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National Security Agency
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S. government communications and information systems, which involves cryptanalysis and cryptography. The NSA is directed by at least a lieutenant general or vice admiral. NSA is a key component of the U.S. Intelligence Community, which is headed by the Director of National Intelligence. The Central Security Service is a co-located agency created to coordinate intelligence activities and co-operation between NSA and other U.S. military cryptanalysis agencies. The Director of the National Security Agency serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and Chief of the Central Security Service. By law, NSA's intelligence gathering is limited to foreign communications, although incidents such as the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy have occurred.
National Security Agency
Agency overview Formed Preceding agency Jurisdiction Headquarters Employees United States Fort Meade, Maryland Classified Classified General Keith B. Alexander, USA, Director John C. Inglis, Deputy Director Parent agency United States Department of Defense Website http://www.nsa.gov November 4, 1952 Armed Forces Security Agency
1 Organization 1.1 Role 1.2 Facilities 1.3 National Computer Security Center 1.4 History 1.5 Insignia 2 Effect on non-governmental cryptography 2.1 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 2.2 Clipper chip 2.3 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 2.4 SHA 2.5 Dual EC DRBG random number generator 2.6 Academic research 3 NSANet 4 Patents 5 NSA programs 5.1 ECHELON 5.2 Domestic activity 5.2.1 Wiretapping programs 18.104.22.168 Domestic wiretapping under Richard Nixon 22.214.171.124 IT projects: ThinThread, Trailblazer, Turbulence 126.96.36.199 Warrantless wiretaps under George W. Bush 188.8.131.52 AT&T Internet
Annual budget Agency executives
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the NSA became the lead agency to monitor and protect all of the federal government's computer networks from cyber-terrorism. and other intercepted forms of communication. Cray X-MP/24 (ser. As part of the National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (NSPD 54).org/wiki/National_Security_Agency monitoring 5. which produces foreign signals intelligence information. and all other sensitive.2 Transaction data mining 6 Criticisms 7 In fiction 8 Staff 8. diplomatic. but it has tried to keep a low profile. "[e]very day. its existence was not acknowledged by the U. both from various organizations and individuals. According to the Washington Post.1 Directors 8.2. It has been described as the world's largest single employer of mathematicians. phone calls and other types of communications. Role NSA's eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting. collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1.S.2 Notable cryptanalysts 9 NSA encryption systems 10 Some past NSA SIGINT activities 11 See also 11.1 NSA computers 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Organization The National Security Agency is divided into two major missions: the Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID). For many years.Wikipedia.wikipedia. confidential or secret government communications.National Security Agency .5 Wiretapping under Barack Obama 5. and the owner of the single largest group of supercomputers. which protects U. telephone calls. earning it the nickname. 2008 by President Bush. Venona project. signed on January 8. The NSA sorts a fraction of those into 70 separate databases.. In 2010. continuing the work of predecessor agencies which had broken many World War II codes and ciphers (see.2.S." Because of its listening task. the free encyclopedia http://en. and the Information Assurance Directorate (IAD). Because the agency rarely makes any public remarks.1. Purple. Robert Gates called for DHS to have a "cell" that would 2 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . NSA Central Security Service and the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agreed to expand NSA Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education Program. "No Such Agency" (NSA). no. the Internet. government.7 billion e-mails. and JN-25). for instance. Its secure communications mission includes military. information systems. NSA/CSS has been heavily involved in cryptanalytic research. 115) supercomputer on display at the National Cryptologic Museum. In 2004. it has been quipped that their motto is "Never Say Anything".
 National Computer Security Center The National Computer Security Center. The AFSA was to direct the communications and electronic intelligence activities of the U. 2011 a groundbreaking ceremony was held to begin construction on the NSA's first Comprehensive National Cyber-security Initiative (CNCI) Data Center. including the design of specialized communications hardware and NSA headquarters in Fort Meade.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency be able to apply the full surveillance powers of NSA for domestic cyber security. 1951. NCSC was also responsible for publishing the Orange Book and Trusted Network Interpretation (Red Book) detailing trusted computing and network platform specifications.wikipedia." Its secure government communications work has involved the NSA in numerous technology areas. and elsewhere. and advanced cryptography research. and the Air Force Security Service. located 25 miles (40 km) miles south of Salt Lake City.S. 1951. Lay. at Fort Gordon. Facilities Headquarters for the National Security Agency is at Fort George G. production of dedicated semiconductors (at the Ft. the collection and processing of Communications Intelligence had proved ineffective" and recommended a survey of communications intelligence activities. Texas. Meade. the role of NSA was extended beyond the armed forces. the "Utah Data Center" for short. that agency had little power and lacked a centralized coordination mechanism. The NSA has its own exit off Maryland Route 295 South labeled "NSA Employees Only. The USD $1. The two works are more formally known as the Trusted Computing System Evaluation Criteria and Trusted Network Interpretation. some 18. 1951. the NSA has facilities at the Texas Cryptology Center in San Antonio. and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened. This organization was originally established within the U. Executive Secretary of the National Security Council. As the change in the security agency's name indicated. Generally known as the "Brownell Committee Report. once part of the National Security Agency. Meade chip fabrication plant). they have largely been replaced by the Common Criteria. and the study authorized on December 28. was established in 1981 and was responsible for testing and evaluating computer equipment for use in high security and/or confidential applications. The creation of NSA resulted from a December 10.S. Meade headquarters. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. part of the Rainbow Series.National Security Agency . Utah. On January 6. The report was completed by June 13. 1952. however. History The National Security Agency's predecessor was the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA). it surveyed the history of U. In addition to its Ft. military intelligence units: the Army Security Agency. In 2006. Georgia. Maryland.000 parking spaces are visible in photos of the site. However. created on May 20. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Maryland software. the Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed. The data center will help support the agency's National Cyber-security Initiative. The memo observed that "control over." The scale of the operations at the NSA is hard to determine from unclassified data. This problem was apparently recognized in the 1990s but not made a priority." after committee chairman Herbert Brownell.5 billion data center is being built at Camp Williams. The agency contracts with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment. communications intelligence activities and suggested the need for a much greater degree of coordination and direction at the national level. The proposal was approved on December 13. 1949. 3 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . about 15 mi (24 km) southwest of Baltimore. the Naval Security Group. and coordination of. memo sent by CIA Director Walter Bedell Smith to James S.S.
Truman in June 1952. 1952.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency The creation of NSA was authorized in a letter written by President Harry S. representing NSA's clutch on security as well as the mission to protect and gain access to secrets. 1952. It is made of black granite. In late 2009 NSA declassified information stating that "NSA worked closely with IBM to strengthen the algorithm against all except brute force attacks and to strengthen substitution tables. The surrounding white circular border features "National Security Agency" around the top and "United States of America" underneath. when then-Director. The eagle is set on a background of blue and its breast features a blue shield supported by 13 bands of red and white. President Truman's letter was itself classified and remained unknown to the public for more than a generation.National Security Agency . During the development of DES by IBM in the 1970s.. Effect on non-governmental cryptography NSA has been involved in debates about public policy.S. The current NSA insignia has been in use since 1965. A brief but vague reference to the NSA first appeared in the United States Government Organization Manual from 1957.Wikipedia. LTG Marshall S. NSA was a major player in the debates of the 1990s regarding the export of cryptography. A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in 2001. both indirectly as a behind-the-scenes adviser to other departments. NSA tried to convince IBM to reduce the length of the key from 64 to 48 bits. a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late 1980s. called S-boxes." National Cryptologic Memorial Crews associated with NSA missions have been involved in a number of dangerous and deadly situations. which described it as "a separately organized agency within the Department of Defense under the direction. with two five-pointed silver stars between the two phrases. Conversely. Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in 1996. grasping a key in its talons. The agency was formally established through a revision of National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) 9 on October 24. Data Encryption Standard (DES) Main article: Data Encryption Standard NSA was embroiled in some minor controversy concerning its involvement in the creation of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). a standard and public block cipher algorithm used by the U. NSA recommended changes to some details of the design. the free encyclopedia http://en. and control of the Secretary of Defense [. It is located at NSA headquarters. The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence reviewed NSA's involvement.wikipedia. and concluded that while the agency had provided some assistance. it had not tampered with the design." 4 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM .. and directly during and after Vice Admiral Bobby Ray Inman's directorship. Carter (USA) ordered the creation of a device to represent the Agency. and officially came into existence on November 4. Ultimately they compromised on a 56-bit key. both military and civilian. The NSA's insignia. There was suspicion that these changes had weakened the algorithm sufficiently to enable the agency to eavesdrop if required.] for the performance of highly specialized technical functions in support of the intelligence activities of the United States. but which was known to the IBM DES team. It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis. of these intelligence missions. government and banking community. The National Security Agency/Central Security Service Cryptologic Memorial honors and remembers the fallen personnel. including speculation that a critical component—the so-called S-boxes—had been altered to insert a "backdoor" and that the reduction in key length might have made it feasible for NSA to discover DES keys using massive computing power. National Cryptologic Memorial Insignia The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of a bald eagle facing its right. authority. and has 163 names (as of 2011) carved into it. The well known USS Liberty incident in 1967 and USS Pueblo incident in 1968 are a small sample of the losses endured during the Cold War.
wikipedia. SECRET information in an unclassified environment) when used in NSA-approved systems. Because of weaknesses and key length restrictions in SHA-1. SHA-1 is a slight modification of the weaker SHA-0 algorithm. for example.g. the involvement of NSA in the selection of a successor to DES. A new hash standard. NSA's Fortezza hardware-based encryption cards. is currently under development.National Security Agency . the free encyclopedia http://en. e. NIST deprecates its use for digital signatures. with no justification other than the fact that it provides additional security. SHA-3. was initially limited to hardware performance testing (see AES competition). resulting in over 3. created for the Clipper project. However. are still used within government. attempted to restrict the publication of academic research into cryptography. SHA The widely-used SHA-1 and SHA-2 hash functions were designed by NSA. Academic research NSA has invested many millions of dollars in academic research under grant code prefix MDA904. NSANet 5 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . will select the function used by the standard and is scheduled to end in 2012. An attack for SHA-0 that does not apply to the revised algorithm was indeed found between 1998 and 2005 by academic cryptographers. and approves only the newer SHA-2 algorithms for such applications from 2013 on.Wikipedia. This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that random number generator. The proposal was strongly opposed and key escrow requirements ultimately went nowhere. Dual EC DRBG random number generator Main article: Dual EC DRBG NSA promoted the inclusion of a random number generator called Dual EC DRBG in the U. the Khufu and Khafre block ciphers were voluntarily withheld in response to an NSA request to do so. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Main article: Advanced Encryption Standard Possibly because of previous controversy.000 papers (as of 2007-10-11).org/wiki/National_Security_Agency Clipper chip Main article: Clipper chip Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps. at times. and NSA ultimately published the design of the SKIPJACK cipher (but not the key exchange protocol) used on the cards.S. also designed by NSA in 1993. National Institute of Standards and Technology's 2007 guidelines. NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in 1993 and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials. This small modification was suggested by NSA two years later. NSA/CSS has. the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). closely resembling the successful AES process. NSA has subsequently certified AES for protection of classified information (for at most two levels. An ongoing competition.
 Patents NSA has the ability to file for a patent from the U. However.. and JWICS access One of NSA's published patents describes a method of geographically locating an individual computer site in an Internet-like network.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency NSANet is the official National Security Agency intranet. including political and industrial espionage. NSA programs ECHELON Main article: ECHELON NSA/CSS. In 2004 it was reported to have used over 20 commercial off-the-shelf operating systems. in combination with the equivalent agencies in the United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters). An article in the Baltimore Sun reported in 1995 that aerospace company Airbus lost a $6 billion contract with Saudi Arabia in 1994 after NSA reported that Airbus officials had been bribing Saudi officials to secure the contract.S. along with NIPRNET and SIPRNET.S. Canada (Communications Security Establishment). However.. if the Patent Office receives an application for an identical patent from a third party. In addition. had "significant problems with poor search capabilities. Behind the Green Door secure communications center with SIPRNET. possibly stemming from the assumption that NSA/CSS represents an infringement of Americans' privacy.S. Patent and Trademark Office under gag order. these are not revealed to the public and do not expire. and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau). ECHELON is considered with indignation by citizens of countries outside the UKUSA alliance.wikipedia. NSA's United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18 (USSID 18) strictly prohibits the interception or collection of information about ". the free encyclopedia http://en. Australia (Defence Signals Directorate). It is a classified internal network. fax and satellite communications are exploitable due to recent advances in technology and the 'open air' nature of much of the radio communications around the world.S. or the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court when within U. unorganized data and old information". 2005 article in the New York Times. with numerous allegations that the United States government uses it for motives other than its national security. 2001 attacks. fax and data traffic. GWAN. otherwise known as the UKUSA group. In 2001 it was reported on the PR Newswire that NSA bought Auto-Trol's product KONFIG® NM to help "document and manage" NSANet. internet. There have been alleged violations of USSID 18 that occurred in violation of NSA's strict charter prohibiting such acts. however. There are a few extreme circumstances where collecting on a U. NSA's presumed collection operations have generated much criticism. Supreme Court has ruled that intelligence agencies cannot conduct surveillance against American citizens." without explicit written legal permission from the United States Attorney General when the subject is located abroad.U. such as with civilian distress signals. NSANET.. and TS/SCI. the USA PATRIOT Act has significantly changed privacy legality. Borders. they will reveal NSA's patent and officially grant it to NSA for the full term on that date. Examples include the gear-less wind turbine technology designed by the German firm Enercon and the speech technology developed by the Belgian firm Lernout & Hauspie.Wikipedia. entity is allowed without a USSID 18 waiver. entities. Its capabilities are suspected to include the ability to monitor a large proportion of the world's transmitted civilian telephone. 6 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . is widely reported to be in command of the operation of the so-called ECHELON system.National Security Agency . persons. Unlike normal patents. In 1998 it.S.. or sudden emergencies such as the September 11. Technically. The U. corporations or organizations. Some universities that do highly-sensitive research are allowed to connect to it. almost all modern telephone. according to a December 16. based on the latency of multiple network connections.
html#e) in 2010. Bush.edu/uscode /18/793. the New York Times reported that.S. The research done under this program may have contributed to the technology used in later systems. in an attempt to thwart terrorism. Boeing. This led to investigations by Congress and the NSA and DoD Inspectors General.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency Domestic activity NSA's mission. ThinThread contained advanced data mining capabilities. § 793(e) (http://www. Bush Main article: NSA warrantless surveillance controversy On December 16.S. part of Obama's unusual use of espionage law against leakers and whistleblowers.wikipedia. had been tapping the 7 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . the National Security Agency. It also had a 'privacy mechanism'. citizens located outside of U.S.S. have prompted questions about the extent of the NSA's activities and concerns about threats to privacy and the rule of law. the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 became law.cornell. IBM. After the Church Committee hearings. however. Some NSA whistleblowers complained internally about major problems surrounding Trailblazer.law.Wikipedia.S. persons located outside of U. and didn't do what it was supposed to do. The project was cancelled circa 2003-4. under White House pressure and with an executive order from President George W. these protections do not apply to non-U. Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer. borders. Constitution. Kennedy) to assassinate Fidel Castro. IT projects: ThinThread. It was developed in small. which does not extend protection to non-U. law. Thinthread was cancelled when Michael Hayden chose Trailblazer. Trailblazer. Senator Frank Church headed a Senate investigating committee (the Church Committee) which uncovered previously unknown activity. so the NSA's foreign surveillance efforts are subject to far fewer limitations under U. The specific requirements for domestic surveillance operations are contained in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA). as set forth in Executive Order 12333.S. Thomas Drake. it was late. Turbulence started circa 2005. Warrantless wiretaps under George W. One of them. These activities. is to collect information that constitutes "foreign intelligence or counterintelligence" while not "acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons". inexpensive 'test' pieces rather than one grand plan like Trailblazer. decryption required a warrant. like injecting malware into remote computers. and Litton worked on it. NSA has declared that it relies on the FBI to collect information on foreign intelligence activities within the borders of the USA. 2005. The government then raided the whistleblower's houses. CSC. while confining its own activities within the USA to the embassies and missions of foreign nations. NSA's domestic surveillance activities are limited by the requirements imposed by the Fourth Amendment to the U. The Baltimore Sun ran articles about this in 2006-07. SAIC. Turbulence NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the internet and cellphones. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities. The investigation also uncovered NSA's wiretaps on targeted American citizens. there were several investigations of suspected misuse of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and NSA facilities. Trailblazer ramped up circa 2000. territory.S.C. which did not include Thinthread's privacy system. surveillance was stored encrypted. Wiretapping programs Domestic wiretapping under Richard Nixon Further information: Church Committee In the years after President Richard Nixon resigned. especially the publicly acknowledged domestic telephone tapping and call database programs. limiting circumstances under which domestic surveillance was allowed.National Security Agency . was charged with 18 U. overbudget. the free encyclopedia http://en. such as a CIA plot (ordered by President John F.
National Security Agency . Signals Intelligence Directive 18 of President George Bush. U. along with those of other nations. AT&T Internet monitoring Further information: Hepting v. S. and pointed out the necessity of surveillance by the Congress to prevent abuse of power.S. NSA warrantless surveillance controversy In May 2006. Rumsfeld deprecates this view. 1963. although the Justice Department believed that the NSA had corrected its errors. Conversations of citizens of the U. Criticisms The NSA received criticism early on in 1960 after two agents had defected to the Soviet Union. In the August 2006 case ACLU v. One such surveillance program. Army 513th Military Intelligence Brigade. Proponents of the surveillance program claim that the President has executive authority to order such action. although the Supreme Court's ruling in Hamdan v. and satellite monitoring stations to various U. alleged that his company had cooperated with NSA in installing hardware to monitor network communications including traffic between American citizens. The very same day. the Authorization for Use of Military Force. demoted. In addition. some argued that FISA was implicitly overridden by a subsequent statute. an NSA clerk-messenger committed suicide as ongoing investigations disclosed that he had sold secret information to the Soviets on a regular basis. Transaction data mining NSA is reported to use its computing capability to analyze "transactional" data that it regularly acquires from other government agencies. a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). credit-card transactions and travel and telephone records.wikipedia. calling persons outside the country. AT&T. was the Highlander Project undertaken for the National Security Agency by the U. NSA now monitors huge volumes of records of domestic emails and Internet searches as well as bank transfers.S. Mark Klein.Wikipedia. Nonetheless. United States Attorney General Eric Holder resumed the wiretapping according to his understanding of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008 which Congress passed in July 2008 but without explaining what had occurred. a former AT&T employee. airborne. according to current and former intelligence officials interviewed by the Wall Street Journal." David Kahn criticized the NSA's tactics of concealing its doings as smug and the Congress' blind faith in the agency's right-doing as shortsighted. Army Signal Intelligence Officers. The reluctance of Congressional houses to look into these affairs had prompted a journalist to write "If a similar series of tragic blunders occurred in any ordinary agency of Government an aroused public would insist that those responsible be officially censured. security breaches reoccurred only a year later when in an issue of Izvestia of July 23.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency telephones of select individuals in the U. 2007 the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Judge Taylor's ruling.S. reversing her findings. On July 6. arguing that laws such as FISA are overridden by the President's Constitutional powers. the free encyclopedia http://en. were intercepted. including the 201st Military Intelligence Battalion. a former NSA employee published several cryptologic secrets. prompting the former personnel director and the director of security to step down and leading to the adoption of stricter security practices. which gather it under their own jurisdictional authorities. NSA.S. 8 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . NSA relayed telephone (including cell phone) conversations obtained from both ground. Mark Klein. without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Wiretapping under Barack Obama The New York Times reported in 2009 that the NSA is intercepting communications of American citizens including a Congressman.S. or fired. Investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and a special subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee revealed severe cases of ignorance in personnel security regulations. As part of this effort. District Court Judge Anna Diggs Taylor concluded that NSA's warrantless surveillance program was both illegal and unconstitutional. authorized by the U.
USN April 1981–May 1985 Lt Gen Lincoln D. Jr.S. Bush. USA August 1969–August 1972 VADM Noel A. When in 1964 the Congress was hearing a bill giving the director of the NSA the power to fire at will any employee. Odom. Alexander.National Security Agency .Wikipedia. Minihan." Yet. and video games. USAF April 2005–present GEN Keith B. Tordella Herbert Yardley NSA encryption systems Main article: NSA encryption systems NSA is responsible for the encryption-related components in these systems: EKMS Electronic Key Management System FNBDT Future Narrow Band Digital Terminal Fortezza encryption based on portable crypto token in PC Card format KL-7 ADONIS off-line rotor encryption machine (post-WW II-1980s) STU-III secure telephones on display at the National Cryptologic Museum 9 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM . Carter. against the Bush Presidency.wikipedia. M. USAF March 1999–April 2005 Lt Gen Michael V. USAF August 1973–July 1977 Lt Gen Lew Allen. Gaylor. Callimahos Agnes Meyer Driscoll William F. USN August 1972–August 1973 Lt Gen Samuel C. On January 17. Blake. Phillips. USAF July 1977–April 1981 VADM Bobby Ray Inman. the agency has regularly been portrayed in spy fiction. USA Notable cryptanalysts Lambros D.. Frost. In fiction Main article: NSA in fiction Since the existence of the NSA has become more widely known in the past few decades. USAF June 1965–August 1969 Lt Gen Marshall S. Many such portrayals grossly exaggerate the organization's involvement in the more sensational activities of intelligence agencies. USA August 1988–May 1992 VADM William O. including the interception of CCR emails without securing a warrant first. USA November 1956–November 1960 Lt Gen John A. Hayden. Canine. McConnell. Friedman Solomon Kullback Robert Morris Frank Rowlett Abraham Sinkov Louis W. It means that an employee could be discharged and disgraced on the basis of anonymous allegations without the slightest opportunity to defend himself. Faurer.. Studeman. USN May 1992–February 1996 VADM John M. CCR v. USAF May 1985–August 1988 Lt Gen William E. films. the free encyclopedia http://en. 2006. the bill was accepted with overwhelming majority. USN January 1962–June 1965 Lt Gen Gordon A. and particularly since the 1990s. Samford. USAF November 1960–January 1962 VADM Laurence H. the Center for Constitutional Rights filed a lawsuit.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency The number of exemptions from legal requirements has also been criticized. The agency now plays a role in numerous books. Staff Main article: Director of the National Security Agency Directors November 1952–November 1956 LTG Ralph J. television shows. USN February 1996–March 1999 Lt Gen Kenneth A. The lawsuit challenged the National Security Agency's (NSA's) surveillance of people within the U. the Washington Post wrote: "This is the very definition of arbitrariness.
Retrieved 2008-02-09.washingtonpost.shtml. the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ "The National Security Agency Frequently Asked Questions" (http://www.shtml) . http://www.S.washingtonpost.S.nsa. while the Suite A algorithms are secret and are intended for especially high levels of protection.com/wp-dyn /content/article/2008/01/25/AR2008012503261_pf.Wikipedia. government systems. The Washington Post. ^ http://csis. currently being phased out by the STE TACLANE product line by General Dynamics C4 Systems NSA has specified Suite A and Suite B cryptographic algorithm suites to be used in U.gov/about /faqs/index. ^ Davis.National Security Agency .org/wiki/National_Security_Agency KW-26 ROMULUS electronic in-line teletype encryptor (1960s–1980s) KW-37 JASON fleet broadcast encryptor (1960s–1990s) KY-57 VINSON tactical radio voice encryptor KG-84 Dedicated Data Encryption/Decryption SINCGARS tactical radio with cryptographically controlled frequency hopping STE secure terminal equipment STU-III secure telephone unit.com/wp-dyn/content /article/2008/01/25/AR2008012503261_pf. "Bush Order Expands Network Monitoring: Intelligence Agencies to Track Intrusions" (http://www. ^ a b Ellen Nakashima (2008-01-26). Harvey.nsa. the Suite B algorithms are a subset of those previously specified by NIST and are expected to serve for most information protection purposes. "Statement for the Record" 10 of 14 7/26/2011 8:10 AM .wikipedia. Some past NSA SIGINT activities Gulf of Tonkin Incident Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Operation Ivy Bells USS Liberty incident USS Pueblo (AGER-2) VENONA project See also James Bamford Biometric Consortium Bureau of Intelligence and Research Central Intelligence Agency Central Security Service Counterintelligence Field Activity Cryptographic Quarterly Defense Intelligence Agency Defence Signals Directorate Diplomatic Security Service Espionage Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal law enforcement in the United States Government Communications Headquarters Martin and Mitchell Defection Narus (company) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Whistleblowers Coalition Non-commissioned officer NSA Hall of Honor Ronald Pelton Project SHAMROCK Security-Enhanced Linux Signals intelligence Skipjack (cipher) TEMPEST Thomas Andrews Drake (whistleblower) Type 1 product UKUSA United States Department of Homeland Security U.org/event/cybersecurity-discussion-generalkeith-b-alexander-director-national-security-agency 3. Retrieved 2010-04-15.gov/about/faqs/index.html. http://www. 2. National Security Agency.html) . Air Force Office of Special Investigations John Anthony Walker NSA computers IBM 7950 Harvest FROSTBURG References 1. 4.
Retrieved 2010-01-03.story?coll=balhome-headlines.com/politics/security/commentary /securitymatters/2007/11/securitymatters_1115. W.5137448.%20Jul%2010). chapter 19.shtml) .C.com/article/705363940/Utahs15-billion-cyber-security-center-under-way. Modeling and Simulation of a Global Reachback Architecture. The Codebreakers. Dana and Arkin.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB /NSAEBB278/02.pdf) . 14.shtml. 672–733. 7.htm) . /jya/nsa-sun. ^ Thomas R.usma.net/docs/arc_registration_guide. 30 of Body of Secrets (Anchor Books 2002). "Thesis.edu/departments/se/nrcd /PDFs/FM%203-93%20(Final%20Draft.nps. beyond control (http://projects. December 4.gov/history/histo00018.nsa.story?coll=balhome-headlines) on 2006-08-11.org/web/20060811223405/http: //www.pdf) . "On foiling computer crime". Press release. 1995.5 billion cybersecurity center under way" (http://www. June 2010. Baltimore Sun. IEEE Spectrum (IEEE). Agency 1940-1952 (U)" (http://www. 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