the world ! Was it persuasion only that induced the Khan of Khiva to give up his captives ? This is a point that we have not been able to verify . by liberating so many unhappy beings. the reward of the latter is the loss of two fingers. but even if gold did assist the negociations for the release of the Russian prisoners. but his good fortune is one proof more to be added to the many existing in the world that seyenreighths of our success in this life are the result of accident — Sir Richmond Shakespear did but gather the fruits of the labours of the Kazi of Herat and Captain Abbott. and from there to St. XXVIH. 433 order . and such was his influence with him. Regardleas of the consequences that might result from the demand. brought upon him by Yar Mohamed. and she had the happinesB of rejoining her countrymen. he becomes the centre of rewards. destroyed her principal reason for undertaking a second expedition to Khiva. above all. therefore.detained in the harem of the Usbek prince. fall into the most complete oblivion. CAPTAIN ABBOTT NOT RECOMPENSED. by his own Goyermnent he was knighted. he immediately sent an express to Allah Kooli Khan. thence he went to Orenburg. The recompense of the former was complete ruin. in habituating them never to acknowledge any supremacy but that of Russia. the important results obtained by this officer justified the favour in which he was held by the Tzar and his own Soyereign . without a thought being bestowed on the exertions of his pre* decessors. By underhand means. the people of Turkestan. the difficulties of which have been removed . therefore. and decorated with a Russian Chap. while the energetic and courageous pioneers. because he succeeds. and then. The restitution of tiie caravan took place immediately on Lieutenant Shakespear's arrival at Astrakan with the rescued slaves . and made such a judicious selection of its agents to carry out so loyal and noble an enterprise ? England. which had a direct interest in subjugating. and the Usbek sovereign had scarcely settled his troubles with Russia. on the contrary. sooner or later. and compliments. he has the Kazi with him. Certainly. Petersburgh. In re-establishing the good understanding between the Tzar Nicholas and Allah Kooli Khan.

when he saw his relations with Persia assume a most unfavourable 2 F 434 CAPTAIN CONOLLY ARRIVES AT KHIVA. who was then at Herat. travelling direct from Kabul to Meimana. have rused up families and interests . demanded of him the restoration of 40. It is easy to see who instigated this demand. Chap. Shah Shooja. Allah Dad Khan. Escorted by the Hazarahs deh Zingui. * Kisg of Kings. t Moreover. to the Khan of Khiva. who are not subject to my laws. therefore. and to authorize their return to Persia would create a disturbance amongst my subjects that would end in a rebellion. — Ferrier. the 'title of the and A^hanistan in 1832. in which I should be the first victim." The English once more offered their intervention.* it was impossible for him to comply with his demand. Many of these slaves have redeemed themselves. XXVllI. M'Naghten. ''The greater pajrt of the Persian slaves. who gave him many proois of his esteem for himself and his Government. in my power to grant the demand of Mohamed Shah. '' have been l^ally bought of 4he Turkomans settled on my frontier. married. . an officer of great ability. and as the latter was now so well known at Khiva. Allah