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RAJ SHRESTHA'S CONTEMPORARY ESSAYS
(Essays on contemporary issue)
by raj shrestha
ISBN : 999-99999-9-999-9

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+sng x'G5. d'Vo s'/f cGt/ :jfledfgdf k/]sf] rf]6sf] lyof] h'g cfh ./sf/n] To:sf] s]xL k|ltzt /sd dfq xfdLnfO{ 5'6\ofOlbPsf] eP k|z:t} x'GYof] .Dj4{g x'“b} gf}nf / df}lns . Oltxf.d]t pQm e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ePsf] lyof] . d] %. cfk\mgf] wfld{s cf:yfdfly cltqmd0f ePsf] cg'ej ub}{ lj/f]w :j?k e]nf ePsf lyP.f d]6fOlbg] .+/If0f ul/lbg] jrg lb+b} s'df/Lsf] xftaf6 l6sf u|x0f u/]sf lyP -jf.j}zfv @#. . ju{. .Snfg ls .Dkbfsf] .j{dfGo l.af6 jt{dfg cy{dGqLn] rfxL“ s]xL l. h'g wd{.+. æhLljt b]jL s'df/Lsf] bz{g ug{ ljb]zL ko{6saf6 dfq jif]{gL nfvf}+ ?k}of /fhZj .f_ . hgtfsf cfsfª\Iff ljkl/t /fhgLltsf . Oltxf.hf+o lbg] lyPg .d]t lgjf{x ul/Psf] lyof] eg] cGtl/d sfndf /fi6«fWoIfsf] ?kdf k|wfgdGqLn] . g]kfnL sf+u|]. wGojfb lbG5' tkfO{“ / tkfO{“sf] sndnfO{ . pDsg vf]Hb}5g\.Æ t/ s'/f /sdsf] dfq} lyPg . /fh >]i7sf n]v . Pp6} b]zdf b'O{ gful/s pTkfbg ug]{ z}lIfsdflkmofaf6 . b]z / hgtf tkfO{ h:tf cy{dflkmofsf] r+u'naf6 pDsg vf]Hb}5g\ .L g]jf/ . cy{ dGqfnon] . r/d cfly{s cjglt ef]Ug' kg]{ lyPg . o.ª\ufnf] OGb|hfqf.df k9]sf] lyP“– lnR5jL sfnaf6 cl:tTj / k|rngdf cfPsf] OGb|hfqf dNn /fhfx?af6 u|x0f / .fob} e'k" dGqLHo".+ljwfgsf] unt JofVof u/]/ . cfk\mgf] hftLo :jfledfgsf] nflu wd{. /fhgLlts cf:yfnfO{ Psl5g la.a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof lji0f' Kofs'/]n tkfO{“sf] pT. . jt{dfgdf Oltxf. gofF klqsf b}lgs.hgtfn] tkfO{nfO{ . 13 /fh >]i7sf n]v .bLosfnsf abgfd\ ul0ftLo hf]8–36fpsf] k'g/fj[lQaf6 tkfO{sf] kf6L{.kmn x'g'ePsf] eP b]zn] !) jif]{ åGå.“u oxf“sf wd{.dfkgsf] ah]6 s6f}tL u/]kl5.L cflbjf. clGtd dNn /fhf hok|sfz dNnn] tn]h' ejfgLsf] k|lts :j?k s'df/L /yofqf k|rngdf NofP .nfO{ Oltxf. g]kfnL sf+u|]. cy{dGqL / a'VofFrf cfqmf]lzt d'b|fdf tL o'jfx? eGb} lyP. cGTodf./sf/ u7g x'g'k5{ eg]/ hgefjgfsf] cjx]ngf ug{ vf]h]df hgtfn] cfk\mgf] cledt k|s6 ug{ ca csf]{ lgjf{rg kv]{/ a:g] 5}gg\ .d'bfo.'kf. zfx /fhf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] sflGtk'/df OGb|hfqf s} lbg /StkftljxLg cflwkTo hdfPkl5 oxf“sf hgtf. @))* .Demg] < cy{dGqLsf] ¿kdf tkfO{“ .n] oyfl:ylt sfod /fVg vf]h]df jf cfk\mg} kf6L{sf] g]t[Tjdf . .8sdf 5tf5'Nn ePsf] 5 .4fGtnfO{ nTofp“b} cGtl/d .df klxnf] kN6 cfh o.df ult/f]w cfPsf] 5 . c:t' . ToxfF .ª\ufnf] 14 .sf] s73/fdf pEofP/ hgtfn] .fx.'stf / lh1f.+:s[lt / . @)^%_ df k|sflzt k]m.s]sf zfxj+zLo clGtd /fhf 1fg]Gb|af6 .]{/ pkTosfjf.s]sf] lyof].Demg' kbf{ s] eg]/ . e} . nfvf}+ o'jfx¿sf] ljb]z knfog. kGb|x xhf/ ?k}of 5'6\ofO .+:s[lt yk x'“b} cfhsf] cj:yfdf cfOk'u]sf] xf] .“u xf]nf . ljzfn hgfwf/ ePsf] tkfO{sf] kf6L{. xhf/f}+ If]qkmn ju{ cf]u6\g] e"dflkmofaf6./sf/n] dLtJooLtfsf] gfddf OGb|hfqf .

dfrf/nfO{ :yfg lbO{ . j. d .dfrf/ 15 /fh >]i7sf n]v . æs] ug'{ kl/l:ylt g} o:tf] cfOk¥of] ls cfk\mg} lj?4 pleg kg]{ ef] cfh . geGb} Ps l6eL Rofgnsf] uf8Ldf . . cy{ dGqfnon] . kGb|x xhf/ ?k}of 5'6\ofO . s'df/L3/ glhs}sf] 7"nf] dlGb/df b+uf k|x/Lsf] afSnf] pkl:ylt b]lvGYof] .Demf}tf lyof]. sfnf] rZdf / v}/f] Oi6sf]6 nufPsf x]b}{ . sflGtk'/ hln/x“bf k6\of/nfUbf] b]z.dy{g ug'{ ePsf] 5 .Æ t/ s'/f /sdsf] dfq} lyPg .fy lbG5f}+ . ædf}lns .dfrf/ . r9\b} aNv'.+:s[ltsf] . ga'e\mg]x? . Ps o'jf . s'df/L3/ leq s]xL o'jfx? lrlGtt cg'xf/ lnP/ al.fy lbgf].f+:s[lts dfunfO{ /fhgLlts /fh >]i7sf n]v .Æ 6]s'af6 dflylt/ u'0fsfdb]j dfu{ x'“b} h}zLb]jnaf6 j.De|fGt kl/jf/sf h:tf b]lvg] tL o'jf s'g} /fhgLlts g]tf . @)^% . b'O{ 6]lnlehg Rofgn / /]l8of]x?n] s'g} s. pkl:yt hg. /fHo. sflGtk'/sf] tfhf l:ylt a'e\mg sLlt{k'/af6 dfOqmf]a.~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|d'vtfsf .8sdf 5tf5'Nn ePsf] 5 . lxh} h:tf] nfU5.d"xsf JolQmx? e]nf ePsf lyP .Gtk'/ b/jf/ If]q j/k/ o'jfo'jlt b]lv leGgleGg pd]/ .d'bfo.+/If0f u/f}+Æ eg]/ n]lvPsf] 6'n lt/ b]vfp“b} j/k/ ple/x]sf o'jfx?nfO{ k|Zgjfrs b[li6n] x]b}{ tL dxfzo eGb} lyP. ljb]zsf .L g]jf/ .“u xfd|f] .dfrf/ . æd /fli6«o k|hftGq kf6L{sf] sfo{stf{ x'“ . tkfO{x? klg xfdLnfO{ .+:s[ltsf] cy{ s] xf] < yfxf 5 tkfO{x?nfO{ < xfd|f wfld{s / . pgLx?. jf:tjdf .n} k9]sf xf]nfg\ .+:s[ltsf] .d:of ef]Ug'k/]sf] xf] .s]sf bz{sx?df d cfk}m klg lyP“ eg] .“u} c? ofq'x? klg k}bn ofqfdf . Toxf“ .DaGwdf . Ps klqsfn] o.Dd / tTkZrft b'O{ v'6[fn] lx8\b} 6]s'.+oldt ?kdf a.Dd k}bn g} lx8\g' kg]{ jfWotf cfOk/]sf] lyof]. Pp6} d'2fdf. .Æ :ki6 lyof].s]sf] lyof] . of] lbg .+sng x'G5. cyf{t d}n] a'e]msf] æoxf“sf] .~rf/ dfWod k|lt cfqmf]z kf]Vb} lyP . d'Vo s'/f cGt/ :jfledfgdf k/]sf] rf]6sf] lyof] h'g cfh .8s e/L cj/f]w / d'9f./f]sf/jfnfx?sf] cGtjf{tf / o.s]sf] lyof].DaGwL .fy o.sf] tL sfnv08.d"xdf d]/f] cf“vf uof] .cflZjg %. s]xL k/ Ps a'h'u{ JolQm s'df/L3/ .“u. xfdL tkfO{x?nfO{ .nf odLnfO{ If]q g+= & sf hgtfn] Ps Ps ef]6 bfOhf]sf] ?kdf lbPsf lyP . æodLÆsf] cy{ xf]./x kf]h lb+b} efif0f lbO/x]sf lyP.Gtk'/ k|j]z ubf{ .+sngsf] qmddf o'jfx?sf] cfqmf]z 9'+uf eP/ alh|g k'Ubf eg] g/dfOnf] cg'ej eof] .Dk|]if0f ug{ Ps.L cflbjf. pgLx?sf dg ef“lrPsf lyP eg] d'6'e/L cfqmf]zn] el/k"0f{ lyP .'Gbf.ª\ufnf] . lnR5jL.+:s[ltljb\ / .+nUg x'g cfOk'u] .f+:s[lts rf8kj{nfO{ df}lns :j?ksf] hu]gf{ gu/L dgfPsf] x'“bf g} xfdLn] cfh of] . /fhgLlts cf:yfnfO{ Psl5g la.d'bfo / k|x/L lgSs} .dfrf/ kl:sg] .+:s[lt dGqfno / u'7L . . wfld{s rf8kj{sf] . lxl. lxGb" /fi6«sf] d'2fdf .f]Rb} cfO/x]sf] lyP“ .Qf ablnP klg xfd|f] . oxf“sf] ef}lts pGglt rfxg]Æ .Æ tL dxfg'efjn] Oltxf. 3'Db} Ps hdft o'jfx?sf] Ps . æsf7df8f}+nfO{ w]/} w]/} dfof ug]{Æ .'Gbf jfSs nflu.dfkgsf] ah]6 s6f}tL u/]kl5.~rf/ dfWodsf] lgikIf . PstkmL{ o'jfx?sf] hdft .\. af6f] el/ d .]sf b]lvGy] .“u} 6f“luPsf] æxfd|f] df}lns . lxh} xfd|f cWoIfHo"n] jQmJo lgsfn]/ tkfO{x?sf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ .+:yfgdf 5g .Dd cfOk'Ubf /fHo. .d"x ./x]sf lyP . ju{.d"xdf leGbfleGb} l6sf l6Kk0fL cf–cfk\mgf wf/0ff k|:t't ug{ g} Jo:t lyP clwsf+z dflg./ af“sL /fv]sf lyPgg\ . cfk\mgf] hftLo :jfledfgsf] nflu wd{.DkbfnfO{ w]/} w]/} dfof ug]{. .Demf}tf 6'6]sf lyPgg\ . Ps o'js cGo o'jsx?nfO{ .+:s[lt .xofqL b'vL x'“b} egL/x]sf lyP. æhLljt b]jL s'df/Lsf] bz{g ug{ ljb]zL ko{6saf6 dfq jif]{gL nfvf}+ ?k}of /fhZj . dNn / zfxsfn x'“b} cfh./sf/n] To:sf] s]xL k|ltzt /sd dfq xfdLnfO{ 5'6\ofOlbPsf] eP k|z:t} x'GYof] .Gtk'/ d} pQm klqsf hnfp“b}./sf/n] dLtJooLtfsf] gfddf OGb|hfqf . cfk\mgf] wfld{s cf:yfdfly cltqmd0f ePsf] cg'ej ub}{ lj/f]w :j?k e]nf ePsf lyP.Demfp“b} lyP . cfqmf]lzt d'b|fdf eGb} lyP. 6fo/sf] sfnf] w'“jfn] jftfj/0f b'lift agfO/x]sf] lyof] .ª\ufnf] 16 .]{/ pkTosfjf. gf/fjfhL u/L/x]sf lyP .Dk"0f{ . cfGbf]ngnfO{ /fhfjfbL eg]/ cf/f]k nufp“bf q'm4 ag]sf Ps hdft j. . sflGtk'/sf] tk{maf6 lxl.f“em x'“bf gx'“b} s/Lj s/Lj .nf odLn] eg]sL lyOg.“u xfd|f] kl/ro u/fof] h'g xfdL dWo] zfob} s. .x? .

s]kl5 k'/f0f wd{u|Gydf jl0f{t g/snf]ssf] ."rgf k|jflxt eof] .k6ndf ljh'nL rlDsP h:t} Ps ljrf/ rlDsof] . t/ of] If]qdf cfO. b[ionfO{ s}b ul//x]sf lyP .f/L cflbaf6 dlxnf k|lt?k csf]{ a'“Vofrf agfpg nfluk/]sf 5g\. tL g]jf/ . clu g} . d klg pQm h'n'.d'bfon] lj/f]w :j?k lgsfn]sf] lj/f]wsf] z}nL xf] eg]/ .Go"hdf cf“vf uof] .donfO{ cfk\mgf Sofd]/fdf s}b ug{ Jo:t b]lvGy] . . ætkfO{x?sf] g}lts .Æ To.ª\ufnf] ul//x]sf5f}+.+sng ug{ nfu] . xftdf Sofd]/f. cgfo. Pdfn].dy{gsf] nflu wGojfb . dnfO{ nfUb} lyof]. g]jf/x? g]kfnL sf+u|].Ddsf] ofqfkl5 sLlt{k'/ hfg] dfOqmf]a. nfUg yfNof] .'g]/ csf]{ o'jsn] hjfkm lbof].ts{ x'g'k5{ .Æ of] . /fhgLlt d} hfg] xf] eg] t xfd|} g]kfM /fli6«o kf6L{ g} klg 5 lg .L/x]sf b+ufk|x/Lx? tL hg.sf] lyP“ d . xfdL oxf“ oqf] lj/f]w 17 /fh >]i7sf n]v .Æ æx]6f}8fdf klg lj/f]w z'? eof] /] . dlGb/ jl/kl/ a.s]sf /x]5g\ .fIfft cl:tTj klg 5 eGg] s'/fdf dnfO{ ljZjf. pgLx? ef]ln cfpg] /] .f/f hg. wfuf].d"x . csf]{ .g] b'u{Gw. æk[YjL d} :ju{ klg 5.L/x]sf lyP . Ps ko{6s klxnf] a'“Vofrfsf] aund} r9]/ xfxf / x'x' ub}{ xft xNnfp“bf .d"x klg k|x/Ldfly s'g} clk|o Jojxf/ gu/L zfGt a.Æ cs}{ JolQmaf6 yk Ps .Gtk'/ s'df/L3/ j/k/ g} rSs/ nufO/x]sf] lyP“ .'Gg eg] r'sfPgg\ . lg:.Demgf 5}g .. t/ xfdL ljeflht x'g'x'b}g . wfuf] xfd|f gfnfos cy{dGqLsf] nfluÆ eGb} tfnL / xf“. ljb]zL ko{6s xftdf Sofd]/f lnO{ s'g} . clxn] .fu/ aLr y'k}| .s]sf] 5 .+sngÆ eGb} s'df/L3/ cufl8 uf]nfsf/ 3]/fdf k}. d]/f] dfg. Anfph .“u} pleP/ /ldtf x]l//xg] b'O{ o'jssf] s'/fsfgLdf d]/f] Wofg cfs[i6 eof] . ef]s / tLvf{n] r"/ eO.Dd hg.+Vofdf ljb]zL ko{6s .df/f]xnfO{ klv{/x]sf h:tf b]lvGy] .b[Zo jftfj/0f. lj:tf/} 6]s' lt/ k|:yfg ug{ yfNb5 .]sd xfd|f] g}lts . t/ 6]s' cfOk'Ubf gk'Ub} g]zgn 6]«l8ª cufl8 eg] l:ylt tgfjk"0f{ lyof] . sd. lar/f tL ko{6snfO{ s] yfxf of] t ToxL OGb|hfqf dgfpg gkfPsf] emf]+sdf g]jf/ . æbfh'efO{x?af6 kf“r kf“r ?k}of / lbbLalxgLx?af6 r'/f. yk h'n'.d'bfodf xf“. lbg 9Nb} uO/x]sf] lyof] .Lwf sf7df8f}+ gu/kflnsf lt/ xflGgb}+ Dof/fyf]g bf}8 nufOxfn] .s]kl5 eg] 9'+uf xfgfxfgsf] sfo{ z'? eOxfNof] . .+slnt r'/f.nfO{ /fhgLlts ?k glbg'.s]kl5 6]lnlehg Rofgndf k\mnf. .d'bfosf o'jfx?n] klg To.dy{g 5 eg]/ Pp6f jStJo t lgsfNg'kg]{ xf] .f]sf] kmf]x/f g} lg:s]sf] lyof] . Ps o'js eGb} lyP. æo:tf] a]nf rnv]n x'g.+sng s]Gb| klg xf] .d"xsf] .fy x]l//x]sf lyP .fy 5f]8\b} . 3/ cfO.d]t /dfOnf] dfgL o.ª\ufnf] 18 .f]sf .Æ d]/f sfgn] tL o'jfx?sf b"/bzL{ s'/f .] 5f]l8Psf s'df/L. of] k|s/0f /fh >]i7sf n]v . s'df/L3/ cufl8 a]jfl/. eQmk'/ / sLlt{k'/jf. æeQmk'/ / sLlt{k'/af6 kmf]g cfO.f“emsf] kf“r ahL.+Vo g/gf/Lx?sf hg. l6eL Sofd]/f lnPsf y'k|}n] oL .a} 5g\ .fob tL ko{6s OGb|hfqf eg]sf] oxL xf] eG7fGbf x'g.\ . s'n]Zj/ lg:sb}+ aNv' .Æ klxnf] o'js lg/fz x'“b} eg] . nlntk'/sf] t v} s]xL yfxf kfOPg . k}bnaf6 s'n]Zj/ lg:sg'kg]{ lyof] dnfO{ .+nUg x'g] tof/Ldf /x]5 .f]sf] ld>0faf6 jftfj/0fdf /f}gstf 5fO/x]sf] lyof] . olQs}df Ps x'n æs+ufn cy{dGqLsf] nflu cy{ . g]jf/ . æx}g nlntk'/. of] af6f] slxNo} cfpg' gk/f].Lx?n] t s]xL lj/f]wsf sfo{qmd g} u/]gg\ . s]xL o'jfx? t clu b]lv g} cy{dGqL afa'/fd e6[/fO{sf] a'“Vofrf agfpg klg nflu .S5.d"xsf lqmofsnfk rf. t/ of] g]jf/x?sf] cfk\mg} cfGbf]ng xf] .d'bfosf k|ltlglwx? / cy{dGqL :jod\ cy{dGqfnodf jftf{df . ysfg. æhgcfGbf]ngtfsf xfdLnfO{ r'/fkf]6] k7fPsf] xf]Og pgLx?n] . o. kf]6] k7fpg' kg]{ ef]. efpGg eP/ d"R5f{ knf{ h:tf] .:j?k lbg vf]lhPsf] lyof] . d cfk"m eg] of] . uO. u0f]z / e}/jsf /y j/k/ c. hd36 kftlng'sf] abnf emgemg aflSnb}+ uO/x]sf] lyof] . k5\ofp“b} ca t uGtJo lt/ k|:yfg ug'{ k¥of] eg]/ kfOnf a9fpg yfn]+ . dfcf]jfbL . k[YjL d} gs{ klg 5 .f . xfdL .Æ ælogLx?nfO{ klg r'/f./L g} hjfkm kmsf{P. ca t . k]mnfk¥of] .s]sf] 5 . d eg] j.kl5 tL o'jfx? cfk\mgf] af6f] nfu] .fl. s]xLl5gkl5 g} b'O{ a'“VofrfnfO{ cl3 cl3 nfp“b} gf/f nfp“b} h'n'.Æ s'g ljåfgn] eg]sf lyP dnfO{ . g/s . sf7df8f}+ gu/kflnsf sfof{no /x]sf] of] 6]s' If]q kmf]xf]/ .\ eGg] nflu/x\of] dnfO{ . cfk"mnfO{ sLlt{k'/ 3/ hf] k'Ug' lyof] .

'/Iff k|Tofe"lt geP. .a}n] a'e\mg' clt h?/L e} . Thanks daai for sharing your Editorial versions. wfuf] xfd|f gfnfos cy{dGqLsf] nfluÆ xfdLn] ug{ .L /fdxl/ k|s/0fdf sf]6]Zj/.+:yfg klg 5 h:n] cfk\mgf] . wd{ / . /}s/ hUufdf kl/0ft ug{ y'k|} k}. k|s/0f @ – k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] d"Noj[l4 kl5 .'lgg] aGb.“u . k|s/0f ! – sf]6]Zj/ lgjf.g / efif0fn] b]z aGbf] /x]g5 .+u7gsf] k|ToIf .f .+:yfgsf] cf}lrTo s] < .a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof lji0f' Kofs'/]n æs+ufn cy{dGqLsf] nflu cy{ .+:s[lt tyf k'g{lgdf{0f dGqLHo"n] ug'{x'G5 .s]sf5g\ . tL /sdsf] ztf+z klg vr{ ug{ . .+rfng ug{ cfly{s .'6'Ss gSsn u/L leqfPsf xf}+ .lxtsf] lhDd]jf/ kbflwsf/Lx? klg x'g'x'G5 .+:s[lt tyf k'g{lgdf{0f dGqfnosf] cf}lrTo s] < gofF klqsf b}lgs. . gq g]tfhLx?af6 efif0f afx]s c? s]xL sfd x'g g. hgtfn] rfx]sf] h:tf] gofF g]kfn ce}m lIflth kf/L pbfpg afFsL g} 5 .xeflutf – dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjaf6 Ifltk"lt{ / jftf{ kl5 ult/f]w .s]sf] 5 . b]zdf Ps .f ltg{ k5{ hUufwgLx?n] u'7L .x'lnotsf] dfu ub}{ oftfoft Joj. ljBfno / ljZjljBfno lzIff k|efljt . Happy Indra Jatra !!! 19 /fh >]i7sf n]v .8sl:yt gful/s nufgL sf]if cjl:yt Jofkfl/s ejg hxf“af6 jflif{s nfvf}+ /sd p7fp“5.+:s[ltdf blIf0fL d'n'ssf] l5d]sL k|b]zaf6 . /fh >]i7sf n]v .+3åf/f lrlsT.xfotf ug]{ lgsfo u'7L . 3]/fp.+:yfgnfO{ . @))* -c. x8tfn. afg]Zj/ nufot :yfg aGb – hghLjg k|efljt – cfjfudg ult/f]waf6 .\ olt g} xf] .k"0f{?kdf b]zsf] . t/ hf] a'e]m/ klg a'em krfp“5g\ ltgnfO{ s] g} kf] ug{ .s . tf]8kmf]8 cflb lqmofsnfk xfdLn] cfk\mgf] .DalGwt 5 .Sb}g pkTosfsf] hfqf / kj{x?nfO{ eg] of] .fDo . h:sf] g]t[Tj .Dd b]zJofkL c:ktfn aGbsf] 3f]if0ff – hgtfsf cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo clwsf/sf] :jod\ lrlsT.dfrf/df obfsbf . You have touched the vital points.+:s[ltsf] /Iffy{ ca g]kfnLn] g} s]xL u/] dfq.dfhnfO{ g/fd|/L ufFh]sf]5 .+:s[ltsf] .s . k'/fgf .+:s[lt.Sg] /x]5 eGg] s'/f tkfO{“ xfdL .+sng ug{ nfu] .{ª xf]ddf pkrf/sf] qmddf Ps JolQmsf] d[To'kl5 lrlsT. csf]{ lt/ pkTosfsf] rf8kj{ .dL/ k|wfgfª\u WoW Raj Dai. sf7df8f}+sf] k'tnL. @)^%_ df k|sflzt k]m.sf] b"/ufdL k|efjn] xfd|f] .+/If0f / .+/rgf Wj:t e} . presentation is very very superb.]K6]Da/ @^. k|s/0f # – Pe/]i6 gl.+sngÆ eGb} s'df/L3/ cufl8 uf]nfsf/ 3]/fdf k}.ssf] nfk/jfxLsf] sf/0f b]vfp“b} kLl8t kIfaf6 wgf{ / lj/f]w sfo{qmd – g]kfn lrlsT.of}+ ofq' / hghLjgdf k|ToIf / uDeL/ k|efj . .Da4{g ug{ hxf“ k|zf.lgs .+:s[ltsf la?4df ljZj . cg'lrt dfu k'/f u/fpg c/fhs / pQ/bfloTjljxLg ?kdf k|:t't x'Fbf To.lsG5.ª\ufnf] laxf/L aGb .+oGq .ª\ufnf] 20 .lsG5 / x}g ====== . bfh'efO{x?af6 kf“r kf“r ?k}of / lbbLalxgLx?af6 r'/f. u'7L . rSsfhfd. u0ftGqdf :jtGqtfkl5sf] v'Nnf cfsfzdf c.s]+ eg]/ eG5 .+:yfg .of}+ hgtfn] b'Mv kfP – lj/f]w sfo{qmddf /fhgLlts kf6L{sf juL{o .+oldt :j5Gb k|j[lQn] . pRrf/0f gug]{ .'t]sf jf lgbfPsfnfO{ kf] hufpg .+:s[ltsf] .foL / ljBfyL{ .f]h !).fj{hlgs oftfoftdf ef8f j[l4 / ljBfyL{ .+:s[lt tyf k'g{lgdf{0f dGqfno klg 5 .Dk"0f{ bfloTj k"/f ul/.Sg] j. pkTosfsf] xhf/f} /f]kgL hUufaf6 s/ p7fp“5 .saf6 pnª\3g . cfZjf.dfhnfO{ g/fd|/L ufFHg]5 .+u7gaf6 xKtflbg pkTosf nufot b]zsf ljleGg If]q aGb – .

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21

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

ctM pkTosf÷g]kfn aGb, /fhdfu{ ;8s rSsfhfd, lj/f]w, x8\tfnsf]
cfof]hgf ug'{ cl3 xfd|f cfof]hsx?n] Psl5g x[bob]lv g} dgg\ ug]{ ls
cfk\mgf] clwsf/sf] dfu ubf{ c? xhf/f}+sf] clwsf/ vf]l;Psf t 5}gg\ <
gofF klqsf , ;]K6]Da/ #), @))* -c;f]h !$, @)^%_ df k|sflzt

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

22

;dfof]hgsf] ljsNk 5}g
-;Gbe{M ;dfof]hg, k]6«f]lnod d"No / dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf]_
o; cl3 k]6«f]lnod nufotsf] cfk"lt{df h'g ;d:of /fi6«n] ef]Ug' k¥of] tL
s6' oyfy{ / cg'ejsf] cfwf/df k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] cfly{s bfloTj
cGt//fli6«o d"No;Fu ;dfof]hg u/L h:tfsf] t:t} ;n{Ss pkef]Stfdf
;fg'{sf] csf]{ ljsNk ca 5}g eGbf x'G5 . t/ lgudnfO{ gfkmfd'ns ;+:yf
eGbf ;]jfd'ns ;+:yfsf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{ ;Sg'kb{5 .
g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmofdf dxTjk"0f{ s8L / cfwf/ :tDe eg]sf] ;]gf
;dfof]hg g} xf] . dfcf]jfbL n8fs'x?sf] rfxgf / of]Uotf cg';f/ Pp6f
lglZrt dfkb08 tf]s]/ lglZrt ;+Vofdf ljz]if ;ldltn] ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg
ubf{ s] lau|G5 < g]kfnL ;]gfsf] ;+/rgf olt alnof] 5 ls p;n] dfcf]jfbL
;]gfsf] ;dfof]hgnfO{ ;lhn} ;Fu ;dflxt / cfTd;ft ug{ ;Sb5 .
of] ;ftf g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts j[Qdf dfcf]jfbL 5fkfdf/ n8fs'sf] /fli6«o
;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ljifo lgSs} rrf{df /x\of] . o;} ;ftf cGt//fli6«o d~rdf
z]o/ahf/df cfPsf] dGbL / k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] d"No lu/fj6 ljz]if rlr{t
/x\of] .
jiff}{ 3f6fdf ;~rflnt g]kfn cfon lgudn] pkef]Qmfsf] lxtnfO{ Wofgdf
/fvL k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] cGt//fli6«o ahf/ adf]lhd d"No ;dfof]hg s;/L
ub{5 eGg] x]g{ af“sL 5 . o; cl3 k]6«f]lnod nufotsf] cfk"lt{df h'g ;d:of
/fi6«n] ef]Ug' k¥of] tL s6' oyfy{ / cg'ejsf] cfwf/df k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf]
cfly{s bfloTj cGt//fli6«o d"No;“u ;dfof]hg u/L h:tfsf] t:t} ;n{Ss
23

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

pkef]Stfdf ;fg'{sf] csf]{ ljsNk ca 5}g eGbf x'G5 . ;/sf/sf] cg'bfg
;xof]u / OlG8og cfon skf]{/];gnfO{ ltg{kg]{ C0f r'Stf ug{ lgudnfO{
gfkmfdf ;~rfng ug'{ ;/sf/sf] jfWotf xf]nf . t/ g]kfn cfon lgudnfO{
gfkmfd'ns ;+:yf eGbf ;]jfd'ns ;+:yfsf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{ ;Sg'kb{5 eGg]
wf/0ff cfd pkef]Stfsf] 5 . vfgf ksfpg] Uof“;sf] cfk"lt{ lgudaf6} ;xh
?kdf xf];\ eGg] pkef]Stfsf] cfu|x lgud Joj:yfkgn] dxTjsf lnO lbP
hgtfsf] ;xfg'e"lt lgudn] ;+w} k|fKt ul//xg] 5 .
P]ltxfl;s !@ a'“b] zflGt ;Demf}tf÷;dembf/L b]lv xfn;Dd cfOk'Ubf
g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmofdf dxTjk"0f{ s8L / cfwf/ :tDe eg]sf] ;]gf
;dfof]hg g} xf] eGg] s'/f k6s k6s ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf dxf;lrj
jfªlsd"gaf6 ;d]t JoQm eO{;s]sf 5g\ . o;} ;Gbe{df k|wfgdGqL k|r08sf]
kl5Nnf] v'nf;f adf]lhd /fhgLlts k[i7e"ld eGbf klg of]Uotf / Ifdtfdf
cfwf/df JolQmut :jtGqtfk"j{s ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ul/g] cleJolQmnfO{
Jofjxfl/s / zflGt :yfkgfdf 7f]; c7f]6sf] ?kdf lng' kb{5 . jf:tjdf
5fkfdf/ z}nL af]s]sf ljb|f]xL n8fs'x?sf] ;dfhdf k'g{:yfkg g} zflGt
:yfkgfsf k|d'v zt{ x'g eGg] s'/f 3fd h:t} 5n{ª 5 . ;d:of ;dfwfgsf]
kIfdf k|wfgdGqL k|r08sf] tbf?stfsf] 7Ls ljkl/t æ/fli6«o ;]gfdf s'g}
xfntdf klg ;dfof]hg x'g lbGgf}+Æ eGg] g]kfnL sf“u|];sf] Psfnfkn] åGb
;dfwfgdf slQ klg ;xof]u k'Ub}g eGg] cg'ej hf] s;}n] klg u/]sf]
x'g'k5{ . ;+ejt !@ a'“b] ;dembf/L tfs} bnx? aLr ;xdtL eO;s]sf] d'2fdf
clxn] c;xdt eP/ c;dembf/Lsf] /fhgLlt u/]/ g]kfnL sf“u|];n]
k'g?TyfgjfbL zlQmnfO{ cfk\mgf] kIfdf kfg{ vf]h]sf] x'g'kb{5 . t/ oxf“;Dd
cfOk'Ubf ;]gf ;dfof]hg ca s'g} zlQmn] klg /f]Sg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f sf“u|];
g]t[Tjn] /fd|/L a'lem;s]sf] x'g'kb{5 . casf lbgdf dfcf]jfbL n8fs' /fli6«o
;]gf, k|x/L, ;Ldf ;'/Iff an jf cf}Bf]lus andf ;dfof]hg x'g] kSsfkSsL
5 .
/fhgLltdf h'xf/L
lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] ;]gf ;dfof]hg ;DaGwL bkmfsf] klg cfcfk\mg}
/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

24

lsl;dsf] kl/efiff / JofVofn] kl5Nnf] k6s g]kfnL /fhgLltdf h'xf/L g}
rNof] . ljBf e08f/L g]kfnL ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg n]lvPs} 5}g elG5g, eg]
/fdrGb| kf}8]n #, $ xhf/sf] ;+Vofdf ;dfof]hg eG5g, eg] 8f= afa'/fd
e6\6/fO{ !( xhf/ ;a} ;dfof]hg .
b]zdf l:y/tf cfpg ls t alnof] gful/s ;/sf/ ls xf]Og eg] alnof]
gful/s k|zf;gsf] cfjZostf kg]{ u5{ . ;/sf/ cl:y/ ePklg k|zf;g,
sd{rf/LtGq alnof] eof] eg] b]zdf ;'/Iff, ljsf;df vf;} km/s gkg'{ kg]{
xf] . t/ g]kfndf pxL k~rfotsfnLg bf;dgf]j[lQ / cj;/jfbL
sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ g} ax'bnLo zf;g k|0ffnLdf klg lg/Gt/tf lbOof] .
kmn:j?k ;Qfdf k'u]sf /fhgLlts JolQmx?sf] O{R5f zlQmsf] sdL / lgod
ldnfP/ e|i6frf/ ug{ l;sfpg] sd{rf/LtGqsf] r+u'ndf km“;L ;a} e|i6 gi6
eP . pxL sd{rf/LtGq clxn] klg ;qm+d0fsfndf klg lg/Gt/ p:t} :j?kdf
ljBdfg 5 . b]zsf] k'g{;/+rgf x'g hlt cfjZos 5 Tolt g} /fHosf ;a}
cª\udf k|zf;g ;+oGqdf, ;'/Iff ;+oGqdf, :jf:Yo, lzIff, u[x, ag, k//fi6«,
cy{, ;~rf/, :yfgLo ljsf;, ef}lts of]hgf, s[lif, hn;|f]t, >d, oftfoft
nufot ;a} dGqfnosf sd{rf/LtGqsf] Pp6f k"/} k':tfsf] gof“ k':tfaf6
k|lt:yfkg geO{ b]zsf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf s'g} klg kl/jt{g x'g' c;Dej
dfG5' d t .
ljBfsf] ts{ zflGt ;Demf}tf ljkl/t
lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] bkmf $=$ df ædfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf
n8fs'x?sf] /]vb]v, ;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kgf lglDt cGtl/d dGqLkl/ifb\n]
ljz]if sldl6 agfP/ sfd ug]{Æ eg]/ n]lvPsf] 5 . /Iff dGqL ljBf
e08f/Lsf] ts{ ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg x'g'k5{ eg]/ st} n]lvPsf] klg 5}g lg eGg]
s'/f ;To xf] t/ ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ug'{ g} x'Gg eg]/ klg st} sxL+ n]lvPsf]
klg 5}g lg – of] csf]{ ;To xf] . ;]gf afx]s jf ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg lgif]w ug]{
cy{ klg Tof] bkmfn] af]Sb}g . dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] ;d"xut ?kdf
;dfof]hg gx'g] xf] / lgoldt egf{ k|lqmofaf6 cGo gful/s ;/x ;]gfdf
k|j]z kfpg] xf] eg] zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] Tof] bkmfsf] cfjZostf g} kg]{ lyPg .
25

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

dfcf]jfbL n8fs'x?sf] rfxgf / of]Uotf cg';f/ Pp6f lglZrt dfkb08
tf]s]/ lglZrt ;+Vofdf ljz]if ;ldltn] ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ubf{ s] lau|G5 <
olb o;n] ;]gfdf e'O{+rfnf] g} Nofp“5 eg] xfdLn] eGg} kb{5 ls ;]gfsf]
;+/rgf slt sdhf]/ /x]5 / p;af6 b]zsf] /Iffsf] cfzf ug'{ slt a]sf/
/x]5 eg]/ . t/ dnfO{ nfUb5 ls g]kfnL ;]gfsf] ;+/rgf olt alnof] 5 ls
p;n] dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf] ;dfof]hgnfO{ ;lhn} ;“u ;dflxt / cfTd;ft ug{
;Sb5 .
dfcf]jfbL ;]gf ;asf ;a ;]gfdf g} ;dfof]hg gxf]nf t/ lglZrt
;+Vofdf ;]gfdf, cGo ;'/Iff lgsfodf jf gof“ ;Ldf ;'/Iffan g} v8f u/]/
klg ;dfof]hg xf]nf t/ /Iff dGqLn] eg] h:tf] ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ug}{ gx'g] /
cGo gful/sn] h:t} etL{ v'n]sf] a]nf dfcf]jfbL ;]gf klg cfpg ;Sg]
cleJolQm g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] ;/f;/
ljkl/t x'g cfp“5 . cem ;j{bnLo ljz]if ;ldltn] dfcf]jfbL ;]gfnfO{
;dfof]hg ug]{ lg0f{o u/]df klg /Iff dGqfno / hª\uL c8\8f dfGg afWo
x'Gg eGg] cleJolQmaf6 zflGt ;Demf}tf ;f“lrSs} hf]lvddf kg]{ lglZrt 5 .
zflGt ;Demf}tf tfsf g} tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf /
dfcf]jfbL cWoIf k|r08 aLr kf“r 5 xhf/sf] ;+Vofdf dfcf]jfbL n8fs'x?
g]kfnL ;]gfdf ;dfof]hg ug]{ ;xdtL eO;s]sf] 5 eg]/ :jod\ g]kfnL
sf“u|];sf k|efjzfnL g]tf /fdrGb| kf}8]nn] egL;Sg'ePsf] 5 . clxn]
/IffdGqL :jod\ ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] lj?4 e};s]kl5 dfwj g]kfn ;/sf/n]
zflGt ;Demf}tf 6'ª\uf]df k'¥ofpg / gof“ ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{ ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f
t s/Lj s/Lj :ki6 g} eO;s]sf] 5 . dfcf]jfbLnfO{ klg lnP/ sf“u|];sf]
g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ aGbf ;]gf ;dfof]hg eO{ zflGt ;Demf}tf 6'ª\uf]df k'Ug] /
b]zn] gof“ ;+ljwfg kfp“5 / b]zn] ;xL lgsf; kfp“5 eg] p;s} g]t[Tjdf
;/sf/ u7g x'g' b]zsf] lxtdf g} x'G5 .
;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg kl5 dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ u7g ePs} xf] .
t/ p;sf] sdhf]/L eg]sf] g]kfnL sf“u|];nfO{ klg ;“u} lnPg hfg g;Sg'
lyof] . Pdfn] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ aGof], p;sf] klg sdhf]/L eg]sf]
/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

26

n] cfk\mgf] g]t[Tjsf] . cS6f]a/ @#.k|lt ./sf/df cfk}mn] cfkm\gf n8fs'x?nfO{ g]kfnL .'?b]lv g} o.~rflnt Ps sfo{qmddf cy{dGqLn] Ps k|Zgsf] pQ/df .Sg] ljBfnon] cleefjsaf6 s/ ltg{ jf lt/fpg gLlh ljBfno .+rfnsx?n] cfk\mgf] cfDbfgLaf6 s/ ltg]{ jf cleefjsaf6 lt/fpg] eGg] s'/f pgLx?sf] :jljj]sdf lge{/ /xg] atfpg' ePsf] 5 .s]kl5 k]ml/ p. ltg} ljBfnosf ./sf/ c.dfhdf . rf8kj{. s} g]t[Tj cfjZos ePsf] 5 .af6 cleefjsdf yk cfly{s af]em kg]{ x'“bf gLlh ljBfnodf lzIff dx+uf] x'g] :ki6 5 .kmn x'g] b]lvGg .ª\ufnf] 28 .w}“ .+nUg x'g] kSsf 5 . em/L / jiff{ gegL . uf]/vfkq.o pxf“sf] /x]sf] 5 . hals .+oGqn] . .kmn eO.+rfnsaf6 ckx]lnt / lt/:s[t x'Fb} Pslbg 3/sf] g 3f6sf] eO{ gf]s/L 5f]8g'kg]{ l:yltdf pgLx? x'G5g\ .lDem/xg] 5 . sf“u|]. .~rfnsx? eg] b]zsf k|d'v pBf]uklt ./sf/n] gLlh If]qaf6 ./sf/ ag]df Pdfn] klg To. .f] .xhtfsf ./x aGg] dxTjfsf+IffnfO{ 5f]8]/ hgtfdf uP/ hgtfaf6} lgjf{lrt eP/ hgtfsf] zlQmdf cfk"mnfO{ :yflkt ug{ . dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjsf] .+ljwfgsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ g]kfnL sf“u|]. / sf“u|].sf] g]t[Tjsf] .ot /fV5 eGg] a'e]msf k|wfgdGqL .dfg kx'Fr t/ ltg} ljBfnosf lzIfsx? eg] Go"g tnjdf jiff+}{ . .'hftf sf]O/fnfn] klg clxNo} k|wfgdGqL jf ./x pRr hLjg ofkg ub}{5g\ / lzIff .df . @)^%_ df k|sflzt 27 /fh >]i7sf n]v .Dd .z+lst /xb} cfPsf] xf] . h'g ljBfnosf] pGgltsf nflu xf8 5fnf 3f]6]/ cfkm\gf cd'No .dy{g ug{ Pdfn]. clxn] dfcf]jfbL :jod\sf] k|:tfjdf g]kfnL sf“u|]. ldlxg]t / kl/>d nufof]÷ zlgjf/.ª\ufnf] lzIffdf .lDdlnt Ps .+rfnssf] cfDbfgLaf6 c.+ljwfg ./sf/ kl/jt{gsf] x}l.a} bn . .fydf lnP/ ghfg' /x\of] .'Ng] eGg] cGof}n sfod g} eP klg o. o.+:yfaf6 lng] z'Nsdf kf“rk|ltzt lzIff . s} g]t[Tjdf . @))* -sflQs &.fy g]kfnL sf“u|].do lbof]. .~rflnt lzIf0f .]jLsf] ?kdf . g]kfn 6]lnlehgaf6 .]gfdf ./sf/nfO{ .nfO{ .lsg] cfwf/ klg 5}g .f] ePdf / pxf“sf] kf6L{ g]kfnL sf“u|]./sf/ kl/jt{g s'g} xfntdf klg x'Gg eGg] hlt.s]sf] / clxn] klg b]zsf] cfjZostfn] k]ml/ Psk6s zflGt .Sg' eof] eg] pxf“sf] pbf/tf / of]ubfgnfO{ hgtfn] sb/ ug]{5 / cfufld lgjf{rgdf /f}tx6 / sf7df8f}+sf hgtfn] b'a} 7fp“af6 pxf“nfO{ k]ml/ lhtfpg] 5 .do.+nUg x'g s]xL sl7gfO{ kb}{g .Qf 5f]8\g'df pxf“sf] dxfgtf x'g]5 / b]z / hgtfn] pgsf] of] TofunfO{ .+ljwfg hf/L ug{ dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tj s} . k|wfgdGqL :jod\n] of] s'/fnfO{ a'e]m/ .xdt xf]nf eGg .Sg'kb{5 / To. pxf“n] clxn] of] Tofu ug{ ./sf/ aGg'kg]{ dfu klg Jofjxfl/s ?kd} . z}lIfs s/ cleefjsaf6 c. d'gfkmf cfh{g ug]{ gLlh ljBfnon] cfk\mgf] cfDbfgLaf6 / vr{ wfGg g. dw]zjfbL bnx? klg of] .DaGwL :ki6 kfg{ lzIff . ax'dtdf cfPdf pxf“ k|wfgdGqL aGg] lglZrt 5 .dfcf]jfbLnfO{ .Ddfghgs ?kdf lrlgG5g\ klg .dfof]hg ug{ Tolt pko'Qm / ljjfb/xLt klg x'“b}g ./sf/df ./sf/df .d]6\g] cEof. dfcf]jfbL cfk}m ljb|f]xL zlQm ePsf]n] p.'n ug]{ ls gLlh ljBfno .+rfnsx? :jtGq /xg] 5g\ eGg] cf.'s} l6sfl6Kk0fL eP klg pRr:t/Lo /fhgLlts .]jf s/ sfof{Gjogsf nflu cy{ dGqfnodf .Demf}tf 6'ª\uf]df k'¥ofpg / gof“ .fdfGo hLjgdf u'hf/f rnfpg afWo x'G5g .DalGwt kIf . lxpFb.s} g]t[Tjsf] .oGqsf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .]jf s/sf] 3f]if0ff ah]6 dfk{mt u/]sf] 5 . / dw]zjfbL bnx? .efsf] lgjf{rg cl3 klg e}.

em/L / jiff{ gegL .f rfns b]lv dhb"/./sf/n] pQm /sd pknAw u/fpg] ePsf] 5 .fyL.otdf k'u]sf 5g\.“usf] ljz]if . ls.lgdf{0f klg eO./sf/L lgsfosf] pbfl. sDkgLsf] ?kdf :yfkgf x'“bf lzIfs / sd{rf/Ln] plrt nfef+z / kfl/>lds kfpg'sf ./sf/L pRrkbdf cfl./L gLlh ljBfnox? df}nfp“b} uP ./sf/sf] /x]sf] b]lvG5 .Dd 5g\ .s z'Ns.+rfns / cleefjsaf6 lzIff . sIff (–!@ .+rfnsx? .] .Dd .flxt x'g]5g\ eGg] wf/0ff .. hals . :t/Lo lzIffsf] gfddf cfk\mgf] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] pHjn eljiosf nflu dWodjuL{o hg. lg/LIf0f / cg'udgsf] bfloTj af]s]sf .+uL. ljBfyL{x? ldlxg]tL.|f] wfs hDg] eof] .do.fy} .]jf s/ nfu" ug{ c7f]6 / b[9tfsf .Dd . clxn]sf] h:tf] sf]lrª.DaGwaf6 /fd|} kmfObf p7fP . rf8kj{. 6\o'.+:yfsf] ?kdf d'gfkmf ub}{ cfPsf gLlh ljBfnon] OdfGbf/Lk"j{s s/ ltg'{ cfk\mgf] bfloTj yfg]gg\ .++rfnsx? klg 5g\ eGbf cfZro{ dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 . plt :t/Lo lzIff. Aofr. o.]jf k|bfos . gLlh ljBfnosf . ltg} ljBfnosf . . gLlh ljBfnon] cleefjs÷ljBfyL{af6 dfl. ufO{8df e/kg'{kg]{ k/fjnDaL k|j[lQ Tolta]nf lyPg eGbf x'G5 .4fGtnfO{ 6]jf lbg] x'“bf kf“r k|ltzt s/ ltg'{ z}lIfs . uf]oGsf jf Hof]lt u|'kx?s} xf/fxf/Ldf gfd rn]sf gLlh ljBfnosf . l/S. lzIffdf gLlhs/0f cGTo u/L .]jL pBf]ukltx?n] . tL pBf]ukltx?n] ltg]{ /fhZjsf] t'ngfdf xfd|f lzIff.do lbof].fd'bflos ljBfnodf ljBfyL{ egf{ ug{ cleefjs cfslif{t x'g] / gLlh ljBfnodf dx+uf] z'Nssf sf/0f ljBfyL{ egf{ ug{ cleefjsx? lg?T.dfhdf . hlt dx+uf] z'Ns.Dk"0f{ ljBfyL{nfO{ lgz'Ns lzIffsf] Joj:yf ug{ .ª\ufnf] 30 . dGqL b]lv jl/i7 8fS6/ OlGhlgo/ . v]ns'b / k':tsfno z'Ns nufot 8«]. 6\o". gftfs't'Da dfem k|lti7fsf] ljifo aGof] .fy lzIff .dfg lzIff k|bfg ug{] clek|fosf ./sf/n] d'gfkmf cg'?k /fhZj klg kfpg] lyP . g t To. gLlh ljBfnosf .fy cy{dGqL sl6a4 x'g'x'G5 eGg] cfef.Ddfghgs ?kdf lrlgG5g\ klg . gLlh ljBfnonfO{ psf:g.a}nfO{ .j{. z'?df gLlh ljBfnonfO{ ./sf/n] lzIff / :jf:Yodf ePsf] Jofkf/Ls/0f 6'n'6'n' x]/]/ a. pxf“sf cGt{jftf{af6 k|i6 x'G5 . dWod / pRr ju{ . lstfa. . h:tf ljleGg lzif{sdf z'Ns p7fp“5g\ t/ ltg} ljBfnosf lzIfsx? eg] Go"g tnjdf jiff+}{ .g JolStTj.Dd ÷ lgDg. kl/>dL / :jfjnDaL lyP . gLlh ljBfnodf . b]zs} k|d'v pBf]ukltx? rf}w/L./x k}.fd'bflos ljBfnodf lgDg dfWolds tx. ldlxg]t / kl/>d nufof]÷ zlgjf/. nf]kf]Gd'v hftL tyf s0ff{nL c~rnsf .gtfn] .a} ljBfyL{.fd'bflos ljBfnox? pk]lIft aGb}uP .+rfnsaf6 ckx]lnt / lt/:s[t x'“b} Pslbg 3/sf] g 3f6sf] eO{ gf]s/L 5f]8g'kg]{ l:yltdf x'G5g\ pgLx? .+rfnsx?n] .+:yf .f aufpg tof/ eP.f cfk\mgf] cfosf] cfwf eGbf a9L efu gLlh ljBfnosf] lzIffdf nufgL ug{ tof/ eP . b'O bzscl3 lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf cf+lus SofDk.]jLsf] ?kdf .fj{hlgs ljBfnonfO{ hfgfhfgL :t/xLg agfOof] .+rfns / cleefjssf] bfloTj klg xf] eGg] pxf“sf] hf]8 b]lvG5 . o.asf . lxp“b.~rfng ug{ vf]h]sf lyP . ljb]zL dx+uf ljZjljBfnodf hxf“ .a afn'jfdf kfgL xfn] .g. 5fqfjf.Dd blnt. k|zf. egf{ z'Ns.~rfnsx? eg] b]zsf k|d'v pBf]uklt . .dfhdf .+Vofsf] 7"nf] lx:.g. h'g ljBfnosf] pGgltsf nflu xf8 5fnf 29 /fh >]i7sf n]v ./sf/nfO{ slt /fhZj a'emfpnfg t < 7Ls p:t} /f]u pRr dfWolds lzIffdf klg nfUg uof] .fdfGo hLjgdf u'hf/f rnfpg afWo x'G5g .'ne ?kdf u'0f:t/Lo lzIff k|fKt ug]{ ljBfyL{x? clxn]sf pRr kb:y sd{rf/L.fdflhs Gofosf l. b'u8. ljutsf . clwsf+z wgL / dWod ju{sf ljBfyL{ cWoog ug]{ gLlh ljBfnosf . gLlh ljBfnodf cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/L k9fpg' eg]sf] cfk\mgf] j[Q j/k/.ª\ufnf] 3f]6]/ cfkm\gf cd'No . ldqd08nL.s.a]nfsf] z}lIfs /fh >]i7sf n]v . plt k|lti7f / kmf].df ./sf/L cg'bfg k|fKt .n] . k/LIff z'Ns.s]sf] 5 ./x pRr hLjg ofkg ub}{5g\ / lzIff .sf] 7Ls ljkl/t tL ljBfnodf sfo{/t lzIfs / sd{rf/Lx?sf] Joyf eg] cs}{ 5 ./sf/n] sDkgL P]g cGtu{t . t/ lzIff .af6 z}lIfs u'0f:t/df j[l4 eO{ . o.'k'qL cWoog u5{g / oxf“ :jb]zdf ljb]zaf6 cfofltt dx+uf lrNnf uf8Ldf u'8g] x}l.'k'q .fg .]jf s/ ltg{ sl7gfO gx'g] / o. sf]lrª sIff.

/sf/n] ljZjljBfnoLo lzIffaf6 k|lj0ftf k|df0fkq tx lj:yfkg u/L pRr dfWolds lzIff bz hf]8 b'O nfu" u¥of] .xf/f ag]sf 5f]/f÷5f]/L a'xf/Lx? n.fgk|mflG. xfdL cleefjs eg] cfk\mgf] df}lns clwsf/ la. n08g. cleefjsx? klxn]sf] h:tf] cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ .'wfg{ k|of. l. @)^%_ df k|sflzt k]m.s]sf] 5}g .fd'bflos ljBfnosf] P. l8.+rosf]if÷pkbfgsf /sd :jb]z / ljb]zsf dx+uf lzIffdf vr{G5f}+ / a'9]. /fhwfgL b}lgs.'DkG5f}+ .jftfj/0fdf lzIff .x/df cfk\mgf] eljiosf] tfgfafgf a'Gb} cf/fd.]jL / lzIff u|fx\oL aLr clxn]sf] h:tf] Jofj. 3/v]t a}+sdf lwtf] /fV5f}+.fd'bflos ljBfnon] cfk\mgf] :t/ .fd'bflos ljBfno t gLlh ljBfno. /fh >]i7sf n]v .sfndf .sfpg'./ @#.“usf] 6Ss/df pGgL. aLr .fd'bflos ljBfnodf egf{ ug{ lxrlsrfpg' kg]{ cj:yf ca 5}g . aL.L k/LIff kl/0ffd.Dd klg lqe'jg ljZjljBfnoaf6 k|lj0ftf k|df0fkq tx x6\g .\ .flostf g} df}nfpg kfPsf] lyof] .fd'bflos ljBfnosf] l:ylt .\ / cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ oyfy{ w/tLdf :jb]z d} >d / kl.]{/ lzIffsf Jofkf/L sxf“ k'U5f}+ / cfk\mgf] hLjge/ s7f]/ >dn] sdfPsf] k}.kgf b]Vg 5f8\g'.'vb kIf xf] ls s'g} s'g} .gf aufpg l. cfk"mn] hjfgLdf ldlxg]t u/]/ sdfPsf] k}.\.\Pn\.xif{ ./sf/n] gLlh ljBfnon] dgf]dfgL z'Ns lgwf{/0f ug{ kfpg] u/L bz hf]8 b'O{ lzIff k|0ffnL nfu" ubf{ jiff}{ clwsf+z cleefjs ljBfyL{sf] kx'“r eGbf aflx/ /x\of].dod} pd]/ k'u]sf xfdL cleefjsx? a].fd'bflos ljBfnonfO{ cg'bfg lbP/ .\ .\PGh]n.ª\ufnf] c.fxk|b eg] 5g\ .]/ rGb|nf]ssf] .xf/f b'vL hLjg hLp5f}+ .ª\ufnf] 32 . . s]lx jif{ otf eg] lzIff If]qdf klg kl/jt{gsf . .a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof cflzif n'O6]n Yaa. k/LIff kl/0ffdnfO{ ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf] eg] gLlh ljBfnosf] bf“hf]df .:sf]. pRr dfWolds lzIff . .+s]tx? b]vf kg{ yfn]sf 5g\ .+u7g / cleefjsx?sf] lj/f]wsf] sf/0f clxn] .f tLgnfO{ . c:t' . >]0fLut pQL0f{ k|ltzt /fd|f] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 eg] pkTosf aflx/ klg l:yltdf qmlds .'wf/ cfO/x]sf] 5 . lzIff hgtfsf . o.+ljwfg k|bQ cfwf/e"t clwsf/ dWo] Ps xf] . cleefjsHo"x?. /fhwfgL pkTosfsf . . kmn:j?k ljBfyL{ . w/tLdf a.b'kof]u ug'{.]Da/ *.fsf] . cfjZos k"jf{wf/ lagf g} tTsflng . u/] / gLlh ljBfnonfO{ 6Ss/ lbg .tf]ifhgs geP klg pT.sf] l:yltdf 5g\ .Sg] cj:yfdf cfP .“u hLjg latfO/x]sf x'G5g\ eg] oxf“ :jb]zdf C0fsf] af]emn] 31 /fh >]i7sf n]v .8\gL . of] .+rfng u/]sf] 5 . this is what the reality of Nepali parents and students. @))* -d+l./sf/n] hgtfn] of] cfwf/e"t clwsf/ lgz'Ns pkef]u ug{ kfpg\ eg]/ .

fn kf}if ! sf] 36gfnfO{ ljlk sf]O/fnfsf] cfTdj[tfGtdf ljlkn] eGg'ePsf] s'/f .]g cfkm\gf ljb]zdGqL tfl/s clhhnfO{ cd]l/sL ljb]zdGqL h]D.kmn x'g'n] k|i6 kf5{g eGb} ¿.d'lQmjflxgLsf %)) hgf n8fs' dfq af“sL /fVg .'gfpF5g\ .}lgs sdf08/sf] x}l. To.a]s/. l.z:q ljb|f]xaf6 .]gfsf] lzlj/df k|lzIf0f lbb}+ u/]sf] pxf“sf] >Job[Zon] g]kfnL /fhgLlts j[Qdf rr{fsf] lzv/ 5f]Psf] 5 .fy xft ldnfpF5g / kqsf/ . b'a}hgf . 6]lnlehgsf kbf{df tfl/s clhh pNnf.ef clglZrt eO{/x]sf] cj:yfdf nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfnfO{ cfTd.Qf sAhf ug{ .+ljwfg.ª\ufnf] 34 ." o'4 /f]Sg h'g.D´fp“b} u/]sf pgL e]l6G5g ./L eLif0f o'4sf] .zlQmvf]/.dfof]hg kl5 g]kfnL . 6]lnlehgsf kbf{df tfl/s clhh pNnf.dfof]hgsf] ljkIfdf 5 eGg] s'/f pxf“n] /fd|/L a'em\g' ePsf] 5 . 6]lnlehgsf] kbf{df b]lvPsf] >Job[Zosf] ldltn] . d cfkm}+ klg pQm lzlj/df pkl:yt eO{ rfv dfg]/ pxf“sf /0fgLlts sf}zntfn] el/k"0f{ efif0f .ft\ ub}{ dfcf]jfbL /fli6«o /fhgLltsf] d"nwf/df cfp“5 ls cfp“b}g eGg] Tolta]nfsf] lrGtg\ lyof] .fy 3f]if0ff u5{g– "I have come here with free and open mind.kmn x'g .]g cfkm\gf ljb]zdGqL tfl/s clhhnfO{ cd]l/sL ljb]zdGqL h]D.+ljwfg. t/ b'e{fUo. pQm >Job[Zo x]bf{ / .Dd]ngdf .]gfklt .a]s/.Gb]z .“u e]6\g s'g} t]>f] b]zdf k7fp“5g\ .}n] t k|wfg.]gfsf sdf08/sf] ¿kdf .dsIfL O/fsdf . clxn]sf] zflng k|wfgdGqLsf] JolQmTj eGbf lans'n a]Un} ¿kdf pxf“ hgd'lQm . hh{ a'z l.'gfp“b} pxf“ eGg'x'G5 .Sb}gYof] xf]nf . ug{ ufx|f] 33 /fh >]i7sf n]v .2fd x'. t/ b'e{fUo bf]>f] lbg g} cd]l/sfn] aubfbdf eLif0f cfj|md0f z'¿ u5{ . >Job[Zodf æ/fhgLltdf h] elgG5 Tof] ul/+b}g / s"6gLlts efiff .]gfklt k|s/0fdf k|wfgdGqL k|r08n] /flhgfdf lbPsf] ef]lnkN6} 6]lnlehg .ef lgjf{rg gx'“b}sf] zflGt k|lj|mofsf] .'Gbf pxf“df Ps ljb|f]xL g]tfdf x'g'kg]{ /0fgLlts sf}zn k|z:t} /x]5 eGg] efg x'G5 .Gb]z .f}xfb{sf .]/ x“l.s]sf eP /fhf dx]Gb|n] æs"Æ ug]{ cf“6 ug{ .+xb/jf/ / hª\uL c8\8f ." o'4 /f]Sg h'g. .sf .ts{ 5g\ .+3f/ d} k'u]sf b'O{ b]zsf /fhgLlt1x¿ Ps cfk. s.df n]lggn] h:t} af]Nz]lesx¿sf] nfdf] tof/L kl5 dfq .f]kmfdf a. xfdLnfO{ . . b'O{hgf .lgo/ cd]l/sL /fi6«klt x'g'x'GYof] Tolta]nf .]gfklt s6jfnnfO{ .f}xfb{sf .fy xft ldnfp“5g / kqsf/ .'gfp“5g\ . dfcf]jfbL . Oltxf.+u} b]vf k5{g .]gf .fdfGo efiff eGbf km/s x'G5æ eGg] b[i6fGt cfkm\gf sfo{stf{nfO{ .Fu e]6\g s'g} t]>f] b]zdf k7fpF5g\ . / /fhgLltsf ljBfyL{sf] ¿kdf x]bf{ pxf“sf efif0fdf y'k|} /f]rs k|. bf]>f] lbg g} cd]l/sfn] aubfbdf eLif0f cfj|md0f z'¿ u5{ .+u} b]vf k5{g .d]t /fd|/L yfxf 5.'Gbf nfUb5. @)!& .df xft ldnfp+5g / cf/fdbfoL . slxn] sflx+ 6]lnlehgsf kb{fdf b]lvg] b[Zox¿ xtklt ljZjf.ª\ufnf] x'g] u/]sf] 5.nf] d'b|fdf jft{fnfk u5{g dfgf}+ pgLx¿ cfk\mgf] b]zsf] :jfy{ eGbf klg cfkm\gf] ldqtfdf cf“r gcfcf].sf . ædfcf]n] lrgdf .+ux¿ kfp5'“ .Qm}g eGg] s'/f k]¿sf] j|mflGt c. d .2fd x'.Dd]ngdf .'s} ¿kdf jftf{ ug{ cfkm" tof/ 5'F Æ eGg] . dfcf]jfbLsf] ljb|f]xL e"ldsf / .'s} ¿kdf jftf{ ug{ cfkm" tof/ 5'“Æ eGg] . lgj{frg ePdf cfkm\gf] kf6L{nfO{ ax'dtdf k'\¥ofpg s] s:tf /0fgLlt cjnDjg ug{'k5{ jf lgjf{rg g} gx'g] /fh >]i7sf n]v .DkGg u/]sf] h:tf] j|mflGtsf] gSsn ug]{ xf] eg] Tof] j|mflGt .~rf/ dfWoddf Pp6f >Job[Zo jflx/ cfof] .D´G5'.Dej 5ÆeGg] pxf“sf] ts{ .'lg/x]sf] 5'“ . pxf“sf .+j|md0f sfnsf] k|ltlglwTj ub{5 .otn] hgd'lQm .\ eGg]df a9L .f] lzlj/df b]vf k5{g\ .]gf k"/} dfcf]jfbLdo x'g]5 / of] cfkm"nfO{ dfq x}g k|wfg.fy 3f]if0ff u5{g -"I have come here with free and open mind.

ckmuflg:tfg / kfls:tfgdf g/fd|/L clN´g k'u]sf] 5 .+rf/ dfWoddf eGbf a9L klZrdL .]gf egf{. tL .+j|md0f sfn b]lv dfcf]jfbL .“u 7Ls To.f/ lgSs} ePsf] lyof] eGg] cg'dfg nufpg ufx|f] 5}g .otn] dfcf]jfbL .s]sf] lyof] . l.+oGqaf6 dfcf]jfbL ultljlwsf] lrof]rrf{ ub}{ /Xof] .“u} hf]8\b} rsf]{ ¿kdf p7fP eg] z'¿df .g\ @))* df lrgn] cf]nlDks v]n cfof]hgf u/]tfsf :jtGq ltAatsf] gf/f o.gsf] :yfkgf .s]sf] klg s]lx jif{ eO.dy{sx¿af6 cj/f]w k'¥ofpg vf]h] kl5 cf]nlDks Hof]lt . ltAat dfldnf .{g} gx'g] csf]{ kIf xf].DaGw /xL cfPsf] ltAat clxn] lrgsf] :jzfl.]gfklt / ljb]zL /fhglosx¿. cd]l/sf cfkm\gf] oxL p2]Zo k"lt{ ug{ :jtGq ltAatsf] s'/f] p7fP/ g]kfndf lrg lj/f]wL ultljlw ub}{5 eGg] s'/fdf lrg .l:yltdf efjL ljb|f]xsf] tof/Lsf] nflu cy{ . k|wfg. t/ cd]l/sf eg] cft+sjfbsf] gfddf O/fs./sf/sf] cg'/f]wdf g]kfndf s8f .ª\ufnf] 36 .dy{sx¿sf] k|bz{gn] g]kfnL .lhnf] 5 .“usf] e]63f6 .fd' 5n{ª ePsf] tYo xf] .t If]qsf] ¿kdf 5 .bHo" / ljb]zL /fhb"t x'“b} blIf0fsf] l5d]sL b]z / kftfn dxfb]zsf] ofqf .dfgf hf]l8Psf] blIf0fL l5d]sL. ef/t If]qLo zlQm eOsg klg ljZj /+ud+rdf rL/ k|ltåGbL lrg.Dddf dfcf]jfbL . lrlgof /fhb"tn] g]kfndf lrg lj/f]wL ultljlwsf] v'n]/ lj/f]w ub}{ ljb]zL /fhb"tx¿n] :jtGq ltAatsf . cft+sjfb lj¿4sf] o'4 / ljZj cy{tGqsf] dGbLn] ub{f cd]l/sL cy{tGq cf]/fnf] nfUb} hf“bf dGbLsf] c.fdl/s zlQm /fi6«sf] ¿kdf pleg k'u]sf] 5 . .dy{s . /yL cjsfz b]lv v]ns"bdf . k|r08 .Ssfsf] csf]{ kf6f] jf egf}+ lal.sf] cWoogsf] j|mddf k|frLg ./L ug]{ eGg] pxf“sf efjL of]hgf hg.kmn gLltn] pxf“sf] g]t[Tjdf dfcf]jfbLsf] /fhgLlts ofqf oxf“ .“u nfdf] l.'/Iff k|aGw ul/of] .lxt ef/tsf] wd{zfnfdf z/0f lnPsf] klg o.+rf/dfWoddf cfpg yfn]sf] lyof] eg] kl5Nnf] k6s ef/tLo /fhb"tsf] k6sk6ssf] k|wfgdGqL. k|wfgdGqLsf] /fhLgfdfsf] ef]lnkN6} of] >Job[Zo .sf] a'´fO{df of] k|s/0fnfO{ ./sf/ u7gkl5 klg cfkm\gf . /fh >]i7sf n]v .+usf] e]63f6n] of] >Job[Zosf] k|rf/k|.oL agfpg .]gfklt s6jfnn] gof“ . Oltxf.+3Lo sfof{no cufl8 / lrlgof b"tfjf.} jif{ %) jif{df 6]s]sf] 5 .n] klZrdL .+3.DaGwnfO{ gof“ :j¿k / ./L 3lGsof] ls o.do b]lv g]kfnsf] 3lgi7 .+rf/dfWoddf cfpg' cl3 of] >Job[Zo xfd|f ljkIfL .|f] cfly{s zlQmsf] ¿kdf :yflkt eof] .kl5sf] g]kfnL /fhgLltsf 36gfj|md ljsf.fO/x]sf] cf/f]k . lrgdf dfcf]sf] g]t[Tjdf sDo"lgi6 zf.hu b]lvG5 .ª\ufnf] k'u]sf] lyof] . g]kfnL sf“u|]. dfcf]jfbL /0fgLlt a'´]sf . cd]l/sf cfkm\gf] PlzofnL oL k|ltåGbL.]gfn] zflGtjftf{ kl5sf] .]gfdf /fhgLlts/0f .n] gAa]sf] bzsdf .d]t nufP .Qf sAhf / .]gfklt s6jfnnfO{ :kli6s/0f . ltAatL z/0ffyL{sf] pj{/ e"ld g]kfndf .+o'Qm /fi6« .u/dfyf k'¥ofpg lrg .xefuL ./sf/n] k|wfg.a} .fdgf ug{ rfxG5 h./sf/sf cfb]z gdfGg] w[i6tf u/] ./sf/sf] x}l.Gbe{df .Dd cfO{k'u]sf] 5 . To.bHo"x¿. ef/t klg lrgnfO{ pl5Gg g.“u u/]sf] lyof] .“usf] ./ afjh"b\ lrg cd]l/sf / hfkfg kl5 hd{gLnfO{ pl5Gb} t].]gfnfO{ dfq x}g xfdL ./L g} .lsof].+rf/dfWoddf k|z:t} 7fp“ kfof] . cufl8 :jtGq ltAatsf ./sf/df . ltAatL af}4 wdf{jnDjL u'¿ bnfO{ nfdf cfkm\gf .dy{sx¿nfO{ pS. g]kfn dfldnfdf cd]l/sf g]kfnnfO{ gof“lbNnLsf] ´\ofnaf6 x]g{ yfln.+rf/dfWoddf cfpg'df s]lx gLlxt p2]Zo cjZo /x] xf]nfg\ . lgjf{lrt .lsO{ g]kfnL hgdfg.f+.“u} :jtGq ltAatsf] cl:tTj klg u'Dg 35 /fh >]i7sf n]v .dfg wf/0ff ePsf Pdfn] kl5 uP/ x6g'df s'g} ulDe/ sf/0f x'g'k5{ eGg] cg'dfg ug{ .\ .s] klg blIf0f Plzofdf csf]{ cfly{s / .\ eGg] rfxG5 .s]sf] 5 .dIf dfq of] sf/0f kl:s+b}5 tf ls /fli6«o / cGt/{fli6«o If]qdf dfcf]jfbLsf pboLdfg g]tf k|r08 / pgsf] kf6L{nfO{ w/f.+.f+. aLr o'4sfndf Ps csf{sf k|ltåGbL g]kfnL . lrg ljutsf] kf“r bzsdf ce"tk"j{ cfly{s pGgltn] ljZjsf] Psdfq dxfzlQm /fi6« cd]l/sfnfO{ r'gf}lt lbg cfOk'u] . o./L p.+sng s.n] nuftf/ .+usf] k|lt:kw{fdf g]kfndf cfkm\gf] ks8 dha't /xf].xefuL kf6L{sf .f]Rg yfln. .b cj¿4 ug{yfn] .f]leot . .+rf/ dfWoddf 7fp“ kfof] .+u} sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fp“b} hf“bf g]kfnL sf“u|].nfO{ x]bf{ of] . jf:tadf lrg ltAat .

]gfklt k|s/0fn] o:tf] df]8 lnof] ls .“u glhlsg] k|of.GwL jf ltAjt dfldnf klg lyof] cufdL /fhgLltdf 37 /fh >]i7sf n]v . k9\g] / a'e\mg] df}sf lbg' ePsf]df tkfO{“nfO{ wGojfb . klZrdL b]z .fx|} /fd|f] nfUof] .Defljt lrg e|d0f .S5 .n] eGg] u/] h:tf] . . /fh >]i7sf n]v . of] /flhgfdfsf] sf/0f .dfkg .ª\ufnf] 38 .DaGw / zflGt tyf d}qL .xL 5 .d]t k|wfgdGqLn] :ylut ug{'k¥of] . >L/fdrGb| e§ Good article. s]lx .ftf cl3 lxdfnkf/Lsf] lhNnf d':tfªsf] af/]df Pp6f .]gfn] a8f] s7Lgsf .l6s / .ª\ufnf] 36gfs|dn] k'li6 ub}{ n}hfg] g} 5g\ ./sf/sf] efjL sbd lj¿4 . @)^^_ df k|sflzt k]m. ljKnjdfg l./sf/af6 klg cflwsfl/s s'g} k|ltlj|mof cfPg .lxt cd]l/sL / ef/tLo /fhb"tx¿ Ps} 7fp“df Ps} .“u} g]kfnL sf“u|]./sf/ . k|wfgdGqLsf] e|d0ftfsf lrg zflGt tyf d}qL . :kli6s/0f kl5sf] .GwLsf] k|:tfj g]kfn .lNeof /fhf]kfWofo l5u' Rj.+s]t lyof] .+rf/dfWod .Sg'eof] t/ zt{df æk|yd k|wfgdGqLsf] k|yd cf}krfl/s e|d0f ef/tdf g} x'g]5Æ eGg]] . lrg . zflns/fd k|hfklt Your article is very relevant in the contest of Nepal.dfrf/ aflx/ cfof] . t/ klg lrg g]kfn .+x ljZn]if0f . Keep it up. h:sf] kmn:j¿k å}w .s+ af+nf . l.Qm}g .df/f]xdf u0ftGq g]kfnsf k|yd /fi6«kltnfO{ lrg e|d0fsf] lgDtf] lbP/ g]kfn. o:tf] .\ eGg] rfxGYof] t/ g]kfndf eg] .fM t. g]kfnL .]jf dfkm{t JoQm ul//x]sf lyP . Pdfn] / ef/tLo /fhb"t Ps} 7fp“df pleP h:sf] kl/0flt sfo{sf/L clwsf/ljxLg /fi6«kltsf] .DaGwnfO{ dxTj lbPsf] lrgsf] :ki6 .“usf] glhls+bf] . t/ k|yd /fi6«kltn] blIf0fL l5d]sL ef/tsf] lj/f]wsf] sf/0f lrg e|d0f ug{ . d] !).a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof lji0f' Kofs'/]n tkfO{“sf] n]v .df/f]xdf eg] u0ftGq g]kfnsf k|yd k|wfgdGqL eg] .GwLdf x:tfIf/ xf].“usf] .“u} .]gfklt s6jfn .+j]bgzLn 36gfsf] af/]df . ef/t eg] g]kfnsf] lrg.DaGw slQ klg dg k/]sf] 5}g eGg] cleJolQm ef/tLo g]kfn ljz]if1x¿af6 af/Daf/ lalal.Sg'ePg ./sf/nfO{ u¥of] . c:t' .Qf sfod ePsf] eGb} k|wfgdGqL k|r08n] ef]lnkN6} /flhgfdf lbg'eof] . d':tfª Tolx lhNnf xf] hxf“ /fhf dx]Gb|sf] zf.dodf hd36.+ejt k|wfgdGqLsf] lrg e|d0f ldlt to e} . g]kfn /fhtGqfTds Joj:yfaf6 u0ftGqfTds o'udf k|j]z ul/.“usf] glhls“bf] .Qf sAhf jf .]gfdf /fhgLlts/0f dfq geO rLg. @))( -j}zfv @&. .]gfklt ydf}lt ug]{ sbdsf] ¿kdf aflx/ cfof] .cf]nlDks v]nsf] pb3f6g . I like it.]gfklt k|s/0f jf egf}+ g]kfnL sf“u|].d]t df}g /x] . t/ . s]jn ..gsfndf g]kfnL .fy vDkf ljb|f]xLnfO{ tx nufPsf lyP .s]sfn] x'g .fKtflxs /fli6«o hgd~r.+of]u dfq eg] x'g} .fd]n x'g.s]sf]n] abln“bf] kl/j]zdf lrgn] gof“ zflGt tyf d}qL .df /lx/Xof] .

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Dd klg cGtl/d .s]sf 5}gg\ . k'm6]sf k'/fgf] Sof/daf]8{sf uf]6L xf}+ Pp6f dgf]/~hs v]nsf . @)^^_ df k]m.ef e+u ug]{ s'/f u/]sf 5g\ klg eg] .ef lj36g u/L /fi6«klt zf.h'g @$.+ljwfg .fj{ef}d.Qf .f/ !).f u/] .+ljwfg. g]kfnL hgtfn] klg jiff}+sf] .fKtflxs klqsfdf lbPsf] cGtjf{tfdf . @))( -c.dIf g]kfnsf s]xL g]tfn] . pgn] Ps . Ps cy{df xfdL bnut lx.DkGg hgtf :jod\n] cfk\mgf] nflu cfk}+m .+zf]wgsf] k|:tfjn] cfhsf] ldlt .+ljwfg . /fhtGqnfO{ O{ltxf.ljqf sfk\mn] / /fds'df/ >]i7hLn] o.+ljwfg n]Vg .efsf] lgjf{rg u/L .xsfo{df cfpg'kg]{ /fhgLlts bnx? aLrsf] kmf6f] eg] emgemg a9\b} uPsf] efg x'G5 . xfdL dflg.efn] .fdfu|L.Dd xfd|f] .~rflnt xf].+ljwfg adf]lhd @)^& h]7 !% leq gof“ .ª\ufnf] 50 . ldNb5 .sLo :j?k nufotsf dxTjk"0f{ d'2fdf k|d'v tLg bn Ps x'g .+ljwfg . sd / atf{ uf]6L xf}+ Contextual xl/ clwsf/L w]/} dfld{s n]v.{/rgf / zf. cfk\mgf] ult x/fPsf Pp6f æ:6«fOs/Æ åf/f .+ljwfg . dw]zjfbL bnx?n] rsf]{ ?kdf p7fp“b} /fh >]i7sf n]v .+ljwfg lgdf{0f eO.f“lrSs} cy{df eGg'kbf{ .+3if{ kl5 .+ljwfgn] k"0f{tf kfpg .efsf] klxnf] a}7s a.ldt ub}{ hf/L ul/Psf] cGtl/d .+ljwfgdf klg s}of}+ k6s .+zf]wg ul/Pklg gof“ .+ljwfg hf/L x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfgnfO{ ckl/jt{gLo g} /flvPsf] 5 . a]nfot l56f]l56f] kl/jt{g x'Fb} uPsf] /fhgLlts 36gfqmd / w|'jLs/0fn] g]kfnL .ª\ufnf] .Dd . b]zsf nflu /ut ttfpg] n]v 5 . cyf{t cGtl/d . k6s k6s p7\g] .lNeof /fhf]kfWofo.a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof l.+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ ldlt emgemg glhls+b} ubf{ .efnfO{ . t/ hltk6s .s]sf] 5 .d:ofdf xfdL Ps x'“b}gf}+ ta.a'sdf k|sflzt k]m.fjn] lx“8g'n] g} xf] of] lsgls xfd|f ljrf/sf] ljefhg ePsf] 5 .+ljwfg./ x'Fb} uPsf] cfef. xfdL /ª\u–/f]ug 5'6]sf. /fds'df/ >]i7. ha. ==== Pstf g} . n]vnfO{ dgk/fpg' ePsf5g\ . 6'6]sf.dfh åGb lt/ cu|. o. === pgn] ef/tLo g]tf .]sf] b'O{ jif{ leq gof“ .s]sf] 5}g . .+ljwfg .+ljwfg .+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ ldlt eg] oyfjt g} /flvPsf] 5 .dfwfg x'g]jfnf 5}g .+ljwfg d:of}bf cfof]u agfO{ .+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] cleef/f lbP .g nufpg] / . .dfwfg xf] . /fHosf] k'g. . 49 b]z stf lt/ < /fh >]i7sf n]v .Sg'kg]{5 .sf] kfgfdf l.sf] kmfObf ef/tn] ln+b}5 . Pp6f v]nf8Ldfly cfl>t.xdtL / .efsf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf] x'G5 .+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ k|:tfj ef/t .+zf]wg eO.dIf k'u]sf] v'nf.

kmntf xft kfb}{g eGg] s'/f t p.}n] zfob} cfjZos 7fg] xf]nfg\ .dfª\sgsf] ljjfb lj:tf/} .dfKt x'g]5 eGg] cf.o s] lyof] eGg] s'/f p. gqeg] p .ef lj36g u/L /fi6«klt zf.fKtflxs klqsfdf lbPsf] cGtjf{tfdf .g nufpg] / .+ljwfg ./sf/sf] g]t[Tjdf gof“ .+s]t .do kl5 g} o:tf] vt/gfs k|:tfj g]kfnL sf“u|].dod} .lsP nuQ} ef/t dfwj g]kfn g]t[Tjsf] .o n's]sf] efg x'G5 .Defjgf a9\b} uPsf] 5 .+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ k|:tfj ef/t ./sf/ k"0f{tof ljkmn eO. sdhf]/ l:yltsf dfwj g]kfn g]t[Tjsf] . kmf]/d cWoIf pk]Gb| ofbj / /fhkf cWoIf .dIf g]kfnsf s]xL g]tfn] . o:sf] s]xL .dod} hf/L geP b]zdf /fi6«klt zf.d} ePsf] e]63f6nfO{ lah'S5] bDkQLsf] ljjfxsf] @% cf}+ jif{uf“7sf] pknIodf eg]/ 9fs5f]k ug{ vf]lhP klg /fi6«kltåf/f lah'S5]. o. gxf]nf .g nfu' x'g. h]7 !% sf] . p s'g} klg xfntdf dfcf]jfbL 5fkfdf/ n8fs'x? g]kfnL . p. /fi6«klt ofbj / lah'S5] aLr lah'S5] lgjf.+3Lo .]gfdf .ftf JofKt /x\of] . .dfwfg ug{ . u5{g eGg] kmf]/d cWoIf ofbjsf] bfjL /x\of] .+ljwfg hf/L ul/Pg eg] gful/s k|zf. /fi6«kltåf/f tf]lsPs} .s]sf] ljZjf.do cl3 g]dlskfsf cWoIf gf/fo0fdfg lah'S5]n] . czf]s /fO{ To:tf g]tf dWo] k5{g.s]kl5 u0f/fHosf] gfdfª\sg / l.cfPsf] dw]znfO{ k|fb]lzs / If]qLo :jfoSttfsf] dfu lj?4 k|d'v bnx?sf] lj/f]wn] åGb rsf{pg] . Pdfn] g]tf s]kL zdf{ cf]nL tyf /fhkfsf cWoIf .. of] ljjfbnfO{ ./sf/n] .+ljwfg .sf g]tfn] /fv]sf] Pdfn] pkfWoIf czf]s /fO{n] .S5 eg]/ To.gsf] cf}lrTo .“w} Plss[t zlQmzfnL s]Gb|Lo /fHosf] kIfdf / dfcf]jfbL n8fs'sf] . b'O{ b'O{ 7f“paf6 k/flht dfwj g]kfnnfO{ k|wfgdGqL k|:tfljt ug'{sf] k5fl8 g]kfnL sf“u|].} eg]sf xf]Og .Dxfn]sf lhDd]jf/ g]tf klg x'g .dIf /fv]sf] pQm klqsfn] pNn]v u/]sf5g\ .n] ef/t .dodf ./ x'“b} uPsf] cfef.+ljwfg hf/L x'G5 eGg] s'/f :jod k|wfgdGqL g]kfnnfO{ klg ljZjf.dfh åGb lt/ cu|. ldNb5 . s]xL .sf g]tf z]/axfb'/ b]pjf./L ePklg hf/L x'g}k5{ eg]/ JoQm wf/0ffn] ck|ToIf ?kdf b]zdf .do . .ef lj36g u/L /fi6«klt zf.txdf b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 .sf] clei6 cs}{ lyof] eGg] a'e\mg Tolta]nf s.+ljwfg d:of}bf cfof]u agfO{ .n] lj:t[t zflGt .g ug]{ OR5f / dfwj g]kfnnfO{ k|wfgdGqLdf Nofpg'sf] leqL cf.+3Lotfdf hfcf].+ljwfg h. oBlk ef/tLo g]tfx? dfwj g]kfn .fy} p b]z .n] klxNo} a'e]msf] lyof] .gsf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .lsPg eg] b]z u[xo'4df km+:g] lglZrt 5 .sf k|:tfjn] k|i6\ofp“5 .+ljwfg . pgn] Ps . cWoIf vgfnn] o:tf] k|:tfj c:jLsfo{ ePsf] cleJolQm ef/tLo g]tfx? .g s} af/]df s'/fsfgL ul/Psf] cg'dfg nufpg uf¥xf] 5}g . g]kfnL sf“u|]. b]zeQm g]kfnLx?n] jt{dfg /fhgLlt s'g lbzftk{m pGd'v 5 eg]/ ljZn]if0f ug{ h?/L eO.dIf JoQm u/]sf p.“u /fi6«klt zf. /fli6«o hgzlQm kf6L{sf k|efjzfnL g]tfx?sf] ef/t e|d0f / ef/tLo g]tfx?.]gfsf] .+/rgfdf hfg] nueu lglZrt eO.DejtM pgn] b]zsf] efjL /fhgLlt stflt/ uO/x]sf] 5 eg]/ . hf] hyfefjL af]n]/ lx8\b}g / kf6L{df pkfWoIf kb . Pdfn].ª\ufnf] 52 .f u/] .sf] ."o{axfb'/ yfkfn] ef/t e|d0f u/] nuQ} kmf]/d cWoIf pk]Gb| ofbj / Pdfn] cWoIf emngfy vgfnnfO{ ef/tn] s'/fsfgL ug{ lgdGq0f u/]sf] lyof] . g]kfn .fj{hlgs u/] ./sf/s} lg/Gt/tf rfx]sf] 5 eGg] cleJolQm lbP .sf] /fi6«klt dfk{mt b]zdf zf.Demf}tfdf dfcf]jfbL . pgn] ef/tLo g]tf .s]sf] 5 . g]kfnL sf“u|].Dd lbg vf]h]sf x'g .]gf afx]s cGoq Joj:yfkgsf] kIfdf g} lyof] . oxL .} aLr g]kfnL sf“u|]. l56f]l56f] kl/jt{g x'“b} uPsf] /fhgLlts 36gfqmd / w|'jLs/0fn] g]kfnL .ef e+u ug]{ s'/f u/]sf 5g\ klg eg] .Ldf kl5 gful/s zf.dfof]hg / Joj:yfkgnfO{ jfWotfjz dfq dfGg'k/]sf] lyof] eg] t/fO{ bgbgL an]kl5 dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] kmn:j?k .+ljwfg .a}nfO{ :jLsfo{ x'g] u/L .dIf k'u]sf] v'nf.dfof]hgsf] kIfdf 5}gg\ eGg] 51 /fh >]i7sf n]v .“u s] s'/f eof] eGg] rrf{ /fhwfgLdf s]xL . kl5 en} pgn] cfk"mn] To:tf] eGb} geg]sf] eg]/ :kli6s/0f lbg afWo eP .g nfu' ug]{ kIfdf /x]sf] /x:of]b\3f6gn] jf:tjdf g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ulDe/ k|Zg v8f ul/lbPsf] 5 .\ / u0f/fHox? cl:tTjdf cfcf].\ eGg] klg rfx“b}g lyof] .ª\ufnf] s'/f t huhfx]/ g} 5 . Pdfn] pkfWoIf czf]s /fO{n] g]kfnL sf“u|]."o{axfb'/ yfkfn] e|d0f .+3Lo u0f/fHosf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ :jLsfg'{ k/]sf] lyof] . o.

+ljwfg hf/L gx'“bfsf] cj:yfdf .Dd xf] . oL b'a} sfo{ ug{ g. rfxG5 / Tof] ./sf/sf dGqLx?nfO{ klg yfxf 5}g .flxt . dGqLkl/ifbsf] a}7s .“u ldt]/L nfpg k'u] ./sf/sf] kfnfdf . cf.+ljwfg lgdf{0f lsg cl3 a9\g . k|wfgdGqL g]kfn / Pdfn]n] s] a'em\g' h?/L 5 eg] -.f]Rg' . kf6L{ leq cfnf]lrt / cNkdtdf kb}{ uPkl5 afWo eP/ cf]nLsf] af]nL .u/dfyfdf Wofg uPsf]df c.Gt'i6 x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f k|wfgdGqL.Dd dfcf]jfbL .Sg'kg]{ c8fg /fVg' x'g] dfwj g]kfnsf] nflu .Dd g]kfnL sf“u|].]gf . b]zsf] cleefjssf] ?kdf o:tf k|Zg k|wfgdGqL . s]xL ug{ .ª\ufnf] ghLs}af6 lrGg] n]vsn] pgsf] cfsf/ u|x0f ub}{ uPsf] dxTjfsfª\IffnfO{ Ps klqsfdf n]v]sf5g\ .Qfdf gk'u'g\ eGg] ef/tsf] cfsfª\Iff klg .+ljwfgsf] klg cl:tTj . h]7 !$ ut]kl5 s] kl/l:ylt cfp“5.s]sf] 5}g.f]r]sf] < h:tf k|Zg p7fPsf 5g\ .Ldf leq gof“ .dIf p7fpg' :jfefljs xf] t/ pgsf] dxTjfsfª\IffnfO{ 53 /fh >]i7sf n]v .do .]gfsf] k/dflwkltsf] x}l./sf/ dfwj g]kfn . .+ljwfg hf/L x'g' cufj} dfcf]jfbL . . o. eO/x]sf]df Wofg gk'¥ofO{ . lu§L ef/ttk{m lgsf.Gtf]if kf]v]sf lyP .+ljwfg .dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg x'g .S5.xsdL{n] g} ./sf/sf] sfd sfo{jfxL./sf/sf] g]t[Tj Tofu]/} ePklg .fob a'e]msf klg 5g\_ Pdfn] g]t[Tjsf] . zflGtk|lqmof./sf/ Tolt~h]n . g]kfnsf dfcf]jfbL / ef/tLo dfcf]jfbL aLrsf] .u/dfyf cfwf/lzlj/df a:g nfu]sf] . pgnfO{ /fd|}. t/ g]kfnL sf“u|]./sf/sf] e"ldsf g]kfnL sf“u|].Dk"0f{ n8fs'sf] .+ljwfg hf/L x'g'kg]{ ldlt cyf{t\ h]7 !% .do leq} .Qfdf /lx/xG5 ha.f eO{ jftfj/0f ljgf.+ljwfg lgdf{0f / lj:t[t zflGt . l. ef/tn] g]kfnsf] /fhgLltn] s'g /fh >]i7sf n]v . cgldgn] cof]Uo 7x/fPsf / afn.Demf}tfnfO{ tfls{s lgZsif{df k'¥ofpg} k5{ eg]/ hf]8 lbPsf x'gg\ .cGTo dfq xf]Og.]gfsf] cleefjsTj / cGtl/d .fj{hlgs eO.fob .+ljwfg hf/L ug{ .faf6 yfxf x'G5 .Gbe{ cf}Nofp“b} /fi6«kltn] pbok'/.lsPsf] 5}g eg] .“u yfxf 5.sf] k"0f{ .}GonfO{ lzlj/af6 labf lbg t cfhsf lbg.Dd klg cGofo x'g hfG5 ./sf/n] g t gof“ . afn'jf.do.+ljwfg hf/L gePdf d'n'sdf eoª\s/ b'3{6gf x'g.dfwfg vf]lhPg.Kt/L./sf/ s'g} xfntdf g9Ng]. s]xL lbg otfsf] /fhgLlts 36gfqmdn] lg/y{s aGb} uPkl5. .“usf] e]63f6df pgn] p7fpg' ePsf] k|Zg./sf/s} kIfdf 5 eg]/ eg]sf5g\ .dfKt x'g] lglZrt 5 .+ljwfg d} pNn]lvt g]kfnL .S5 eGg'sf] leqL cf.fdgf ug{ tof/L cj:yfdf /x]sf] x'g'k5{ ./sf/sf] cf}lrTo :jtM .dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg g} of] .s]g eg] gof“ .af6 pT. .+ljwfg klg hf/L gx'g] ePkl5 .otn] cfk\mgf] sbdsf] k'li6 ug{ /fi6«klt dxf]bonfO{ uf¥xf] kg]{ eg] 5}g .]gfsf] . cfk\mgf] dft[. /fi6«klt ofbj h]7 !% kl5sf] 36gfnfO{ .Ssfsf] csf]{ kf6f] eg'“ – ef/t e|d0faf6 kms]{sf g]tfx?n] ef/t ./sf/sf] g]t[Tj ul//xg'sf] cf}lrTo s] < cWoIf vgfnn] jt{dfg Pdfn] .Dd .ef / cGtl/d .Sg] ePkl5 Pdfn]n] .o klg zfob oxL x'g'k5{ .Ldf eg]sf] .Dd x'G5 eg]/ .]gfsf] Joj:yfkg eO.Dd 7f].sf] clei6 k'/f ug]{ / b]zsf] sfo{sf/L aGg] /fi6«kltsf] dxTjfsfª\Iff k'/f ug{ k'nsf] sfd ug]{ b]v]/ g} clk|o ePklg cfk\mgf] c8fg /fv]sf] x'g'k5{ .DaGw / dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjaf6 cfO/x]sf] cleJolQmaf6 ef/t . cfZro{ g} eGg'k5{. dfwj g]kfn g]t[Tjsf] Pdfn] . g t dfcf]jfbL n8fs'sf] .+u7g g]kfnL sf“u|]. dfcf]jfbL . cfk"mn] .af/] lsg g.]gfklt ydf}lt u/]/ cflh{t g]kfnL .n] ksfp“b} u/]sf] lvr8L / /fi6«kltnfO{ ef/tn] lbg] alnof] . t/ b'ef{Uo pgsf] of] PsfnfknfO{ g t dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] ulDe/tfk"j{s lnP g t pgsf cfk\mgf .+jfbdf pgn] …dfcf]jfbL u0f/fHo 3f]if0ff ug'{cl3 g} lsg . kfP/ cWoIf vgfnn] cfjZos k/] Pdfn]n] . ./sf/sf] cfo' slt 5f]6f] 5 eGg] .dfKt t x'g] xf]Og eGg] cfz+sf hlGdPsf] 5 . pN6} cfk\mgf] kf6L{ leq cfk\mg} . t/ pgsf] k|of.“u c.+ljwfg hf/L x'g] -gx'g]_ ldlt . l./sf/ cl:tTj d} /xG5 eg]/ sNkgf ug'{ .Gg b'3{6gfsf] cfef.z+lst 5 eg]/ ef/t e|d0faf6 kms]{kl5 kmf]/d cWoIf ofbjn] plta]n} eg]sf x'g\ .Dej 5 ./sf/ lj?4 if8\oGq ug{ nfu]sf] eg]/ pgsf] cfnf]rgf eof] .dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg x'g] s'/f t s]jn sNkgf dfq} x'g] eof] .+ljwfg hf/L x'g'kg]{ ldlt kl5 klg dfwj g]kfn .dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg Tolt~h]n . . ef/tdf ef/tLo dfcf]jfbL alnof] x'“b} uPsf] kl/k|]Iodf g]kfndf dfcf]jfbLx? .Qf klg g5f8\g] eg]/ ljkIfLnfO{ k]n]/} nfg] kIfdf 5 .Gw'nLsf r'/]df 9'+uf. Pdfn] cWoIf emngfy vgfnn] .“usf] . pgL dfwj g]kfn g]t[Tjsf] Pdfn] . o.s]sf] 5 .fob cfTd/lt 7xl/g]5 .ª\ufnf] 54 .dy{gn] dfwj g]kfn .]gfklt ydf}ltsf] /fi6«klt sbdsf] hudf plePsf] . k|wfgdGqL.dy{g. lrGtf / lh1f.

]Da/ !^.]Da/ !*(^ sf] lbgn] ljz]if dxTj /fVb5 . @))( -kf}if !. :tDedf a|fDxL lnlk.sf] l7s ljkl/t ltnf}/fsf]6df pQm :ynx¿sf] ls6fgsf. l8.flxTodf j0f{g ul/Psf k|frLg slknj:t' j/k/ x'g'kg]{ o:tf k'/ftflTjs :ynx¿ s'g}sf] klg cl:tTj /x]sf 5}gg\ .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .]/ ef/tn] h] u/] klg k|ltlqmofljxLg eP/ a:g' eg]sf] . o.n] u5{.ª\ufnf] 56 .“u ljZn]if0f ul/. dfcf]jfbL.s]sf] x'g'k5{ . ylkb}g < clxn] g} s]xL eGg' rf“8f] x'g]5 . of] lbg 8f= P= k'mx//\n] n'lDagLdf czf]s :tDesf] k|dfl0fs/0f ug'{ePsf] lyof] . wfld{s ko{6gsf] Ps 7"nf] lx:. cgldgsf] Dofb klg . o./sf/ / dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] ultljlwn] 36gfqmdn] s'g df]8 lnG5 cfufld lbgdf :ki6 x'g] g} 5 .do gk'Ub} d[To'zo\ofdf .f g]kfnn] u'dfpg] 5 / af}4 wdf{jnDaLx¿sf] 7"nf] .{lbg]5 .df ! l8. cgldgsf] Dofb ylkG5. o:tf] . xf]Og eg].kl5 dfcf]jfbL lzlj/sf] lgu/fgL s. . ljjfb p7\5 eg]/ ef/tn] v8f u/]sf] gSsnL slknj:t'sf] af/]df Ps zJb klg gaf]Ng] k|j[lQ ca g]kfn . c:t' .ª\Vof n'lDagL / slknj:t' e|d0fdf cfpg 5f8L lbg]5g\ eg] s]xL jif{ kl5 a'4 hGd]sf] b]z eg]/ g]kfnsf] gfd ljZjn] lal.a'sdf k|sflzt k|frLg slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgL g]kfnsf] ltnf}/fsf]6 xf].df]8 lnG5 eGg] af/] /fd|}. ef/tsf] lkk/xjf xf]Og ef/tLox¿n] bfjL u/]sf] lkk/xjf j/k/ af}4 . kfnL efiffdf s'“lbPsf] ælxb a'w hft] zfSod'lgltÆ cyf{t æzfSod'gL a'4sf] hGd oxf“ ePsf] xf]Æ eGg] jfSof+zn] tyfut\sf] hGd n'lDagLdf ePsf] xf] egL lgSof}{n ul/Psf] lyof] .+j]bgzLn d'2fnfO{ r'krfk a./sf/sf lhDd]jf/ lgsfon] TofUg' kb{5 .ls+b}5 .'Tg' a/fa/ xf] .fy klxrfg ul/Paf6 ltnf}/fsf]6 g} k|frLg slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgL xf] eGg] k|dfl0ft x'G5 . czf]s:tDedf s'“lbPsf] lznfn]vsf] cfwf/df eujfg\ a'4sf] 55 /fh >]i7sf n]v . @)^^_ df k]m. o. n'lDagL / slknj:t'sf] Oltxf.

ef/tLo k|rf/ cleofgsf] Pp6f pbfx/0f x]/f}+ .f/ /f]lsPsf] 5}g .f]Rbf klg UnfgL eP/ cfp“5 . tL dWo] af}4 dfl. sf]ifsf] o:tf] rfnfn] n'lDagLsf] ljsf. j}1flgs 8]l6ª\ k|ljlwaf6 tL k'/ftflTjs a:t'x¿ eujfg a'4sf] ..\. Tolta]nf s[i0fuf]kfn >]i7n] g]kfnL x'g'sf] OHht wfg]sf] /x]5 gq eg] tL wdf{jnDaL ko{6sx¿nfO{ a'4 hGd:yn n'lDagL g]kfndf 5 eGg] . oxf“ ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg ufpg kfO“b}g. wGg.s]sf] 5 tfklg ef/tLo . sf]ifsf] sf]iffWoIf ls+st{Joljd"9 d"sbz{s eP/ x]l//x]sf] lyof] .'Gg' / To.hGd:yn n'lDagLsf] klxrfg ul/Psf] Ps ztfJbL eGbf s]xL jif{ eO{./L .]sf] n'lDagL ljsf./sf/af6 a]nfavt eujfg\ a'4 ef/tdf hlGdPsf] x'g eGg] k|rf/ k|.s klqsf cfgGbe"ldsf] @)^^ cflZjg.d]t kfpg] lyPgg\ ./ c+sdf k|sflzt xl/ZrGb|nfn l. / Joj:yfkgsf] .dodf a8f] hf]8bf/ ¿kdf p7fp“b} cfPsf5g\ . g]kfnL ljåfgx¿n] g]kfnsf] kIfdf /x]sf k'/ftflTjs / P]ltxfl.f/0f x'g] Od]h Go"h Pkm=Pdn] k'if ^ ut] . 36gf k'if ! ut] laxfgsf] xf] .f/0f u/]sf] 5 . n'lDagLnfO{ ef/tLo e"ld dfGb} tL af}4 wdf{jnDaL >4fk"j{s ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg ufpg] ubf{ /x]5g\ . æb]Vbfb]Vb} cfk\mg} cufl8 cfk\mg} e"lddf k/fO{ b]zsf] /fli6«o ufg .dosfn O{zfsf] kfrf}+ b]lv 5}7f}+ ztfJbL k"j{sf] ePsf] k'li6 ul/Psf5g\ .+o'Qm /fi6« .Ddfgk"j{s ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg ufO+bf klg of] ef/tLo e"ld xf]Og.+of]ujz Toxf“ k'u]sf Pdfn] g]tf s[i0fuf]kfn >]i7n] of] ef/tLo e"ld xf]Og. . . .dfrf/ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf k|. sf]ifn] s:tf kfgLd¿jfnfO{ cfk\mgf clwsf/Ldf lgo'Qm u/]sf /x]5g\.Dkbf .s tYox¿nfO{ . n'lDagLdf ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg aHg] /x]5 eGg] .'gfObf] /x]5 .dfgf glhs pQ/k|b]zsf] a:tL lhNnfsf] lkk/xjfnfO{ k|frLg slknj:t' eg]/ k|rf/ ul//x]sf] 5 .f/ s. h. cGt//fli6«o hutdf ef/tn] eujfg\ a'4sf] hGd:yn n'lDagL / tyfut\n] cfk\mgf] hLjgsf] @( jif{ Joltt u/]sf] slknj:t' cfk\mg} e'efudf kb{5 eg]/ k|rf/ cleofg yfn]sf] w]/} club]lv xf] .+'Osf] .f“em k|. af}4 wdf{jnDaLx¿sf] kljq :yn dWo] Ps. sflt{s–d+l. k'/ftTjljb\x¿n] zfSox¿sf] /fhwfgL k|frLg slknj:t' cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] ltnf}/fsf]6 xf] eg]/ k|dfl0ft ul/. g]kfnL e"ld xf] eGg] cf“6 n'lDagL ljsf. Toxf“ ul/Psf pTvgg sfo{af6 k|fKt k'/ftflTjs a:t'x¿sf] cWoogaf6 pgLx¿n] o:tf] lgZsif{ lgsfn]sf x'g\ . pQm /]l8of] l/kf]6{ cg'.d]t a'4 ef/tdf hGd]sf x'g\ / slknj:t' ef/tdf k5{ eGg] e|ddf k/]sf 5g\ .~rf/ dfWod / ef/t . yfO{ ko{6sx¿sf] Ps x'n czf]s :tDe cufl8 >4fk"j{s ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg ufp“b} /x]5g\ .do .fdfGo s'/faf6 klg pm r'Sg' eg]sf] b]z s} nflu 7"nf] b'ef{Uo eGg'kb{5 . o"g]:sf]åf/f ljZj. g]kfnsf] /fli6«o ufg ufpg k5{ eGb} pgLx¿nfO{ g]kfnL /fli6«o ufg ufpg afWo kf/]5g\ .Dej xf]nf < k|Zg pAhg' :jfefljs xf] .fdfGo eGbf .Dk"0f{ kIfsf] bfloTj lnP/ a.Da4{g / cGt//fli6«o If]qdf eujfg\ a'4 hGd:ynsf] ¿kdf n'lDagLsf] k|rf/ k|.+xHo"sf] n]v "Dirty Controversy about Kapilvastu" n] g]kfnsf] kIfdf /x]sf tYonfO{ hf]8bf/ ¿kdf k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ .DdfgnfO{ hLjGt /fVg n'lDagL ljsf. sf]ifn] ug'{kg]{ . eujfg\ a'4sf] hGd:yn.nfO{ /f]Sg s]xL gug'{Æ of] eGbf nfhnfUg' kg]{ s'/f c¿ s] x'g ."lrdf .sf] kmn:j¿k c¿ t c¿ g} eg'“ l5d]sL b]z rLgsf ko{6sx¿ . g]kfnsf] cfk\mg} e"lddf b]zsf] :jfledfgdfly k|xf/ x'“bf klg s'g} k|ltlqmof a]u/ lgliqmo a.f/ af}4 wdf{jnDaL ko{6sx¿ ef/tsf] af6f] x'“b} n'lDagL e|d0f ug{ cfp“bf ef/tLo kyk|bz{sx¿n] n'lDagL ef/tLo e"ld xf] eGb} ef/tsf] /fli6«o ufg . :d/0f /xf]. pxf“sf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . .ª\ufnf] n'lDagL ljsf. g]kfnL e"ld xf]. ef/tn] g]kfnsf] l. n'lDagL ljsf.L/xg] tL kbflwsf/Ln] cfk"mnfO{ g]kfnsf] gful/s x'“ eGg klg nfh nfUg' kg]{ xf] .s]sf5g\ .Sb5 < 57 /fh >]i7sf n]v .+3n] a'4hGd:ynsf] ¿kdf dfGotf lbPsf] 5 . of] . sf]ifsf kbflwsf/Lx¿n] ug{ . tL wdf{jnDaLx¿n] dfkmL dfUb} ca k]ml/ g]kfn e|d0fdf cfp“bf g]kfnL e"lddf g]kfns} /fli6«o ufg ufpg] arg lbP5g\ .“u} pleP/ n'lDagL ljsf.Sbf /x]g5g\ . czf]s :tDe cufl8 ."lrs[t n'lDagLnfO{ . ef/tLo kIfn] n'lDagLsf] cl:dtfdfly k|xf/ u/]sf] of] klxnf] 36gf eg] xf]Og .ª\ufnf] 58 .

h'g clxn] k|rngdf 5}g.]Da/ .ª\ufnf] l8kf6{d]G6n] @( l8.'4f]bgsf] b/jf/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .fb cfrfo{ eGg'x'G5 .'lgof]lht ¿kdf lkk/xjfnfO{ k|frLg slknj:t' k|dfl0ft ug{ vf]lh/x]sf] 5 . t/ /fhf .+o'Qm ¿kdf ul/Psf] pTvgg\af6 k|fKt k|df0fx¿af6 . z'¿df lkk/xjfnfO{ g} s]Gb|df /fv]/ cg'. /fh >]i7sf n]v .'4f]bgsf] b/jf/Æ. o.+Vofdf sdL b]lvPsf] 5 ./sf/ k'/ftTj ljefu / l/:zf] ljZjljBfno hfkfgaf6 . rLlgof kbofqL tyf af}4 leIf'x¿ kmflxofg / x'ofg. k|f]= k]/]/f eGg'x'G5 ls k|frLg slknj:t'sf] vf]hLsfo{ pQ/k|b]zsf] lkk/xjfdf eujfg\ a'4sf] cl:ywft' /x]sf] :t'k kQf nfu]kl5 tLj| ¿kdf a9]sf] xf] .sf] sf/0f ef/t x'“b} g]kfn lelqg] af}4 wdf{jnDaL ko{6sx¿nfO{ ef/tLo kyk|bz{sx¿n] a'4hGd :yn slknj:t' eGb} lkk/xjfdf lgdf{0f ePsf] gSsnL slknj:t' tk{m n}hfg] / k|frLg slknj:t' g]kfnsf] ltnf}/fsf]6nfO{ pN6f] gSsnL slknj:t' eg]/ g]kfntk{m hfg lg¿T.f/ of] jif{ n'lDagL / slknj:t' e|d0fdf cfPsf ko{6sx¿sf] . oxf“af6 :ki6 b]lvg] lxd>[+vnf / af0fu+uf gbLsf] lsgf/fdf /x]sf] x'“bf lrlgof ofqLx¿n] j0f{g u/]sf] slknj:t' .fdf hlGdPsf x'g\Æ eGg] ef/tsf] csf]{ bfjL cfof] .d]t lglZrt ¿kdf ltnf}/fsf]6 g} k|frLg slknj:t' xf] eGg] k|dfl0ft eO. o.kl5 k'/ftTjljb\x¿n] g]kfnsf] ltnf}/fsf]6df pTvgg z'¿ u/] / oxf“ pgLx¿n] b/jf/sf eUgfjz]ifx¿sf] . cfw'lgs ltnf}/fsf]6sf] cjl:ylt.+/rgf ePsf] kQf nfUof] .dodf af]lng] kfnL efiff.s tYonfO{ a“UofO{ ef/tLo kIfn] pQ/k|b]zsf] lkk/xjfnfO{ k|frLg slknj:t' xf] eGg] bfjL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . o.f/ ul//x]sf] 5 . a'4 hGde"ld k|ltsf] e|d lrg{.Dd slknj:t' a'4 dxf]T. æeujfg a'4n] @( jif{ latfPsf] :ynÆ eg]/ 7"nf 7"nf af]8{ 6f“luPsf] 5 .} aLr s]xL jif{ cufl8 æef/tLo ljåfgsf] egfO{ eujfg\ a'4 pl8./ wfld{s ko{6gdf b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . ef/tLo bfjLdf ef/tLo k'/ftTjljb\ s] Pd >Ljf:tjaf6 pTvgg ul/Psf] lkk/xjf If]qdf kfOPsf] elgPsf] eujfg\ a'4sf] cl:ywft' /x]sf] :t'k / eUgfjz]if . t/ k'/ftflTjs k[i7e"lddf cfwfl/t P]ltxfl. eujfg\ a'4sf] hGd ef/tdf ePsf] xf] / k|frLg slknj:t' cfw'lgs pQ/k|b]zsf] lkk/xjf xf] eg]/ cGt//fli6«o :t/df ef/tn] k|rf/ k|.4fy{ hgkysf] gfd lbOPsf] 5 .n]vsf] cfwf/df /xL./sf/n] lkk/xjfdf kfOPsf] eUgfjz]ifnfO{ k|frLg b/jf/sf] :j¿k lbg lgdf{0fsfo{ . sf]ifsf dfwjk|.sf] k|ToIf c. pgLx¿n] slknj:t'af6 lxdfnosf] lxd>[+vnfx¿ :ki6 b]Vg . lkk/xjfdf kfOPsf] eUgfjz]if jf:tjdf Ps k|frLg af}4 ljxf/ dfq} xf] eGg]df k'/ftTjljb\x¿ .lsg] / of] eflu/yL gbLsf] lsgf/f d} cjl:yt 5 eg]/ b"/L .+/rgfnfO{ /fhf .s]sf] 5 . pQ/k|b]zsf] gf}u9 lhNnfnfO{ slknj:t' gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] 5 eg] s]xL :yfgnfO{ l.fy} cGo k|df0fx¿ k|fKt u/] / ltnf}/fsf]6 g} k|frLg slknj:t' ePsf] k|dfl0ft eof] .]Da/ b]lv #! l8. k|frLg slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgL cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] ltnf}/fsf]6 g} xf] eGg] cGo cfwf/x¿ klg k|z:t kfOPsf5g\ .fxL agfpg] u/]sf] x'“bf o:tf] k|efj b]lvPsf] n'lDagL ljsf.Ædf 5flkPsf] pQm . To.f}+ ztfJbLsf] cGTolt/ k|fKt ePsf] k|df0fx¿.= d'vhL{af6 pGgfO. n'lDagL ljsf. sf]ifsf cg'.Gwfg sfo{ cufl8 a9fOPsf] lyof] .xdt eP .f]x|} cfgf oxL xf] eGg] k'/ftTjljb\x¿sf] 7x/ 5 .s tYox¿ k|:t't ug{ rfxG5' .j eg]/ dgfO/x]sf] 5 . k|frLg b/jf/sf eUgfjz]ifx¿ / g]kfn . oxf“ ePsf pTvgg sfo{x¿df ef/tLo k'/ftTjljb\ lk= l. eujfg a'4sf] hGd:yn / k|frLg slknj:t'sf] cjl:yltsf] af/]df ef/tLo kIfaf6 ul/Psf] bfjL / g]kfnsf] kIfdf /x]sf s]xL P]ltxfl.f/ ef/tLo ljåfgx¿n] ts{ u/]sf lyP ls eujfg\ a'4sf] . ef/tLo bfjL slt e'm7f] 5 eGg] s'/f xfdL >Ln+sfnL ljJbfg k|f]=k]/]/fsf] k':tsdf pxf“sf egfO{af6 yfxf kfp“5f} .fª\u slknj:t'sf] e|d0fdf cfp“bfsf] pgLx¿sf] ofqf j0f{gaf6 slknj:t'sf] ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt / n'lDagLaf6 slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgLsf] b"/Lsf] af/]df yfxf x'G5 . cª\u|]hL b}lgs æb lxdfnog 6fOD. pQ/k|b]z 6'l/Hd 59 /fh >]i7sf n]v .dfrf/ cg'.d]t ls6fg u/L n]v]sf5g\ . pQ/k|b]z . lkk/xjfdf æ/fhf . o.d]t u/]sf5g\ .af6 k|i6 x'G5 ls ef/tLo kIfn] .'4f]bgsf] b/jf/ elgPsf] ejgsf eUgfjz]ifx¿ kl5 lgdf{0f ul/Psf gof“ .ª\ufnf] 60 .

y{ g]kfn .Dkbf ./sf/L :t/af6 lj/f]w k|ltlqmof lbg g.f] lbj. cflb :yfgx¿ ltnf}/fsf]6sf] cf./df cfof]hgf ul/g] sfo{qmd / .“u .DalGwt cf}//fsf]6 -tf}lnxjfsf] !) ls=dL= pQ/k"j{_.x¿ OG6/g]6sf .+o'Qm /fi6« .]Da/ @))( nfO{ cGt//fli6«o slknj:t' lbj. .fdf s'g} a]nf af]lng] ub{Yof] t/ g]kfndf slxNo} klg af]ln+b}gYof] . gSsnL slknj:t' lgdf{0f u/]/ ljZj . qms'5Gb a'4sf] hGd tyf kl/lgjf{0f:yn uf]l6xjf -tf}lnxjfaf6 # ls=dL= blIf0fklZrd_.fdflhs .fy :jb]z tyf ljb]zdf k'u]sf g]kfnLx¿n] Ps.xeflutf a9fpg k|rf/ k|.a's.com).s / k'/ftflTjs k|df0fnfO{ c:q agfp“b} k'/ftTjljb\. eujfg\ a'4sf] hGd:yn n'lDagL / slknj:t' g]kfndf 5 eGg] k|i6\ofpg' g} slknj:t' lbj.s tyf k'/ftflTjs tYo. t. k|d'v :yfgx¿sf] s'/f ubf{ s'bfg -ltnf}/fsf]6af6 $=% ls=dL= blIf0f_ hxf“ eujfg a'4n] cfk\mgf lktf . Pp6} . t/ g]kfnL ldl8ofdf eg] . clxn] .kf.sf] d'Vo p2]Zo /x]sf] lyof] .'4f]bgnfO{ a'4Tj k|fKt ePkl5 k|yd k6s e]6]sf lyP.s]sf] 5 – g]kfnL ldl8of.]Da/ !*(^ nfO{ . /fh >]i7sf n]v .+j]bgzLn d'2fnfO{ r'krfk ef/tn] h] u/] klg k|ltlqmofljxLg eP/ a:g' eg]sf] .wordpress.u/xjf. ca .fy klxrfg ul/Paf6 ltnf}/fsf]6 g} k|frLg slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgL xf] eGg] k|dfl0ft x'G5 .fdflhs .a's k|of]ustf{ dfem sfo{qmdn] Jofkstf kfPsf] lyof] .fO6x¿df k|z:t} /flvPsf lyP . l6\j6/./L ljb]z k'Ug] k|To]s g]kfnLnfO{ eujfg\ a'4 hGd:ynsf] e|d lrg{ . . t/ .+3Lo lgsfo o"g]:sf] h. sgsd'gL a'4."lrdf .kmn agfpg / clws eGbf clws .df g]kfnLx¿ tyf cfdlGqt ljb]zLx¿ e]nf eO{ n'lDagL.kmn agfpg eP u/]sf k|of./sf/n] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf g} gSsnL slknj:t'sf] lj/f]wdf cfjfh p7fpg} kg]{ ePsf] 5 .d'bfonfO{ e|ddf kfg{ vf]Hg] ef/tsf] ldYof k|rf/nfO{ lg:t]h kfg{ / n'lDagLdf 8f=P= k'mx//\n] czf]s :tDesf] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] lbg ! l8.sf] . zfSox¿sf] .Dd g]kfnn] .s} If]qdf /x]sf5g\ . sfo{qmdnfO{ . o. p.Sbf] of]ubfg lbg of] sfo{qmdn] Pp6f cfwf/ k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] .}nfO{ cfwf/dfgL pgLx¿n] pl8.f] lbg ljb]z l:yt g]kfnL /fhb"tfjf.} x/fPsf] lyof] .~hfn k]m.f/0f ug{ . ef/tsf] of] ldYof k|rf/nfO{ hjfkm lbg} kg]{ a]nf ePsf] 5 . j]j.ª\ufnf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf lyP .n] g]kfnsf] kIfdf cGt//fli6«o :t/df cfjfh p7fpg' kb{5 .fd'lxs jw:yn .lsPsf] lyPg . ef/tLox¿n] bfjL u/]sf] lkk/xjf j/k/ af}4 .'Tg' a/fa/ xf] eg]/ a'e\mg' cfjZos eO.sf] ¿kdf dgfpg] lg0f{o u/]sf lyP .flxTodf j0f{g ul/Psf k|frLg slknj:t' j/k/ x'g'kg]{ o:tf k'/ftflTjs :ynx¿ s'g}sf] klg cl:tTj /x]sf 5}gg\ .do cfO.ª\ufnf] 62 .DaGwL sfo{qmdsf] 61 /fh >]i7sf n]v . o. cfk"m.pl8. o.fdu|L eg]hlt k|.f/df cTofw'lgs k|ljlw OG6/g]6sf] k|of]u Jofks ¿kdf ul/Psf] lyof] .Sg'nfO{ cGt//fli6«o hutn] g]kfns} sdhf]/Lsf] ¿kdf lng]5g\ . slknj:t'. eujfg\ a'4. eujfg a'4sf] dfjnL3/ b]jbx -n'lDagLsf] %$ ls=dL= k"j{_ / /fdu|fd hxf“ eujfg a'4sf] cl:ywft' /x]sf] :t'k 5. o.]Da/ !*(^ sf] dxTjnfO{ ljBfno ljBfnosf sf]dn dl:tisdf k|Tof/f]k0f ug'{ / g]kfnL dfem eujfg\ a'4 hGd:ynsf] dxTj k|i6\ofpg' g} sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo /xsf] lyof] .n] n'lDagLnfO{ ljZj.DalGwt . slknj:t' / eujfg\ a'4 .~hfn k]m.fdfu|L. sgsd'gL a'4sf] hGd tyf a'4Tj k|flKt:yn lglUnxjf -tf}lnxjfsf] & ls=dL= pQ/_. rfx] Tof] 5fkf xf].fsf] slkn]Zj/ eGg] 7fp“ k|frLg slknj:t' x'g'k5{ eGg] ts{ k|:t't u/]sf lyP ."lrs[t u/]sf] lyof].s tyf k'/ftflTjs k|df0f k]z ub}{ ef/tLo bfjL k"0f{tof e'm7f] xf] egL bfjL u/]sf lyP eg] g]kfnL 5fkf ldl8ofn] klg o:sf] rsf]{ lj/f]w u/]kl5 ef/tLo bfjL To.“u ePsf] P]ltxfl. cfk"m ljjfbdf kl/G5 jf ef/tsf] lj/f]w u/] cfk\mgf] /f]huf/L g} u'D5 ls eGg] eon] n'lDagL ljsf. sf]ifsf kbflwsf/Lx¿n] o:tf] . g]kfndf t'ngfTds ¿kdf sd sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/Psf] eP klg ! l8.Ddfg k|s6 ug{] p2]Zosf .do gk'Ub} d[To'zo\ofdf . Anu (http://worldamity.fy ! l8.nfO{ .sf] l7s ljkl/t ltnf}/fsf]6df pQm :ynx¿sf] ls6fgsf.fy} cGo k|df0fsf] cfwf/df ltnf}/fsf]6 j/k/ ^@ k'/ftflTjs dxTjsf :yfgx¿sf] klxrfg ul/Psf] 5 . pQm cj.\ jf /]l8of].a'sdf cfj4 k]m.s]sf] 5 .DalGwt ljifosf g]kfnL ljåfgx¿n] P]ltxfl.DalGwt P]ltxfl.“u .“u .

xg' eg]sf] b]zn] cfTdxTof u/] . bfdf]b/k|.Oltxf. @)^^_ df k]m.Dddf hfgsf/L kfp“ .]Da/ @%. o:tf] . o. @))( -kf}if !). /fdk|. .fb s8]n w]/} /fd|f] n]v.php?topic=12195&post=52014&uid=112791 451329#post52014 or http://www.sf/x¿n] d}bfgdf plqg' k/]sf] 5 . I'm 100% against their wrong transmission about the birthplace of Lord 63 /fh >]i7sf n]v . Kapilvastu which is in Nepal. Joys Deep A great article to be read by all.+j]bgzLn ljifonfO{ k|To]s lhDd]jf/ lgsfo. cGo s'g} klqsfdf lbg' eP gePsf] hfgsf/L kfpg kfP .php?uid=112791451329&topic=12195 . wGojfb .|f]t . ljjfb p7\5 eg]/ ef/tn] v8f u/]sf] gSsnL slknj:t'sf] af/]df Ps zJb klg gaf]Ng] k|j[lQ ca oL b'a} lgsfon] TofUg' kb{5 .“u d k"0f{ .a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof slknj:t' 8]. ug'{xf]nf .xdt 5'“ .xof]u /f]lsG5. o. kb u'D5 jf .wordpress.com/?p=6247 and http://worldamity. a]nfot Thanks a lot for such a wonderful article.lxt /fVg x'G5 .{lbg]5 ./sf/sf kbflwsf/L / /fhgLlts g]t[Tjn] .fb cfrfo{ Really patriotic attempts.com/topic.do d} a'e\mg' cfjZos 5. ljb]zLx? . sf]if / g]kfn ko{6g af]8{ b'a}n] ef/tn] pQ/k|b]zsf] lkk/xjfdf lgdf{0f ul//x]sf]] slknj:t' e'm7f] xf] eg]/ cGt//fli6«o hut. n]v cToGt} tYok"0f{ / oyfy{k/s 5 .dfrf/df PSs}rf]6L k|sflzt u/]“ of] n]v . n'lDagL ljsf.fdu|Lx? kfP cem /fd|f] .'.ª\ufnf] Buddha to the world.'lrt x'g] lyP / k|ltjfb ug{ . You should publish your articles in national & international newspaper. ef/tsf] lkk/xjf xf]OgÆ eGg] h:tf :ki6 c8fg /fVg . ljjfbdf kl/G5.nfO{ 5kfpg] k|of.dy{g lkmtf{ x'G5 eGg] 8/n] n'lDagL / slknj:t'sf] cl:tTjdflysf] ef/tLo cltqmd0f . l8.lhnf] x'g]lyof] .facebook. wfld{s ko{6gsf] Ps 7"nf] lx:.com/2009/12/26/wp-adminpost-newrajs-php/ I would like to request everybody to go to these links: http://www.s] w]/} eGbf w]/} hgtf .Sg'kb{5 . ef]ln ljxfg.ª\Vof n'lDagL / slknj:t'sf] e|d0fdf cfpg 5f8L lbg]5g\ eg] s]xL jif{ kl5 a'4 hGd]sf] b]z eg]/ g]kfnsf] gfd ljZjn] lal. To. g]kfn ko{6g af]8{n] g]kfn eujfg\ a'4sf] hGd:yn xf] eGg] dfGotfnfO{ sfod u/L /fVg ljZj ko{6g hutdf æn'lDagL g]kfndf 5 / slknj:t' g]kfnsf] cfw'lgs ltnf}/fsf]6 xf].com/photo. ./x x'g]5 .“u lg8/ eP/ eGg . xf]Og eg].}n] xfd|f] Anu / g]kfnL . nId0f k'/L. As I found your article is always for the country.ª\ufnf] 64 .com/topic.fdu|L kfpg' eof] eg] klg hfgsf/L kfp“ .d]t xfd|f] Anudf cfpg] ePsfn] c|u|]hL . clt cfjZos 5 . cd[t/fh >]i7. xfd|f] Anusf nflu c+u|]hL / g]kfnLdf k|sflzt g} . A logical explanation on what every individual should understand.f g]kfnn] u'dfpg] 5 / af}4 wdf{jnDaLx¿sf] 7"nf] . tkfO{“. /fds'df/ >]i7.facebook.'hg Gof}kfg]. c:6«]lnof w]/} /fd|f] article sf nflu oxf“nfO{ wGojfb 5 . /fh >]i7sf n]v . I am really impressed. g]kfn bfO{. great article.a'sdf k|sflzt k]m. Let the world know the truth that Lord Buddha was born in Lumbini.php?pid=2740225&id=112791451329&fbid =114149576329 and write against Fareed Zakaria step as he mentioned in his book intentionally that Buddha was born in India. . a]nfot Wow.Sg'kb{5 .nfO{ g]kfnL ldl8ofdf 5kfpg . http://www. bfdf]b/k|. I have published your article and the links are http://nepalisamachar.facebook.f]xL cg'?k s]xL klqsfdf 5kfO{lbg x'GYof] . /fds'df/ >]i7.fb cfrfo{ / c? b'O{hgfn] of] n]v dgk/fpg' ePsf] 5 . a]nfot nId0f efO{. Thank you very much for your effort ! /fds'df/ >]i7.

net/press_release_nepali. a]nfot s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n.ls+b}g . Still ok. Thank you /fh >]i7 n]v k9g' eO{ sd]G6 ug'{ x'g] ./fds'df/ >]i7. MD. Though we heard that this person was offered not in thousands and millions but in as demanded even to stop on the publishing of this historical book. Would you please let us know his name and the name of the book? As I suspect: Is he Mr. I will let you know. s'/fsf] lg/fs/0f gePdf ef/t cfk\mgf] s"of]hgfdf . Harischandra Lal Singh. I'll be informed directly for each and every comment.dod} o. of] n]v d}n] g]kfn . Thanks Raj Ji for the compliments. /fds'df/ >]i7. as for this article. /fh >]i7sf n]v . after couple of days. not necessary to reply.dcnepal.fob} x'Gg xf]nf .wordpress. Another link for the article: http://www. These days very busy. In an average about 200 readers visited in most of my articles in this paper. close their eyes on this vital issue. 65 /fh >]i7sf n]v . if comments to be replied. jf:tjdf xfdL g]kfnLdf ePsf sdL sdhf]/Lsf] kmfObf p7fp“b} 5g\ ef/tLo kIf .Demg' ePdf cGo klqsfdf lbg' ePdf klg cfef/L x'g] lyP“ .html lji0f' Kofs'/]n /fhhL. who have written the article entitled 'Dirty controversy about Kapilvastu' ? I am really interested in meeting him personally. slknj:t' 8] @Krishnaman Dongol: Thanks a lot for the information. / ul/lbg'ePsf]df ljz]if wGojfb lbg rfxG5' . He made a commendable action by bringing a book on the truth about Kapilvastu and Lord Buddha. s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n. Kathmandu.} u/L ldl8of dfk{mt .net/literature.blogspot.nepalisamachar.dcnepal.php?cid=198 With this also lots of readers. http://patriotnepali. I really appreciate your comment about the issue. /fds'df/ .php?nid=838 The First Person who stood against such Indian claim openly where all slaves were just pocketing coins from them to shut their mouth. Any of you wish to meet that person should go to one recording Studio in Anam Nagar that is known as "Music Nepal" and can meet that patriot or nationalist person who is the managing director of this place.ª\ufnf] Santosh Sharma. but seems to be a real issue. Music Nepal Anam Nagar. There are some comments.com. I just understand about his great works from some others and have not been able to verify even. t/ k|sflzt rf“xL ePsf] 5}g . n]v cln nfdf] ePsfn] . /fhhL. . . is still living here in Kathmandu. I am not aware of his any contcat numbers.a} dxfg'efjnfO{ d]/f] xflb{s wGojfb . It is advised to all of you may wish to include this person for the best outcome of Kapilvvastu day. /fh >]i7 /fh >]i7 Dear Krishnaman jee./.kmn gxf]nf eGg . pxf“nfO{ klg wGojfb .ª\ufnf] 66 . obviously. He did not fall into that trap and published that historical book without any vested interests and this BOOK can or now conforms from all sides that Kapilvastu and Lord Buddha are the only property for Nepal and Nepalese only.com/2010/01/blog-post_25.com.“u d]/f] klg .xdtL 5 .DalGwt lgsfonfO{ 3R3rfO /xg'k5{ . g]kfn Fb friend Vishnu Pyakurel lji0f' Kofs'/]nhL klg of] n]v cfk\mgf] Anudf /fVg' ePsf] 5 . I will try with some others as well. o.gorkhaonline. www. xh'/n] http:/worldamity. g]kfn One more link for this article: http://www. oxf“n] plrt .net df n]v k|sflzt www.dfrf/kq / gful/s b}lgsdf Od]n u/L k7fPsf] lyP“ . With Nepali Samachar and Worldamity. a]nfot Please keep eyes on DC Nepal link I gave above.

fdgf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . gq ef]lnsf lbgdf xfd|f .sf] Tof] sfnv08df ePsf] To.g . k[YjLgf/fo0f xf]Og k'iksdn w]/} :jtGq /fHox¿sf] cl:tTj gi6 eP/ Pp6f s]Gb|Ls[t /fHosf] lgdf{0f t eof] . s]Gb|Ls[t zf. hghflt / dw]zLx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf] clwsf/af6 jl~rt ul/Pdf b]zn] ljv08gsf] eofjx l:yltsf] .a'sdf Pp6f km\ofg Snasf] .t / zf]lift .Gtltn] xfdLnfO{ >fk lbg]5g\ .g k|0ffnL cGt/ut Pp6f vf. lji0f' Kofs'/]n l7s eGg' ef] /d]zhL.Qfaf6 ljd'v kfl/Psf pTkLl8t / zf]lift cflbjf. /fHosf] lg0ff{os txdf tL zfl. a]n}df s]lx gu/] ef]lnsf . ax'hftLo / ax'eflifs ljhLt /fHox¿ aLr .L. cflbjf.g . n'lDagL / gSsnL slknj:t' lgdf{0f u/]/ ljZj . a¿ To.b:o aGg] ls gaGg] eGg] bf]wf/df d xKtf}+ /x]+ .d'bfonfO{ e|ddf kfg{ vf]Hg] ef/tsf] ldYof k|rf/nfO{ lg:t]h kfg{ x/]sn] cfcfk\mgf] If]qaf6 kxn ug'{ k5{ .xL .dfg .ª\ufnf] 68 .Æ gfd lbOPsf] of] km\ofg Snasf] .L dfkm ug'{ xf]nf x}.xcl:tTjdf cfwfl/t Plss/0f eg] x'g .b:o 67 /fh >]i7sf n]v . clxn] hftLo /fHo lj/f]wsf] gfddf csf]{ hfltjfbn] lz/ p7fpFb} 5 .Sof]. ædnfO{ k|r08 eGbf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx dgk5{ . xKtf}+ eO.t hgtfsf] ?kdf zf]lift eO/x] . /fh >]i7 x'g' kg]{df n]vssf] gfd cs}{ k/]5 .+3/fHo agfpg' g} To.sf] . clg kf]:6 ug'{ ePsf]df lji0f'hLnfO{ x} .d'bfonfO{ :yflkt ug'{ o. cGttM d}n] o.L.GttLx?n] plxn] t a'4 xfd|f] g]kfnsf] n'lDagLdf hGdg' ePsf] /] eGg] cj:yf cfpg s] a]/ < /d]z s]. /fHosf] zf. Oltxf. ju{n] zf.s]g .Dj]bgzLn ljifo dfly rrf{ rnfpg' ePsf]df wGojfb lji0f'hLnfO{ .dosf] dfu xf] / g]kfnnfO{ hftLo tyf If]qLo :jfoQ k|b]zx¿sf] .ssf] ?kdf b]zsf] zf.L w]/} . hftLo /fHosf] rsf]{ ?kdf pu| lj/f]w ug]{x? g} jf:tljs ?kdf hfltjfbLx¿ x'g / pgLx? s} sf/0f b]zn] ljv08g ef]Ug gk/f].Qfdfly sAhf hdfO /x\of] .dfwfg xf] . kmn:j?k cGo .sf] abnfdf PsfTds. Snasf] .aeGbf .lji0f' Kofs'/]nsf] Anuaf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof /d]z s].sf] p2]Zo xf] .Rofpg' g} cfhsf] .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . tkfO{“n] eg] h:t}. zfob s]xL dlxgf klg lat] xf]nfg\ – km]. hghflt / dw]zLx¿ cfkm\gf] clwsf/sf nflu p7\g' hfoh xf] . cflbjf. eo+s/ uNtLnfO{ .L / dw]zLx¿ zfl.b:o aGg dnfO{ lgdGq0f ul/Psf] lyof] .\ .Dk"0f{ hghflt. jf:tjdf /fhhLnfO{ d'/Lsf d'/L wGojfb lbg}k5{ . n]vsf] nflu /fhhLnfO{ wGojfb. t/.

Defjgf g} x'Gg . en} tL d'7L sl.L / dw]zLx¿ zfl. s/ann] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] pknAwL :j?k cGtl/d . clxn] .Dk"0f{ hghflt. Oltxf.d|f6sf] ?kdf k|lt:yfkg ug{ s] a]/ < lxhf] @$) jif{ .dfg .Psf .y{ g]kfn /fHonfO{ hftLo :jzf.d:of klg ju{ lje]bsf] .Æ b'O{ leGgfleGg} o'usf b'O{ dxfk'?ifsf.sf] p2]Zo xf] .Qfdfly sAhf hdfO /x\of] .'lgg yfn]sf5g\ .sf k':tsx¿df g]kfn Plss/0fsf] gfd lbOPsf] 5 .Dd PsfTds zf. cflbjf. @)!) -kmfu'g @*.g ug]{ if8oGqdf pgLx¿ nfu]sf 5g\ .df .d'bfon] x/]s If]qdf .ft\ ug{ .+u|xsf] dfu / clxn] e/v/} lxGb" /fHosf] :yfkgfy{ sfnLafafsf] kz'kltdf cv08 o1 clg k"j{ /fhfsf] o.+3Lotf lj/f]wLx¿sf] w|'jLs/0f.g .dfg kx'“r / cj. dfr{ !@.d]t ax'hftLotf / ax'eflifstfnfO{ cfTd.g / cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ .fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngsf] pknAwL .+ljwfgdf n]lvPsf]n] . jf:tjdf g]kfndf hftLo lje]bsf] .Qfaf6 ljd'v kfl/Psf pTkLl8t / zf]lift cflbjf.\. zfxj+zLo /fhfx¿sf] cl:tTj . a¿ To.+3Lotfdf hfg} kg]{ ePkl5 lxhf]sf] k+rfotsfnLg ljsf. oxL sfdgf 5 .g .Qfdf km]l/ Ps 5q zf.ft\ u/]sf 5f}+ . /fHosf] zf. ju{n] zf.lxtsf] . tftf] xfjfdf prflnPsf lsg gx'g\ .aeGbf .}n] Pp6f /fHo Pp6f hfltsf] dfq x'G5 eGg' .a} hflt / .dosf] dfu xf] / g]kfnnfO{ hftLo tyf If]qLo :jfoQ k|b]zx¿sf] .'lglZrt ul/g] x'“bf e]befj / zf]if0fsf] . /fHosf] lg0ff{os txdf tL zfl.g k|0ffnL cGt/ut Pp6f vf.dfg'kflts / . hftLo lje]b / pTkL8gnfO{ ju{ lje]bsf] ?kdf lrq0f ub}{ juL{o .Rofpg' g} cfhsf] .Psf xft aLr r'gfj ug'{ lyof] dnfO{ .xcl:tTjdf cfwfl/t Plss/0f eg] x'g .dfwfg xf] . t/ hftLo /fHosf] cy{ æPp6f hflt Pp6f /fHoÆ eGg] xf]Og . gful/s b}lgs.d:of hlQSs} uDeL/ .dfgtf / :jtGqtfdf cfwfl/t nf]stflGqs Joj:yfnfO{ xfdLn] cfTd.efd'v / .L.s]g .+3Lo xftx¿ dw]zsf] e"lddf./ unt a'emfO{ xf] . hghflt / dw]zLx¿ cfkm\gf] clwsf/sf nflu p7\g' hfoh xf] .sf] Tof] sfnv08df ePsf] To.+ljwfgn] .sf] . t. sf/0f :ki6 lyof] – ædnfO{ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx eGbf k|r08 dgk5{ . olb.+3/fHo agfpg' g} To. @)$^ . w]/} :jtGq /fHox¿sf] cl:tTj gi6 eP/ Pp6f s]Gb|Ls[t /fHosf] lgdf{0f t eof] .ª\3if{sf] gf/f lnP/ dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngsf] z'?jft eof] .xL . Pp6fnfO{ PsfTds /fHosf] k|lts / csf]{nfO{ . eo+s/ uNtLnfO{ . ./ . . /fhfjfbLx¿sf] /fhtGq / .d]t u'Dg] vt/f a9\b} uPsf] 5 .ª\ufnf] 70 .+3Lotfdf hfg' g} 5}g .ª\ufnf] zf]lift .+3df ?kfGtl/t ePdf dfq jf:tljs hftLo zf]if0f / juL{o lje]bsf] cGTo x'g]5 .+3Lotfdf hgdt . clxn] hftLo /fHo lj/f]wsf] gfddf csf]{ hfltjfbn] lz/ p7fp“b} 5 . /fHoaf6 dgfpg 5fl8. cflbjf. Ps rf]/ cf}+nf 7l8Psf xft / csf]{ xfjfdf prflnPsf d'7L sl.t / 69 /fh >]i7sf n]v ./f. ^ jf & k|b]zdf ljefhg ug]{ / tL k|b]zx¿sf zf. hftLo /fHosf] rsf]{ ?kdf pu| lj/f]w ug]{ hfltjfbLx¿ s} sf/0f b]zn] ljv08g ef]Ug gk/f]. kmn:j?k cGo .ssf] ?kdf b]zsf] zf.d:of xf] . t/. ax'hftLo / ax'eflifs ljhLt /fHox¿ aLr . cfheGbf @$) jif{ cl3 uf]vf{sf /fhf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] u/]sf] /fHo lj:tf/nfO{ Oltxf.ef.+Vofdf /fHosf . To. @)^^_ df k|sflzt /fh >]i7sf n]v .dy{g – oL o:t} s'/faf6 @)^# . hghflt / dw]zLx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf] clwsf/af6 jl~rt ul/Pdf b]zn] ljv08gsf] eofjx l:yltsf] .bx¿af6 ef]ln pg} a8fdxf/fhlw/fhn] cfh]{sf] d'n'sdf pgs} j+zhnfO{ lxGb" clw/fHosf lxGb" .fdgf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .g k|0ffnLdf /fHosf] x/]s If]qdf cfkm\gf] jr{:j sfod ul//x]sf ju{nfO{ .fnsf] cfGbf]ngkl5 :yflkt ax'bnLo k|hftGq / ljZj s} pTs[itd\ dWo] Ps elgPsf] .+3Lotf / hftLo /fHosf] lj/f]wsf :j/x¿ . s]Gb|Ls[t zf.g .dfj]zL .t hgtfsf] ?kdf zf]lift eO/x] . If]qsf] ememNsf] x'g] u/L b]znfO{ %.d'bfonfO{ :yflkt ug'{ o.+3fTds /fHosf] k|ltssf] ?kdf d}n] lnP“ .L.sf] abnfdf PsfTds.s]g .s]sf] 5 . . cem} eGg'kbf{.dfKt eO.lsPsf] k[YjL hoGtLsf lbg k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxnfO{ /fli6«otfsf] k|lts dfGb} dfNof{k0f / k'iku'R5f r9fpg] u0ftGq g]kfnsf .gaGg] lgZro u/]+ .

nepalisamachar..a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof /fdz/0f lrdf}l/of. kf6fdu/. /fds'df/ >]i7. We would be those 'Darjeelinges'. xflb{s z'esfdgf . cultural and lingustic inheritance of those people who lived in those 48 mini kingdoms existed before creation of Nepal a æeo+s/ uNtLÆ.d. lrg jf:tljstfsf] w/ftndf pleP/ ul/Psf] snfTds ljZn]if0f . etc. after intermingling of more that two and half centuries. if our all suffering populations can realize the actual need of the time where some of those leaders or supporters are still seen advocating the need of many states based of ethnical casts. Manipuris. Thank you for posting this article. social. But. social.dfrf/ www. .com klg pknAw 5 .. 71 /fh >]i7sf n]v . k|sfz bfxfn /fd|f] nfUof].'hg Gof}kfg] / c? % hgfn] o. we would not be Nepalis struggling to reclaim our history within current Nepali teritory. very interesting and accurate xf] bfO{ . /fh]Gb| zfSo. Himalayas at north and Southern Boarder of Nepal that existed before Sugauli treaty. Thank you for tagging.u0f]z 9sfn k]m.\ .fdlos clg ljZn]if0ffTds cfn]v . efg' kf}8]n.ª\ufnf] I'm not going to write a long comment. of] g]kfnL .'hg Gof}kfg]. Tista at South./. tkfO{“n] ug'{ePsf] k|of. Thus I do not consider creation of Nepal as æeo+s/ uNtLÆ. oBlk jf}l4s sxlng] sltko duhx?nfO{ ckr klg x'g. Sofgf8f Raj Jee. It is a very nice and realistic article. g]kfn Excellent! Bravo! Raj Jee! You have brought up those universal truths on the Republic philosophy and also of few of the adversary effects of the centralized rule.tL{ cWoog ubf{ . I'd rather not make a choice from these two individuals. I can also see here. of that. I consider suppression of historical. To. 'Deharadunis'. It is also equally true that many "TERMITES" of the failed or rotten political parties that are already seen as the only beneficiaries’ during these past many decades are still seen working to secure their vested interests in many cover-up plans. I agree with most of your views.. 'Pahadis'..fb cfrfo{ n]v .nfO{ lr/]/ cufl8 a9g] sfo{df /fhhLdf yk k|]/0ff ldnf]. without whom the history of Nepal would have been a lot better than what it is now . I am not in position of rejecting Nepal as common country of origin of all of the people who inherit historical. 5f]6f] t/ . s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n. Mijos./ .S5 . fighting to reclaim our history from Indian State just like those Telugus.sf] nflu wGojfb . Great piece. .~rf/sdL{ This is the classic example of democracy: choosing one from the two thieves to legitimately allow them to steal our everything right in front of our eyes .ª\ufnf] 72 . a]nfot w]/} /fd|f] . bfdf]b/ k|. .xL ljZn]if0fo'St nfUof] . I really do not know what would it make difference if Nepal were never existed and we were part of India. Nagas. b]jbf. /fh >]i7sf n]v . rGb| 3tL{ du/. . g/xl/ cfrfo{ bfO{. Khalistanis. Assamis.. or racial identity.dfhdf jf:tljstfnfO{ cf]e]mndf kfg]{ cg]sf}+ xs{tx? x'g] g} 5g\ . cultural and lingustic heritage of the land between Sutlej at west.. if there was not æeo+s/ uNtLÆ.'Gb/. n]vnfO{ dg k/fpg' ePsf] 5 . few of those you have clearly highlighted here in this note. I can just wish here. Kashmiris and Adivasis (more than 10% of Indian population) are doing.. but. which in my opinion is nothing but just an intention to derail the actual Republic philosophy beside inviting that unforeseen disaster that is nearing us if we failed to address appropriately in this pretext. t/ s'ts{ ug]{x?sf] sdL gePsf] xfd|f] . I enjoyed reading. c:6«]lnof tkfO{“sf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ d}n] salute u/]“ !!! What a writing on this topic.

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+jt\ @() df /fhf ?b|b]jsf] /fHosfndf .+:s[t efiffdf – æ.+= (#^ sf] sflQs @@ ut] -@) cS6f]a/ O=./Æ. cf}krfl/s ?kdf eg] o.+jt\Æ eGg] gfd lbPsf lyP .'? ePsf]n] xf]nf. ce}m. of] s'/f /x:osf] ue{d} 5 . o. .+jt\Æ.So laxf/df /x]sf] /fhf g/]Gb|b]j tyf /fhf pbob]jsf] ./Æ. ltgtfssf s'g} lznfn]v pknAw x'g . æg]kfn–xfogÆ. . lznfn]vx? k|.+jT. oxf æ.+jt\Æ elgg] u/]sf] lyof] .Ddsf – pknAw /x]sf sd.}n] hfgsf/Lsf .+jt\nfO{ cfk\mg} gfdaf6 gfds/0f ul/Pdf . lnR5lj–zf.+:s[t zAb xf] .Qfdf s.+jt\nfO{ s]jn æ. ltg}tfs g]kfndf lnR5lj–/fhj+zsf] cGTo eO{ gof“ /fhj+zsf] pbo ePsf] lyof] . æg]kfn–.Dd klg o. .s]sf 5g\ . t/ kl5 5fq–j[lQ u|x0f u/L logLx? IfqLo ag]sf lyP .+jt\nfO{ obfsbf æ/f3jb]j–.+jt\Æ zAbdf s'g} ljz]if0f nfu]sf] 5}g . ^ kz'klte§f/s] ./Æ zAbsf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 .ls/x]sf 5}gg\ .+jt\sf] cf/De zs.+jt\sf] lgldQ – æg]kfn–jT.ª\ufnf] ækz'klte§f/s–.+jt\sf] k|rng aGb eO{ g]kfndf jt{dfg g]kfn–.4 /x]sf] 5 .+jt\ /fhsLo–. h'g .+jt\Æ g} elgg] u/sf] kfOG5 .fwf/0f gful/sn] o. æg]kfn–.nfO{ . k|.+jt\sf] k|of]u ePsf] s'g} klg lnvt cfh. ltAatsf] .f/ lj=.sf] cy{ x'G5 – z+v xftdf /fh >]i7sf n]v .+= **&_ b]lv ePsf] dflgG5 .Dd kfpg ./L eof] / j}.kl5 eg] o.+jt\nfO{ k|f/Dedf 77 /fh >]i7sf n]v .+jt\Æ zAb k|of]u x'g yfn]sf] kfOG5 ./Æ. logn] eujfg\ kz'kltsf] lgldQ gof“ . .“u z+vw/sf] gfd klg hf]l8g yfn]sf] kfOG5 .+:yfks /fhf /f3jb]j k|tLt x'G5g\ ./L cfP.Dej e}/x]sf] 5}g .dfgb]j–.kl5sf – . ltgtfssf tfd|kq klg . jt{dfg g]kfn–./Æ. uf]kfn–/fhj+zfjnL k'/fgf] j+zfjnL ePsf]n] o.fg kfOPsf] 5}g . j+zfjnLdf pNn]v ePsf] pko'{St egfOnfO{ pk]Iff ug{ .Dd of] .|sf–k|1fkf/ldtfÆ sf] k'liksf–jfSodf pko'{St jfSof+zsf] . /fhf /f3jb]jn] cfk"mn] k|rngdf NofPsf] . k"0f{tM c1ft 5 . tyf æutfAbÆ zAbdfq k|of]u ePsf 5g\ .a}eGbf k'/fgf] dflgG5 .x? d"n?kdf j}Zo–ju{sf k|tLt x'G5g\.+jt\sf] k|rng cf/De u/fPsf lyPÆ egL pNn]v ul/Psf] kfOPsf] 5 .+s]t kfOG5 . nf]sJojxf/df eg] o.fl/t ug]{ k|rng . æg]kfnb]zLo–.dodf o.+jt\sf] lgldQ .}n] o. o. gof“ k|rngdf NofOPsf] . g]kfndf kfOPsf j+zfjnLdWo] uf]kfn–/fhj+zfjnL . of] klg :ki6.fl/Psf] ælzjwd{zf:qÆ gfds s[ltdf dfq . o.lsPsf] 5}g .–/fhj+zÆ sf] gfdn] k|l. æcAbÆ.– . .a} g} ldNg] u/]sf 5g\ . k|sf/ dNnsfne/ – hlta]nf.j{k|yd o.+jt\ !)( dfu{lz/ z'Snlbjf k"0f{df:ofd\Æ sf] ?kdf ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 .+jt\Æ.+jt\sf] klxnf] k|of]u æ.+jt\ @*( .a} g} gi6 e}. æg]kfn–jT. . . .+jt\sf] k|rng lsg cf/De eof].+jt\sf] k|rng cf/De u/fPsf] .+jt\ cyf{t\ k'/fgf] g]kfn–.ls/x]sf] 5}g .fxl.s]sfn] xf]nf. t/ gof“ /fhj+zsf .fl/t ug]{ k|rng aGb eO{ tfd|kqx? k|. o.+jt\sf] ?kdf k|rlnt /x]sf] lyof] – z+vw/sf] s'g} gfdf]lg.+jt\sf] lgldQ æg]kfn–. æ. cl3Nnf] k"/f Ps–ztfAbLe/ g} o. gof“ :yfkgf ePsf] /fhj+z æj}.+jT.fl/t ePsf tfd|kq tdf]6sf cf/gdf k'uL uflnO.x? /fh.+:s[t efiffdf æ. æjT. kl5–kl5 eg] lsg xf]. .+jT. .fl/Psf] æci6. j+zfjnLsf] Psyl/ k|ltdf klxn]sf /fhfsf ljj/0fx? lb“b} hf“bf æ/f3jb]j jif{ ^# df.+jt\Æ. æz+vw/Æ zAb .+jt\sf] k|rng cf/De ePsf] lyof] Tolta]nfsf] g]kfnsf] Oltxf./ k|j[lQs[tfÆ cyf{t\ æ/fhf /f3jb]jsf] /fHosfn ^# jif{ ^ dlxgf /x]sf] lyof].j{k|yd pNn]v ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 .ls“b}g . o. .“u v'Ng .lhn} krfpg g. kl5Nnf] dNnsfn cf/De ePkl5 eg] o.Defjgf ePsf]n] xf]nf.fwgsf] lgtfGt cefjn] Tolta]nfsf] ljz]if ljj/0f kfpg' .+jt\sf] lgldQ . o.Sg] .gsf] cGTo s.df pNn]v ePsf s'/f k|foM .+jt\ *)! sf] sflt{sz'Sn k|ltkbf tbg'.]sd @% j6f x:tlnlvt tf8kqdf o.+jt\Æ sf] abnf k|foM æ>]of]:t' .j{. logn] g} gof“ /fhj+z :yfkgf u/]sf] pknIodf jt{dfg g]kfn–. o. .+jt\Æ.+o'St /fHosfndf .+jt\nfO{ æ/f3jb]j–.+jt\.ª\ufnf] 78 .+jt\Æ zAb k|of]u ePsf 5g\ . j}.+jt\Æ dfq n]Vg] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . o. o. æg}kflns–.

pko'{St cg'>'lt lgs} g} ltn:dL tyf clt/l~ht klg b]lvG5 . o.dodf sflGtk'/ /fHosf] nv'tLy{df k7fOlbPsf lyP .Dddf . ug'{ . el/ofx? bl08t eP .dodf lji0f'dtL gbLsf] nv'tLy{df k'u]/ tL b'O{ el/of dGqkf7 ub}{ afn'jf lgsfln/x]sf lyP . Tolta]nf dWo/ft 9lNs.df kSs} klg s'g} /x:o n's]sf] x'g'k5{.s]kl5 dfq eStk'/ /fHosf] /fhejgdf bflvn eP .af6 Hof]ltifLsf] s'/f e'm§f 7xl/g cfof] . egfOdf ljZj:t eO{ /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnn] cfk\mgf b'O{ el/ofnfO{ tf]lsPsf] .+jt\sf] k|rng cf/De ePsf] lyof].x/df tL eSthgsf] 3/df b'O{ef/L afn'jf .ª\ufnf] 80 . kl5Nnf] v]k afn'jf af]s]/ tL b'O{ el/of eStk'/ . /fhf cfgGbb]jsf] /fHosfndf eStk'/ /fHosf Pshgf Hof]ltifLn] eg]5g\.xh 5}g .x/b]lv olt6f9f afn'jf lng cfp“y] <Æ eGg] nfUof] / logn] tL el/ofnfO{ æklxnf] v]k afn'jf cfk\mgf] 3/df k'¥ofOlbO{ To. g]kfndf kl5Nnf] Psyl/ j+zfjnLdf z+vw/.fu/. o.f/ /fhf euL/yn] >fkåf/f e:d ePsf cfk\mgf lkt[x?sf] p4f/ ug{ s7f]/ tk:of u/L u+ufhLnfO{ cfsf.dft]/ a.af6 eSthgnfO{ æo. Tolta]nf g]kfndf dNn– /fh >]i7sf n]v ./L /ftsf] . 9'+u]wf/fnfO{ u+ufhLsf] k|tLs dfg]/ k'/fgf k|foM .fVjfÆ nfO{ g} cfhef]ln æz+vw/Æ elgg] u/sf] kfOG5 .DaGwL lgDgfª\lst efjsf] ls+jbGtL pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5 . el/ofx?n] æcfk"mx? /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnsf] cfb]zcg'.'g]/ glhs} uO{ x]bf{ dGq kf7 ub}{ vf]nfaf6 afn'jf lgsfln/x]sf b'O{ el/ofnfO{ b]v]/ ælsg o.s]sf] lyof] .Æ Hof]ltifLsf] o. o.lsPdf tL afn'jfx? cjZo klg . o.Dk"0f{ gful/ssf C0f ltl/lbO{ log} eSthgn] – h.'gdf kl/0ft ePg . /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnaf6 ckdfgk"j{s b'Tsfl/Psf Hof]ltifL o.}n] lji0f'dtL gbLdf lgTo:gfg ug{ hfg] sf7df8f}+ d?6f]nsf Pshgf eSthg .dodf eStk'/ .af6 k[YjLnf]sdf NofPsf / z+v ahfp“b} af6f] b]vfP/ . tf]lsPsf] lbg tf]lsPsf] . afn'jf af]s]/ logLx? pHofnf] e}.'gdf kl/0ft x'g]5g\ .fOtsf] .sf] cfjfhnfO{ . eSthgnfO{ /fhf euL/yk|lt s[t1tf 1fkg u/L hn r9fpg] k|of]hgsf] lgldQ g} o:tf d"lt{ /flvPsf lyP .fOtdf lgsflnPsf]n] ef]lnkN6 laxfg. . kmntM oxf“af6 nu]sf] afn'jf afn'jf g} /x\of].x/tk{m nfu]sf lyP .'? u/fPsf x'g\ .]sf /fhf euL/ysf d"lt{x? /flvPsf kfOG5g\ . sf7df8f}+ .dodf – lgsfn]sf b'O{ ef/L afn'jf /ft}df tL eStsf] 3/df k'¥ofOlbP . s'/fsf] hfgsf/L u/fP .fVjf lyof] – cfk\mgf] gfdaf6 z+vw/–. o. . cfk\mgf] b]zsf /fhfnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fO{ o.gftgwdf{jnDaL lxGb'dfqsf] dfGotfcg'.'gdf kl/0ft ePsf] yfxf kfP/ cfk\mgf] Hof]ltif–ljBfdf ljZj:t eO{ t'?Gt g} eStk'/ /fHodf kmls{O{ /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnnfO{ o.s]sf] lyof] .g klg lbOof] . clxn]sf] hdfgfdf afn'jf . otf.f] 9'+u]wf/fdf b'j} xftn] z+vnfO{ . æcfp“bf] kmnfgf] lbg /ftsf] olta]nf z'eof]u k/]sf] 5 .lnPsf .fljt eof] . cGoyf 79 /fh >]i7sf n]v .DaGw /x“b} cfPsf] dflgG5 .f]wgL u/] .To . Tolta]nf d}n] lbPsf] dGqkf7 ub}{ sflGtk'/ /fHoleq kg]{ lji0f'dtL gbLsf] nv'tLy{af6 afn'jfx? lgsfnL Nofpg .x/df eSthgsf] 3/df k'¥ofOPsf] afn'jf eg] Hof]ltifLn] lbPsf] l7s .'gdf kl/0ft e}.f/ eStk'/ /fHoaf6 afn'jf lng cfPsf]Æ egL eSthgnfO{ hfgsf/L lbP .a}h.'gaf6 /fHosf . .Dd k'¥ofPsf lyP . cfu|xaf6 k|efljt eO{ tL b'O{ el/ofn] /ftdf – l7s .af6 Hof]ltifLn] JoSt u/]sf] eljiojf0fL .dfhsf] dfGotfcg'.dodf oxf“af6 afn'jf lgsfn]sf] <Æ egL . o. eStk'/ gk'Ub} – aLraf6f]d} pHofnf] eof] . g]jf/ .a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f t hlta]nf g]kfndf jt{dfg g]kfn–. /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnn] Hof]ltifLnfO{ ckdfgk"j{s b'Tsf/] .} ./L /ftsf] .f/ g]kfn efiffsf] æ.ª\ufnf] logLx? lsg o.df kSs} klg s'g} /x:o x'g'k5{ egL a'e\mg egL lx“8]sf sf7df8f}+ .sf] gfd . logn] c“Wof/f]df u'gu'gfO/x]sf s]xL dflg.“u /fhf euL/ysf] cGof]Gofl>t . o.'gdf kl/0ft eof] eGg] pko'{St cnf}lss cg'>'ltdfly ljZjf.+of]un] ToxL“ k'u]sf lyP . logsf] o.kl5 csf]{ v]kdfq eStk'/df /fhf cfgGbb]j dNnsf] lgldQ nlub]pmÆ egL cfu|x u/] .}n] u+ufhL.sf] lgldQ tL b'O{ el/ofnfO{ cfsif{s Hofnf lbg] cfZjf.a} hnfOlbP .+jt\sf] k|rng .af6 lvGg eO{ Hof]ltifLn] cfk\mgf k':ts tyf kfqfx? .

+jt\sf] k|rng cf/De ePsf] x'g.+jt\ k|rlnt eO. lnR5ljsfnsf] cGTo eO{ j}. olb lnR5lj /fhj+zsf] cGTo eP/ gofF /fhj+zsf] :yfkgf ePsf] pknIfdf g]kfn.s]kl5sf /fhfx? / o.+jt jf /f3jb]j–.Demgfdf g} jt{dfg g]kfn–.S5g\ .fVjfMn] b]zsf .fdfGotof s'g} o'ufGtsf/L 36gf 36]kl5 To.+jt\sf] . ægful/sÆ -zlgjf/. t/ Oltxf. ltg}tfs oxf“ lnR5ljsfnsf] cGTo eO{ j}. .dodf g]kfndf gof“ .+ejt g]kfn zlQmzfnL ltAat .s]sf5g\ .+jt\ cf/De ePsf] xf] eg] cjZo g} tL k|tfkL /fhfn] cfk\mgf] jf cfk\mgf] j+zsf] gfddf gofF.kl5 k]ml/ lsg kg{ . pko'{St cg'>'ltdfly ljZjf.sf] o.fwf/0f gful/s z+vw/ .+jt\ k|rngdf NofP eGg] n]eLsf] syg 5 .sfnsf] cf/De ePsf] lyof] .Demgfdf gof“ .+jt\ cf/De ePsf] #)) jif{hlt kl5 dfq g]kfndf klxnf] dNn–/fhj+zsf] pTyfg ePsf] lyof] . h'g .+jt\sf] k|f/De x'Fbf b]zdf gofF /fhj+zsf] pbo ePsf] x'G5. lbgnfO{ C0fd'lSt lbj.Sg] of] s:tf] of]u xf] < o:tf] of]u o. ug]{ xf] eg] nv'tLy{df /x]sf] afn'dfdfq .+jt\. jf k/fwLg b]zn] cfk\mgf] u'd]sf] :jtGqtf k'gM k|fKt u/]sf] x'G5.+jt\ eujfg\ kz'kltdf r9fO{ k|rngdf NofOPsf] lyof] .eGbf cufl8sf /fhfx? Ps} zfvfsf x'g .S5 .sf/x?n] Ps :j/df n]eLsf] of] ts{sf] v08g ub}{ g]kfn slxNo} klg ltAatsf] cwLgdf lyPg eg]/ ts{ k|:t't ul/.xdt x'Fb} gofF ./fhj+zsf] cl:tTj g} lyPg . t/ j+zfjnLaf6 1ft x'G5 ls sflGtk'/sf Ps .a} gful/ssf C0f lt/L nf]s sNof0fsf/L sfo{ u/]sf lyP . g]kfn.s]g < afn'jf .+jt\sf] gfdfs/0f uy]{ xf]nfg\ . g]kfn–.sf] ?kdf dgfpFb} /fhf /f3jb]jsf] :jLs[lt lnP/ gofF .fd|fHosf] cwLgdf lyof] / g]kfnn] cfk\mgf] :jtGqtf k|flKtsf] pknIfdf gofF . Oltxf. jf o:t} s'g} o'ufGtsf/L 36gf ePsf] x'G5 .'?jft u/fpg] k|rng rNb} cfPsf] kfOG5 .+jt\sf] z'ef/De ePsf] lyof].+jt\Ú . & sflQs @)^^_ df k|sflzt k|f=>Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] 81 /fh >]i7sf n]v . 36gfsf] .Fu c.ª\ufnf] 82 .s]kl5 w]/} el/of gk7fP/ lsg b'O{ hgfnfO{ dfq k7fOof] < el/ofn] kf7 ug]{ dGq s:tf] dGq xf] < o:tf cg]sf}+ k|Zg p7\g .'gdf kl/0ft x'g] cGoqsf] eg] kl/0ft x'g g. of] lbg cfheGbf !!@( jif{ cufl8 sflQs z'Sn k|ltkbfsf] lbg lyof] / o.'gdf kl/0ft x'g] lgZro e}. k|f=>Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] n]v …g]kfn–.sfnsf] cf/De ePsf] dxTjk"0f{ 36gfsf] . cGwsf/o'udf .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . z+vw/– .

fdfu|L oxL g} xf] .g u/]sf] :ki6 pNn]v uf]kfnj+zfjnLsf/n] u/]sf5g\ . ljqmdfAb cyf{t ljqmdfbLTon] rnfPsf] .ª\s]t uf]kfnj+zfjnLsf/n] u/]sf5g\ .fd|fHosf] cwLgdf lyof] / g]kfnn] cfk\mgf] :jtGqtf k|flKtsf] pknIfdf gof“ .sf] pknIfdf gof“.sf/ l.+jt\ k|f/De x'g'eGbf cufl8sf] g]kfnsf] Oltxf. g]kfn.gflwsf/ ls/ft/fhfx?sf] xftdf hf“bf 83 /fh >]i7sf n]v . z+vw/–.ª\s]t uf]kfnj+zfjnLdf kfOG5 . g]kfn.+jt\sf] cf/De ePsf] s'/f n]v]sf5g\ .+jtx? /fhfx?af6 k|rngdf cfPsf .+jt\Æ . jf o:t} s'g} o'ufGtsf/L 36gf ePsf] x'G5 . hltv]/ /fhkl/jt{g x'G5 To.+ejt g]kfn zlQmzfnL ltAat . cGwsf/ o'usf] cGTo. uf]kfn/fhj+zfjnL cg'.eGbf cufl8sf /fhfx? Ps} zfvfsf x'g . cWoog ubf{ yfxf x'G5.sf/ wgah| ah|frfo{af6 lnlvt æuf]kfn/fhj+zfjnLsf] P]ltxfl.Da4 5 h:tf] b]lv+b}g .dsfnLg slknj:t'sf zfSox?s} l5d]sL u0f/fHox?df zf.df Ps o'ufGtsf/L 36gfsf] . zs/fHofAb cyf{t zs/fhfn] rnfPsf] ."qkft eof] h.+jt\– dfgb]j.+jt\ k|rngdf NofP eGg] n]eLsf] syg 5 .sf] rrf{ uf]kfnj+zfjnLdf ul/Psf] 5 .ª\s]t.df eg] lnR5ljx?sf] cGTo / dNnx?sf] pbosf] af/]df pNn]v ePsf] kfOb}g . cfheGbf !!@( jif{ cufl8 g]kfnsf] Oltxf. jf k/fwLg b]zn] cfk\mgf] u'd]sf] :jtGqtf k'gM k|fKt u/]sf] x'G5. aLrdf lnR5lj/fhfsf] xftaf6 zlQm cfeL/u'Ktx?sf] xftdf hf“bf klg o.s tYox?n] tL cg'dfg unt . g]kfn.+jt\ ljqmd.sf] .s ljj]rgfÆ k':tsdf pNn]v eP cg'.+jt\sf] klxnf] k|of]usf] s'/f 5.flxTodf pNn]v kfOG5g\ .Dd klg uf]kfnj+zfjnLsf/n] u/]sf 5}gg\ .lhn} :jLsfg]{ lyP . Ps /fhj+zsf] cGTokl5 csf]{ /fhj+zsf] pbosf] pknIfdf of] .+jt\sf] k|rng ePsf] cg'dfg s]xL Oltxf.fdu|Ldf gof“. dfgb]j:o /fHofAb cyf{t dfgb]jn] rnfPsf] . /fhf /f3jb]jsf] /fHosfn ^# jif{ ^ dlxgfdf To:tf] o'ufGtsf/L s] 36gf ePsf] lyof] / pgn] eujfg\ kz'kltdf r9fP/ gof“. t/ Oltxf.sf/n] u/]sf lyP . uf]kfn.dIf of] n]v k|:t't ug]{ cg'dlt rfxG5' . lnR5lj / dNnx? eujfg a'4sf .“u c.+jt\sf] k|rng /fhj+z kl/jt{g. t/ k|fKt P]ltxfl.+jt\ k|rngdf NofOg' s'g} gf}nf] 36gf xf]Og .sf] o. t/ b]zs} gfddf ck{0f ul/Psf] of] .+jt\sf] k|f/De x'“bf b]zdf gof“ /fhj+zsf] pbo ePsf] x'G5. hxf“. k|rng cg'?k pgn] klg cfk\mg} gfddf gof“. ls/ft/fhfx? x/fO{ lnR5ljx?n] zf.'?jft.f/ kf6g dxfaf}4df kfOPsf] g]=.+jt\ k|of]u ul/Psf] klxnf] k|fdfl0fs .+jt\ g]kfn.+jt\. o.f/ :jfefljs ?kdf dfgb]jkl5 /f3jb]j u2Ldf a.Ædf o. clxn] ."lr n]len] cfk\mgf] k':tsdf lbPsf5g\ .+jt.“u . cGwsf/o'udf .+jtsf] .+jtx? x'g\ . uf]kfn/fhj+zfjnLdf j0f{g ul/Psf j[tfGtaf6 oxL tYonfO{ k'li6 ub{5 .sf/x?n] klg :jLsf/]sf5g\ .g ub{y] eg]/ af}4 . dlxifkfn/fhfx?sf] xftaf6 zf.+=$) df n]lvPsf] æk|1fkf/ldtfÆ gfds x:tlnlvt u|Gydf tfTsflns g]kfnsf /fhfsf ?kdf zª\s/b]jsf] rrf{ 5 .sf] .“u} g]kfndf æb]jÆwf/L /fhfx?sf] nfdf] . gof“ . cGwsf/do lyof] eGg] s'/f Oltxf. Oltxf.af6 g]kfn.sf/x?n] Ps :j/df n]eLsf] of] ts{sf] v08g ub}{ g]kfn slxNo} klg ltAatsf] cwLgdf lyPg eg]/ ts{ k|:t't ul/. Oltxf.n]v æg]kfn–.]sf lyP .j{.s]sf5g\ .s]kl5sf /fhfx? / o. Oltxf.+jt\. Oltxf.ª\ufnf] 84 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu /fhf z"b|sb]jZr jif{ cyf{t /fhf z"b|sb]jn] rnfPsf] .s .+jt g]kfn. Oltxf.+jt\n] xfdLdf yk lh1fzf p7b5 .+jt\ k|rngdf NofOPsf] lyof] . t/ dfgb]jkl5 /f3jb]j /fhf x'“bf /fhj+z kl/jt{gsf] s'g} .+jt k|rngdf Nofpg' k/]sf] lyof] < xfdLdf lh1fzf p7g' :jfefljs xf] . h'ga]nf of] gof“. k|efjzfnL /fhfx?af6 cfk\mg} gfddf gof“ .+jt\ k|rlnt eO.Nef“ n]eLn] cfk\mgf] k':ts æg]kfn clw/fHosf] Oltxf.“u} g]kfn.Dd k|fKt x:tlnlvt u|Gy.xdt x'“b} oxf“x? . clen]v cflb P]ltxfl.ª\ufnf] To.fwf/0f hgtfn] .+jt\ rnfPsf] ePklg .flat ul/lbPsf5g\ .+jt\ k|rngdf NofOPsf] lyof] Tolta]nf s'g} gof“ /fhj+zsf] pbo ePsf] lyPg g t /fhsfhd} s'g} pynk'yn ePsf] lyof] .+jt jf /f3jb]j–.+jt\.Dd g]kfn. log} b]jwf/L /fhfx?dWo] Ps cl/b]j /fh >]i7sf n]v .

ª\ufnf] 86 .}sf] pknIfdf gof“. /fhf/f3jb]jsf] zf. Chokche galli must be Chyakhachen galli with 8 household).gsfndf cl:tTjdf cfPsf] x'gfn] of] .+jt\ eujfg\ kz'kltdf r9fO{ k|rngdf NofOPsf] lyof] . tfTsflns x:tlnlvt u|Gy cflbaf6 klg ljhosfdb]jkl5 cl/ dNn /fhf eP eGg] yfxf x'G5 .f]emf /f3jb]jn] gof“ /fhj+zsf] :yfkgf u/] eGg] ts{ kTofpg d'lZsn k5{ . Oltxf.+jt\sf k|jt{ssf] ?kdf /fli6«o lje"ltsf] .sn hgtfsf C0fdf]rg x'g' g} /f3jb]jsf] /fHosfnsf] Psdfq o'ufGtsf/L 36gf lyof] / o.+:sf/x?sf lbg ulGt ul/G5 . o.f/ ljhosfdb]jkl5 cl/ dNn /fhf eP egL uf]kfnj+zfjnLsf/n] pNn]v u/]sf5g\ .Ddsf . article bx|f] 5 . To.fVjfMnfO{ g]kfn. of] lbg cfheGbf !!@( jif{ cufl8 sflQs z'Sn k|ltkbfsf] lbg lyof] / o.'? x'G5 . cfh xfdL z+vw/ . . So it is possible to clear all the debt by a merchant. eujfg\ kz'kltdf r9fOPs} x'gfn] . Dhonkhwa. kj{. t/ j+zfjnLaf6 1ft x'G5 ls sflGtk'/sf Ps . we use Salkhwa. rf8.+jT.df /fhf /f3jb]jsf] /fHosfndf eujfg\ kz'kltdf r9fOPsf] ækz'klte§f/s–.+jt\ st} st} æ/f3jb]j–.]sf /fhfx?n] cfk"mnfO{ ædNnÆ eg]sf kfO{+b}g . gful/s b}lgs . olb lnR5lj /fhj+zsf] cGTo eP/ gof“ /fhj+zsf] :yfkgf ePsf] pknIfdf g]kfn.g. t/ kl5kl5 of] . But the article of Shree Krishna Acharya ji is also research base.+jtnfO{ dfGotf lbg] /fhf /f3jb]jnfO{ la.f}F /f3jb]jnfO{Æ lzif{sdf k|sflzt k]m. lbgnfO{ C0fd'lSt lbj.eGbf cufl8 u2Ldf a. @))( -sflQs !@.a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof ljKnjdfg l.j{k|yd of] . cfhko{Gt of] k|yf sfod} 5 / g]kfnL k~rfª\udf pNn]v ul/Psf] z+vw/s[t g]kfn.nfO{ 5'§} klxrfgsf] cfjZos k/]g / . cS6f]a/ @(./L xfdLnfO{ yfxf x'G5 ls .+jt\sf k|jt{s z+vw/ g} x'g\ eGg] :ki6 5 .'?df g]kfn b]zs} gfdaf6 :yflkt .dNnn] cfk\mgf] gfdsf] k5fl8 ædNnÆ kbjL wf/0f u/] eGg] n]eLsf] syg 5 .s cl/ dNn g} x'g\ . g]kfn. as facia) somehow can clear the debt of all citizen and propose to start new Lunar calender.\.n] . Fakhwa etc.+jt\ cf/De ePsf] xf] eg] cjZo g} tL k|tfkL /fhfn] cfk\mgf] jf cfk\mgf] j+zsf] gfddf gof“. o. pgsf cg'. Oltxf.Sahuji of Kilagal. (e.+jt\.+jt\ ePsf]n] xf]nf o.Ddfg lbO/x“bf cfheGbf !!@( jif{ cufl8 /fHosf] tk{maf6 gof“ . cfk"mnfO{ :ki6?kdf ædNnÆ n]Vg] o.tfsfsf klxnf zf.+o'Qm ?kdf z+vw/.“u ldnL eujfg\ kz'kltdf of] . cl/dNn u2Ldf a.+jt\ s} cfwf/df xfd|f hfqf. . l/ltl/jfh / hGdb]lv d[To'.+jt / kl5 z+vw/s[t g]kfn. So please put the views. /fh >]i7sf n]v .+jt\ eg]/ ls6]/} j+zfjnL. :d/0f /xf].+jt\Æ x'g' s'g} cfZro{ xf]Og .fwf/0f gful/s z+vw/ .+jt\Æ k|rngdf cfPafx]s cGo s'g} o'ufGtsf/L 36gf ePsf] clen]v kfO{+b}g .+jt\ / ljleGg sfnv08df .fVjfMn] b]zsf .+jt\sf] gfd ækz'klte§f/s–.+jt\ r9fp“bf s'g} g s'g} ?kdf .+x Raj ji.+jtsf k|jt{s sf] x'g eGg] yfxfkfpg eGg] x]t'n] z+vw/s[t g]kfn.Dej 5 .]kl5 ædNno'uÆ .+jt\sf] gfdfs/0f uy]{ xf]nfg\ .sf] ?kdf dgfp“b} /fhf /f3jb]jsf] :jLs[lt lnP/ gof“ .}n] zlQmzfnL lnR5ljx?nfO{ x6fP/ .ª\ufnf] :yfkgfsfndf kz'klte§f/s–.+jt\Æ eg]/ pNn]v x'g klg .+jt r9fP/ nf]s Jojxf/df ptf/]sf lyP . @)^^_ df ægla. clen]v / k~rfª\udf n]lvPsf] x'g'k5{ ./.+jt\ :yfkgf ePsf] lyof] .changing of sand into gold.sf/ wgah| ah|frfo{sf] nueu oxL wf/0ff /x]sf] kfOG5 .{g x'“b}g h.a} gful/ssf C0f lt/L nf]s sNof0fsf/L sfo{ u/]sf lyP . Let's imagine at that time the Subarnapuri (?) or Kantipur is very small and live little population.Daf]wg u/]sf] x'g}kg]{ lyof] . But the person Shankhadhar Shakhwa (Now-a-days also. olb /f3jb]j gof“/fhj+zsf k|jt{s x'g eg] pgn] olt 7"nf] o'ufGtsf/L kl/jt{gnfO{ eujfg\ kz'kltdf gof“ . One thing Shree Krishna Acharya ji shown doubt is the story about the Lakhu Tirtha.+jtsf] cufl8 s'g} ljz]if0f gnufO{ k|of]u ul/Gy] . 85 /fh >]i7sf n]v .

ª\ufnf] kIfdf k|df0f x'g. lbgsf lbg dgfpg] rng 5 . I suggest here that our well known scholars in the respective subjects should also find out whether the mentioned “Nepal Sambat” was just a year related to a small country Kantipur. Since I am not a student of History.DaGwL /fd|f] 1fge08f/ /x]sf] kfP“ .DaGwL .fVjfM w}u' hft dv' w}u' k|df0f n'ofjMu' b' . /fh >]i7 ljKnj bfO{. I also agree here to only one point that let those findings and thought in this important issue must not be based on any personal thoughts rather everyone concerned should try to convince all natives on the reality of our separate identical heritages which is certainly an honor for all of us. Around 1990 we (me and Shiva Dhakal) have published ABRITI Science Digest and the cover story of Kathmandu Hijo Aaja Voli.com/doc/20243383/Sankhadhar-Krita-Nepal-Samvat /fh >]i7sf n]v . Gxfkf josM oft z+s'bQ wfOu' h'ofRjg . thank you both for the good discussions here on the issue of Nepal Sambat. So. Thank you for the suggestion and your interest in the subject. pls+ yf}+sGxo\ z+vw/ j .Gwfg ug{ o. 6]+uf / uf]kfnx?n] /fhwfgL agfPsf] dftftLy{sf] pQ/df kg]{ sflGtk'/ zx/sf] cjl:ylt cflb cWoogsf nflu . you can check this link to a book written by Kashinath Tamot. g]kfnefiffdf .fVjfMsf] cy{ lsnfunsf . clxn] klg cfk\mgf] kl/jf/df s. .+x Actually.S5g\ . -ltAatL u|Gyx?df klg g]kfnsf] C0fdf]rg . kfNrf tjg]u.S5g\ .fVjfn h'u' g+ wfO . At that time we have collected all the information about Kathmandu in every aspect: geographically. oxf“x? b'a}nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb . 'Tenga' = the 'ga' of 'Yen'. o]+.fVjfM h'ofM . C0f ltg{ Tolta]nfsf] sflGtk'/sf] hg. May be Kantipur is built on Nepa.scribd. Yjx] z+Vjf kfv] z+v h'ofM z+vw/ h'u' wfO . ljKnjdfg l._ For more on Shankhadhar and Nepal Samvat. /fh]Gb| zfSo VjkMof h“nfTjfno= Rj+u' clen]vo\ z+Vjf . rf]vf5]+ uNnLsf] g]kfnefiffdf cYof{p“bf RofMvf5]+ -cf73/sf] . o. 'Barpa' land outside Kantipur. when we are little boys there is a 'Sahuji' called 'Salkhwa' in Kilagal (Kisi Ga:).ª\ufnf] 88 . a'l4lhjL / Oltxf.“u o. s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n Quite Interesting.}sf] d[To' x'“bf sflGtk'/sf] k'/fgf] leqL zx/ 3'Dg] k/Dk/fdf pkfs' jg]u'. I invite here all intellectuals of this country to come with one point findings to end any further unnecessary controversy in this subject for ever. May be Shankhadhar is known as Sakhwa.+x Actually the size of Kantipur is small.fVjfM lgtf+ 5Dx x] dg"of gf+ vM. oxf“n] .d"x_. ljKnj bfO{./fh >]i7 Dear Biplav Dai.fdu|Lsf] .+Vofsf] k|. ljKnjdfg l. I can see that it is still a challenging and quite important issue for many scholars of this country to come with exact findings.Dat\ eg]/ pNn]v ul/Psf] k|df0f e]6fOPsf] 5 . I do not know whether that time the stated country Kantipur was actually the capital of whole Nepal?? Or if Nepal was born with its special identity as of Nepal today before 1161 Years.Dat\ wsfM jofRj+u' k|df0f n'ofjMu' b' . http://www. where the gracious Vaju Shankhadhar did such a magnificent work by paying the entire debts of the poor people. historically. Till now we use 'de chahiligu' on 'Upakhu onegu' with palcha. anthropolozically. Above thesis is the finding of that research.fx'hL. . cy]x]. Another very interesting thing is we have 'Yakpa'.+jt\ woftM u' b' . on. ltAatof u|Gyo\ g+ g]kfMof C0fdf]rg . . cflb ts{x? g]kfn. z+VjfM kfv]+ x] . The Gopal use to rule from Matatirtha and the Ktm is north from there.+jt / z+vw/sf ljifodf yk cg'.femf wf/0ffsf] cfjZostf klg pxf“n] cf}+Nofpg'ePsf] 5 .|f]t klg atfO lbg' x'G5 ls < s[i0fdfghL n] g]kfn . ljifosf hfgsf/.+jt\ / z+vw/sf 87 /fh >]i7sf n]v .+u.fdu|Lx? x'g. They should also concentrate on the facts that there were also hundreds on other small countries at that time. And another interesting thing is name of Ktm is 'Yen' means north ('Yembu'= north khet) the way to 'Yen' is 'Yenlan' now Patan. b]rflxn]u' eg]/ OGb|hfqfsf] s]xL lbg cl3 Ps vf. Bansawali and Linguastically.sf/x?n] hf“u/ rnfpg' kg]{ eGg'ePsf] 5 . So I just give example. Nonetheless.

+jt\ jf /f3jb]j–.Dd h] hlt cWoog. He must've extracted gold particles from the sand of Lakhu Tirtha. k|f=>Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] n]vn] g]kfn. The sand itself doesn't turn into gold but it can have a lot of gold particles mixed. Around 3 lakh people gathered to extract gold from the sand in the river bed.d]t cgfjZos låljwf v8f u/]/ e|d >[hgf ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . @)^^_ df ljrf/ :tDe cGtu{t d]/f] n]v gla. k|fWofksHo"n] cfk\mgf] n]vdf …afn'jf . I have now plenty of stuff to read about Nepal Samvat and Shankhadhar. lsDablGt / j+zfjnLdf pNn]v ul/Psf 36gf.'g x'G5 ls x'Fb}g jf el/ofx?n] s'g dGq kf7 u/] <Ú eg]/ k|df0f dfUg vf]Hg' s]jn d"v{tf dfq x'g]5 . z+vw/–. We need to tell people who is not in the favour of the incident about this. The incident is known as California Gold Rush in American history. kfq .lsg .Gbe{df j}1flgs k|df0f vf]Hg' eg]sf] .“u c. It is a regular practice in every parts of the world. hg>'lt / lsDablGtdf cfwfl/t sltko 36gf ljz]ifnfO{ x'ax' cfhsf] .+jt\sf] kIfdf xfn..+jt\.+jt\ / o.sf/x?n] u|x0f u/]sf x'G5g\ . n]vsf] lzif{s k9\bf z+vw/.Gwfg ePsf 5g\ / To. z+vw/–.sf tYox?nfO{ k"0f{tof gsfb}{ g]kfn.+jt\sf] gfddf .+jt\. gful/s -sflQs !@.Dej x'Fb} gx'g] s'/f x'g\ . I think we need to publicize the sand issue of Shankhadhar from this perspective. But I now realize that they are making propaganda not to give credit of establishment of New Nepal era to Shankhadhar.a} e'm§f lyP eGg' eGbf To. pxfFsf] n]vsf] lzif{saf6 . that's just around 150 years ago.+jt jf /f3jb]j–. Thank you very much for sending me the link of Kashinath Tamot's book. Shankhadhar's case is the same one.xdt x'“b} n]v]sf] x'“ .sn b]zjf. In California in 1850s.“u} /f3jb]jnfO{ klg 89 /fh >]i7sf n]v ..'g x'G5… eGg] syg s} cfwf/df z+vw/sf] cl:tTj / . 36gf.+jt\ eg]/ cfk"m hGd]b]lv :ki6 gfd ePsf] g]kfn–. cg'./fds'df/ >]i7 I would like to thank you all for the article and discussion.f/ tTjnfO{ g} Oltxf.ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .+jt\Æ .ª\ufnf] 90 . t/ k|fWofksHo"n] Úafn'jf . k|f= >Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] n]v k|lt c. there was a massive gold rush near Coloma. Such gold particles are called placer deposits and obtaining gold from sand is called placer mining.Lsf] C0fdf]rgsf] 36gfnfO{ g} cl:jsf/ ug]{ w[i6tf ug'{ ePsf] 5 .“u . Really enjoyed to have more interesting information. hg>'lt.af6 k|fKt pknAwLnfO{ k"0f{tof gsf/]/ Oltxf.sf k|jt{s k|lt e|fds / gsf/fTds wf/0ff cf]s]n]sf] 5 .d]t g]kfn– . So sand cannot turn into gold but it may contain gold particles. /fh >]i7 Rajendra jee. kfq ljz]ifsf .f}F /f3jb]jnfO{ k|sflzt ul/lbg' ePsf]df wGojfb lbg rfxG5' t/ pQm n]vsf] lzif{s 5gf}6 k|lt eg] d v'zL x'g . /fh >]i7 Great job Rajendra jee! You have provided the solid proof about how sand turned into the gold at the time of Shankhadhar.xdtL @ /fh]Gb| zfSo And about sand turning into gold. d'ntM d}n] pQm n]v k|f=>Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] n]v æg]kfn–. Remember.

k|f=>Ls[i0f cfrfo{sf] n]vn] g]kfn.+jt\ eg]/ cfk"m hGd]b]lv :ki6 gfd ePsf] g]kfn–.4 x'G5 g} t/ To.Dej x'“b} gx'g] s'/f x'g\ .4 kkufos dfOsn HofS. z+vw/ . @)^^ _ df k|sflzt cd/k|. xfn.gsfn ePsf] x'“bf pgsf] of]ubfgsf] s'/f t :jtM l./L wgL eP5 <Æ æo.sf k|jt{s k|lt e|fds / gsf/fTds wf/0ff cf]s]n]sf] 5 .fVjfMn] of] ./. cg'.fVjfMÆsf] .+:yfks eGg] ts{ k"0f{ ?kdf e'm7f] . hxf“. o.4 cd]l/sL cleg]qL dln{g d'g/f]sf] lgwgdf klg xTof jf cfTdxTof eGg] af/] y'k|} syf.ª\ufnf] 92 .Dd uf]kfn/fhj+zfjnLdf kfOb}g eg]/ t d}n] clus} n]vdf rrf{ ul/.Dd h] hlt cWoog.s]sf] x'G5 . .sn hgtfnfO{ C0faf6 d'lQm lbnfpg' / To.fVjfMn] of] . xfd|} 91 /fh >]i7sf n]v .fef/ lng rfxG5' .eGbf cl3 w]/} n]vsx?n] n]Vg' ePs} 5 ./L /fh >]i7sf n]v .sf . lsDablGt / j+zfjnLdf pNn]v ul/Psf 36gf.gsfn lyof] . pxf“sf] n]vsf] lzif{saf6 .}sf] pknIfdf g]kfn .f/ tTjnfO{ g} Oltxf.d]t g]kfn– .Dd g]kfn.+jt\ cf/De ePsf] #)) jif{hlt kl5 dfq dNn pkflwk|fKt /fhfx? b]vf k/] / cfgGbb]j dNn z+vw/sf .+jt\sf] :yfkgf x'g' g} xf] eGg] d]/f] hf]8 d]/f] n]vdf /x]sf] 5 . a+unf.sf] .+jt\ / /fli6«o lje"lt z+vw/ .'g x'G5Æ eGg] syg s} cfwf/df z+vw/sf] cl:tTj / .Sg'x'g]5 .sf/ wgah| ah|frfo{af6 lnlvt æuf]kfn/fhj+zfjnLsf] P]ltxfl.f ug]{x?dfq x}g pgsf] wgsf] .ª\ufnf] .Gwfg ePsf 5g\ / To.DaGwdf d æuf]/vfkqÆ -c.sn b]zjf.Gwfgstf{sf] v'jL eg]sf] To. k|fWofksHo"n] cfk\mgf] n]vdf æafn'jf .fn} dfq}sf] 36gf xf] s]xL .s]sf] 5' .fy xfOnfO6]8 ugf{n] n]vsf] p2]Zodf g/fd|f] s'7f/f3ft ePsf] cg'ej dnfO{ eof] .+jt\ / o.s ljj]rgfÆ x]g{.sf tYox?nfO{ k"0f{tof gsfb}{ g]kfn. To.s]sf] g} 5' .g]kfn. pksyf cfh.f] u¥of] xf]nfÆ jf æp. of] . z+vw/–.DaGwdf klg pxf“sf] ts{ k"0f{ e'm7f] ePsf] d}n] cluNnf] n]vdf n]vL. hg>'lt / lsDablGtdf cfwfl/t sltko 36gf ljz]ifnfO{ x'ax' cfhsf] .|f]t vf]Hg]x?n] klg yl/yl/sf nv\ cGbfh sf6]xf]nfg\ .f] u¥of] xf]nfÆ eg]/ cg'dfg ug]{ k|z:t} e]l6G5g\ . o.+jtsf k|jt{ssf] ?kdf dfGotf lbg'k5{ eGg] e|fds .Lsf] C0fdf]rgsf] 36gfnfO{ g} cl:jsf/ ug]{ w[i6tf ug'{ ePsf] 5 .+jt\ k|rngdf NofPsf] a]nf g]kfndf /f3jb]j zf.dfrf/x? xfdLn] . eGbf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f z+vw/n] .+at\ k|rngdf NofPsf] a]nf g]kfndf /f3jb]jsf] zf.+jt\sf] gfddf ./L ug{ .+s]t .+jtsf] z'ef/Dedf oxL Ps dfq o'ufGtsf/L 36gf ePsf] / /fhj+z kl/jt{sf] s'g} .fb hf]zLn] n]Vg'ePsf] n]v æg]kfn.gsf] lgwgsf] af/]df Ps cfk.f/ z+vw/ .sf/0f hg>'lt.cg'.f]h #).do cl3 k|l. cGTodf pxf“sf] ts{ g]kfn.df lj/f]wL .'g x'G5 ls x'“b}g jf el/ofx?n] s'g dGq kf7 u/] <Æ eg]/ k|df0f dfUg vf]Hg' s]jn d"v{tf dfq x'g]5 . kfq . t/ k|fWofksHo"n] æafn'jf .}n] k|fWofksHo"sf] ts{ lnR5lj/fhj+zsf] cGTo / j}zsfnsf] pbo / /fhf /f3jb]j To. To.+jt\ jf /f3jb]j–. To. uf8L v/Lb ubf{ æof] s. t/ cg'. k|l.+jt\.s] xf]nfg\ eg]/ /fhfklg cfZro{df k/]xf]nfg\ .'Gg kfOG5 . crfgs Ps JolQmn] olt 7"nf] sfo{ s.d]t cgfjZos låljwf v8f u/]/ e|d >[hgf ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 .+jt klxnf] k6s pNn]v ePsf] k|fdfl0fs u|Gysf] .{/tL x]g]{ kf7sx?sf] nflu eg] d]/f] n]vn] cGo cy{ lbg vf]h]sf] efg x'G5 / n]vsf] cGTo lt/sf] cg'R5]bnfO{ ljz]if dxTjsf . 36gf.dsfnLg lyP eGg] k|Zg 5 . t/ lzif{sdfq .fljt x'G5 .Gb]z uPsf]df d lgs} b'vL 5' .f/ tTjnfO{ lng' xf] .af6 k|fKt pknAwLnfO{ k"0f{tof gsf/]/ Oltxf.Dd k9g / .sf] k|df0f rflxPdf Oltxf. cfhsf] !!@( jif{ clusf] 36gfnfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} cfh k|:t't ubf{ w]/} kl/jt{g cfO. k|df0f vf]Hg' g} x'G5 eg] cfh klg g]kfnsf gbLx?df .a} e'm§f lyP eGg' eGbf To.sf/x?n] u|x0f u/]sf x'G5g\ .Gbe{df j}1flgs k|df0f vf]Hg' eg]sf] .'Gb} cfPsf 5f} . g]kfn .'gsf s0f kfOPsf 5g\ / of] ljifodf o. To:t} dflxnf 5f]/f hob]jn] kf6gdf / sfG5f 5f]/f cfgGbb]jn] eQmk'/df /fHo rnfPsf lyP .+jt\sf] kIfdf xfn.dfhdf s'g} JolQm cs:dft wgL x'“bf jf 3/.jfn 5 To. kfq ljz]ifsf . z+vw/n] b]zjf. /fhf dfgb]jsf tLg 5f]/fdWo] h]7f 5f]/f /f3jb]j sflGtk'/df /fHo rnfPsf lyP .Lsf] C0fdf]rg ug{ cfk\mgf] wg vlr{bf“ pgsf] of] nf]ssNof0f sfo{sf] k|z+.

cd]l/sfaf6 xhf/f}F dLn 6f9f.jfnfv ¿k}“of. hf] e]l6G5.sf] cjlw cem a9\g .f}F ztfAbLsf] of] bzs dfG5]n] dª\unu|xdf kfOnf 6]Sg]5 .{b 5}g / qmdzM cfk"mnfO{ 9'ª\u] o'usf] cGwsf/lt/ kms{b} uPsf] cfef.]/ rGb|dfsf] s'/f ug'{ cy{xLg nfUb5 . u[lx0fLx¿ cfk\mgf] >Ldfg\nfO{ eGb} u/]sL e]l6G5–æo.]l8ª\ eufpg rfxg]x¿sf nflu pQ/sf] l5d]sL b]z lrg cfk\mgf cfZro{hgs 93 /fh >]i7sf n]v . cfwf/e"t cfjZostf eO.g ub{y] pgL g} z+vw/sf .Sg] eG5g\ .sf] ljqmL x\jfQ} a9]sf]5 .a}n] lsGg .dsfnLg lyP .lxtsf].Sg] . Oltxf. klRr.f/ ahf/df ljleGg sDkgLsf yl/yl/sf OGe6{/x¿ kfOG5g\ – tLgcf]6f l.Pkm\Pn\ lrd aNg].s]kl5 #)) jif{ kl5sf] cfgGbb]j dNn xf]Og ls /fhf /f3jb]js} .Dd. of] j:t' .. dWod ju{b]lv pRr. @)^^_ sf] gful/s b}lgsdf æcfrfo{sf] n]v z+vw/k|lt gsf/fTdsÆ lzif{sdf k|sflzt OGe6{/ hLjg z}nL . cem lgDg ju{sf] kx'“r x'g] u/L .]l8ª\sf] df/df 5f}“ .ª\ufnf] 94 .dsfnLg /fhf eP/ /fHo u/]sf lyP . x'G5 .f/ ./L klg lsGg} k5{ x}. . ljB't\ k|flws/0f o.dsfnLg lyP eGg] k|dfl0ft x'G5 .aeGbf ljkGg b]z g]kfndf a.f]Rb}5'.Sg] d"Nodf OGe6{/ pknAw u/fOlbPsf]df . blIf0f Pl.s]sf] 5.df Pp6} gfd / kbjLwf/L /fhfx? y'k|} e]l6G5g\ . ahf/df o.'¿ x'“b} .'g]sf] Pp6f ljB'tLo pks/0f oltv]/ xfd|f] cfjZostf x'g cfPsf] 5 . kfgL tfGg] d]l.kfnL t Pp6f OGe6{/ h. Ps8]9 jif{ clu cfd g]kfnLn] gfd} g. g]kfn.Ddsf] Ifdtf ePsf . o.:t}df nf]8.o b]lv .Ddsf.s]5 . sDKo'6/.otcg'.g rnfpg .ofsf] . g]kfnL pkef]Stfsf] cfon] wfGg .Sg] .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . eGb\ofÆ5' .. dnfO{ eg] hLpgsf nflu cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] hf]xf] ub}{ k'm.+jt\ cf/De e}. @))( -sflQs !(. l6eL.dsfnLg pgsf sfG5f efO{ cfgGbb]j hf] eQmk'/df zf. cfjZostfcg'.f]nf/ Kofg.fw'jfb 5. p OGe6{/ lsGg bf}l8Psf] 5 . slt rf“8f] OGe6{/ gfdwf/L of] j:t' xfd|f] hLjgsf] cleGg cª\u eO. gf]e]Dj/ %./L cfgGbb]j z+vw/sf .Æ blIf0fsf] l5d]sL b]z ef/tnfO{ . PSsfO. cf–cfk\mgf] x}l.ltg} efO . xfdL b}lgs !! 306fsf] nf]8.

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xdtL ePsf] lyof] .+3Lo ldzg cgldgnfO{ ljbf lbg] h'g k|of.kmn cf/f]x0f ug]{ dWo] Ps t]lGhª\ gf]u]{ g]kfnL x'g\ t/ pgn] ef/tLo gful/stf u|x0f u/]kl5 g]kfnn] Tof] cj.S5 . bnx? / ef/t aLr .Demf}tfdf s] lyof] of] clxn] . b]znfO{ o:tf] uDeL/ . g]kfnL sf“u|]. n]vnfO{ dg k/fpg' ePsf] 5 . clxn] k"j{ /fhfaf6 /fhtGq .+o'Qm /fi6« .lsGg . .+3Lotf ePsf] .dodf /fhf.lxtsf] . 101 /fh >]i7sf n]v . cnª\sfl/s /fhf.n] rfx]sf] h:tf] . g]kfnnfO{ eujfg\ a'4 hGd]sf] b]zsf] ?kdf h'g uf}/j k|fKt lyof]. gof“ .Demf}tf lxGbL efiffdf 8«fkm\6 ul/Psf] lyof] eg]/ lah'S5] s} syg bf]x¥ofpg'eof] .f+:s[lts /fhf jf lzz' /fhfsf] cjwf/0ff To. /. t/ g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmofdf . eO/x]sf] 5. . ef/t s} OR5f / cfsf“Iff adf]lhd dfq g]kfndf kl/jt{g .d]t cltqmldt x'g' k'u]sf 5g\ .+ljwfg x'g a]/ nfpg] 5}g .dIf o. /fh >]i7sf n]v .kmn b]vfP/ /fi6«.Demf}tf g} x'g'k5{ . To.fpg] / o:t} c/fhstfsf aLr cfk\mgf] cflwkTo sfod ug]{ ef/tsf] s'6Ln rfnnfO{ g]kfnsf /fhgLlt1x?n] a'em]sf 5}gg eGg . ef/t afx]ssf g]kfnsf z'elrGts ldq /fi6« / .a} s'/faf6 g]kfndf x'g] .} cfPsf] xf]Og . clxn] kl5Nnf] k6s gful/s b}lgsdf k|sflzt Ps n]vdf g]kfnL sf“u|].f] eof]Æ eg]sf] d]/f] :d/0fdf tfh} 5 . lbJo lbJo / cGo $ hgfn] o. Ps dw]z Ps k|b]z . g Pdfn]n] rfx]sf] h:tf] ax'bnLo hgjfbL x'G5 jf g dfcf]jfbLn] rfx] h:tf] hgtflGqs g} x'G5 . .dfhjfbL x'G5.r]t eP/ cgldgnfO{ dfcf]jfbL . kl5Nnf] k6s ef/taf6 g]kfnL /fhgLlt / g]kfnL l.Dd cgldgsf] e"ldsf / pkl:ylt g]kfndf cfjZos 5 eGg] 7fGb5g\ . æof] /fhd's'6 hgtfnfO{ gf.dfly s'7f/f3ft ub}{ ef/tn] a'4 ef/tLo x'g\ / eujfg\sf] hGd ef/tsf] slknj:t'df ePsf] xf] eg]/ e|d l.+3 dfcf]jfbL lzlj/df /x]sf] n8fs'x?sf] ./ u'dfof] . olb x'G5 eg] ef/tn] rfx] h:tf].sf g]tf rqm af“:tf]nfn] klg !@ a'“b] .Dd sfd ug{ lbg' g]kfnsf] cl:tTj s} nflu clgjfo{ zt{ x'g . Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL . To. .+x aLrsf] .Qfdf 5g\ eg]/ eg]sf lyP .+3sf] e"ldsf c.n] km]l/ Psk6s b]znfO{ .+o'Qm /fi6« .+ljwfg u0ftGq g]kfnsf] .Demf}tf eP adf]lhd gePsf]. ca ef/tdf aGb} u/]sf] gSsnL n'lDagL / gSsnL slknj:t'sf] . cfufld h]7 !$ df gof“ .dfKt ePsf] 5}g eGg] h'g cleJolQm cfof] To:sf] k[i7e"ld eg]sf] !( lbg] hgcfGbf]ngsf] .Dk"0f{ ?kdf ef/tLo df]8]nsf] .a} vfnsf /fhgLlts kl/jt{gdf ef/tsf] slt 7"nf] e"ldsf x'g] /x]5 eGg] s'/f 5n{ª\Uofp“5 .sf xftxltof/ Joj:yfkg geP.z:q åGbdf km. /fds'df/ >]i7.}n] a]nfotn] cgldgsf] Dofb yKg g]kfnnfO{ .+ljwfg n]lvG5g\ ls n]lvb}g eGg] xf] .lxtsf] cf7 bn / ef/tLo k|ltlglw s/g l. 36gfqmdn] o:t} atfO/x]sf 5g\ .]gf / p. To. clk|n ^.Dd aflx/ cfPsf] 5}g . clkt' g]kfnsf wfld{s. To.fb cfrfo{. bnx?n] cfk"mnfO{ wf]sf lbPsf] / pko'Qm .do d} . lxGbL efiffdf 8«fkm\6 ul/Psf].DaGwdf klg g]kfnn] r'k nfu]/ a:g] xf] eg] eujfg\ a'4 g]kfnL x'g\ / pgL g]kfnsf] n'lDagL slknj:t'df hGd]sf x'g\ eGg] uf}/j klg g]kfnn] u'dfpg] 5 .u/dfyfdf klxnf] k6s . lxGbL efiffnfO{ klg /fli6«o efiffsf] ?kdf dfGotf lbnfOPsf]. ug]{5'.dodf hgtf .s]sf] 5 .+ljwfg hf/L x'G5 ls x'“b}g eGbf klg dxTjsf] ljifo ca g]kfnL hgtfn] rfx]sf] h:tf] . gful/s b}lgs.h{gf ubf{ klg g]kfnn] .. k"j{ /fhfn] u2L 5f]8\g] a]nfdf .Demf}tfdf s'g} g s'g} ?kdf /fhtGq hLljt /fVg] /fhf.a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof bfdf]b/ k|.Dej x'g] x'“bf] /x]5 eGg] s'/fdf ca låljwf /x]g .d:of cfpgaf6 arfpg] xf] eg] .s]sf 5}gg\ . @)!) -r}t @$. ca Tof] .}n] of] cg'dfg nufpg uf¥xf] 5}g ls Tof] . @)^^_ df k|sflzt k]m.ª\ufnf] ef/tsf] e"ldsf a9fpg cgldgnfO{ ljbf lbg] tof/L ul/b}+ 5 .ª\ufnf] 102 .'emfj lbO./fHo.Dd af]Ng . oL .dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg geP.Dkbf / Oltxf.sf] kbf{kmf.+ljwfg g g]kfnL sf“u|]./sf/L tj/af6 r'“OSs .dfgfdfq cltqmldt eO/x]sf 5}gg\.f+:s[lts .

'hg Gof}kfg].fyL eGg] 5}g. b]zdf ca s]xL jif{.Demf}tf u/]/ cufl8 a9'g' k5{ .+3Lotf xf]Og.+3Lotf eof] eg] pgLx?n] rfx] h:t} t/fOdfly lgoGq0f sfod x'G5 .lsG5 . cfly{s.d]l6Psf] 5 . /fds'df/ >]i7. dfq nf]stGqsf] lyof] . clxn]sf] kl/l:yltdf dg b¥xf] kf/]/ c? s'g} Pp6f b]z. further more.+jfxs bnx? g} .kmn b]zsf] >]0fLdf k'uL . klZrdfx?n] a+ufO lbPsf] 5 h.+3Lotfsf] d'2f p7fPsf lyPgg\.fd]n 5g\ .+o'St /fi6« .nfO{ xfd|f s]xL a'l4hLjL .Daf]wg ug]{ lgsfo jf bn clxn] g]kfndf 5}gg\ . pgLx?sf] cfjfh . a'e\mg h?/L 5. My conclusion. oxL lzIffn] g} b]zsf] .Demf}tf dfq ug{ . t/.f+:s[lts clg wfld{s nufot ef/tLo cltqmd0faf6 jfSs xfdL g]kfnLx?sf] . o. it is your one of many those good works for elucidating the ignorant mass in our suppressed society. hftLo cfwf/df . they grown there 'Dana pani' comes from there. nId0f k'/L.d:of s]jn t/fOjf. As we see here.lxtsf] ljs]lGb|t clwsf/ s]lGb|t nf]stflGqs Joj:yf dfq xf] . receptions and dinners at the beloved neighbor’s embassy and house of those covert or overt diplomats working here under special tasks.z+s/ cfrfo{ Really nice analysis. a]nfot . cfly{s cj:yf ce}m lau|b}+ uO{ b]znfO{ ljb]zLn] c. still so called intellectual society or/and the Society of Citizens are found roaming after cocktails. xf].\ ug'{xf]nf.d. 8n/df laSg] hftLjfbL g]tfx?n] of] tYo a'em]sf 5g\ jf 5}gg\ t/ t/fOsf] .femf cfjfh of] n]vdf .Dd zflGtsf] sNkgf gu/] x'G5 . . sf7df8f}+ Raj.sf] pd]/ ef/t hlt s} kfpg' x'g]5 . tkfOn] p7fPsf] d'2f hfoh 5 t/ of] u|fOG8 l8hfOgdf :jod\ nf]stGq . /fd|f] n]vsf] nflu oxf“nfO{ wGojfb 5 . Toxf“sf] .}n] xfd|f] b]zsf] ljleGg lsl.a}sf] egfO / u/fOdf km/s x'G5 .dfg cj.“u . ca o.+o'St /fi6« /fh >]i7sf n]v . most of the people here are suppressed from seen and unseen slaves who are supporting or making their such missions much comfortable by providing many kind of assistances to their masters while they are working in many decision makings roles and this is quite scary since we are prone to any kind of infections from those dirty termites. Go on Sir.ª\ufnf] deleting from them due to our continuous stand against their vested games and on several similar burning issues since that kind of our works might not be making them to achieve their goals so easily.sf xf“ufx?sf] Oltxf. . . lsgls. It is really sad we are unable to change such scenarios though we always talk or stand for the Practices of appropriate norms and values in our society.Sof] eGg]5g\ . "Aafno thaili ko mukh tight garnu dherai ramro" cRo't >]i7 lk|o /fhefO{ ! efjgf tkfO{sf] cfb/0fLo 5. To.fb kf}8]n Very good job! I think it is our (Nepalese) weakness and our politicians' "Lacharipan" because they born in India.f]r] h:tf] x'g] 5}g .fgf] d'n'snfO{ jf:tjdf .dsf] cj:yf / kl/l:yltn] ubf{ s'g} b]z cfhsf] cj:yfdf xfd|f] .+3Los/0f s. c:6«]lnof /fhgLlts. lsgls.fdlos /fhgLlts lj8Dagfsf] /fd|f] zNos[of u'?k|. U haven't mentioned about latest MRP Kanda. . s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n.+3Lotf k|j]z u¥of]. vf]tNbf o. nf]stGqsf] 3f]if0ff kl5 eg] PsfPs g]kfndf ./ / kx'“r . clg j}1flgs tyf tslgsL lzIfflt/ g} xfd|f] ljz]if Wofg x'g'k5{ . vfnL . xfd|f] .+3 / o. .ª\ufnf] 104 . Despite of the fact of such.Dk|e'tfsf] /Iff ug]{5 . Tof] klg hftLo ?kdf .sf l8hfOg/nfO{ yfxf 5. . some time I feel that some of us should also be in that process of 103 /fh >]i7sf n]v .LnfO{ dfq yfxf 5 . g]kfn h:tf] .dodf dfq hgtfsf] va/bf/L xf] . g]kfn zAbsf] / b]zsf] Oltxf. slknj:t' jf:tjd} ^@÷^#sf] cfGbf]ngdf hgtfn] . t/.nfO{ k|ltjfb ug]{ zlSt eg]sf] clxn]sf] . and we are confident that such kind of works would be able to delete any of the remaining historical identities of this country and its sovereign people. /fhgLltdf b]z b]zsf aLrdf klg s'g} c6'6 ldqtf x'“b}g.fyLx?n] klg pgLx?sf] egfOnfO{ cfk\mgf] kof{Kt cWoog gx'“bf dfGg yfn]sf 5g\ . Raj.Eotfsf] Oltxf.}n] klg .

b]z g]tfsf] xf]Og ca hgtfsf] agfpg} kg]{ ePsf]5 . lgs} oyfy{ ljZn]if0f . k'¥ofPsf] 5 . wGojfb .sf] cy{ ef/tsf] bjfjdf . @ nId0f k'/LhL. a]nfa]nfdf x'“b} cfO/x]sf] ef/tsf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . xfd|f] Oltxf.s]sf] 5 .+u7gsf] vf“rf] kg]{ 5}g . oxf“n] eg] h:t} jf:tljs b]zeStx? Pp6} df]rf{df cfpg' h?/L 5 ./ / kx'“r .r]t sndnfO{ ./sf/n] u/]sf] ef/tLo e§sf] lgo'lQmn] g]kfnL e§ g} lgo'lQm ug'{kg]{ jiff}{ b]lvsf] g]kfnL] rfxgfdf cf3ft k'u]sf] 5 .dfg cj. s]bf/gfy h:tf ef/tLo dlGb/df g]kfnL k'hf/L /x]h:t} g]kfnsf] kz'klt dlGb/df ztfJbLcf}+ b]lv ef/tLo k'hf/L /x“b} cfPsf]n] k/Dk/f ljyf]lng gx'g] cf.fyLx?df cfef/ .. g]kfnL hgtfn] :ki6 ?kdf ef/tLo e§ c:jLsf/ ub{5 eGg] hfGbf hfGb} .fj{ef}d /fi6«sf] ?kdf dfGg g]kfn jfWo 5}g .s]sf] 5. I need to write a separate topic on MRP.+:s[ltsf] lr/kmf8 eO./f.'emfjsf] nflu oxf“nfO{ w]/} w]/} wGojfb . ef/tLo e§sf] lgo'lQmsf] lj/f]wdf kz'klt / rfjlxn If]qdf lj/f]w eO/x“bf ef/tLo ljb]zdGqLaf6 agf/. cRo't .y{ .§fdf ef/tn] klg kz'kltgfy dlGb/df ef/tLo e§ /fVg rfx]sf] xf] eg] g]kfnn] :ki6 zJbdf eGg . sfzLdf g]kfnL k'hf/L lgo'Qm 5 eGb} To. jf:tljs ?kdf .Sg'kb{5 sfzLdf g]kfnL k'hf/L /fVg' g/fVg' ef/tsf] cfk\mgf] v'zLsf] s'/f xf] t/ g]kfnL hgtf kz'kltgfy dlGb/df ef/tLo e§ /fVg rfxb}gg\ ./sf/n] ha{h:tL ef/tLo e§nfO{ d"n dlGb/df k|j]z u/fP/ g]kfnL efjgfdf 7]. /fh >]i7 k|ltlqmof lbg' x'g] .s]sf] lyof]./.lxtsf] ljs]lGb|t clwsf/ ePdf . tkfO{sf] /fi6«jfbL / .osf jQmJo hf/L eP . k|ltlqmofsf] cfzfdf . b]zsf] . e§ lgo'lQmn] wfld{s .ª\ufnf] kz'klt dlGb/df k/Dk/fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} . @ 105 /fh >]i7sf n]v . s]xL tyfsyLt a'l4hLjLx? s} sf/0f cgfjZos emd]nf x'g] u/]sf pbfx/0f klg kfOG5 . k]ml/ ToxL e"n gu/f}+ . clxn]nfO{ olts}. cfhsf] kl/l:yltdf b]znfO{ s'g} klg /fhgLlts kf6Lsf] lhDdfdf 5f]8\g . :jtGq a'l4hLjL sfo{qmdsf] gf/f eg]/ cufl8 a9\g . @ u'? kf}8]nhL.n] atfO .lsb}g .fyLx?.+3sf] dftxtdf /fVg] k|:tfj Nofpg] 5g .lsG5 . oxf““sf] . s'g} /fhgLlts .nfd 5 . clxn]sf] n8fO{nfO{ :jtGq a'l4hLjLx?n] g} an / a'l4åf/f g]t[Tj lbg' k5{ ./ kfv08Lkgf xf] ./sf/af6 kz'kltdf ef/tLo e§sf] lgo'lQm ul/Psf] :ki6 x'G5 .'emfj dgg of]Uo 5 . kz'kltgfy g]kfnsf lxGb"x?sf] cf/fWob]j x'g\ / kz'kltgfy dlGb/df k'hf/L lgo'Qm ug]{ clwsf/ g]kfnLsf] cfk\mg} xf] eg] ef/taf6 o:tf] x:tIf]k lsg < g]kfnsf] wfld{s / /fhgLlts dfldnfdf ef/tsf] of] x:tIf]k klxnf] eg] xf]Og .b\efj ljyf]lnG5 eGg' t . lr/kmf8sf] hu t hol:ylt dNns} kfnfdf /fvL .sf] . t. Absolute agreed kz'klt.. . e6\6§ / ef/t k/Dk/fut / ztfJbLcf}+ b]lvsf] rng eGb} g]kfnn] cfk\mg} gful/s e§ lgo'lQm ug{ kfpFb}g eGg] ef/tLo cf. rGb| 3tL{ du/ /fhhL. with your view. o.+3Lotf jf hftLo /fHo g} rflxG5 eGg] xf]Og eGg] dnfO{ nfUb5 .ª\ufnf] 106 .osf] syg dfGg Ps .

§fdf ef/tn] klg kz'kltgfy dlGb/df ef/tLo e§ /fVg rfx]sf] xf] eg] g]kfnn] :ki6 zJbdf eGg . kz'kltIf]qdf . o:t} afxfgfdf g]kfndfly x:tIf]k ug]{ lgx'“ vf]Hb}5.z:q k|x/Lsf e'm08sf e'm08n] t slDtdf To:t} ememNsf] lbG5.?jf ul/Psf] 5 .'/Iff Joj:yf cToGt s8f t'NofOPsf] 5 . k"j{ o'j/fh kf/.} aLr ./f.d]t JoQm ul/Psf] 5 .lsPsf] 5 .af6 klg emNsG5 ls ef/tLo e§x?nfO{ .Sg] s'/f klg ePg . kGhfjsf] :j0f{ dlGb/ leq ef/tLo . dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ dfly Olª\ut ub}{ wd{ ga'e\mg]x?n] oL u8a8L dRofPsf] pgsf] cf/f]k lyof] . . eStx?nfO{ kz'kltgfysf] bz{g ug{af6 alGrt ul/Psf] 5.Dd kz'klt dlGb/ k|fª\u0fdf ./ x]bf{ nfU5.“u sf7df8f}+df .sf] .}n] g]kfn cft+sjfbLx?sf] 6«flGh6 ?6 klg xf] eGg] ef/tsf] 7DofO 5 . ef/tsf] s8f lj/f]w o. ef/tsf] . kz'kltk|s/0fnfO{ ef/tn] ulDe/ ?kdf lnO/x]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f t /fh >]i7sf n]v . ef/tLo gful/s e§x? dflysf] b'Jo{jxf/ lgZro g} dfgjf]lrt u'0f cjZo xf]Og ./sf/n] l:ylt . 6]lnlehgsf] kbf{af6 b]lvg] b[io x]bf{ nfUb5. .fj{ef}d /fi6«sf] ?kdf dfGg g]kfn jfWo 5}g .osf] syg dfGg Ps . g]kfnsf] tk{maf6 .'/Iff hf“r x'“bf ckdfghgs ePsf] eGb} ef/tn] cd]l/sf. d]/f] dfg.f]nfO{ cy{k"0f{ ?kdf x]l/g yflnPsf] 5 ./sf/nfO{ lgb]{zg lbP h:tf] g]kfn .d]t lgif]w u/]sf] 5 .dfrf/n] g]kfnL bz{s / >f]tfx?dfem e"Orfnf] g} NofOlbPsf] lyof] . s]xL .b\efj ljyf]lnG5 eGg' t . . cem cfk\mgf] gful/s ."b kz'klt k|fª\u0f d} k'u/] l:yltsf] hfohf lnP .fj{ef}ldstf uf“l.j{q ef/tLo 5fkf / ljB'tLo dfWod x'“b} g]kfndf cfOk'u]sf] of] .af6 tTsfn} v08g cfPsf] lyof] .'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt lbg] ef/tLo kIfnfO{ cjut u/fO. cft+sjfbLx? g]kfn eP/ ef/tdf k|j]z ub{5g.Psf] 5 hxf“ s'g} lsl./ kfv08Lkgf xf] . ef/t . To. kz'klt dlGb/ kl/.dfltPsf] lyof] ./sf/n] ha{h:tL ef/tLo e§nfO{ d"n dlGb/df k|j]z u/fP/ g]kfnL efjgfdf 7]. g]kfnn] cfk\mgf] ana'tf]n] EofP. e§ lgo'lQmn] wfld{s .DaGwL dfkmL klg dflu.“u o. . g]kfndfly . ev{/ s} s'/f xf].fwf/0fsf] k|j]z . / bfpb Oa|flxd aLrsf] sfNklgs u7aGwgsf] oqtq .fpy Anssf] 5 . sfzLdf g]kfnL k'hf/L lgo'Qm 5 eGb} To.xg .do clu dfq Ps kfls:tfgL gful/s ef/tLo hfnL gf]6. s]xL .Sg'kb{5 sfzLdf g]kfnL k'hf/L /fVg' g/fVg' 107 /fh >]i7sf n]v .“u :kli6s/0f dfu]sf] lyof] .'/Iff Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .fdfGo gx'Gh]n.DaGwdf JoQm ul/Psf] l6Kk0fLnfO{ g]kfndflysf] wfld{s x:tIf]ksf] ?kdf lng yflnPsf] 5 . k'¥ofPsf] 5 .+j]bgzLn If]q xf] eGg] 7DofO . g]kfndf clxn] kz'klt k|s/0fdf ef/tsf] rf. t/ kf/.lsPsf] 5 / cfOGbf o:tf] lqmofsnfk x'g glbg k|ltj4tf ./sf/dfly bjfj lbPsf] 5 .f+:s[lts x:tIf]k ug{ ef/tnfO{ Ps csf]{ lgx'“ kfPsf] 5 .dsf] ultljlw ef/tdfly s} cfqmd0fsf] ?kdf lnOg]5 . k"j{o'j/fhsf] ljut.d]t 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] 5 eg] ef/tLo e§ gx6'Gh]n lj/f]w u/L/xg] lj/f]wstf{sf] c8\8Ln] kz'klt If]q s'? If]q ag]sf] 5 .s]sf] eGb} dxfgu/Lo k|x/L k|efu uf}zfnfsf lg/LIfssf] tTsfn . g]kfnL j'l4lhjLdfem ef/tLo ljb]zdGqL / /fhb"tsf] kz'kltdlGb/df ef/tLo e§sf] lgo'lQmsf] .d]t eO. pxf“ cfk}m kz'klt If]q e|d0f u/]/ .+:s[lt dGqL.“u kl/lrt g]kfnLx? xf]nf lg egL e|ldt . k/Dk/fut / ztfJbLcf}+ b]lvsf] rng eGb} g]kfnn] cfk\mg} gful/s e§ lgo'lQm ug{ kfp“b}g eGg] ef/tLo cf. ef/tsf] a'emfO{df g]kfn ef/tLo hfnL gf]6sf] sf/f]jf/sf] 6«flGh6 ?6 xf] eGg] 5 .ª\ufnf] ef/tsf] cfk\mgf] v'zLsf] s'/f xf] t/ g]kfnL hgtf kz'kltgfy dlGb/df ef/tLo e§ /fVg rfxb}gg\ .k6ndf .do clu ef/tLo lkmNd cleg]tf zfx?v vfgnfO{ cd]l/sL ljdfg:yndf .Dd ef/tLo e§nfO{ .s]sf] lyof] .o:tf bjfjd"ns gLltsf] b]zeQm g]kfnLx?n] hd]/ lj/f]w ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . dlGb/leq s8f .'/Iffsf] k|Zg p7fP/ cfk\mgf k|fGtLo .“u Toxf“sf] j:t'l:ylt . ef/tLo /fhb"t . g]kfndf cfk\mgf gful/sdfly ckdfghgs Jojxf/ x'“bf ef/tn] .]gfn] k|j]z u/]sf] 5 ./sf/n] kz'klt If]qnfO{ h'n'.'/Iffdf g]kfn cToGt .+:s[lt dGqLn] ef/tLo kIf.DaGwL hfgsf/L lnP . g]kfnL hgtfn] :ki6 ?kdf ef/tLo e§ c:jLsf/ ub{5 eGg] hfGbf hfGb} . k|bz{g lgif]w If]q .'/Iff lbg g.'/Iffsf] sf/0f .ª\ufnf] 108 . o. Toxf“ ef/tsf] .j{.

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o'un] cfk}m+ To:tf s'/fnfO{ kl/jt{g ub}{ hfG5 .df hgtfsf] cf:yf l6s]sf] x'G5 .f/d} To:tf JolQm kfpg c.Dej g} xf]nf hf] cfk\mgf] Oltxf./fli6«o em08f ljZjd} ljlzi6 -afFb/x? 3/ agfpFb}gg\_ ."o{n] rGb|j+zL / .]{/ klg dxfg\ ePsf xf]. of] em08f Oltxf.t b]zeGbf sd lyPg . Oltxf.a} s'/f gsfg]{ xfd|f lqmofsnfkn] sxL“ xfd|f] klxrfgdf .d]t .+. b]zsf] klxrfg / ljlzi6tf af]s]sf] x'G5 . k9\bf klg yfxf x'G5. rGb| / .Gtltsf] nflu b]z hf]ufO{ b]nf eg]/ s.d[4 d'n'ssf] ?kdf lyof] . b]zsf] cl:tTj /Iff ug]{ k"vf{sf] of]ubfg la. h'g a]nf g]kfn . jf To:tf] b]z g} xf]nf h'g b]zdf k"vf{sf] of]ubfg lagf g} pGglt / k|ult ePsf xf]. la. h./L ljZjf. g t k|ult g} ug{ . :jtGqtfsf] olt Jofks cy{ af]Sg] rGb| / . Tof] .x?sf nflu sf}t'xnsf] ljifo xf] .sf To:tf w/f]x/nfO{ kl/jt{g ub}{ hfg] xf] eg] xfdLn] cfk\mgf] Oltxf.+j]bgzLn . / k/Dk/f la.\ jf To:tf] b]z g} xf]nf h'g b]zdf k"vf{sf] of]ubfg lagf g} pGglt / k|ult ePsf xf]. k/Dk/f / Oltxf.Ddg rGb| / . h. b]zsf] sNkgf ul/“bf /fli6«o em08f lagfsf] b]zsf] sNkgf ul/+b}g To.a} s'/f g/fd|f x'Ggg\ .s]sf] 5 . hfkfg. ef/t cfk\mgf] uf}/jzfnL Oltxf.s]sf Oltxf.]{/ klg dxfg\ ePsf xf].dfgtf /fv]s} e/df dfq} o.{g]x?n] ."o{nfO{ wfld{s /fh >]i7sf n]v .+.sf] Tof] sfnv08df cl:tTjdf cfPsf] b]lvG5. t/ s'g} s'/f o:tf x'G5g\ h. ug]{ < Oltxf. ztfJbLcf}+ b]lv g]kfnL klxrfg / ljlzi6tf af]s]sf] xfd|f] /fli6«o em08f oltv]/ cfqmd0fsf] tf/f] ag]sf] 5 .f]rdf lblIftx?n] s] yfxf kfpg' h?/L 5 eg] s'g} lrh o:tf] x'G5 h'g eTsfP. /fli6«otf olt sdhf]/ slxNo} lyPg hlt cfh 5 . em08fsf] :j?kn] s'g} wd{sf] s'g} lrGx.sf/ l.a} s'/f g/fd|f x'Ggg\ .sf] dfof 5.Dd cl:tTjdf /xG5 ha.s]sf 5g\ .a b]lv“b}g . cfh xfd|f] /fli6«o em08f g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf / df}lns klxrfg d]6\g vf]Hg] To:tf JolQmx?sf tf/f] ag]sf] 5."o{ clª\st em08fn] g]kfn To.sf .w}sf] nflu gfl.ª\ufnf] dxfg ePsf 5}gg\.ª\ufnf] 118 .daf6 klg k'g{hLljt t'Nofpg .a]nf ."o{j+zL/fhfx? dfq hgfp“5 eGg] xf]Og . /fli6«o em08fn] b]zsf] klxrfg af]s]sf] x'G5 .+.\ . kl/jt{gsf] gfddf g]kfnL dg leq cf:yf hdfO{ .s]sf] 5 eg] xfdLn] rfx]sf] h:tf] gof“ g]kfn cem} lIflth kf/L pbfpg af“sL g} 5 .\ . rLg.sf . vf]Hg cd]l/sf / a]nfotsf Do"lhoddf wfpg' kg]{ x'G5 .f/d} To:tf JolQm kfpg c. k'/fgf] g]kfnsf . g cfk"m hGd]sf] b]z.nfO{ g cfk\mgf] Oltxf. la.+s6 cfpg] t xf]Og eGg] dgg ug{ cfjZos eO.aeGbf .Dej g} xf]nf hf] cfk\mgf] Oltxf.nfO{ s'g} lsl.}n] t s'g} g s'g} ?kdf /fli6«o em08fn] To.]{/ sf]xL klg 117 /fh >]i7sf n]v . rGb| / .a} s'/f eTsfPkl5 gofF lgdf{0f x'G5 eGg] .f/df of] :j?ksf] em08f oxL Pp6f dfq xf] . .fd' :jfledfg k"j{s pleP/ /x]sf5g\ .n] b]zsf] cl:tTj af]s]sf] x'G5.ls+b}g .P/ hfG5 / To.“u . Tolta]nfsf] dNnsfnLg g]kfn o"/f]ksf] s'g} klg ljsl.'s b]lvG5g\ .Nef“ n]eLsf] g]kfn clw/fHosf] Oltxf. . / k"vf{s} of]ubfgsf] hudf pleP/ cfh ljZj .“u s'g} nufj g} 5 . jf:tjdf Oltxf. . k'/fgf] g]kfnsf] cl:tTj .dfKt eO. b'O{ lqsf]0faf6 ag]sf] ljlzi6 :j?ksf] of] em08fsf] cfsf/k|sf/ ljZjs} dflg."o{sf] cl:tTj /lx/xG5 eg]/ xfdLn] ljBfnodf k9]sf 5f}+ .dodf xfdL 5f}+ . k/Dk/f / Oltxf. pgLx? of] em08fsf] ljz]if cfsf/n] ubf{ g]kfnsf]af/] hfGg pT.nfO{ kl/jt{g ug'{ dgfl. o'un] cfk}m+ To:tf s'/fnfO{ kl/jt{g ub}{ hfG5 .ls+b}g . lauf/] k]ml/ gofF agfpg .d} .

n] ef/tnfO{ Ps dxfg . / ljlzi6tf af]s]sf] em08fnfO{ kmut kl/jt{gsf] gfddf kl/jt{g ug{ vf]Hg] xf] eg] o:t} ckl/jt{gLo / csNkgLo eljio af]Sg'kg]{ x'G5. clncln rrf{ d}n] klg u/]sf] 5'“ . ltg} . s'g} vf.P/ hfG5 / To. @))( -c.Ddfg x'g} kb{5 . cf]nlDksdf . g]kfnsf] cl:tTj klg To.a]nf lgs} l9nf] eO.Ddflgt ul/Psf]df . ef/t :jtGq ePkl5 wd{lg/k]If / .w}sf] nflu gfl. / cf:yf rsgfr"/ ePkl5 . . cd[t /fh >]i7 I do agree as well.nf] eO e'ml08Psf] 5 of] uLt . lauf/] k]ml/ gof“ agfpg .+. .a} s'/f eTsfPkl5 gof“ lgdf{0f x'G5 eGg] .s]sf] x'g]5 .n] . clg af“b/n] v]tL klg ub}{g / c?sf] v]tLkftL dfq} lauf{b5 eg]/ -8f=sljtf/fd >]i7M af“b/n] v]tL ub}{g_ . eljio s. kxf8 leqsf c. d]6\g tof/ ePsf5f}+. of] g} ljsf. uLtnfO{ .basantagautam. /fli6«o ufg 119 /fh >]i7sf n]v . czf]ssfnLg ef/t ef/tLo Oltxf.fg5fknfO{ cgfs{ifs agfPsf] 5 . y'k|} nflnu'/f“zsf k"mnnfO{ b'O{tlkm{ 3]/fdf k|of]u ul/Paf6 of] lg.nfO{ s'g} lsl. s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n / cGo b'O{ hgfn] of] n]v dg k/fpg'ePsf] 5 . kl/jt{g ug}{ x'Gg eGg] xf]Og .sf] . . wonderful.f]h %.flxTosf/ I agree with your vision. u/]sf] 5 .“u . cem uj{nfU5 xfdL k|To]s g]kfnLnfO{. lji0f' Kofs'/]n Raj jee. gof“ /fli6«o ufgsf] rog ul/of] y'k|} .com/ /fh >]i7sf n]v . /fhwfgL b}lgs.nfO{ . d]/f] k"/fk"/ . x'g. h'g uLtsf] rog ul/of] Tof] uLt jf:tj d} pTs[i6 5 / x/]s g]kfnL x[bodf o.+x ef/tsf] /fli6«o lrGx xf]. t/ Oltxf.fd|fHosf] ?kdf :yflkt u/].d|f6 czf]s h. JolQm ljz]ifsf] :t'lt /fli6«o ufg x'g} .dfKt x'G5.f/df zflGt / s?0ffsf] .s]sf] eg] lgZro g} xf] .a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof /fds'df/ >]i7.Qm}g lyof] .ª\ufnf] kl/jt{g ul/g' .fk]If?kdf kl/jt{g eg] x'g' kb{5 . elgG5 lg af“b/n] cfk\mgf] 3/klg agfp“b}g / ag]sf] 3/ klg eTsfp“5 .Ddfg cfk\mgf] /fli6«o lrGxsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ u/L ljutsf] cfk\mgf] uf}/jzfnL Oltxf.+. o.dosf] dfu lyof] .dfKt eP/ hfg .f/yLx?nfO{ leGg leGg b]zdf wd{ k|rf/sf] nflu k7fP.S5.4fGt klg xf] .+u] u}8fsf] rog ug'{ pko'Qm g} dfGg'k5{ . tkfO{sf] s'/f .]K6]Da/ @!.s]kl5 .fwf/0f ?kdf . .sf] ljsNkdf Psl.ls+b}g . a.sf] :j0f{o'u lyof] eg]/ clxn] klg Oltxf.f/e/L hxLtxL kfOg] . /fli6«o hgfj/ ufO{ kl/jt{g ug'{ .sf] cl:tTj .jfbsf] l.nfO{ /fli6«o lrGxsf] ?kdf rog ul/Psf] lyof] .\ cfp“b5 To. t/fO{ lxdfn. hglha|f]df /l.n] b]v]sf] 5 / < h'g lbg o.d|f6sf] /fhsLo lrGxnfO{ ef/tn] .ls+b}g . klZrdL ljZjdf vfBj:t'sf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/g] hgfj/nfO{ xfdLn] /fli6«o hgfj/sf] bhf{lbO/fVg' pko'Qm klg xf]Og .fg 5fk aGg]lyof] .h{sx?sf l. Oltxf.d]t o.fg 5fk kl/jt{g ubf{ snfsf/x?nfO{ k|lt:kwf{sf] cfwf/df 5gf}6 ul/Psf] eP :t/Lo lg.“u} o.lhn} af.sf/x? eG5g\ .d|f6 czf]ssf] /fhsLo lrGx lyof].fk]If eO.} lbg .daf6 klg k'g{hLljt t'Nofpg . lbks slyt.dfGotfdfq lbg' plrt xf]Og .+3Lotfsf] 3f]if0ff . .'Gbf x/]s g]kfnL cfk"mnfO{ uf}/jzfnL cg'ej x'G5 .h{gfaf6 .n] xfdLnfO{ cfk\mgf] klxrfg lbnfP h:sf] sf/0f xfdL cfh cl:tTjdf 5f}+ . h'g .S5.+Vo xfdL leqsf] ljZjf.do x'“bf x]g'{xf]nf M http://www. h'g Oltxf.df :yflkt d"No / dfGotfnfO{ kl/jt{g ubf{ eg] Oltxf. Tolt a]nf hlt a]nf xfdLnfO{ xf]. @)^^_ df k|sflzt k]m. . klxrfg gaf]s]sf].do . tkfO{sf] ljrf/nfO{ .Gt uf}td Psbd lrQ a'e\mof]. xfdL eg] cfk\mgf] Tof] uf}/jzfnL Oltxf. xfdLn] .ª\ufnf] 120 .. jt{dfg .f]rdf lblIftx?n] s] yfxf kfpg' h?/L 5 eg] s'g} lrh o:tf] x'G5 h'g eTsfP.dy{g 5.Ddfg u/]sf] lyof] . t/ >Lk]ro'Qm lg. n8fO{af6 jfSs eP/ jf}4 wd{ ckgfO. Tof] . rf/lbzfdf rf/lt/ kms]{sf l.Gb]z 5g{ cfk\mgf .

t/ kl/jlt{t . em08fdf tLgs'g] :j?k . /fh' yfkf. . The cosmopolitant habitations of the Cow. Keep it up to save our flag.d]t o.+rf/sdL{ I learned a lot from your article. /fh >]i7 ufO{ g} /fli6«o hgfj/ x'g'k5{ eGg] ts{nfO{ . k]ml/ . o. g]kfnn] k|s[lt .sf] cl:tTjdf .|f]tsf] k|lts ljBdfg 5g\ . faith and sentiment of the populace and the history itself ? d) What are the disadvantages of keeping Cow as national Animal ? c) What are the advantages of declaring Rhino as National Animal ? I am sorry to say that the depiction you have had about the Cow is superficial.nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb“bf s'g} nHhf Joxf]g'{ kg]{5}g . tL /ª\u.}sf] k]jf sbflrt lyPg / sbflrt x'g] 5}g .Dkbfsf nflu klg dxTjsf] hLj u}+8fnfO{ of] bhf{ lbg' stf xf] stf /fd|f] x'G5 eGg] d]/f] wf/0ff xf] . I like to draw your attention on the following points: a) What are the parameters to declare national animal ? 121 /fh >]i7sf n]v . rGb| / . u'0f / ljz]iftf vf.ª\ufnf] 122 .flxTosf/ Great Raj Bhai ! em08fn] s] lauf/]sf] 5 < xfd|f] em08fdf zflGt / qmflGtsf b'a} /ª\uLg k|lts ljBdfg 5g\.+./tf / e"ldsfnfO{ ljZj.ª\u] u}+8f cl:tTjsf nflu . ufO{ . n]vdf d}n] . d'n'ssf] gfd g} k]mg{kg]{ x'G5 . Psl. ef/tn] /fh >]i7sf n]v .Gbe{df lxGb" /fi6« /x'~h]n /fli6«o hgfj/sf] ?kdf ufO{ x'g' :jfefljs} nfU5 . x/]s s'/f k]mg{ g} rfxG5f} eg] ltdLn] d'n's} k]mg{ kg]{ x'G5 . lbks s'df/ Agreed to Mr."lrdf k/]sf] hgfj/nfO{ xfdLn] /fli6«o hgfj/sf] bhf{ lb“bf cGt//fli6«o ?kdf g]kfnsf] . cgfjZos s'/fdf lsg e'Ng] < ltdLn] b]v]sf . Great and with references too. lsg o:tf] lbUe|ldt < ltdLnfO{ ug'{ w]/} 5 Totf Wofg b]pm.} gePsf]. g]kfnsf] .+/If0fdf cfk\mgf] cu|.dy{g u/]sf] 5'“ .f/e/ .n] s]xL lauf/]sf] 5}g . .} dxTjsf] gePsf] hLjnfO{ lxGb" wdf{jnDaLx?nfO{ v'zL t'Nofpg dfq /fli6«o hgfj/sf] bhf{ lbg' eGbf cl:tTj g} . s]xL ug{ g} rfxG5f} eg] hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbg] sfd u/ .+3if{/t hLj ePsf]n] . tradition.+.lhn} kfOg] hgfj/ ePsf] x'gfn] o.Rrf xf] eGg] e|ddf gk/ .fd' b]vfpg Psl. Or at least.+s6 x'g] t s'/} ePg . Thank you indeed for such a beautiful presentation.fwf/0f k|f0fL xf] . Well done.dy{g ug'{ x'g] ldq lbks s'df/hLnfO{ d]/f] pQ/ M hLjlj1fgsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 klg ufO{ Ps .Gbe{df xfdLn] cln j[xt / km/s 9ª\un] . The exigency for change is in our narrowly built thoughts pattern from individual level to see the prosperous Nepal. Raj on the subject of National flag but have utter dissatifaction and disagreement over the issue of National Animal.ª\u] u}+8fnfO{ /fli6«o hgfj/sf] 3f]if0ff ug'{ pko'St x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] eg] o."o{ zf:jttfsf] k|lts ljBdfg 5g\.f/e/ vfBj:t'sf] ?kdf kflng].+/If0fdf nf]kf]Gd'v hLjhGt' / jg:kltsf] . does not convince me. xfdL hgtfnfO{ . phf{ / zLtntfsf] .a} xfdLnfO{ uj{ lbg] lglw x'g\ . s[i0fdfg 8+uf]n That is the main spirit to unite this country Raj Ji.+s6df k/]sf]. oL . em08fn] ltdLx?nfO{ /f]s]sf] 5}g . tL cfs[ltx? / :j?k s.f“lRrs} ljZjdf g} clåtLo :j?k xf]. Thanks.ª\ufnf] b) Is it only Uniqueness or something else ? c) Is it not connected to the culture. With due respect to your thought. beef eating culture in some part of the world do not justify your point to replace Cow with Rhino as national animal. hLjlj1fgsf] b[li6af6 vf.f]Rg' h?/L x'g hfG5 eGg] dnfO{ nfUb5 .+/lIft hLjsf] . No doubt that we have still millions of patriotic and nationalists that are supporting your views when it is specially attached with the national sentiments. s'g} . sljtf/fd >]i7. 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf] ?kdf s[ifs bfh'efO{sf nflu dxTjsf] s[lif hLj klg xf] .RrfO{ dfq . It is a good tip for those who want this country to remain in this Earth until the sun and moon remains in the universe.Ddfgdf j[l4 x'ghfg] x'G5 .fDk|bflostfsf] ckufn cfOkg]{ 5}g .xl/ clwsf/L Very wonderful. ko{6g / jg. ltdLn] h] eG5f} / h] rfxG5f} hgtfn] r'krfk ToxL dfG5 eGg] sbflrt e|ddf gk/ .

'sEojÆsf] 123 /fh >]i7sf n]v .s]sf 5g\ .l.+u7gx?n] /fhwfgLnfO{ Pslbg 7Kk} u/] ./sf/af6 xfn} dfq o:tf] lg0f{o lnOPsf] xf] .8L 8]s.+/If0f ug{ . h'n'.+.Dd sfod /x]sf] . k'/fgf] lel.+Vofdf s]xL jif{ otf nuftf/ lu/fj6 cfPkl5 o. c? t c? ef]hsf] k/Dk/f klg æ.Sg] ls < k|]/0ffhL.a} cfTd.ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . To:t} efiffk|ltsf] df]xn] sfd u/]sf eP cfheGbf #$ jif{cl3 g} g]jf/L sfo{qmdsf nflu gfr3/ agfpg] c7f]6 ul/Psf] lyof] .+. d pkTosfjf. . u+uf gbLdf kfOg] hnr/ 8lNkmgsf] .t . 6fOk/fO6/ Pjd\ Sofd]/f nf]k x'g nfUof] eg]/ s] k]ml/ rnfpg .hfpg'ePsf] 5 < slxn] st} cfk\mgf] efiffdf s]xL n]Vg'ePsf] 5 < 3/df s] .d'bfol.n] x6fPsf] xf] ./sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiffdf g]jf/L efiffnfO{ .'Gg] k|fyldstf lbg'ePsf] 5 .L g]jfx?nfO{ cfh.f/. hLjsf] . k"mnsf] cfFvfdf k"mn} . g]kfnL efiff .a} s]6fs]6L g]jf/L af]Ng .nf odLsf] r'l/k'm/Ln] klg k'li6 u5{ .a} .flxTosf] lstfjn] ¥ofs .f/ g]jfx?df cfu|x ljleGg g]jf .xof]u k'uf].a} cGo efifLn] 3/3/df g]kfnL efiff af]ln/x]sf 5g\ .df b]lvPsf] lxl. æg]jf /fHoÆ gf/faf6 :ki6} x'G5 of] dfcf]jfbL lgb]{zg xf] .befjgfnfO{ arfO/fVgsf nflu klg s'g} /fhgLlts . t/ Tof] slxNo} ag]g .\ eGg] x]t'n] ef/t . Psfw g]jf/L efiffsf rnlrq ag] klg sf]xL cfslif{t ePsf b]lv“b}gg\ .f]W5' – oxf“sf] 3/df sltj6f g]jf efiffsf klqsf cfp“5g\ < slt j6f . sfF8fsf] cfFvfdf sfF8} .+u7gsf] kl5 gnfUg ljgd| cg'/f]w u5'{ .dfj]z ug]{ dfu /fVg]x?nfO{ d . o. k'/fgf] eNa ePsf] /]l8of]. o.Dks{ efiffsf] ?kdf b]ze/ rn]sf] 5 .ft eO.ª\ufnf] 124 . s]6fs]6Lsf] eljiosf nflu klg .tsf] .sf] ljsf. o:tf]df nf]k x'g nfUof] eg]/ efiff nfb\g] sfd kmh'n x'G5 .dy{ 5g\ < ljleGg PkmPdx?df cfk\mgf] efiffdf cfPsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ .lsG5 < Tof] ljsf.af6 klg xfdLn] s]xL l.fn} 8lNkmgnfO{ /fli6«o hnLo hLj 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 .xfn.

hok|sfz.+.fdfGo 1fg a9fpg :d/0f lbnfpg rfxG5' u}//fhgLlts . dNn/fhf k|tfkdNn. tL kqx? s] sf/0f n] xf] s'GgL sflGtk'/ b}lgsaf6 c:jLs[t eP .+o'Qm /fi6« .g bu'axfl:yt klqsf k.ndf .7fp“df Sof6l/ªn] lnO. oxf“ tkfO{n] g]kfn efiffdf dfq k|sflzt ePsf kqklqsf kfpg' x'g]5 .f]Rbf clxn] crDd nfU5. v. g]kfn efiffsf] Oltxf. k'Nrf]s nlntk'/ .+3sf] j8fkq d} pNn]v e}.d'bfonfO{ k]ml/ klg cg'/f]w u5'{ – kf“rx\/]. @)^^_ sf] sflGtk'/ b}lgsdf . efiff -g]kfnL efiff_sf] Oltxf.f/ k|]/0ffhL.Ddfg lsg lbP xf]nfg < Pp6f slj x[bo ePsf JolQmn] dfq hfGg . b]z .s tYox? hgaf]nLsf] g]kfnefiffdf g} n]lvPsf lyP .+:yfx? cfj4 5g\ .}4flGts / Jojxfl/s ?kd} nfu" u/]sf lyP ./L x'g. zfx/fhf /fh]Gb|ljqmd zfx b]lv cfw'lgssfndf l. Oltxf.+u7g æg]jfM /fli6«o d'lQm df]rf{Æ 5 h:sf] cWoIfdf lxtdfg zfSo x'g'x'G5 . k|]/0ff clwsf/L.+u7gsf cWoIfdf dfcf]jfbL g]tf x'g'x'G5 / pkfWoIfdf 125 /fh >]i7sf n]v .+:yfsf g]jfM g]tfx? .flxTosf] s'/f ug'{ x'G5 eg].+u7g /fhgLlts . g]jfM :jfoQm /fHo leq hgtfn] af]Ng] g]kfnefiffnfO{ sfdsfhdf Nofpg' Jojxfl/s dfq geP/ g]jfM cflbjf. hflt / efiffsf] n8fO“nfO{ sd. s]lGb|s[t /fHo Joj:yfaf6 .S5 csf]{ slj x[bonfO{ . g]jfM /fli6«o d'lQm df]rf{. tkfO{sf] .l4bf.sf g]tf lty{dfg 8+uf]nnfO{ b]Vg'eof] <.d'bfosf hgtfx? cfk\mgf] 5'6\6} :jfoQm /fHo æg]kfn d08nÆ u7g ug{ dfu u/]sf x'g\ .\ c.Lx?sf] uf}/j / cfTdledfgsf] k|Zg klg xf] . k|]/0ffhL.ldltÆ df g]jfM hfu/0f d~r.f/.sf g]tf x'g'x'G5. k'Nrf]ssf] gfdaf6 k|sflzt ePsf] xf] . dfcf]jfbLx?sf] cfk\mg} 5'6\6} .s]dfq klg w]/} x'G5 xf]nf . lul/hfk|. u'“nfh:tf cfk\mgf k/Dk/f hf]ufpg .+3if{ .s]sf] 5 . slj b'uf{nfnsf] /rgfdf dGqd'Uw gx'g] sf] xf]nf < k"mnsf] cf“vfdf k"mn} . l.+u7g / u}//fhgLlts . pgLx? . pxf“n] g]kfn efiffdf dfq sljtf n]Vg] lrQw/ x[bonfO{ of] . k"mnsf] cfFvfdf k"mn} .dfj]z u/]sf] 5'F . g]jfM b]M ba'.nf odLnfO{ dfq b]Vg'eP5. eGbf k|frLg / . -of] kq h'g $.DkfbsnfO{ lr7L :tDe cGtu{t k|]/0ff clwsf/L..+. sf“8fsf] cf“vfdf sf“8} /fh >]i7sf n]v . Tof] .d[4 5 .d'bfo leq ljleGg /fhgLlts .+u7g b]lv :jtGq ljrf/ af]Sg] hgtfx?sf] hd36 5 . hut. hjfkmdf sflGtk'/ b}lgsnfO{ n]v]sf] b'O{ kq kf7sx?sf] ljZn]if0fsf nflu oxfF . lnR5jL sfn b]lv zfxsfnsf] k"jf{4sf lznfn]v / P]ltxfl.l4 dfgGw/nfO{ b]Vg'eof] <.s]kl5 g]jfM . g]skf Pdfn]sf k|f=8f=d+unl.+3Lotfdf hfg nfu]sf] g]kfndf eflifs :jtGqtf gkfpg] xf] / Pp6} efiff nfb\g] xf] eg].fb.sf] g}.ª\ufnf] 126 . :jtGq j'l4hLlj k|f= dfl0fsnfn >]i7nfO{ lrGg'eof] < jf /fli6«o wfjs a}s'07 dfgGw/nfO{ t kSs} lrGg'eof] xf]nf geP slj b'uf{nfn >]i7nfO{ klg t lrGg} kg]{ xf] . k9g' ePsf] eP oxf“nfO{ yfxf g} xf]nf. g]kfM nf]stflGqs g]jfM .+3if{ . lrQw/ x[bo / slj b'uf{nfn .7L gvM.+u7g s.] sd sf7df8f}+df gx'nf}+ .a}nfO{ d"nwf/df Nofpgsf] nflu g} æg]jfM :jfoQm /fHo–d+sfM .ldltÆ u7g ePsf] xf] .s]sf] 5 . Hofk" dxfu'ly nufot gf}j6f . /fhf dx]Gb| g]kfnsf tL /fhf x'g h:n] b]zdf Ps efiff Ps e]if ._ d]/f] k|ltlqmof k|]/0ffhL.+u7gdf ljleGg /fhgLlts .lu{s clwsf/ dWo] Ps xf] eGg] s'/f t . hutk|sfz. g]kfnL sf“u|]. tkfO{n] h'n'.Sg] xf] eg] To:tf] nf]stGqsf] s] sfd < efiffsf] clwsf/ eg]sf] dflg.+3Lotfdf hfg] e}.+3.'Gb/.ª\ufnf] g]kfnL sf+u|]. d g]jf . ljleGg g]jfM . h'g ./L . tkfO{nfO{ yfxf 5.+3 g]kf.+u7g æg]jfM :jfoQm /fHo–d+sfM .Demfpg' tkfO{nfO{ . @))( -h]7 @!.+u7gsf jt{dfg cWoIfdf lxtdfg zfSo x'g'x'G5 eg] pkfWoIfdf lty{dfg 8+uf]n x'g'x'G5 . Ps hftL Ps b]zsf] gLlt .df lxl. cGo pTkLl8t efiffn] pGd'lSt kfpg g.Ddsf s[ltx? – v} s.S5 < g]jfM . xfn of] . tkfO{nfO{ g]kfnefiffdf slt yl/ klqsf k|sflzt x'G5 eGg] hfGg rfxg'x'G5 eg] cfpgf].+nUg x'g'x'G5 .femf . tkfO{nfO{ yfxf 5 < /fhf dx]Gb|n] slj lrQw/ x[bonfO{ slj s]z/Lsf] pkflw k|bfg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . . .

fd' g]kfnsf] klxrfg /fh >]i7sf n]v .s]sf] eg] kSs} xf] .“u} g]jfM .dfg k|lt:kwf{ / eflifs bdgaf6 b]z d'St x'g]5 .'Gbf crDd nfU5.fgf gfgLx?nfO{ cfk\mgf] dft[efiff g]kfnefiffdf k7gkf7g x'g] ljBfnox? sf7df8f}+. o:tf] cj:yf b]v]/ g]kfnefiffsf] hfu/0fsfndf df:6/ hut.'Gb/ dNnn] k|fylds lzIff dft[efiffdf g} pknAw u/fpg] p2]Zon] æhut.+3 leq sfdsfhL efiffsf] ?kdf dfGotf kfPdfq xfn ljBdfg s]Gb|Lo /fHosf b'u'{0fx? c.Ifd agfpg cleefjsn] cfk\mgf] kl/jf/df aRrfnfO{ g]kfnL efiffdf af]Ng] cEof. sfF8fsf] cfFvfdf sfF8} .+:s[lt . k|]/0ffhL Ps l5g .lgs sfdsfhdf g]kfn d08n leq g]kfnefiff sf] k|of]u x'GYof] . hfqf kj{. .s]sf] 5 . :d/0fLo 5. h:tf] ljBfyL{ geP/ aGb ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfdf tL sIffx? k6Ss} 5}gg\ .dfg k|lt:kwf{ ub}{ cl:tTjs} n8fO{df g]kfnefiff 5 . x/]s PkmPd /]l8of] / 6]lnlehg .f/. /f0ffsfndf g]kfnefiffnfO{ /fHosf] sfdsfhdf lgif]w ul/Pkl5 clxn] g]kfnefiffsf] k|of]u hg:t/df b}lgs sfdsfhdf k|of]u e}/x]sf] 5 .f/ k|]/0ffhL.+/rgf leq efiffn] .fgf. c8\8f 127 /fh >]i7sf n]v . ta. nf]s. t/ /fHoaf6 pk]lIft / cfly{s sl7gfOn] o:tf] k|of.Dej lyof] < g]kfnL efiffdfq ljsl. k|]/0ffhL. oxf“.+3Lotfdf ?kfGt/0f.n] ck]lIft ult lng g. /fHosf] kIfkftk"0f{ efiff gLltsf] sf/0f u}/ g]kfnL efiff af]Ng] hgtfdf dft[efiffsf] k|rng sd x'“b} uPsf] 5 eg] g]kfnL efiffsf] k|rng a9b} uPsf] 5 . ljleGg .Dd g]kfnefiff. nlntk'/.Dd cfOk'Ubf lg/Gt/ rNb} cfPsf] eflifs cfGbf]ngn] hgtfdf eflifs hfu/0f k|z:t cfO.g.+:yfx?df g]kfnL efiffsf] Ps 5q k|of]u g} xf] eGg . yfNof] .+s6 cfpg yfn]kl5 tL efiffsf] . o:tf] qmd a9b} hf“bf cGo efiffsf] cl:tTjdf . .“u} .. xf]Og t k|]/0ffHo" .d]t 3'Orf] 5 . /fhgLltzf:q / Oltxf. g]kfnL efiffn] /fHoaf6 .+rf/ dfWodn] g]kfnefiffnfO{ 7fp“ lbg'sf] cy{ bz{s / >f]tf z"Go eP/ t xf]Og xf]nf < cg'dlt lbg'x'G5 eg]. xf]Og t k|]/0ffhL . tkfO{sf af“sL lh1f./sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiffsf] ?kdf /fHoaf6 dfGotf kfPkl5 g]kfnel/ . kqsf] bf]>f] cg'R5]bsf] pQ/ n]Vg cfjZos 7fgL of] bf]>f] kq n]Vb}5' .f]Rg' ePsf] 5 < o:tf] k|lts"n cj:yfdf klg g]kfnefiffn] hgefiffsf] ?kdf cfk\mgf] cl:tTj.ª\ufnf] cbfnt.+rf/dfWoddf g]kfnefiffsf sfo{qmdx? .+:yfg / z}lIfs .f“lrSs} efiff.Dd of] w/tLdf g]kfn /xG5. g]jfM.'Gb/ Ajg]s'lyMÆ sf] :yfkgf ug'{eof] . olt w]/} /]l8of] / 6]lnlehg . dlGb/ u'Daf /lx/xg] 5 .d]t al~rt x'g] cj:yf cfPkl5 k|lt:kwf{df cfk\mgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ . lzlIft ju{dfem cª\u|]hL efiff / t/fO{ If]qdf lxGbL efiffsf] k|rng klg plQs} 5 . lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf] g]kfn efiffsf] Pd=P= / lj=P= sIffdf cWoog ug{ g]kfnL dfq ge} ljb]zLx?sf] . tkfO{n] .Dkbf. eQmk'/ / sLlt{k'/ zx/df v'n]sf 5g\ / tL ljBfnox? clxn]sf] af]l8{ª\ :s"n h:tf] ljBfyL{ gkfP/ aGb ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfaf6 lgSs} dfly 5g\ . pgLx?s} cys kl/>d / cfk\mgf] k|frLg Oltxf. .'Gg' ePs} xf]nf lg/Gt/ jiff}{ b]lv P.s w/f]x/ / .+/If0f k|fKt gu/]sf] eP ljsf.“u c.d[4 .]jLx? kfP/ g]kfnefiffn] of] n8fO{ lht]sf] 5 .sf] of] ult .f:s[lts rf8kj{x? ljZj .+/If0f cfjZos x'g yfNof] .+3 leq efiffn] klg dfGotf kfpg' k5{ . jf:tjdf o:tf] cj:yf cfpg'df k|d'v sf/ssf] ?kdf b}lgs k|zf.Dk"0f{ hLjg efiff ljsf.df ck{0f ug]{ . o:tf] cl:tTjs} n8fO{df /x]sf] g]kfn efiffnfO{ tkfO{ ænfb]sf]Æ eGg' x'G5 < g]kfnsf cGo efiffsf] xfnt s:tf] 5 < a'e\mg' ePsf] 5 < .L= k/LIffdf g]kfnefiffaf6 P]lR5s Ps ljifosf] klg k/LIff x'G5 .f k]ml/ k]ml/ d]6fpg] k|of. t.+.+rfng eO/x]sf5g\ .. k|]/0ffhL.]jf cfof]u.Dks{ efiffsf] ?kdf g]kfnL efiff pkl:ylt /xg uPsf] xf] .+3Lo .+:s[lt / . zfxsfnsf] k"jf{4 .s]sf 5g\ . /fHoaf6 kfpg] clwsf/af6 .+.f]Rg'. b]z .t x'g' / cGo efiff k5fl8 kg'{sf] sf/0faf/] slxn] s]lx .=Pn=.lsG5 . oxL P]ltxfl. /fHoaf6 a]nfavt k|tfl8t x'“bf klg cfk"mnfO{ lhp“bf] /fVg g]kfnL efiff.Dd k|zf.DkbfnfO{ hf]ufpg . .ª\ufnf] 128 .flxTon] cfw'lgs sfndf kl/is[t x'“b} cfw'lgs efiffsf] ?kdf g]kfn efiffn] k'ghL{jg kfPsf] 5 . ug]{5' . ha.

kmn x'g .Dkbfsf] .+/If0faf6 dfq jf:tljs ?kdf /fli6«otfsf] . g]kfnsf] .+:s[lt / .+:s[ltdf cfw'lgstfsf] k|efj kg'{ :jfefljs xf] .nfO{ cfTd.do d} a'e\mg' kb{5 . c? t c? g]kfnefiff nf]k eO.s]sf] 5 t/ g]kfnefiff clxn] . df}lns efiff.lu{s clwsf/dfly s'7f/f3ft ug]{ sfd ePklg efiffk|lt . .dlk{t hgtfaf6 cfk\mg} k|of. tkfO{sf] h:tf] ljrf/ af]Sg] /fHosf k|zf. efiff pTyfgsf] nflu g]jfM hgtfn] . x'G5 .s]sf] 5 .\ To. sf7df8f} 129 /fh >]i7sf n]v . a'e\mg c. @)%^ . hxf“. 6]lnlehg / kqklqsfdf .Gbe{df Vj} /fHon] efiffnfO{ . cem ljåfgx?n] efiffsf] .lSsd .ft ug{ .S5 /fHon] nufgL gug'{ / cfly{s jf .+:s[t t d[tefiff eO. g]kfnefiffsf] pTYffgsf] nflu g]jfM .dGjosf] sldn] of] of]hgf .xh} cg'dfg nufpg .+/If0f ug{ /fHoaf6 s]lx tTk/tf eg] b]vfOPsf] 5 . k|frLg efiff .qmdn] lg/Gt/tf kfPs} x'G5 .+:s[ltljb\ . eg]/ Wofg lbg' kg]{ s'/fklg oL g} x'g\ .jf]{Rr cbfntn] lg0f{o lbof] .}u/L g]kfnefiffsf] 1fg gePsf] eP g]kfnsf] Oltxf.fgf gfgLx? klg cfk"m g]jfM x'g'df uj{ u5{g / cfk\mgf] dft[efiffdf af]Ng' / a'em\g' cfk\mgf] clwsf/ 7fG5g\ . df}lnstf / k/Dk/fut d"No dfGotf sfod /fvL cfw'lgs ljsf.Djw{g x'G5 eGg] xfdLn] .]sf eg] kSs} xf]Og .+/If0fsf] s'/f ubf{ æPs hgfn] dfq af]Ng] efiff lsg gxf].fnsf] .lsg] x'GYof] . g]jfM .d'bfo dfq x}g cGo klg slt lqmoflzn 5 eGg] s'/fsf] of] eGbf /fd|f] pbfx/0f c? s'g xf]nf < /fh >]i7sf n]v .fn} dfq nf]kf]Gd'v hghftL / tLgsf efiffnfO{ . o./L /fHosf cª\uaf6 efiffsf] g}.d'bfosf] x[bodf ljb|f]xsf] Tof] cfuf] /f]kL lbof] hf] cfhko{Gt x/]s jif{ h]7 !( ut] sfnf] lbgsf] ?kdf aNb} 5 .ª\ufnf] 130 . k|]/0ffhL. g]kfnsf] of] kl/ronfO{ .Gwfgx? xfdLn] k9g kfp“5f} . .fdu|L slt nf]slk|o 5g\ eGg] s'/f t tL sfo{qmddf x'g] hg. k|]/0ffhL < efiff / . t/ o.s]sf] ef/tLo /fHo l.+:s[lt af/] u/]sf y'k|} cg'.sf] sfof{Gjog kIfdf oy]:t Wofg hfg' cfjZos 5 . efiff / .kmn ePg xf]nf .+:yfsf] :yfkgf ePsf] 5 .xeflutfaf6 .8L / 8]s.d. k|z:t d]xgt u/]sf 5g.s]sf 5}gg\ .don] nTofPsf] eg]/ k'/fgf lel.Dd lhp“b} 5 .ª\ufnf] dxfgu/kflnsfdf / wg'iff gu/kflnsfdf g]kfnefiff / d}lyln efiffsf] k|of]udf /f]s nufPsf] lyof].+ej x'g] lyPg ./sf/n] ljBfnodf g]kfnefiff k7gkf7g u/fpg lzIfs tof/ ug]{ x]t'n] of] of]hgf cufl8 NofPsf x'g . k'/fgf k|ljlwsf] w/ftndf pleP/ gof“ k|ljlwsf] lgdf{0f / ljsf.lsG5 . . jl/i7 .Eotf a'e\mg g.ag]/ plePsf] 5 .+/If0f lbPsf] < clxn] xfn. of] x'“b}df efiffsf] If]qdf g]jfM hgtfn] xft af“w]/ a.fgf .+/If0f ug'{ /fHos} st{Jo x'g cfp“5Æ eg]sf 5g\ .+:yfsf] cfk\mg} ejg sLlt{k'/df lgdf{0f eO.f/ klg hLjhGt' / jg:klt hutdf ljsf.n/ x'g'x'G5 .qmdsf] lg/Gt/tfn] k'/fgf k|ljlwsf] 7fp“ gof“ k|ljlwn] ln+b} hfG5 . g]kfn efiffdf lk=Pr=l8= ug]{ hd{g ljåfgx?n] g]kfn efiff / g]jfM .s]g eGg] k|Zg 5.fdlos ljifodf cfk\mg} efiffdf n]v /rgf k|Zff/0f / k|sfzg u/]/ hgtf emsemsfpg] k|of. hLjlj1fgsf] l.+/If0fsf] olt 7"nf] dxTj x'“bf x'“b} klg ga'emL k|]/0ffhLn] ug'{ePsf] l6Kk0fL k9\bf v]b nfU5 .“u t'ngf ug{ ldN5. l.Dd gfr3/ #$ jif{ kl5 klg lsg aGg .+:s[ltdf kl/dfh{g ubf{ xfdLn] df}lns :j?k glalu|of].+rf/sdL{x?n] . ljZjs} pTs[i6 .fn h]7 !( ut] ToxL lbg xf].jf]{Rrsf] Tof] cfb]zn] g]jfM.lSsdsf g]jfM hgtfx?df efiffsf] 1fg lbnfpg l. . x'g. To. To.+:s[tsf] 1fg gePsf] eP cfo{ .Todf]xg hf]zL o.sx?n] hfgfhfgL Pp6f lhp“bf] efiffnfO{ d[t t'Nofpg hlt k|oTg u/] klg .df k|z:t sfd ePsf 5g\ .4fGt cg'.+:s[ltn] gof“ hLjg kfp“5 . hg:t/af6} g]kfnefiff Ps]8]dL gfds . Tof] cfb]zn] . ljsf.}n] t .lSsd .|f]tfdfem tL .sf] . ./sf/n] 5fqj[lQ lbP/ lqe'jg ljZjljBfnodf g]kfnefiffdf Pd=P= sIffdf egf{ x'g cfk\mgf gful/s k7fPsf 5g\ .+ljwfg eg]/ elgPsf] @)$& .+:yfsf rf+. Pkm=Pd=.+ej x'g] lyof] .+:s[lt / .+ljwfgsf] cf8df . tkfO{ t Ps k|ltlglw kfq x'g'x'G5. ul//x]sf5g\ .+:s[lt / . cfw'lglss/0fsf] gfddf cfk\mgf k'vf{sf w/f]x/ df:g lbg' kSs} klg x'“b}g .s]dfq efiff / .} u/L xfd|f] k"vf{ gePsf] eP xfd|f] cl:tTj . 7Ls To. h'g lbg :yfgLo lgsfodf :yfgLo efiffsf] k|of]u ug{ kfOb}g eg]/ .

g ug{] . != cflv/ aGb lsg < .“u hf]On cfPsf lyltdNn hol:ylt dNn ePkl5 dfq b]lvPsf] xf] .+:s[lt cfk\mgf] df}lns :j?kdf g]kfn d08n leq k'g{:yflkt ug]{ p2]Zon] . &) k|ltztnfO{ g]jfM /fHodf s] :yfg x'G5 n eGg'.ef. ToxL e"lddf ToxLs} hgtfnfO{ pgLx?sf] df}lns xs clwsf/af6 al~rt ug{ vf]h]/ s:tf] lsl. We consider s\he a newar as well.+3Lotfn] enf] ub}{g To. ul/b}5g\ .dy{g u/]sf] eP s] lau|GYof] < @= cflv/ g]jfM sf] xf] < g]kfn efiff af]Ng] g]jf/ eGg vf]lhPsf] jf sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf a:g]nfO{ < g]kfn efiff af]Ng]nfO{ elgPsf] eP y'k|} df/jf8L / afx'g x?n] klg /fd|} af]n]sf] b]v]sf] 5'“ . Finally of] . l/ltlyltdf ul/g] k"hf k4ltsf] cg'.+:s[lt .xof]udf df}lns .+lrt of] cflbe"lddf zf. @))( -h]7 @%. sfo{df bftf /fi6«x?af6 klg pNn]vgLo .LnfO{ p:s} cflbe"ldaf6 lj:yflkt ug{ vf]h]/.bx?n] . . 7Ls} nfUof] .ef d} lj/f]w.Lsf df}lns efiff xf].gfn] l.To xf] .a} hfthftLnfO{ .. But all newars should come in competitive manner to acquire any position or for the rights to govern the newar state.a'sdf k|sflzt k]m.t g]kfnL efiffsf] lkmNdL If]qdf xljut b]Vbf dnfO{ g]kfn efiffdf Ps b'O dfq lkmNd ag]sf 5g\ eGg] tkfO{sf] sygaf6 lrQ b'v]g / of] ljifodf d df}g /xg] g} lgwf] u/]+ . But he may belong to Newar caste and may feel in his heart that he is a Newar. . cg'.+/If0fsf] If]qdf g]jfM . s] pgLx?nfO{ g]jf/ x}g eGg] < jf pkTosfdf a:g]x?nfO{ g]jf/ elgPsf] xf] eg] g]kfn efiff af]Ng] hDdf #) k|ltzt dfq} 5 .+rf/sdL{ Biplav Dai.\ < #= g]jf/ of] vfN8f]df cfpg] .dsf] zflGt rfxg' ePsf] xf].a kf6L{sf g]tfx?.}n] -o. gq dNn. Other criteria: the person may not know Nepalbhasa and may also be not following our culture. Anyone who can speak newar languange is a newar but s/he should also be following newar culture.+:s[ltlk|o ljrf/ af]s]sf k|ltlglw kfqx?sf] afx'No ePsf] /fHosf] gLlt lgdf{0f txdf k'u]sf k|zf. It's not about from where the person comes or caste.“u hf]l8Psf] hfqfkj{.+:s[ltsf df}lns kIfdfly cf3ft kl//x]sf] .d'bfosf] cflbe"ld xf]. In patan. sjnb]jL. We can't separate them.+ljwfg.+/If0fdf /fHokIfsf] e"ldsf t utjif{ OGb|hfqfsf] lbg d} b]lvof] . u'0fsfdb]jsf] kfnfdf b'Dhfaf6 cfPsf] xf] .+/If0fjfbL / .kgf af]S5 eg] Tof] p. there are Muselmaans who have become newars.}n] cflbjf. /fhgLlt1x?sf] 3f]/ pk]Iffsf] afah"b g]jfM . sf]nu0f/fHo slknj:t' lt/af6 cfPsf] xf] . cfw'lglss/0f / klZrdL z}nLsf] cg's/0fn] . You are right about the formation of castes among Newars. tkfO{ h:tf . 8+uf]n. . o.+/If0fdf cu|. l6Kk0fL k9]“.ª\ufnf] 132 .Gwfgstf{x?n] cfk\mgf] cg'.sf] lbjf :jKg dfq x'g]5 / eljion] rf“8} o:sf] k'li6 klg ug]{5 . cflbjf. sf7df8f}+df hftLo / eflifs n8fO{sf] s'/f .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . zfSo. c:t' . tkfO{ of] e"lddf < eflifs / .f+:s[lts clwsf/af6 al~rt ug{ vf]h]/. .sf]_ lj/f]w u/f}+ .+:s[ltsf] .d'bfo. @)^^_ df k]m.+:yfx? nflu k/]sf5g\ . s. t/./ ePsf 5g\ . /fh]Gb| zfSo. h'g e"ld g]jfM . To:df klg g]kfn efiff af]Ng] 3/df g]kfn efiff af]Ng] aRrfx? slt 5g < vf]hL s} ljifo 5 . h'g *.d]6]/ ag]sf] zAb xf] .Lx?sf] /ut / kl.+x Dear Raj.s.Gwfg u/L k"hf k4ltnfO{ df}lns :j?kdf sfod /fVg k|of.xof]u k|fKt ePsf5g\ .+:s[lt . Like Madan 131 /fh >]i7sf n]v . It's just that Newars will get priority.x[boLx?sf] .+3. h'g efiff oxf“sf cflbjf.GwfgnfO{ k|sfzdf NofO/x]sf 5g\ .d'bfo cfk\mg} / . ljsl. Newar autonomous state should also ensure rights of the non-newar and I am sure it will be. g]jfM .a'saf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof ljKnjdfg l. /x\of]. The criteria for being a newar are more extensive than the ones you have mentioned.

The federal nation which has several state and wants to bind is some how successful. After Madheshi Aandolan. So I don't pay much attension to such comments. not the system itself. I think even the leaders are not clear about which kind of federal state to go for. It will certainly help for healthy discussion on the subject of what kind of federal system should Nepal implement. At least we have to be clear on which kind of federalism we want to follow. as long the "leaders" are not accountable to the rights and welfare of the people. Which type of federal system Nepal is implementing? One bad thing is there is not successful federal state which is built after dividing one nation. tall and strong like mountains. Our Newa leaders should also come into discussion and make it clear to newars. Nepal certainly cannot afford to add another example of bad results. But the editors of Kantipur have different view on that subject and very biased toward the Newar people. So newars should work towards securing their rights in the changed political context. Whether federal state is good for Nepal or not: it is a different subject to discuss on. Like you said. But the letter did not get published. We need to change the mindset of those in the governing positions. We have to stand the ground. That is how we define newars. /fds'df/ >]i7 /fh]Gb| zfSo Biplav Dai. 133 /fh >]i7sf n]v . federal state . Guess you shouldn't as well. So yes. But now that the system has already been changed. As for my opinion. pay for it. It enriched my knowledge. we need to start constructive discussions on it. Our so called leaders gave into Madhesi demands and agreed on federal system.. republican set up. we need to change those who run the system.Mohan Mishra.ª\ufnf] 134 . So it should be tested /mindated by Janamat Sangraha. /fh >]i7 Thanks to all of you for all those thought provoking comments. a journal need to have unbiased mind and treat equally to the any community in the country. etc. As long as those in power are not in favor of people. I mean. She doesn't even have the slightest of idea about what conservation is. you are so very right. They come and they go. thanks for your good comments. As this is complicated subject matter Raj jee's effort is really appreciated. there have been good and bad examples of federal state. no system in the face of the Earth is gonna save Nepal. He is Newar. why we can not discuss about federal system? There are 4 types of federal system. as long as those governors have no sense of duty towards their people.+x Shakya ji. the people. /fh >]i7 Biplav sir and Rajendra jee. But the leaders took that right of ours away and decided on their own cause they couldn't stop Madhesi movement. Coz she is a bahun and they don't have any such culture or even language that they can conserve. In response. We can't roll back the time. I also think that referendum is the best option for issues like abolishing monarchy. And the lady from Pulchowk. I don't think her comments deserve much space coz she doesn't know what newars are. I emailed this letter to "Kantipur" and also personally submited it to "Kantipur" office. I can't say how we can change that. It only errupt communal voilence like in Nigeria and Euthiopia. Renowned writer. The "Kantipur" publication seems to have a distinct reason for not publishing any thing in favour of the Newar people of Kathmandu. They make mistakes because of their own shortcomings and we. Raj ju. Federal system is the in-thing for Nepal. No originality. this federal word is put in our interim constitution without peoples' consent. Such kind of biased articles if given room in a newspaper like "Kantipur" must be counterbalanced by giving room to another counter thought also. It is a matter of great sorrow for all Newar community that "Kantipur" has published a letter by a lady from pulchowk degrading the Newar people of Kathmandu valley.ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .. This sort of open discussion is quite good to make clear each other. /fh]Gb| zfSo You are right but "Kantipur" is always like that. I think a newspaper necessarlily always reserve approprite space for both side of thought. ljKnjdfg l. Originally he is not newar but now we can't seggregate him as non-newar.

u/dfyf b'u' j. yf}+sGxoof cfw'lgs k|ljlw 135 /fh >]i7sf n]v . 5fo < -g]kfn efiffsf /rgf_ eujfg a'4 pano\of slknj:t' u0f/fHoof n'lDagL ago hGd h'u' w}u' k|df0f yf}+sGxof jt{dfg g]kfnof n'lDagLO b'u' czf]s :tDe x] v . g]kfoft ."rLno .+ yyu' Ifdtf sy+ P]Soa4tf Sogf xg]u' Hof g h'u' v .s]u' 5u' aNnfu' cfwf/ :tDe sy+ sfo]u' v. dnfO{ tkfO{sf] n]v dgk¥of] . xg]u' Hof h'n . o'g]:sf]+ n'lDagLoft\ ljZj .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . j czf]s :tDeoft hd{g k'/ftTjljb\ cGtf]g km'x//+ ! l8.+ ofgfu' h'n . a]nfot /fh. slknj:t' lbj.f lgtf lrh b' . eujfg\ a'4of u[xgu/L slknj:t'oft xlndo cem cKkf] Dxl.s]u' lglt+ j eujfg\of zflGt . zflGtof cu|b"t eujfg\ a'4 hGd h'u' b] . ul/.]Da/ !*(^ v'Gx' cGt//fli6«o huto Gxf]g] xof lbu' .+ ofgfu' h'n .+.cd[t /fh >]i7.seg+ Yo+s]u' lglt+ xlndo ly ly b]Mno Rjgf lbOlk+ g]kfMld a'l4hLlj tou' s't sy+ j+u' ! l8.f/o Dxl. sy+ xg]u' lg0f{o lhld.]Da/ @))( v'Gx' slknj:t' lbj.]Da/of lb+oft x] Noofu' h'n .Demgf :j?k ! l8. /fh >]i7 wGojfb cd[t.]Da/ !*(^ v'Gx' cGt//fli6«o huto Gxf]g] xof lbu' .s dxTj lau' lglt g ! l8. cn] jos lkG. j v – g]kf ljZjof . zflns /fd k|hfklt 5+u' ljrfM oSsf] af+nf .ª\ufnf] 136 . oxf“sf] k|f]T. sy+ xg]u' lg0f{o lhld.dfj]z g+ ofo] w's'+u' lg pu' lb+ oft P]ltxfl. eujfg a'4 pano\of slknj:t' u0f/fHoof n'lDagL ago hGd h'u' w}u' k|df0f yf}+sGxof jt{dfg g]kfnof n'lDagLO b'u' czf]s :tDe x] v .]Da/of lGxoft slknj:t' lbj. j czf]s :tDeoft hd{g k'/ftTjljb\ cGtf]g km'x//+ ! l8.fgh' .Demgf :j?k ! l8.Sg'eP5 lg .jf]{Rr lzv/ . /fh .fxgsf nflu .]Da/of lGxoft slknj:t' lbj.Gb]z . pu' lb+ v'Gx' ly ly b]of g]kfld lkG. tkfO{n] t n]vgdf lgs} ljsf.Dkbf .

ckm n8{ a'4 wsf k|rf/ k|./sf/ x] k|fyldstf laof . Anu. lklaP.efof . ofo]u' j k"d+ju' n'lDagL ljsf.]G6/of cfWoflTds lgb]{lzsf cd]/LsL 8f]df] u]. ./sf/ gfk x] tKo+s v+ Nxfo] dfn wf. k|f]=8f=sljtf/fd >]i7h'+ Rjoflbu' a'4 hLjgLO cfwfl/t cg'. pls /fhs'df/ l.a's.+ljwfg .~rf/ dfWod kfv]+ :jfk' to]u' j sfo{qmdof k|rf/ k|. Yj .b gsltlg . gSsnL slknj:t j ljZje/ a'4hGd:yn of v+ Ajngf Rj+u' e|d ofgf g]kfno lgu' . cleofg+ Ho"sy+ emsemso] ofo]u' yu' bfloTj g tfosf jof Rjgfu' b' . g]kfn ko{6g jif{ @)!! oft n'lDagL.+. -@#))_ km\ofg h'O w'+s'u' b' . ljZj hg. slknj:t' lbj. u'un. lelht n'lDagL.]qm]6l/o6ofu' g Joj:yf h'u' b' . u'un .fj{hlgs oft .OG6/g]6oft 5\onf cGt//fli6«o .d:ofoft . jf:tjo Yj .'n/ hg/n bLks v8sf j lgDx ljb]zL lk+ cd]/LsL wd{u'? clUg k|mfGs cfOs/Dofg jf x\jfO6 sGr wdf{ . l6\j6/.Ddlt kfl/t ofu' b' – n'lDagL If]qoft cGt//fli6«o zflGt zx/of ?ko\ ljsf. lbUe|ldt xhf/f}+ ko{6s t a'4hGd:yn wsf ef/to jgf Rj+u' b' .s]u' j g]kf of ko{6g k|j4{g ofo]t g pu' sfo{qmd+ oSsf] UjxfnL bt .f .fM .'lgof]lht ?k+ ljZjoft e|do tou' lglt+ GxoAjofRju'+ vg] b' .Nnfxsf/ . l.f OlG8of wsf Sog]u' .f/ g ofu' h'n . g]kf ofu' /fli6«otf gfk :jfk' b'u' y'lk+ 36gf t 5u' .+of]hsTjo lem+u'Dx -!(_ .ldlt g u7g h'u' b' .ª\ufnf] Aj+lsu' kf7\ok':tso g a'4 ef/to a'u' v wsf Rjof tu' b' . Od]n j d]d]u' .+rfns kml/b hsfl/ofof . ckm a'4 wsf dfn+ wf.r{ OlGhg vo jy{Knf.b:o 8f= cf/h" b]paf /f0ff.ª\ufnf] 138 . Pdfn]of kfv]+ k"j{dGqL /fh]Gb| >]i7.r]t ofo]u' .g\ @)!@ ts b'g] Sjrfo]s]u' tft'gf ef/t+ gSsnL slknj:t' bosf Rj+u' cf oSsf] Hof l.b:o b'u' ljZj sfo{.j{.PgPg Rofgnof . y'sy+ xlndo g]kfoft cem cKkf] Dxl.~hfn km]. .wo g w'+sn .r{ OlGhgof jy{ Kn]. sfo{qmdof lg/Gt/tf of lglt+ km].of sG.fdflhs .GwgfTds pkGof.Dkfbs.] l/Gkf]r] v .f OlG8of s]g]u' oft d]d]lk .+sNk k|:tfj . gSsnL slknj:t'af/] .ldlt of u7g gsltlg h'n . Yj cleofgof p2]Zo k|flKtof lglt+ GxoDx-&_l.km' b kf]:6 cd]l/sg jN8{ o Rjof tu' a'4 ef/tLo v j a'l4Hd\ ef/to\ kQf nu] h'u' v wfu' wfk'oft lj?4o\ km]. pBf]u Joj. yu' Anu.+of]hs tou' 5u' . .]+ y'Ot . ckm a'4 wsf dfnwf. u'?of]hgf oft tLg jif{ b'g] Sjrfo]s]u' .slknj:t'. cleofgoft xfg . cleofg+ hsfl/ofof b':k|of. ljleGg b]ofu' kf7\ok':tso b'u' a'4 hGde"ldof e|d s'6gLlts lgof]u dfkm{t . ofu' unt hfgsf/L b'u' lel8of] of lj/f]wo\ Jofks ln+s j sd]G6 5\jo]u' ofgf jof Rjgfu' b' .+Vof rLg hfkfg sf]l/of /fh >]i7sf n]v .of lj?4 hgr]tgf Ajn+s]u'. k|sfzg ofo]u' b' .f/of oSsf] b] no 137 /fh >]i7sf n]v .+. d'Vo ofgf gSsnL slknj:t'of af/] ef/t . plsO{ Pg]skf dfcf]jfbL kfv]+ dn]lzofof /fhb"t efh' 8f= Clif clwsf/L. lklaP.a'so yu' x] Psfp06 j km\ofgSnj b' u'ls yf}+ tsof b'g] lgå j :j.f . g]sfof kfv]+ . a'l4hLlj kfv]+ 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7.a's dfkm{t yGofu' e|doft lg:t]h ofo]t kmSsf] s't ofo]u' j ofs]u' .]Da/ @))( w'+sf Yj cleofgoft lg/Gt/tf la. Yj cleofg+ Go"hljs klqsfof . Od]n Anu dfk{mt hgr]tgf Ajn+s]u' h'n .foL kfv]+ c:6«]lnof Go".fpyj]N. s/f]8f}+ tsf bf+ vr{ ofo] w'+sn . pls lh yDx g+ . b jy{Kn].DalGwt b] of lgsfo gfd v+ Nxft wf.+:yfut ?k+ o+s]t a]nfoto\ RjgflbDx efh' /fds'df/ >]i7h'of ljZj .of 5u' .+Vofof # efuof Ps efu @ cj{ hg.dfwfg ofo] pln yfs'O g dv' .d"x gfk hfgf lj/f]w ofo]u.4fy{ ef/tLo wsf woflan .f/ ofgf ly ly b]no Rjlk dg'tot lzlIft ofo]u' j ko{6g k|j4{g ofo]u' cleofgof 5u' d" cfh' g v .d:ofof vg] bof Rj+u' b' /fli6«otf j ko{6g .d:of pln+ tw+u' g dv' jf ./sf/+ uDeL/tfk"j{s sfn wf. km]. ! l8.a's. cd]l/sL 6]lnlehg sDkgL b a'4 wsf bo]s'u' lel8of] .d:of tgf jlg . slknj:t' j eujfg\ a'4gfk :jfgf lelht g]kfn.+:yf j . cf ofu' tTsflns of]hgf sy+ slknj:t'af/] $% ldg]6of cGt//fli6«o :t/ofu' 8s'd]lG6« bo]s]u' j.'lrt ofgf .dfwfg ofo] df .fs{ d'n's :jo]u'lnO{ Rjgfu' b' . y'ls p2]Zo k"/f ofo]t slknj:t' lbj.d:ofoft g]kfn .xh bo]s]u' lglt+ u'Dx -(_ If]qLo .

cg b'u' czf]s :tDe t bSsf] t:.xlgof./sf/+ lnsgf laO w'+sn .8s dfu{+ jOlk+ af}4 tLy{ofqL t j ko{6s t n'lDagL rflxnf xfg ef/to\ lnxfjlgu'.yfONof08. cg eujfg\ a'4 @( jif{ Rjgflbu' yfo\.f+:s[lts . cn] xfg j If]qoft x] ..fg j phf8 h'of Rj+u'b' . cg /fi6«klt.s :yn t .'g. sf]ifof k|fyldstfo dnfu' Yj If]q yf}+ sGxo phf8 h'O{ w'+s'u' hs dv' cg dfgjLo cltqmd0f h'of cl:tTj x] .dfgfo Rj+u' lkk/xjf clnu9jf If]qoft k|frLg slknj:t'of /fhf .f jx] tyfut eujfg a'4+ @( jif{ Rjgf laHofu' slknj:t' yf}+ phf8 p/f7 j .4fy{gu/ lhNnf bo]sf plsof .a]+ cKkf] tLy{:yn b'u' k'/ftflTjs slknj:t'oft yf}+ of lbg lyO km'u' db' .8sof dfOn:6f]g bSsf] ef/t. slknj:t' lagf a'4 j a'4lagfof slknj:t'of sNkgf ts ofo] k}mdv' cy]x] n'lDagLlagf slknj:t' j slknj:t'lagf n'lDagLof sNkgf ts ofo] k}mdv' .s+ bogLo cj:yfo nfgf Rj+u' b' ."rgf af]8{ j .fg h'ofRj+u' b' . b]jbo. slknj:t' djO dv' . adf{ >Ln+sf tfOjfg nufot b] of hgtf t k|ToIf af}4wdf{jnDaL j o"/f]lko j cd]l/sL dg'tou' a'4wd{ bz{g k|lt em'sfj ofgf plk+ hLjgo 5s h'.Ss dg sos'+sf jo] dfu' b' .DalGwt .Dkbf b'u' slknj:t' yf}+ pk]lIft h'of Rj+u' b' . slknj:t'O a'4gfk :jfk' b'u' P]ltxfl.'4f]wgof b/jf/ wsf ttw+u' af]8{o Rjof ofo]lhSj e|d km}n]ofgf Rj+u' b' . slknj:t'of jt{dfg yf}+ b] Go+s j xlndo o wfo] @%%$ cf}+ a'4holGt xgf Rj+u' b' .ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . t/ pln h'of g+ n'lDagLO czf]s :tDe j dfofb]jL dlGb/ pTvgg ofan] n'of ju' dfs{/:6f]g v plsofgf hs a'4hGd:yno\ ef/t+ ljjfb ofo] dkm\o} Rj+u' v t/ tyfutof u[xgu/L slknj:t' ug+ eujfg @( jif{ ts Rjgf laHoft j :ynof gSsnL k|lts[lt lkk/xjfo bo]sf t' Rj+u' b' .s+ em em wfof Rju' b' .'4f]wgof b/jf/ eUgfjz]if k|dfl0ft ofo]t pQ/k|b]zof j:tL lhNnfoft l. ef/tLo . /fhf . . n'lDagLO ckfo.h{gf ofgf jof Rj+u' b' . s'bfg a'4+ 1fgk|fKt h'Ow'+sf af}gfk nfu' :yn. 5fo] wf. g]kfno ltnf}/fsf]6 h'g jf:tljs k|frLg slknj:t' v j :yngfk ef/tof /]Nj]:6]zgo\ b'u' .'g.l5l. a'4 hGd:yn n'lDagLO{ ljz]if tof/L gfk+ eJo ?k+ xgf g Rj+u' b' . ef/t+ g]kfof l.j]+ cKkf] af}4.b/d'sfd gf}u9oft slknj:t' gfdfs/0f ofgf e|d l.+s em em wfof GxfOk':.+s6o nfgf Rj+u' b' . uf]l6xjf qms'5Gb a'4of hGd:yn. l.u/xjf.o lk kfx'gf t emfof lban] n'lDagL t:. /fdu|fd gfk+ .'lgof]lht ?k+ ko{6s :yn bo]sf dfu' k"jf{wf/ t bo]sf cGt//fli6« xjfO{ c8\8f ts bo]sf Rj+u' b' . t/ lem u'nL notfo df pln x] b'vL g h'Odfnf Rj+u' b' .l5 l./sf/ j n'lDagL ljsf. yg b'u' wfld{s :yn t ltnf}/fsf]6 ug /fhf . a'4 gfk .'4f]wgof b/jf/of eUgfjz]if b'. .f+ n'lDagL.ª\ufnf] 140 . lgunLxjf sgsd'gL a'4of hGd:yn cy]x] c/f}/fsf]6. b]z ljb]z+ jOlk+ ko{6s t slknj:t'of Yj tLy{ :ynofu' b'/fj:yf vgf t. tof/L vfhfvfgf Joj:yf ofgf jOu' lg g]kfoft y'ls afdnfSs lnRj nfgf Rju' b' . lem bSsf] notfo dfu' v+ v Yj . dlGq j b]b].] Rj+an] cg 139 /fh >]i7sf n]v .

æhj hj Yj k[YjLno\ wd{ gfz h'O{ tj tj wd{ :yfkgfy{ yg lh+ cjtf/ sfo\Æ wsf lxGb" wd{o\ eujfg s[i0f+ ch'{goft wof ys'u' b' .DkbfÆ no\ eujfg j'4 . >Ln+sf. y'ls lhu' wfk' lhu' cWoog jf ljZn]if0fof cfwf/o\ Gxo\Ajof Rjgf .f h'O dk'm .+ yu' wd{ :yfkgf ofo]t d]lklgu' wd{oft . j.+ oSsf] Iflt ofgf ys'u' lem. lxGb" wd{oft g+ pld.sf/ lkG.s+ Rj5fou' b]g laof lbn . lrg of gf+ g :ki6 of . lxGb" wd{ zf:qo\ lemu'u' cjtf/sy+ eljioo\ slNs cjtf/ sof Yj k[YjLno\ eujfg lji0f' xfsg+ emfOltgL wsf g wof tu' b' . a'waf/_ ælemu' .+xf/ ofu' vM . eujfg j'4oft lxGb" wd{o eujfg lji0f'of gjd\ cjtf/ wsf wof tu' b' .flxToof lnw+.fo x] Ajn+u' vg] b' wf. g]kfn+ g+ plk+ lnxf+ j+u' lg lxGb" wd{ j af}4 wd{ pln :og] dnft . .nxgfoft kf} – jf}4 wd{af/] lh+ :o'u' vF t -g]kfn efiffsf /rgf_ pHofnf] () g]6js{ Pkm=Pd= /]l8of+] k|.dfh . ef/to\ g cg+ /fh ofgf Rjlk+ la|l6. . j.+ lrg+ k|flrg ef/to\ rflxo' jlk+ lrlgof+ lty{ofqL to.+ yg g u'ln vg] b' .flxToo pNn]v ofgf tu' tIflznf j ufGwf/ yf}+ sGxoofu' ckmuflg:tfg j kfls:tfgof e'efu.flxToo\ Rjof tu' k|dfl0fs v+ of lnw+.f/gfy j /fh >]i7sf n]v .'wf/s j bfz{lgsof ?ko l.f/ h'u' v+ jf}4 . Oltxf.s+ l.+ult b'xf+jof Rj+u' Ono 5Dx . k'nfu'+ d"lt{ t5\ofgf tu' lem. kz'kltgfy j ljZjgfyofu' dlGb/ j d"lt{ ts+ pld. Yj ljifono lhu' cWoog wf.o\ Ajg]df . cn] ckmuflg:tfg+ ef/to\ jlk+ Old. c/j+ ckmuflg:tfg+ jlk+ cfqmd0fsf/L lkG.kf]nof yu' sd{e"ld l.fd|fHo :yfkgf ofu' lem.+ x] ef/to\ g jf}4 wd{oft k"0f{?k+ lj:yflkt oftM j ef/to\ d'un .+ Rjof ys'u' pan] ofu' j0f{gof cfwf/o\ eujfg j'4 gfk :jfk' b'u' Ko+u' yfo n'lDagL. t/ ef/to\ lxGb" wd{of hu hgtfof b'g] b'g] ts You+' lg cg+ k"0f{ lj:yflkt x] wf. ltAjt.o\ j|fDxL lnlk+ Rjof tu' clen]v :tDeof cWoog cg'.f/ ofgf jf}4 wd{oft t:.kf]n g+ eujfg /fdof x] .+ jf}4 wd{ ./0f oft . h'h'+ x] jg .sf/ to.j]+ lkg] lkg] g jf}4 wd{of k|.+ jf}4 wd{oft cg+ lj:yflkt oft .\ Ajnlg+ . l.+xf/ ofu' oft slNs cjtf/+ j'4oft :oft wsf wfu' h'Odf . cg+ dWo Plzof j clk|msfof oSsf] yf.ldt j Dxf] h'.+ Oltxf. af]wuof. y'lsoft lxGb" to.r{ ofgf an] lxGb' wd{ u|Gyo\ pNn]v ofgf tDx slNs cjtf/ :jod\ df]xDdb x] vM j c/je"ld+ 3f]8f uof ef/to\ wd{ :yfkgfy{ jDx df]xDdb x] slNs cjtf/ vM wsf Rjof tu' n'u' vM . .d|f6 czf]s+ yfo yf. jf:tj x] wfo]dfn wf.Gwfg yf}+ tsg+ Oltxf.DalGw Gx'u' Gx'u' v“ l.ª\ufnf] 142 . jf}4 wd{of :yfkgfof oSsf] lnkf c/j e"ldO k|f]k]m6 df]xDdbkfv]+ O:nfd wd{of :yfkgf h'u' v .f+ Ho" .+ cg'. j|Dxb]z -adf{_.of JofVof ofgf jof Rj+u' b' .fo k|flrg ef/tof Oltxf.kf]n+ Sogf lbu' n+oft oSsf] dg'to.dsflng hs+ dv'nf w}u' Gxo. ægjd cjtf/ k|e' j'4 ?k wf/0fd\Æ wsf yf}+ts g ehg xfn]u' lh+ :o' .+ lxGb' wd{ u|Gyo\ k|dfl0fs 5'+ x] db'u'lg+ jf}4 wd{ j .f+ jf}4 wd{ j bz{g lhu' lk|o ljifo j Yj ljifono\ lqljljno\ Ajg]u' dgt'gf+ Rjgfu' lg 5' v“ Rjof Rjgfu' b' .ª\ufnf] cleofg sy+ pQ/ j k"jL{ Plzofo k|rf/ k|.d|f6 czf]s+ 141 /fh >]i7sf n]v . k|flrg ef/to lxGb" wd{o cg]s lj.s+ .+ ofgf x] RjgltgL .+ ysy+ j0f{g ofgf c/jL 3f]8fo jlk+ O:nfdL cfqmd0fsf/L to. lh+ OG6/g]6o\ . Ol08ofof c+u|]h to. dlGb/.s] bof lh notfof .+ Oltxf.f t:. cn] xfsg+ :ogf Rj+u' d7.f ef/tof k|flrg Oltxf.+ t:.f/0f h'u' g]jfMefo\of Hofem\j -@)^^ j}zfv #) ut]. u'Daf j ljxf/ k'g?Tyfg j ljsf.+xf/ ofgf xtfofof+ lemlgu'u' -!@_ ztfJbLO ef/t j g]kfno g+ Yo+s jn .o\ Ajg] b' .o\ c/jL 3f]8f uof jOlk+ O:nfd wd{of cg'ofoL cfs|d0fsf/L lkG.ofd -yfOn}08_. pls+ slNs cjtf/+ eujfg j'4oft :oft w}u' v“ kfol5 dh' wsf lh+ tfof .4fy{ uf}tdof hGd h'n . w}u' x] jf}4 wd{ j . cn] /fdfo0fo\ eujfg j'4oft Sjo+sf Rjof tu' lg j. jf}4 wd{ 5u' :jtGqu' wd{ vof g+ ef/t j g]kfno y'lsoft lxGb" wd{of 5u' srf sy+ vgf g'u dl5g+ .

sf“8fsf] cf“vfdf sf“8} . cleofgsf . jos ylklg oSsf] dg't d'gf jf}4 wd{o\ k|j]z ofgflbu' vM .fy} cToGt . jf}4 wd{of k|efj Dxf] ofo]t lxGb" wd{of dg'to.+ jf}4 wd{oft .f/.j]+ Sjo] Rjlk+ hftLlk+ dg't pu' wd{o åfxf+ jlgu' h'j+.xcl:tTjsy+ :jo]u' ofgf xn ./0f oft . o.]+ ljleGg sfnv08o\ h'u' vg]b' .ª\ufnf] 144 . /fdfo0fo\ eujfg j'4oft Sjo]+sf Rjof tu' g b' .f/+ h'h'j+an] lxGb" wd{of hftL k|yfo bSsf] l.+.d|f6 czf]sofu' :tDe j d]d]u' P]ltxfl.flxTodf jl0f{t of] syf . Pp6f cleofg.s]sL ltgnfO{ lng leIf' cfOk'U5g\ .Obt .+ y'lsoft cg'. ebf} dlxgfsf] klxnf] zlgjf/. cleofgsf tk{maf6 .DalGw å]ifk"0f{ jfSo tu' h'Odf .oft s'“lvgf dfgjtfjfbL Gx'u' wd{ bz{g Gxog] xu' lg oSsf] dg'to.kf]ngfk å]if tlk+ dg'to.+of]hssf] ¿kdf d. – eujfg\ a'4 leIff6gsf nflu lg:s]sf Ps o'jf leIf'nfO{ b]v]/ Ps .Gb]zx¿sf] /fh >]i7sf n]v . t/ lxGb" wd{+ jf}4 wd{oft yu' k|ltåGbLsy+ :ju' vg] b' .Dkfbs >L s]bf/ zfSo.flxTosf/ 8f=sljtf/fd >]i7 / nlntk'/ lhNnfsf k"j{ d]o/ tyf jl/i7 JolStTj >L a]vf/Tg zfSo xfdL kf“rhgf cfgLnfO{ e]6\g pxf“s} lgjf.f/Æ uLtaf6 k|l. zs+/frfo{ g]kfn jan] yg b'u' oSsf] jf}4 u|Gyt Rofsf 5\jt wfu' lem. slknj:t' lbj. pQ/v08 d"nv08 l.o\ oSsf] v“ t l. clxn]sf] ljZjdf eujfg\ a'4sf .Da4tfn] . .Lldt hs h'u'ln+ 5'+ å+laå b'.'? eof] . . lhu' Oltxf. t/ of] cj. cGTodf IfL0f / /f]uL eO.Nnfxsf/x¿ n'lDagL ljZjljBfnosf k"j{ /lhi6«f/ tyf uf]/vfkq b}lgssf k"j{ .n] ToxL kfpF5 .+ /fdfo0fo\ j.f sgf÷Rjof lbOt Ogfk ofgf Rjgf .fob} d}n] sNkgf u/]+ x'“nf . pls+ gfk+ ef/to\ lqmlZrog wd{of g k|rf/k|. :jfefljs ¿kdf af}4 wd{ / bz{gaf6} jftf{nfk .of cWoog . 143 /fh >]i7sf n]v .kf]n .+ Ajgf . /fdfo0fof /rgf sfn 5u' sfnv08o\ hs dh'.do cfPkl5 cjZo cfpg]5'Æ eg]/ hjfkm kmsf{p“5g\ .f lxGb" t jf}4 wd{o\ b'xfjlg dv' wsf yy] ofu' v} wOu' lhu' wfk' b' .'? ul/xfNof}“ .fs{ . cfw'lgs sfno ef/to\ jf}4 wd{of xfg+ k|fb'{efj h'n .j]+ oSsf] lnkf ltlg /rgf ofu' v .+.:yfg af}4 k'u]sf lyof}“ .'gfp“bf efj ljef]/ ag]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5 .s'lzgf/f xfg+ n'Osf jf}4 wd{of ljsf. cfk\mgL Ps .kmn x'g'ePsL cfgL 5f]Oª 8f]NdfnfO{ e]6\g kfp“5' eGg] . cfgL 5f]Oª 8f]Ndf af}4 . o'jf leIf' ltgsf] cfdGq0f :jLsf/ u5{g\ / æ.o\ oSsf] of]ubfg ofgfys'u' b' .+of]hs >L nId0f k'/L. æk"mnsf] cf“vfdf k"mn} .+ljwfg RjoflbDx 8f= eLd/fj cDa]8]s/ Gxfkf 5Dx Sjo]u'+ hftLofDx lxGb" vM . eujfg j'4+ lxGb" wd{of s'/Llt j cGwljZjf.'Gb/ o'jtL d'Uw x'lG5g\ .kf]noft yu' 5Dx Bf] sy+ xgfju' h'Odf . g]kfn .ª\ufnf] cfgL 5f]Oª 8f]NdfnfO{ e]6\bf h.s tTYo+ jf}4 wd{of Oltxf. pls+ eujfg j'4of k|efj oSsf] nfo]w's'+jn] j.f}xfb{ jftfj/0fdf xfdLn] jftf{nfk . ef/tof .+ Yj wd{oft g+ yu' wd{of x] 5u' srf sy+ gfnfsfo]u' j j.'Gb/ / htftt} xl/ofnLn] 3]l/Psf] pxf“sf] 3/df k'Ugf./ h'6fO lbof].]ln+ lqmlZrog wd{oft ef/to\ Jofks h'Ot kg]t lxGb" to. eujfg j'4oft lxGb" wd{of x] 5Dx Bf] sy+ xgwf. cg+ pTvgg ofgf n'of ju' .“usf] d]/f] .l4 / nf]slk|otfsf] lzv/ r'Dg .]ljsfdfk{mt\ tL leIf'nfO{ cfk"msxf“ cfpg cfdGq0f ul5{g\ .n] h] /f]K5 p.

cleofg ljZj sldl6sf] . cGTodf IfL0f / /f]uL eO. o. cleofgsf d"n p2]Zodf eujfg\ a'4sf pkb]znfO{ ljZje/ k}mnfpg' / a'4hGd:ynaf/] rnfOPsf e|dnfO{ lgjf/0f ub}{ a'4hGd:yn n'lDagL / slknj:t' g]kfndf g} kb{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ljZj hgdfg.Nnfxsf/df al.4fy{nfO{ a'4 agfpg] tTsfnLg kl/l:yltnfO{ ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] pxf“ atfpg'x'G5 . ev{/} b'O{ xKtfcl3 dfq} a'4hGd:ynaf/]sf] e|d lgjf/0fsf nflu k|wfgdGqLnfO{ 1fkgkq a'emfof}“ eGg] s'/f klg xfdLn] pxf“nfO{ atfof}“ .lbg xfdLn] cg'/f]w u¥of}+ .df .'dw'/ . ljZj cleofg sld6LÆ /x]sf] 5 .Tosf] dfWodaf6 hgtfdf Pp6f gof“ .fw'jfb lbg'eof] .'Gb/ o'jtL d'Uw x'lG5g\ .do cfPkl5 cjZo cfpg]5'Æ eg]/ hjfkm kmsf{p“5g\ .flxTodf jl0f{t of] syf .s (Psychiatrist) klg lyP eGg'x'G5 . leIff6gsf nflu lg:s]sf Ps o'jf leIf'nfO{ b]v]/ Ps . g]kfnefiff ga'e]m klg uLtsf k|To]s zAbsf] cy{ a'e]m/ 7Ls. o'jf leIf' ltgsf] cfdGq0f :jLsf/ u5{g\ / æ.s]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f klg xfdLn] atfof}“ .DaGwL sfo{qmd 6]lnlehg h:tf .xL yfKb} .f}Do ¿kdf pgL eGb} lyOg\ – eujfg\ a'4sf pkb]zx¿ .dxTj a9\b} uP klg g]kfndf af}4 bz{g. slj b'uf{nfn >]i7sf] zAbdf cfk\mgf efjgf af]n]sf] kfpg'x'G5 pxf“ .d]l6Psf] 5 eGg] s'/f atfpg'x'G5 8f= sljtf/fd . pgsf uLtsf zAbx¿ Gx\o" ah|frfo{sf] . cToGt zfGt / .kl5 8f= sljtf/fd >]i7n] pxf“sf] s[lt ædxflelgiqmd0fsf c:jLs[t kfOnfÆ sf] af/]df . nId0fhL b'O{ lbgkl5 .~hfnsf] lj:tf/ eO. 145 /fh >]i7sf n]v . dfgj dl:tisn] .ª\lIfKt hfgsf/L lbg'eof] .kmn ePsf] pxf“n] atfpg' eof] . dl:tis / leqL x[bob]lv ufpg'ePsf] 5 pxf“n] slj b'uf{nfnsf uLtx¿nfO{ .Gwfg ug'{k/]sf] pxf“ atfpg'x'G5 .s]sL ltgnfO{ lng leIf' cfOk'U5g\ . pxf“n] . cleofgaf/] .“u e]63f6 ug'{sf] csf]{ Pp6f p2]Zo klg lyof] .Tosf] k|lt:yfkg ug'{ePsf] lyof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ cg'. s]bf/ zfSohL pxf“sf] xf] df xf] ldnfpg' x'“b} eujfg\ a'4 dgf]j}1flgs dfq x}g 7"nf dgf]lrlsT.f}DotfnfO{ d lgofln/x]sf] lyP“ .f ub}{ pxf“nfO{ .'gfp“bf efj ljef]/ ag]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5 . xfn. cfgL.xh klg 5 . ldq nId0f k'/LhL / d Wofgk"j{s .f/0f eO/x]sf] elg/x“bf cfgLsf] cg'xf/df b]lvPsf .Dd x[bon] Tof] 1fgnfO{ u|x0f ub}{g / Jojxf/df b]lv“b}g ta. cfgLn] pxf“sf] s[ltsf] k|z+.Dd u8\5g\ .'lg/x]sf 5f}“ . o. slj b'uf{nfn >]i7sf] /rgfdf g]kfn efiffsf uLtx¿sf] .“ufnf] ædtsnfÆ sf] PsPscf]6f l. of] s[lt s]xL lbgleq} g]kfnL kf7s. pxf“sf] sygdf .Demfpg' ePsf] lyof] . o. cfgLsf] ljrf/df eujfg\ a'4 o'u s} . cfk\mgf] x[bon] h'g efjgf JoSt ug{ vf]h]sf x'g\ tL efjgfnfO{ slj b'uf{nfnsf] zAbdf e]6fpg' x'G5 pxf“ .]ljsfdfk{mt\ tL leIf'nfO{ cfk"msxf“ cfpg cfdGq0f ul5{g\ .Dk"0f{ lqlk6s s07} u/] klg ha.“u} cfpg'ePsf] lyof] .'? x'g nfu]sf] :gftsf]Q/ k/LIffsf] tof/LnfO{ yf“tL /fvL cfgLnfO{ e]6\g xfdL. o.ª\ufnf] 146 .ª\uLtn] hLjGt eP/ >f]tfx¿sf] dg leq}. pxf“nfO{ slknj:t' lbj.ª\lIfKt hfgsf/L lb“b} o.8L rSsf xfdLnfO{ pkxf/:j¿k lbg'eof] . pkGof.GwfgfTds ¿kdf o. o.fd' cfpg] ePsf] 5 . cfk\mgL Ps ./n /x]sfn] hLjgdf u|x0f ug{ .ª\u sf]6\ofp“b} eGg'x'G5 – s[zf uf}tdLsf] k'qljof]unfO zdg ug]{ p2]Zon] eujfg\ a'4n] uf}tdLnfO{ hGdkl5 d[To' cjZoDefjL 5 egL .nfO{ tof/ ug{ @%÷@^ jif{sf] cg'.Dd Tof] 1fg lg/y{s x'G5g\ eGg'x'G5 cfgL .df k'¥ofpg' xf] eGg] s'/f xfdLn] pxf“nfO{ atfof}“ .df d"ntM l. dg.~rf/dfWoddf gu0o dfqfdf k|.“u} a:g'ePsf af}4 jfª\dosf ljåfg\ s]bf/ zfSo s[zf uf}tdLsf] k|. s[ltsf] k|sfzs æslknj:t' lbj.ª\ufnf] o.}aLr pxf“sf] gof“ PNad.aeGbf 7"nf dgf]j}1flgs (Psychologist) lyP . pkGof. To.Dd ljZjsf !# b]zx¿df xfd|f] .xif{ :jLsf/ ug'{eof] . g]kfn efiffdf cfgLsf] of] klxnf] PNad xf] . cfgL 5f]Oª 8f]Ndf af}4 . o'udf pklgifb\sfnLg cGof]nnfO{ lrb}{ eujfg\ a'4n] rf/ cfo{ . pkGof. pxf“sf] :j/df g]kfn efiffdf uLt /]s8{ ug]{ slj b'uf{nfnhLsf] rfxgfcg'¿k of] PNad lgsfNg .“u pRrf/0f ug{ pxf“n] lgSs} d]xgt ug'{ePsf] /x]5 . xfd|f] /fh >]i7sf n]v .f] s[ltsf] ljdf]rgsf nflu 8f=sljtf/fd >]i7n] ug'{ePsf] cg'/f]wnfO{ klg .

tL g]kfnLx? sfdsf] l.dy{g 5 o. cfh vf8L d'n's / dn]lzofdf .Sg] x'g ls eGg] c8\sn eO/x“bf e'6fg .dfrf/ klg Ps /fli6«o b}lgsdf cfof] .To xf] . n'lDagL xfn k|df]b:yn (Disneyland) sf] ¿kdf ljsf.ª\ufnf] 148 .Dks{ u/L s'/fsfgL ug'{eof] .+Vofdf g]kfnLx? gSsnL /fxbfgLdf sfd ul//x]sf 5g\.cg'/f]wnfO{ . @)^&_ df k|sflzt Anuaf6 k|fKt k|ltlqmof cd[t/fh >]i7 /fhhL.n sfd ub}{ x'g'x'G5 . o:tf] l:yltdf s] e'6fgn] h:t} g]kfn .Gbe{ e/v/} 36]sf] tf/f Po/sf] ljdfg b'3{6gfsf] xf] . .of}+sf] .wf . h. e'6fgL gful/sx?nfO{ lnP/ vf]6fªsf] xn].g ug{ nfu]sf x'gfn] ladf /sd kfp“5 eGg] . eO/x]sf] pxf“nfO{ dg k/]sf] 5}g . . 147 /fh >]i7sf n]v .lbg] b'j} k|:tfj l:jsfl/lbg'ePsf]df pxf“nfO{ wGojfb lb“b} xfdL labf x'g] t/v/df nfUof}“ . Pp6f .“u} n}hfg] s'/f atfpg'eof] . cleofgdf .n] ToxL kfp“5 . cleofgnfO{ klg . e'6fgL k|ltlglwd08n cfk\mgf gful/ssf zj l5§} lnP/ e'6fg hfg nfu]sf] .kmntfsf] sfdgf 5 .sf] cy{ lyof] – h.s]sf lyP .'gfpg' eof]. To.Sg'kb{5 .a} cfZro{rlst x'g] u/L pxf“n] eujfg\ a'4sf pkb]znfO{ uLtdfk{mt .kl5 tLy{ofqL e'6fgL gful/sx? jf:tljstf n'sfP/ ofqf ul//x]sf x'gfn] b'3{6gf ladf kfpg g. Pp6f /fHosf]. e'6fgL k|ltlglw d08n sf7df8f}+ cfO.xif{ l:jsfg'{x'“b} pxf“sf cfk\mgf sfo{qmdx¿ klg ljb]zdf eO/xg] x'gfn] o./sf/sf] cfk\mgf b]zsf gful/sk|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj s:tf] x'g'k5{ eg]/ e'6fg.ª\ufnf] g]kfnn] e'6fg.n] h] /f]K5 p. w]/} w]/} wGojfb clg .L /x]sf .“u l. 3'd3fdsf] :ynsf] ¿kdf dfq} n'lDagLnfO{ lng gx'g] pxf“sf] wf/0ff /x\of] ./sf/ cfk}+mn] cfk\mgf gful/ssf] cfO8]lG6lkms].Sg'kb{5 g]kfnL gful/s x'g'df sf]xL klg g]kfnLn] cfTdUnfgL cg'ej ug{ gk/f].dfrf/ klg cfof] . cGTodf 5'l§g] a]nfdf xfdL . ca e'6fg . b]zsf gful/sk|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj af]s]/ a.sf] ef]lnkN6 ha ljdfg nfld8f8f“df b'3{6gfu|:t ePsf] ./sf/nfO{ /fv]/ x]/f}+ . To.\.]K6]Da/ $.L tLy{:ynaf6 sf7df8f}+ kmsg]{ qmddf ha ljdfg a]kQf eof] e'6fgL k|wfgdGqLn] g]kfnsf k|wfgdGqL. d]/f] x[bob]lv g} .“u g]kfnn] l./sf/sf] 7fp“df g]kfn . uf]/vfkq b}lgs.nfdf b'3{6gfdf k/L d[To' x'“bf oxL sf/0fn] ljdf /sd gkfpg] u/]sf] oyfy{tf 5 .Fu l.nl. clt g} c. of] w'|j./sf/ cfk}mn] cfk\mgf /fh >]i7sf n]v . @)!) -ebf} !(. k':ts ljdf]rg / ljZj sld6Ldf al.dfrf/ cfof]./sf/sf dGqLx?df d]/f] oxL cg'/f]w 5 .

ª\ufnf] a. 5 5 dlxgf . t/ Tolta]nf k//fi6« dGqLn] l.g]{ xf] eg] s'g rfxL+ ladf sDkgLsf] . pgn] lh/L c:ktfnaf6 sf7df8f}+ l:yt k|mflG. kf/./sf/sf dGqLx?df d]/f] oxL cg'/f]w 5 . gful/s b}lgs.s]gf} . @)^&_ df k|sflzt /fh >]i7sf n]v . g]kfn .Sg' ePg .b]zsf gful/snfO{ cfO8]lG6lkms]. g]kfnL gful/s x'g'df sf]xL klg g]kfnLn] cfTdUnfgL cg'ej ug{ gk/f]. zfx–?a]n rf}w/L k|s/0fdf ljb]zaf6 k//fi6« dGqLsf] 6]lnkmf]g . xfd|f k|of.gsf] tbf?stfn] xfdLn] rfx\of} eg] s] ug{ .Dd w]/} ca]/ eO. cem Pp6f csf]{ k|. Tolta]nf k//fi6« dGqL 8f= k|sfz z/0f dxt x'g'x'GYof] .Dd l56f] g]kfn Nofpg .lqmotf.]Da/ !(./sf/. k|x/L / k|zf.\ t o:tf]. Ps hgf k|]mGr kbofqL ko{6s lh/L kbofqfdf la/fdL k/L lh/L c:ktfndf cfPsf lyP . O/fsdf xfd|f] cfk\mg} b"tfjf. b'O{ dlxgf x}g.s]sf] < dnfO{ . @)!) -k'if $.xof]u dfluof] .Dks{ u/] / To:sf] Ps 306f kZrft\ Pp6f x]lnsf]K6/ pgnfO{ lng cfOk'u] / pgnfO{ lnP/ sf7df8f}+tk{m p8] .St}gf} eGg] k'li6 ub{5 .af6 .+usf] s'/f ubf{ s/Lj b. b]z xf]. O/fsdf !@ hgf g]kfnLx?sf] xTofx'“bfsf] Tof] kl/l:ylt .“u . ef/tLo jf O/fsL k|wfgdGqLnfO{ g} .L /x]sf .x? olt c.Dd nfUg] u/]sf] b'vb kl/l:ylt oxf“ ljBdfg 5 .w} cd]l/sL ljb]z dGqL.s]gf} . gx'“bf kfls:Tffg l:yt g]kfnL /fhb"t dfk{mt O/fsL ckx/0fsf/L. ls ladf /sd glbg] < ljb]zdf lbgx'“ g]kfnLx?sf] d[To' x'“bf zj g]kfn NofO k'¥ofpg Ps dlxgf x}g.s]gf} d[To' ePsf g]kfnLx?sf zj . b]zsf gful/sk|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj af]s]/ 149 /fh >]i7sf n]v .df .af6 v} cfk\mgf] b]zsf hgtfk|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x ug{ .Dks{ ug'{ePg g t kfls:tfgL.s]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqL b]pjfn] cd]/LsL /fi6«klt hh{ a'z.Demgf 5./sf/ cfk}mn] d]/f] b]zsf gful/s x'g eg]/ clu .s]sf 5g\ < olb g]kfn .Dks{ ug{ . ef/t . l8.g ug{ .fx.“u . gful/s x'g' t o:tf] b]zsf] . jif{ clusf] 36gf xf] .ª\ufnf] 150 .“u 6]lnkmf]g ./sf/ / ljb]z l:yt g]kfnL /fhb"tfjf. xfdLn] lhp“bf tL !@ hgf g]kfnLx? t arfpg .Dks{ ug'{ eof] .“u O/fsl:yt ef/tLo b"tfjf.nL b"tfjf.Dks{ ug{ vf]lhof] .kmn eP ls Tolt a]nf.\.

To. k|lts[ltsf] d"n lrq eg] la|l6z Do"lhoddf /x]sf] 5 . o.s]sf kj{x?sf] . sLlt{k'/sf] . .– lt/L dxf]T./df bflvn /fh >]i7sf n]v . .j:ynleq k|j]z ug{ kfOG5 . oMd/L. === cfuGt'sx?sf] pNn]Vo ./.f“u'/f uNnLx?df k'/fgf 3/3/df k/Dk/fut s[lif 151 /fh >]i7sf n]v . 5f]onf. 5f]onf.f+:s[lts kIfsf af/]df n]lvPsf l6Kk0fLn] cfuGt'sx?df pT. dfgfkfyL.s]sf d h:tf cfuGt'snfO{ of] k|frLg j:tLdf k'Ubf PrhL j]N. clukl5 .s / .du|df eGg'kbf{ sLlt{k'/ dxf]T.+:s[lt.r]t 5g\ eGg] emlNsG5 .d'bfosf] . r6fd/L. pdfdx]Zj/ dlGb/eGbf tn nfos" If]qdf kmf]6f] k|bz{gL / kmf]6f].xg / k/Dk/f a'e\mg d2t g} ub{5 . df6f] / 9nf}6sf ef“8fs'8f. g]kfn PsLs/0ftfsf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxnfO{ lhTg lgSs} xDd]xDd] k/]sf] of] sLlt{k'/sf] 8f“8fdf s]xL ldg]6sf] psfnf] sf6]kl5 k|j]z z'Ns ?= @%.5\of:tL b]lvGYof] .stf / g]jf/ .ª\ufnf] 152 .} .f/ k/]sf] x'“bf .'g.lStg .+/If0ftk{m sLlt{k'/jf. sf7df8f}+ pkTosf lgofln/x“bf af]l8{ª :s"nsf Ps x'n gfgLx? t“5f8d5f8 ub}{ cfk\mgf lzIfs–lzlIfsfsf .ls+b}5 .f]gfd Nxf].sf] 6fOd d]l. /xg.j df3 !( af6 .'stf a9fPsf] b]lvGYof] . o.jlt/ d x'l/{P“ .a}eGbf pRr:yfgdf /x]sf] pdfdx]Zj/sf] dlGb/af6 b]lvg] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] dgf]/d b[Zo sLlt{k'/ e|d0fdf cfpg] hf] sf]xLsf] klg 5'6fpg' g} gx'g] b[Zo xf] .xefuL eg] /x]sf] b]lvof] . clg Ps–Ps ldg]6sf] b"/Ldf k/Dk/fut r'Nxf]df bfp/f / uf]n dfq} k|of]u u/L ksfOPsf g]jf/L vfgf / kl/sf/ 5\of. jM.lhPsf o'jtLx? / cwj}+z] dlxnfx? – sf]xL rvf{df wfuf] sf6\g Jo:t 5g\ eg] sf]xL tfgdf sk8f a'Gg ./.ª\ufnf] cf}hf/x?b]lv lnP/ 3/wGbfdf sfd cfpg] sf7.xgdf cEo:t e}.gdf a.d'bfonfO{ cfjZos kg]{ . cfw'lgs k|ljlw / klZrdL /xg.s]sf] sLlt{k'/sf] nfos" -/fhb/jf/_ If]qnfO{ cfk\mgf] s[ltdf ptf/]sf 5g\ .+nUg 5 .g\ @)!! nfO{ ko{6g jif{sf] ?kdf dgfpg] . lrqdf lrqsf/n] uf]/vfnL cfqmd0faf6 Wj:t eO.fdfgsf] pTkfbg s. w]/}sf nflu . xfs'kf]6f.jsf] sf/0fn] 5'§} /f}gstf 5fPsf] 5 . :jfbsf kf/vLx?sf nflu of] cg'ej lgZro g} gf}nf] x'g]5 . .fj{hlgs ljbfsf] pkof]u ub}{ sLlt{k'/ dxf]T. :jfbsf kf/vLx?sf nflu of] cg'ej lgZro g} gf}nf] x'g]5 .fwf/0fsf] gfddf hf/L u/L af3e}/jnfO{ r9fPsf] cfb]zkq klg .doahL h:tf ljz'4 g]jf/L kl/sf/ – clxn] . s]xL sdL sdhf]/Lsf afah'b . x/]skN6 of] 7fp“df 3'Dg cfp“bf oxf“af6 sf7df8f}+ pkTosf lgofNg] df}sf d slxNo} u'dfp“lbg .'? eO{ df3 @# df .+u|xdf /x]sf] 5 .Ldf . 9s grflxg] t/fh'h:tf . ./L x'GYof] eGg] emns o. o.]/ dWosfnLg g]kfndf k'u]h:tf] cg'ej eof] .fdfGo nfUg] t/ d]/f] nflu eg] 5'§} cg'e"lt u/fpg] Pp6f 36gfsf] pNn]v d oxf“ gu/L /xg . cfh df3 @!.lDembf klg of] klSt+sf/sf] d'vdf kfgL cfp“5 .“u} To.doahL h:tf ljz'4 g]jf/L kl/sf/ – clxn] .fg g} x'g] ePklg cfh sLlt{k'/ dxf]T.Gbe{df cfof]hgf eO/x]sf] sLlt{k'/ dxf]T.sLlt{k'/ dxf]T. u7]d+un / nfv] gfrsf emf“sLx?n] emG8}emG8} nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf k'lu.+u|xfnodf kf] 5'“ ls eGg] h:tf] efg x'GYof] .sf] P]ltxfl. jM. r6fd/L.fy dlGb/ kl/. .+u|xdf sflGtk'/sf /fhf /fHok|sfz dNnn] sLlt{k'/ j/k/sf jghª\unsf ?vx? gsf6\g' eg]/ hg. . .jnfO{ lgofNbf oMd/L.lDembf klg of] klSt+sf/sf] d'vdf kfgL cfp“5 .a]nfsf] g]kfndf k/Dk/fut k|ljlwaf6 .n] ldNbYof] .} u/L kmf]6f]u|fkmL Sofd]/fsf] cfljisf/ gx'“b} g]kfn cfPsf Pshgf c+u|]h lrqsf/sf] x:tlnlvt lrqsf] k|lts[lt klg o.jn] sLlt{k'/sf] P]ltxfl.fdfgsf] k|bz{gLn] d cfk"m s'g} hLljt . sf]xL cf]vndf lrp/f s'6\g t sf]xL l9sL hf“tf] ug{ .Lx? . o.

eP . sLlt{k'/ dxf]T;j s} cj;/ kf/]/ z}lIfs e|d0f klg ug]{ p2]Zon] tL
:s"n] gfgLx? oxf“ cfPsf xf]nfg\ eGg] nfUof] . pgLx? pQ/–klZrdb]lv k"/}
#^) l8u|L blIf0f–klZrd;Dd k}mlnPsf] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] b[Zo cfk\mg}
cf“vf cufl8 b]v]/ rlst x'“b} x]l//x]sf lyP . To;}a]nf Pshgf lzlIfsfn]
c+u|]hLdf s]xL cfb]z lbOg\ . To;kl5 tL gfgLx? dlGb/sf] blIf0ftk{msf]
txtx u/L tLgtx agfOPsf] cUnf] 7fp“df ax't} cg'zfl;t tj/n] a:g
yfn] . dnfO{ nfUof], :s"n] gfgLx?sf ;fd"lxs kmf]6f] lvRg nfu]sf xf]nfg\ .
oxL df}sfdf d klg Ps b'O{ kmf]6f] lvlrxfNg] nf]en] ltgLx?sf cufl8 pleg
k'u]“ . ca cfpg] csf]{ b[Zon] eg] dnfO{ x'g;Ddsf] cfZro{rlst ug]{jfnf
lyof] .
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pT;'s eP“ . x]5'{ t, x/]ssf xftxftdf b]V5' – rfprfp, lrhaN;\, s'/s'/] /
n]o;{sf kfs]6x?, s;};“u rsn]6 8'gt eg] s;};“u b'O{ 6'qmf :ofp, o:t}
p:t} hª\sk'm8 / tof/L vfg]s'/fx? . s;}nfO{ ltvf{ nfUof] xf]nfg\ – k]K;L /
:nfO;sf af]tnx? lgl:sg yfn] . pgLx?n] oxL“ dxf]T;j d} t lsg]sf
xf]Ogg\ < x'g;S5 . t/ Pp6f ljrf/ d]/f] dl:tisdf lah'nL rDs];/L cfof] –
xfd|f cleefjsx? ;fx|} a]k'm;{lbnf eP5g\ jf ;fx|} clN5 /x]5g\ . cfk\mgf
gfgLx?sf nflu vfhf agfpg ;do g} /x]g5 . Pn'ldlgod kmf]On leq
gfO6«f]hgn] k|]m; agfOPsf hª\sk'm8x?– d'lZsnn] ;o u|fd xf]nf –
gfgLx?sf k]6 el/Gy] xf]nfg\ t < v'nf xl/of] rf}/df uf]nfsf/ a;L lzIfs–
lzlIfsfx? vfhf vfO/x]sf 5g\ – 3/}af6 ksfP/ NofPsf /f]6L, cfn' af]8L
t/sf/Lsf ;fy . cleefjsx?nfO{ gfgLx?sf nflu klg o:t} vfgf agfP/
k7fpg' eg]/ elglbPsf eP klg x'GYof] lg .
b'O{hgf ;fgf;fgf s]6Lx? tf;sf] hfdf klxl/P/ b'nxLh:t} l;+ufl/P/
cfkmGtsf;fy lrlnrf]+ ljxf/ k|j]z ug]{ d'v}df /x]sf] u0f]zhLsf] bz{g ug{
cfO/x]sf 5g\ . pgLx?sf] e/v/} a]n;“u ljjfx ePsf] lyof] . skfn
vf}l/Psf b'O{hgf s]6fx? ;]tf] hfdf nufP/ nfjfn:s/sf;fy b]vf k/] .
153

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

pgLx? g]jf/ ;d'bfosf af}4dfuL{ x'g\ . g]jf/ ;d'bfoleq hGdb]lvsf ;a}
;+:sf/x? xfd|f clukl5 g} 36L/x]sf h;/L k|:t't ug'{ o; dxf]T;jsf] csf]{
ljz]iftf xf] .
af3e}/j dlGb/eGbf s]xL k/ ev{/} :yfkgf ePsf] /fli6«olje"lt z+vw/
;fVjfMsf] k"0f{sbsf] ;flns 5 . Ps xftdf z+v lnPsf / csf]{ xftdf
;'gsf] y}nL af]s]/ hfdf klxl/P/ plePsf z+vw/sf] ;flns oxL“ dfq 5 .
cGo ;flnsdf pgL z+v b'j}xftn] lnO{ a;L/x]sf] d'b|fdf 5g\ .
sLlt{k'/af;Lx?n] cToGt >4fsf;fy k'Hg] af3e}/jsf] dlGb/ x]g}{kg]{
dlGb/x?dWo] kb{5g\ . oxf“ n]lvPsf] ljj/0f cg';f/, ev{/} lh0ff]{4f/ ;lsPsf]
o; dlGb/ g]kfnsf e}/j dlGb/x?dWo] ;aeGbf 7"nf] dflgG5 . o; dlGb/sf]
leQfdf sf]l/Psf] kf}ef lrq klg clt k|frLg / b'n{e dflgG5 . oxf“af6 klg
k|i6;“u lqe'jg ljZjljBfno / sf7df8f}+ pkTosf b]Vg ;lsG5 . o;
dlGb/sf] csf]{ ljz]iftf eg]sf] oxf“ uf]/vfnLx?sf] cfqmd0ftfsf
uf]/vfnLx?af6 vf];]/ lnOPsf xftxltof/x? k|bz{gdf /flvPsf 5g\ .
sLlt{k'/ dxf]T;je/L eg] o; dlGb/ k|j]zsf nflu z'Ns ?= !%.– tf]lsPsf]
5 . dlGb/ k|+j]zsf nflu z'Ns ltg'{kbf{ bz{gsf nflu hfg] cfuGt'sx? ?i6
b]lvGy] .
sfnf]df ;]tf wsf{ ePsf] pmgsf] 6f]kL nufP/ hf]uLx?n] h:t} nfdfnfdf
skfn kfn]sf Pshgf snfsf/ gf} b; jif{sf] afnssf] ufnfdf g]kfnsf]
em08f k]lG6ª\ ug{ Jo:t b]lvGy] . pgsf] jl/kl/ cfk\mgf ufnfdf, gf8Ldf
k]lG6ª\ u/fpg y'k|} afnsaflnsf / o'jtLx? e'mlDdPsf lyP . b'O{bh{g hlt
k]lG6ªx? klg k|bz{gdf /flvPsf lyP . s'df/L, o'jtL, b]jb]jL:yfg,
sfi7snfs[lt cflbsf k]lG6ªx?nfO{ Sofd]/fdf s}b ug{ s]xL cfuGt'sx?
nflu/x]sf lyP .
cGTodf sLlt{k'/ dxf]T;jsf] cfof]hgf ubf{ Joj:yfkg kIfsf sdhf]/Lx?
klg kfOof] . s'g 7fp“df slxn] s] x'“b}5 eGg] hfgsf/L lbg x]Nk8]:ssf]
lgtfGt cefj /x\of] . dxf]T;j:yn leq k|j]z u/]kl5 kfOn}lkR5] g]jf/L
vfgf / kl/sf/sf :6nx? /flvPsf] x'“bf cfuGt'sx? sLlt{k'/ dxf]T;j geP/
/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

154

sLlt{k'/ vfgf dxf]T;j kf] x'g\ ls eg]/ sfg]v';L u/]sf] kfOof] .
cfuGt'sx?n] dxf]T;je/L sLlt{k'/ s} :yfgLo pTkfbgx?sf] 7"nf] cfzf u/]sf
lyP . t/ To:tf pTkfbgx? nueu z"Go g} b]lvof] . cfuGt'sx?sf] pNn]Vo
;xefuL eg] /x]sf] b]lvof] . s]xL sdL sdhf]/Lsf afah'b ;du|df eGg'kbf{
sLlt{k'/ dxf]T;jn] sLlt{k'/sf] P]ltxfl;stf / g]jf/ ;d'bfosf] ;+:s[lt,
/xg;xg / k/Dk/f a'e\mg d2t g} ub{5 .
zlxb ;fKtflxs sLlt{k'/, k]ma|'c/L $, @)!! -kmfu'g @), @)^&_ df k|sflzt

cnljbf ls;'ghL
cfo{3f6df e§/fOsf] nf; hln/x“bf PkmPd /]l8of]x?df ls;'ghLsf
l;4fGt, st{Jolgi7f / g}ltstfsf] u'0fufg / tf/Lkm eO/xsf] lyof] . t/
cldtfsf] Tofu / tk:ofsf] af/]df Ps zAb klg s'g} g]tf / kqsf/sf
d'vaf6 ;'lgPg . cfk"mn] Toqf] ;]jfz'>"iff u/]sf cfk\mgf lk|o g]tfsf] d[To' x'“bf
pgnfO{ k/]sf] b'Mvk|lt ;xfg'e"lt / ;dj]bgf k|s6 ug]{ ;Dd sf]xL ePgg\ .
=== e§/fO{sf] ;]jfdf ltgn] k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg ct'ngLo 5 . jf:tljs cy{df
e§/fO{sf] lrtfdf bfuaQL lbg] clwsf/sf] ;f“lrSs} xsbf/ cldtfafx]s c?
x'g} ;Sb}gYof] .
k|hftGqsf] :yfkgf ug{ /f0ffzfxL lj?4sf] ;+3if{df xf];\ jf /fhfsf]
lg/s'+z zf;g lj?4sf] ;+3if{df, ufGwLjfbL g]tf s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{n] ;“w}
l;4fGt / d"No dfGotfsf] /fhgLlt u/] . Oltxf;n] pgnfO{ @)$^ ;fnsf]
hgcfGbf]ngkl5sf] cGtl/d sfn Joj:yfkg / @)$& ;fnsf] k|hftflGqs
;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0fdf pgsf] /fhgLlts g]t[TjnfO{ ;“w} ;lDem/xg]5 . h'g
/f0ffzfxL kl/jf/jfb lj?4 pgn] ;+3if{ u/] To:t} kl/jf/jfb cfk}m+n] :yfkgf
u/]sf] kf6L{df xfjL x'“b} uPkl5 klg pgn] To; lj?4 cfk"mnfO{ pEofPgg\ .
g]kfnL sf“u|]; leq 3ftk|lt3ft / if8\oGqn] pgsf] /fhgLlts eljio ;dfKt
kfg]{;Ddsf] sfd x'“bf klg pgn] To;nfO{ s'g} k|ltjfb gu/L zfnLg 9+un]
u|x0f u/] . kl/jf/jfb, if8oGq / e|i6 g]tfx?sf] af]nafnf kf6L{df a9\b}
uPkl5 eg] pgn] klg u0f]zdfg l;+x s} cg';/0f u/L kf6L{ kl/Tofu u/] .
l;4fGtlgi7 / g}ltsjfg g]tfx? Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ kfvf nfUb} ubf{ cflv/df

155

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

156

hgtfn] g]kfnL sf“u|];nfO{ bf];|f] bnsf] ?kdf k|lti7flkt u/L ;hfo lbO5f8] .
e§/fO{sf] sdhf]/L egf}+ ls clgR5f, pgn] cfk"m h:t} l;4fGt af]s]sf
g]tf / sfo{stf{nfO{ ;+ul7t u/L kf6L{leq} ;+3if{ u/]gg\ . pgL lhp“bf] x'“bf;Dd
;Ddfg lbg t stf xf] e]6 ;Dd ug{ ghfg] g]kfnL sf“u|];sf g]tfx? c:j:y
ePkl5 eg] uf]xLsf] cf“;' r'xfp“b} c:ktfn kl/;/ j/k/ b]lvP .
;/sf/n] pknAw u/fPsf] cf>ddf lgtfGt PSnf]kgfsf aLr af“Rg'
pgsf] lgolt h:t} ePsf] lyof] . pgL :j:y x'“bf x'g jf c:j:y x'“bf, pgsf]
;]jfz'>"iffsf nflu cgj/t?kdf v6g' x'g] pgsf ;xof]uL cldtf
skfnLafx]s pgsf ;fy cGo sf]xL lyPg . hLjgsf clGtd ;do x'“bf ;Dd
klg pgsf glhssf cfkmGtx?sf] sxL+ st} cQf] kQf] lyPg . pgsf] x/]s
;'v b'Mvdf ;]jf 6xndf cldtfn] Pshgf ;xof]uLsf] ?kdf cfk\mgf] hLjgsf]
dxTjk"0f{ ;do ck{0f u/]sL l5g\ . jof]j[4 e§/fO{sf] ;]jfdf cfk\mgf] hLjgsf]
dxTjk"0f{ cjlw ck{0f ug]{ cldtf db/ 6]/];f s} csf]{ ?k x'g . e§/fO{ lhp“bf
x'“bf ;Dd dfq} x}g pgn] k|f0f Tofu ul/;s]kl5 klg pgsf] kfly{j z/L/nfO{
;d]t Psl5g klg g5f8L cToGt >4fsf ;fy cldtfn] cfk"mnfO{ ;dk{0f
u/]sL b]Vbf ltgLk|lt d]/f] x[bodf c;Ld ;Ddfg pTkGg x'G5 . cfo{3f6df
e§/fOsf] nf; hln/x“bf PkmPd /]l8of]x?df ls;'ghLsf l;4fGt, st{Jolgi7f
/ g}ltstfsf] u'0fufg / tf/Lkm eO/xsf] lyof] . t/ cldtfsf] Tofu /
tk:ofsf] af/]df Ps zAb klg s'g} g]tf / kqsf/sf d'vaf6 ;'lgPg .
cfk"mn] Toqf] ;]jfz'>"iff u/]sf cfk\mgf lk|o g]tfsf] d[To' x'“bf pgnfO{ k/]sf]
b'Mvk|lt ;xfg'e"lt / ;dj]bgf k|s6 ug]{ ;Dd sf]xL ePgg\ . cldtf k|rf/df
cfpg rflxgg\ . e§/fO{sf] ;]jfdf ltgn] k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg ct'ngLo 5 .
jf:tljs cy{df e§/fO{sf] lrtfdf bfuaQL lbg] clwsf/sf] ;f“lrSs} xsbf/
cldtfafx]s c? x'g} ;Sb}gYof] . ls;'ghLk|lt >4f;'dg k|s6 ul//x“bf
cldtfsf] ;]jfefj k|lt klg gtd:ts geO /xg ;lsGg .
cldtfhL, d tkfO{+sf] lgM:jfy{ ;]jfefjk|lt gtd:ts 5' . b]jL eGg]
c;+;fl/s efjdf dnfO{ ljZjf; 5}g . b]jL t d tkfO{+nfO{ g} dfG5' .
gful/s b}lgs, dfr{ *, @)!! -kmfu'g @$, @)^&_ df k|sflzt
157

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

/fh >]i7sf n]v ;ª\ufnf]

158

“u} pgsf] :6]h k|:t'ltnfO{ lnP/ k|foM . ^* . ce}m b]Vg . sfof{no .Psf] nf]8\. ax/fOg / df]/Ssf]df Toxf“sf /fhtGq lj?4 hgtf . xtf/xtf/ uf“.Sg] o'jfx?sf] b]zsf] ?kdf g]kfnn] v'Ng rfx]sf] 5 . uDeL/ / pTkfbgzLn o'jfsf] vf“rf] 5 h:n] of] b]zsf] eljiosf] g]t[Tj ug{ .g u/L /x]sf zf./L /Dg .kgfdfq x'“bf x'g\ ./f]sf/sf] ljifo aGg ./L cfGbf]ngsf] g]t[Tj lnP ls bzsf}+ Ps5q zf. b}lgs !^ 306fsf] nf]8\.f/ lbp“. . ce"tk"j{ k|rf/sf .\sf] sf7df8f}+ cfudg.+:s/0f bf]xl/g] k|an .]G6/sf] 7Ls .do af“sL 5 . t/ P8D. hLjgofkgsf nflu rflxg] cfwf/e"t s'/faf6 alGrt hgtfx?sf] l:ylt x'g. df]afOnsf] Aofs\nfO6sf] d2tn] 9f]sfdf 6f“l.fj{hlgs oftfoftsf] l:ylt bogLo 5 .dodf .Ddsf] a]xfn 5 . r/d e|i6frf/n] b]z r'n'{Dd 8'a]sf 5g\ .\_ P8D.a} h.\n] g]kfnnfO{ v'Nb} u/]sf] eg]/ cYof{P /] .fnsf] h]7 !$ lgZro klg ^& sf] h]7 !$ aGg] 5}g . o'jfx? k|fyldstf la.sx? Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ 9Nb} 5g\ .lDem“bf klg cfª\u l.lª\utdf e'mDbf b]zn] kfpg] s]xL 5}g. cfk"mnfO{ laxfgsf] * ahL .\ . l6kL uGtAolt/ gnfUg] xf] eg] :6fkma. c/j ljZjaf6 pn]{sf] of] nx/ l9nf] rf“8f] Plzofdf cjZo cfpg] g} 5 .fy sf7df8f}+ cjt/0f ePsf Sofg]l8og /s\ ufos a|fog P8D.sx?nfO{ .f] .\sf] .]{/ P8D.sf].“w} cf“vf uO/xg] lqk'/]Zj/ jN8{ 6«]8 .dofjlwleq . xf] b]znfO{ clxn] :jfledfgL.8sdf cf]n]{sf 5g\ .s]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnx?sf] .f] sltv]/ cfp“5 .Dej h:t} eO. xf] g]kfn v'Nb} uO/x]sf] 5 .f] # ah]dfq lah'nL cfp“5 .s]sf] 5}g .'Gg'kbf{ -d]/f] k|fyldstfdf gk/]sf a|fog P8D.lª\utdf /Dg] lbzfxLg o'jfx?sf] b]zsf] ?kdf kSs} x}g a? cfk\mg} . o:t} e|i6frf/.flos . sfof{no cfp“bf hf“bf .~rf/dfWodn] k|d'vtf lbP . u'dfpg] dfq} 5g\ .+ljwfg aGg () lbgsf] nueu . .9'+u] o'udf afFr]/ a|fognfO{ . laxfg * ah] dfq aQL cfp“5 .\ ce}m k/]sf 5}gg\ .of / OlhK6df Toxf“sf zf.Sg] s'/f k|foM c. o:tf]df d P8D.\ d]/f nflu . laxfg % ah] lgb|f v'N5 . d]/f] k|fyldstf leq P8D. o.ª\ufnf] 160 .a d]/f nflu slQ klg xf]Ogg\ .f“em cGwsf/ s} af.lª\utdf s.]l8ª\n] uf“h]sf] lbgrof{ 5 . c/j hutdf pn]{sf o'jfx?n] o. /ftL sltv]/ lah'nL cfp“5 / hfG5.s]sf] 5}g .d'x ^ sf] tflnsf cg'.sf] si6s/ ofqf .s] h]7 !% kl5sf] b]zn] eljiodf s'g df]8 lng] x'g.s]sf] x'G5 .ls/x]sf] 5}g . la:tf/} 9'ª\u] o'ult/ uO/x]sf] hLjgz}nLdf P8D.k|lt d]/f] vf.} ?lr hfu]g .\sf] lutf/ ahfp“b} u/]sf] a8]dfgsf] t:jL/n] klg d h:tf o'jfnfO{ vf.Sbf g. e]l6“b}g / nf]sna. lbp“. lnlaofdf OlhKt .lsg] u/L pHofnf] eO.ª\ufnf] x'G5 . lsg xf] s'lGg dgleq Pp6f df}g cfjfh u'l~h g} /x\of] – oL .Demgf /fVg'klg b'is/ x'“b}5 .lª\utdf /Dgdf cfglGbt 5g\ .+:s[lt / .\sf] Jofj.ls/x]sf] lyPg .S5' < k//fi6« dGqfno cufl8 a]/f]huf/ o'jfx?sf] tf“tL b]Vbf nfU5 ufp“x?dfq} x}g ca t zx/x? klg o'jfljxLg x'g] cj:yfdf 5g\ .fd'Gg] /x]sf] P8D.\sf /s\ .+ljwfg hf/L x'g g.]l8ª\sf] tflnsf x]5'{ . g]kfn /x“bf tfsf pgn] ljb]zL /fh >]i7sf n]v . h]7 !$ df . sfof{noaf6 3/ kmls{bf .Sb} sfof{no hfg r6f/f] kl/. g]kfndf eg] o'jfo'jltx? P8D. a|fog P8D. hLjgsf] x/]s If]q nyflnª\u / etfe'ª\u 5 .\ dxfzon] eg] h:t} kfZrfTo .Eotfdfly uj{ ug{ .l/ª\u 159 /fh >]i7sf n]v . .QfRo"t ul/5f8] . x'G5 .+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g . pgL cfk\mg} gLlh ljdfgdf sf7df8f}+ pq]sf 5g\ . d"Noj[l4 / a]/f]huf/Ln] cfxt hgtfx?n] 6\o'lgl. dlGqd08nn] k"0f{tf kfpg .} cfslif{t ug{ .Defjgf 5 .

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o. 5f]/L eg]sf] csf{sf] 3/ 6fNg] hft eGg]h:tf t's g/x]sf pvfg 6'Ssf xfd|f] .f]kmfdf 9Ns]/ kqklqsf jf k':ts x]/]h:tf] dfq ug]{ u5{g\ .+:sf/n] – s'. x]/rfx u/L /ftL ca]/ .dWo] r'gfj lht]/ .b:o ag]/ cfpg]sf] .f/ t &) k|ltzt sfd dlxnfn] u5{g\ tfklg e'StfgL eg] b.\ eGg] sfdgfsf .Dd Totf cndlng] clg a]n'sf xlNn“b} 3/ cfP/ cf]5\ofgdf jf .fb}{df . cf]5\ofgd} lrof k'¥ofpg]. h'7f]ef“8f].+Vof x]bf{ ## k|ltztsf] klg Ps ltxfOdfq b]lvof] . clkm.ls“b}g elgPsf] 5 . 5f]/Lsf] hGd xf/]sf] sd{."./. ca eGg'."–.ª\ufnf] /fh >]i7sf n]v .lzjfsf]6L -!( kmfu'g_ n]vdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . lrof–rd]gf.'.d]t k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf ztk|ltzt gf/Ls} e"ldsf x'G5 . clkm. >Ldfg\.fy lax] u/fpg xtf/ x'G5 .f/ g]kfnL dlxnf k'?ifsf t'ngfdf tLg u'0ff a9L sfd u5{g t/ pgLx?sf] sfd b]lv“b}g .+ljwfg. cfdfh". 3/sf] . t'R5 k|f0fLsf] ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] 5 .. lxGb" wd{zf:qn] dlxnfnfO{ Pp6f bf. >Ldfg\ tyf .dfrf/ .t x'g k'U5g\ .ft ah]lt/ p7]/ ..'/f.\.\. gGb cflb leq ?dlNnPsf] x'G5 .+u7gsf] cWoog cg'. sfof{no k|d'v / Tof] sn]h.d]t EofO{ a]n'sLsf] k]ml/ vfglkg. cGo If]qdf .f. hGdb]lv gf/LnfO{ k'?ifk|wfgsf] lzIff tyf . .b:o aGg] xf]Og .f]Rg'kg]{ xf] . .}sf] klt s.a]/} p7]/ >Ldfg\ bL3{hLjL eP.b. @)^$_ oz' sfsL{.\.ef .ª\ufnf] 198 . ?9LjfbL . Ps cWoogcg'. To.Dd gf/Lsf] pTyfg x'g] s'/fdf k|Zg lrx\g nflu/xG5 .kmfO{ b]lv d]nfkft. sf7df8f}+ . efif0f 7f]Sb}df.'v k|fKt xf].+ljwfg. eP b.{lbnf >Ldfg\Æ laxfg . k|ltztn] dfq kfp“5g\ .+Vof !! k|ltztd} .dfhsf] aGb]hdf / pd]/ k'Ugf.'/fsf] :ofxf/–. clwsf/rflx“ Ps k|ltztn] dfq hdfpg kfp“5g\ . .ef . .ef .fy k"hfkf7.f/.Gtfg.'Tg] u5{g\ . cln 7"nf] ePkl5 . To.L. aRrfsf] x]/rfx. ljBfno k9\g] ljBfyL{ lsg gxf]cf]. cGt//fli6«o >d . vfglkg.}sf lktf x'g\ << xf]Og / < pgLx?nfO{ 3/sf dlxnfn] laxfg} p7]/ xtf/–xtf/ k|ult / .ef .dfhdf ce}m k|rlnt 5g\ .'ljwfef]u . 5f]/f5f]/Laf6 .'Gg].b]lv rf/. gf/Ln] olt gul/lbg] xf] eg] s'g} klg k'?if rfx] . 197 /fh >]i7sf n]v . . a]n}df vfgf tof/ u/L v'jfP/ n'ufdf cfO/g nufP/ lrl6Ss kf/]/ uGtJodf k7fpg] gf/L xf]Ogg\ / < ca eGg'. /f}tx6 ufp“sf kLl8t dlxnfsf cfwf/df lgsflnPsf] k|ltztsf] . afns 5p~h]n 3/kl/jf/sf] bafjdf .sf] cf}lrTo – dfr{ (.f] t æa]k'm.\ pgLx?sf] xfnt s:tf] x'GYof] xf]nf < of] gf/Ln] uxg ?kdf .+ljwfg.+:sf/ lbOPsf] x'G5 .Dd 5f]/f5f]/Ldf leGg Jojxf/ eO/xG5 ta.}sf] 5f]/f jf s.x/sf s]xL gf/Ln] dfq u/]sf 5g\ .Ge{df bnx?n] pd]bjf/ agfPsf dlxnfsf] . lzlIft egfp“bf k'?if klg 5f]/f hGd]g eg] csL{ ljjfx ug{ tof/ x'G5g\ .+ljwfg. .':jf:Yosf] sfdgfsf nflu k"hfkf7 ug]{. gf8L k.b:o aGg] k'?if klg s. 5}g eg] . /. @))* -kmfu'g @^.f.b:odfq xf]Og. lax]kZrft 3/Jojxf/. gf/Llbj. dlxnfn] ub}{ cfPsf clwsf+z sfd . rf]slt/ uP/ ukm r'6\g].fdfGo sfddf hfG5g\ t/ æs]xL sfd gePsf >LdtLx?Æ laxfg .f+. u?8 k'/f0fdf 5f]/f geP :ju{ hfg . ljjfx gu/] klg leqleq} xLg efjgfn] u|l. oxf“ cfdg]kfnL gf/LnfO{ x]g{ h?/L 5 .]jfd"ns 5g\ h. gf/Ln] slxn] v'nf cfsfzdf p8\g kfPsf 5g\ < d eG5' – ha.'d u'?ª.sf] s'g} d"No r'sfOGg .Lldt /xg] lglZrt b]lvG5 .

199 /fh >]i7sf n]v .Snfg\ t/ Ps . kl/jf/df.Gbe{ ædlxnfsf] zq' dlxnfÆ eGg] lyof] .f+Rr} g} cfk\mgf .dfg cj.De]msf] lyP+ . t/ klg tL ldqx?k|lt .dfh j/k/ kl/l:ylthGo .t o'u . .s]kl5 o.Dd pgL >Ldfg\sf] pkl:yltd} Psn hLjg lhp+b}l5g .fx.sf/fTds lje]bsf s'/f nf]s. @)^$ df3 !(_Æ dfly l6Kk0fL ubf{ tf/f e§/fO{ lbbLsf] æPp6f .dfhdf ljBdfg ljs[ltnfO{ x6fpg oy]:6 k|of.'wf/sx?af6 ljs[t gLlt lgodx? kl/dfh{g u/]/ clxn]sf] k|ultzLn .s]sf t lyPgg\ lg.dfhsf] .dodf ./ / . lxGb'wd{ / lkt[. Oltxf. jf:tjdf cf/If0f.ª\ufnf] tf/f e§/fO{ lbbLsL tL kl/lrtf hf] æ>Ldfgsf] dg kufNg.]jf cfof]usf k/LIffyL{ / g]kfnL /fhgLlt1x?sf nflu cfsif{s jf dxTjk"0f kf7 jf d"ndGq x'g.+u zq'jt Jojxf/ ub{y] .fgf] 3]/fleq pTkGg cf+wLa]x/L jf .dsfnLg eGbf zlQmzfnL / efUozfnL eP/ pbfP . k|lts"n kl/l:yltdf klg w}o{ / b[9 OR5fzlQm k"j{s sd{e"lddf 8l6/xg] .fdfGo 36gf ljz]ifaf6 cg'ej ul/Psf ltSttfx?n] af+sL .Ifd b]zsf of]Uo gful/s x'g t cfjZos g} 5.dfg Jojxf/ /lx/x\of] .fgL aRrL.dfhdf jf b]zdf hxLsxL+ / h'g.dfhdf eO/xg] o:tf 36gfsf kfqx? dlxnf jf k'?if hf] ePklg k|lts"n kl/l:yltaf6 d'Qm x'g ul/Psf k|of.tt\k|of. tL t kfqx? x'g h'g.df cGt/lglxt x'G5 eGg] d}n] .}sf] g ldq x'+bf]/x]5. g t :yfoL zq' g} .dsfnLg.Sb}g eGg] k|df0f t ljsl.fu/df d}n] s] l. tf/flbbLsf] ljZn]if0f lgd{nf e08f/L lbbLsf] n]vsf] .dfg cj. dxf.fgf] 6«]n/ -df3 !(_Æ k9] kZrft d]/f] dg dl:tisdf p7]sf ljrf/x? 9[i6tfk"j{s k|:t't ug]{ cg'dlt rfxG5' .'. efjgf lbbL. sIffdf k|yd ljBfyL{ .df . g} dxTjsf x'G5g\. w/tLdf ljz]if of]Uotfsf . hLjg?kL o.dfg clwsf/ . u/]+ . a'4 / ljj]sfgGb h:tf wfld{s .S5g\ . hLjgsf] s'g} cGt/fndf lat]sf 36gf ljz]if. .ª\ufnf] 200 . ltgL h:tL d]3fjL 5fqfn] lgZro klg ljb|f]x ug]{ cf+6 ul/g\ xff]lng\ / >Ldfg\sf] 5fof / y/gfdaf6 . tL ldqx? k'?if x'g ls dlxnf eGg] t d}n] slxNo} x]Ssf klg /flvg+ .do . ljifodf cfk"mnfO{ nfu]sf s]xL s'/f n]Vg dg nfUof] .fy cjt/0f u/fPsf x'g\ . k9L .njfn lbbLsf] ædlxnfsf zq' k'?ifÆ -df3 @@_ sf] kq k9\bf cToGt b'MvL dx. .Ddg cfOk'Ubf klg g]kfnL .d]t cfk"mnfO{ d'St cjZo u/Lg\ xf]lng\ eGg] d cfzf ub{5' .s]sf5g\ . . tL .a}nfO{ plQs} . efjgf l.Æ af6fx? aGb g} e} .dfhsf z+s/frfo{. u/]sf5g\ .'wf/s / cglulGt /fhgLlts . x/]s dflg.] oxf+ sf]xL s.fyL.dfh.df o:tf pbfx/0f k|. cd's 36gfsf lhDd]jf/ k'?if ePs} sf/0f jf dlxnf gePs} sf/0faf6 efjgf lbbLn] olt rf+8f] lgisif{ lgsfnL xfNg' gkg]{ lyof] . xfdL sxf+ oxf+ eg] cf/If0f / . xLg / IfL0ftfaf6 p7]/ cfk\mgf] nIok|flKtsf nflu .dfg clwsf/ kfPdf dlxnf jf k'?if sf]xL s. xf]Ogg / < Oltxf. cflbd o'u b]lv jt{dfg ljsl.DemGy] O{Zj/ jf k|s[ltn] dnfO{ o.:t} e]l6Gy].t klZrd / k"jsf b]zx?n] lbO. dlxnf jf k'?if df sf] s:sf] k|ultsf] afws < eGg] k|Zgdf ?dlNng' c:jefljs nfUb5 . . hf] bLg.'s} If]qdf klg Ps .dfj]zL / . /fh >]i7sf n]v .of}+ ldqx?nfO{ d /fd|/L lrGb5'.'wf/sx?n] tTsfnLg .'s} a]nf klg k]m/abn x'g.tf/f e6\6/fO{ lbbLsf] n]v æPp6f .fgf] 6«]n/ -sflGtk'/./ / . pgn] k9fpg] sn]hdf k9\g] tL . pgL .fd'Gg] t ky / /fhdfu{ g} v'Nnf lyP xf]Ogg\ / < tL lbbLsL .Dk"0f{ hLjg e/L g} k|efljt t gkfg'{ kg]{ xf] .w}+ d]/f] . lsgls d ./t /x] / .of}+ tL ldqx?nfO{ klg hf] dnfO{ ?rfpb}gy] / d .}sf] k|ultsf] afws x'g . cfh.dfh lgdf{0f u/]sf x'g\ .TtfTds .s]sf] lyP+ eg. hf] d]/f] enf] rfxGy] / .dfj]zLsf s'/f p7L/x]sf5g\ .

ª\ufnf] 202 . æ. .} sf/0fn] p. k"hf bfxfn lbbLsf] ædlxnf k|lt s]sf] cfqmf]zÆ -@* df3_ df pxf+n] klg efjgf l.To af]Ng' kbf{ g k'?if gf/Lsf] zq' x'g. dlxnf ko{6sk|ltsf] b'Jojxf/. JolQmuttj/df klg .'s} eg"g\ d k]ml/ klg eG5' dlxnfsf] t'ngfdf k'?ifn] dlxnfsf] clwsf/ vf].Æ eGg] pxf+sf] cleJolQm k|lt k"/} gtd:ts 5'+ .}sf] sf/0faf6 eGg] s'/fdf eg] lbbL klg r'Sg' ePsf] h:tf] nfUof] . pxf+ k|lt ljz]if cg'u|lxt 5'+ d. /fwf >]i7 lbbLsf] æk'?ifsf] ..Ddsf] jfSof+z dxfg\ 5g\ .dfhsf ljs[ltx?nfO{.Jj du+ndÆ eGg] af}4wd{sf] cfbz{ jfSo klg yKg dg nfUof].njfn lbbLn] . pxf+ tLg} hgf lbbLx?n] lbg'ePsf g]kfnL .s tgfj. Ps cfk.Æ d t eG5'.xof]uÆ df æk'/fgf] . 201 /fh >]i7sf n]v .y{ cfh}b]lv k|0f u/f}+.]/ dlxnfdfly ck/fw u/]sf 5g\ . pxf+x?n] dgg ug'{ kg]{ s'/f n]Vg' eof]. ædlxnf–k'?if h'jf/LÆ df P–lg/~hghLn] æk9]n]v]sfx? cfk\mgf] p2]Zo. dfgl. . .f]r.fx]an] o:tf dfgjLo bf]ifnfO{ dlxnf jf k'?ifsf ljz]iftf .DalGwt. g gf/L k'?ifsf]Æ / æb'a}n] Ps csf{nfO{ dfof u/]sf 5g\Æ .DaGwL dgf]a}1flgs cWoogaf6 / wd{ zf:qnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ pxf+n] ug'{ePsf] k}m. g ls c? s./x lrq0f ug'{ePsf]df eg] d lvGg eP+ .dfTg'ePsf] 5 . t/ bf]if eg] gLlt lgodx? dfq} x'g t < /fwflbbLsf] syg k|lt klg Wofg hfg'k5{ h:tf] nfUof] dnfO{ .Æ.+u. pgL n]lV5g – æk'?ifn] dnfO{ h] .+u . 8f= s[i0faxfb'/ /fgfdu/sf] ædlxnfsf zq' dlxnfÆ -df3 @#_ df nf]e. :jfy{. lxGb" wd{ . Jolerf/ klt jf kTgL.fGgfgL lbbLn] t tdfd ck/fwsf] t k]mxl/:t g} tof/ kfg'{ePsf] /x]5 .fGgfgL lbbL . æejt' .'vfoaf6 k|]l/t eP/ . pxf+ t cem lh2L :jefjsf] klg x'g'x'+bf] /x]5 .jf]{Rr cbfntdf d'2f lbg tDtof/ eP/ a:g' ePsL l5g\. b'a} lagf hLjg c. k"hf bfxfn lbbLsf] .fpb lbbLn] dlxnfdf klg sdhf]/L x'G5g\ egL :jLsfg'ePsf]5 . dlxnf jf k'?if eg]/ lje]b ug'{eGbf klg dflg. pxf+sf] rf}yf] kl/R5]b. oL l6Kk0fLx?n] gLlt lgdf{tfx?nfO{ o:tf ljs[tLx? /f]Sg pTk|]l/t ub{5 eGg] dnfO{ nfUb5 .fGgfgL lbbL . jf:tjdf tf/f e6[/fO{ lbbL b]lv . k|frLg g]kfnb]lvsf k|yf. pxf+n] .Æ eGg] jfSox? . cfk"mnfO{ lzlIft / cfw'lgs egfp+bfx? cfk. t.b[Zo xfd|f] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}+sf] 7d]n.. . pxf+n] k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] pbfx/0fx? . l/.b\efj /fVg' eO{ pgLx?sf] ljsf. lj8Dagf. g]kfn / ef/t leq ck/fw zf:qsf] af/]df /fd|f] cWoog /x]5. /fd]Zj/L kGt lbbLsf] æcfklQhgs cleJolQmÆ df lbbLn] klg 8f=s[i0f a=/fgfdu/s} z}nLdf tdfd ck/fw zf:qsf pbfx/0f k|:t't ug'{ePsf]5 .fdfu|Lx? x'g\ . u'?s"nsf] k|efjdf k/]/ xf]nf a? s'GtL .d:of xf] . o'4sfnLg dfgj clwsf/ pNn3+gsf 36gf. .'emfj /fh >]i7sf n]v .Dd klg pxf+ dlxnf / k'?ifsf] lje]baf6 d'Qm x'g g} rfxg' ePsf] 5}g . .dfh zf:qLo b[li6sf]0faf6 .njfn lbbLs} af6f] .n] b'Mv kfp+5g. clGtd kl/R5]b .dfg ?kdf dlxnf jf k'?ifdf klg t nfu" x'G5g gL . 8fS6/ . æga'emL l6Kk0fLÆ df k'gM efjgf l.df o:tf sdhf]/L x'G5g\ / o. dgf]qmflGt Dofl6«S. 8fxf. pxf+df .df cgfjZos tyf cg}lts lqmofsnfk h:tf] l/. wf]vf cflb JolQmut / tTIf0f kl/l:ylthGo dfgjLo bf]ifx? s]nfpg' ePsf] /x]5 .dfTg'ePsf] 5 .sf/fTds kIf æk'?if g dlxnfsf] zq' xf] g t dlxnf g} k'?ifsf]Æ h'g jfSo 8f= /fgfdu/sf] df}lns xf].ª\ufnf] 8f= /fgfdu/nfO{ hjfkm lbg] wfl/nf] xltof/sf] ?kdf k|of]u ug'{eP h:tf] nfUof] dnfO{ .dfh rnfpg k|f/De b]lv g} k'?if s]lGb|t zlQm.kfqx?sf] k]m/abnaf6 gf6ssf] d"n .Dd.fGgfgL v8\sf lbbLsf] æclwsf/ vf]:g] k'?ifÆ df pxf+ k"j{jt b'O{ lbbLx?sf] af6f]nfO{ cem bl/nf] ?kdf . u|fdL0f dlxnfx? k|lt ljz]if ?kdf .nf Pstlk{m ePsf] d}n] kfP+ .dfhdf k}mln/x]sf ljs[ltx?sf] cWoog ug{ dxTjk"0f{ .df Jojxf/af6} nfUg' kg]{ pxf+sf] .dfhsf ljs[ltx?.. clGtd kl/R5]bdf. dnfO{ .Gb]zdf eg] km/s k/]sf] x'+b}g .f]r cg'?k n]v n]lv/x]sf 5f}+ g ls ax'hg lxtfo / ax'hg . yfONof08sf] /fhwfgL a}+ss . :jLsfg'{ ePsf]df eg] v'zL nfUof] . r'unL u/]/ sdhf]/ gagf}+ . / ufO{ uf]7fnfx?sf] k|. hLjgofkg z}nL tyf pRr lzIffsf] sdL d"n .Dej x'g] x'+bf cf– cfk\mgf] dof{bfdf a:g'k5{ .L l/. 8fxfdf Jo:t b]lvG5g . df]x. ærl/q / OHht dlxnf–k'?if b'a}sf] Pp6} xf] . k'?if æOuf]Æ .

b]zsf] . hLjgsf] uf]/]6f]df hf] sf]xLnfO{ sxL+ g sxL+ 203 /fh >]i7sf n]v ./L eGg] < – æ5f]/L.De|fGt o'jltn] lg.dfh / kl/jf/n] klg gf/L–k'?ifnfO{ Ps .\ .Demfp+5 .'Gg kfOG5.+/If0f ug{ . /ftL ( ah]. k"hf lbbL / .+u rf]ef/. /fHon] klg cfk\mgf gful/ssf] xs xLtsf] .fdflhs d"No dfGotfsf] pn+3g ubf{sf] kl/0ffd lbgx'+ h:tf] 36L/xg] of}ghGo ck/fwsf . OlGhlgo/.Dd ug{ klg sl7g 5. .dfh.fGgfgL lbbLnfO{ lbPsf] hjfkmn] eg] h:tfnfO{ t:t} ==== eGg] pvfg . / cfk"mnfO{ Psk6s pxf+sL a'xf/L nlntfhLsf] 7fp+df /fv]/ x]g'{xf]. gf/L–k'?ifsf rfl/lqs bf]ifx? x6fpg g}ltstf.\ .fx]jsf] gLlh hLjgsf] Ps emns kfp+bf pxf+ k|lt :j:k"mt{ ?kdf . tkfO{sf] cfk\mgf] kl/jf/sf k'?if .dfrf/n] el/Psf klqsfsf kfgfx?n] lbG5g\ . tkfO{ h:tL .Dej 5 .t ePdf dfq .ª\ufnf] 204 .dfh / b]z ljsl.+ujz sf7df8f} rf]ef/sf] s]xL dlxgf cl3 ePsf] b'vb 36gfsf] :d/0f x'G5 .dfh cl3 a9\g gf/L–k'?ifsf] . h'g gf/L k'?if. pxf+n] gf/L–k'?ifsf u'0fbf]ifnfO{ .+x alxgLsf] æk'?ifsf] s"b[li6Æ -kmfu'g @_ sf] kq k9\bf s]xL s'/f gn]vL a:g .+o'Qm k|of.fyLsf] xftdf xft . .dfKt ug{ cg'dlt rfxG5' .fxf/f d?e"ld ?kL hLjgsf] nfdf] ofqfdf PSn} af+Rg] t sNkgf . jf /ftL & ah] . kl/jf/ gf/L–k'?ifsf] åGb. klZrdL z}nLsf] b]vfl. lg/y{s dfq x'G5g eGg] dnfO{ nfUb5 .a}nfO{ yfx} 5 .fob} sf]xL xf]nfg\ . sNkg} ug{ g.+ljwfg h:tf] d"n sfg"g agfP/ nfu" u/]sf x'G5g\ . .Dej g} b]lvG5 . . cfk\mgf] ./ / clwsf/ lbg'kb{5 ./ / clwsf/ ePdf dfq cfly{s pGglt ./x xf] eg]/ k|i6\ofg' ePsf] 5 . .Æ /fh >]i7sf n]v . .Ddfgsf] sNkgf ug'{.'.Dddf klg 6\o"zg k9L 3/ cfP x'G5 jf PSn} s]6f . lzIff.'/f–a'xf/L Pp6} sIffdf – df3 @$_ . k'gZr !M ljwftf l.xof]u cfjZos 5 .+ljwfg pn3g ubf{ b]zn] ef]lu/xg' k/]sf] b'u{lt t . gx'g'sf] / k5fl8 kg'{df . sfof{Gjog lagfsf] .fdflhs d"No / dfGotf cg'?k .s]sf 5g\ sL ljwftf alxgL.dfhdf ..k|.dfhnfO{ ultlzn agfO{ /fVg .Dej 5. sDtLdf tkfO{sf] . kl/jf/ afws x'g'x'Gg .+u xft]dfnf] u/]/ cufl8 lx+8].Dd / 8f=s[i0faxfb'/ /fgfdu/nfO{ s]xL n]Vg pTk|]l/t ul/lbg'ePsf]df wGojfb 1fkg ub}{ of] kq . ljwftf alxgL .dfg cj.\ . :jf:Yo / /f]huf/Ldf .dfg cj.'/faf6 kfpg] .'Gwf/fsf] sf7df8f}+ dn cufl8 s]6f . cGtdf . kv]{ x'G5 .dfrf/kqx?df . k|fWofks / k|wfgdGqL . tkfO{nfO{ tkfO{sf cleefjsn] s.Eo .dfhn] lbg] dfg . cfhsn /]l8of]. ljjfx To:t} Ps .dfg\ dxfg\ ..'/f kfpg' x'g]5 . jlsn.dfh. gf/L ljsf.do .f. ddtf / xf}.sL u/L s] x'G5 / < lau|L xflnG5 / < eg]/ . :of08ljr vf+b}.\ .fGgfgL v8\sf lbbL . kfOn6. OdfGbfl/tf h:tf c.xfg'e"lt hfu]/ cfp+5 . cGtdf 8f=s[i0faxfb'/ /fgfdu/sf] æk'?if. zq'tf / u/LaLaf6 5'6\sf/f . dlxnf k'?if rfx] u|fdL0f xf].fof]Uo 5 .lsg] ck/fwsf 36gf k9\g / .fk]If ?kfGt/0f ug'{ klg plQs} cfjZos 5 .fdflhs gLlt lgodsf Joj:yf ul/Psf x'G5g\ .. pgLx? 8fS6/.nf a9fpg' ePsf] 5 .xof]usf] sNkgf ug'{. lxl+Un. l6eL / .'/Iff olt lau|L.}4flGts jx. hLjzf:qLo b[li6sf]0faf6 klg gf/L ljxLg jf k'?if ljlxg kl/jf/ c.ª\ufnf] s'g} gf/L jf k'?ifsf] cfjZostf gkg]{ . c?dfly bf]if y'kf/]/ cfk\mgf] pGgltsf] afws cGo sf/0f b]vfpg' eg]sf] gfRg ghfGg] clg cf+ug 6]9f] eGg' .+.kmntf kZrft of] .dfTb}.\ jf gu/Lo. / .fdflhs Joj:yfsf] ?k xf] . kl/jf/.n u'0fx? wf/0f ug{ wd{ zf:qk|ltsf] cf:yfdf j[l4 ug'{ klg cfjZos xf] eGb.lu{s u'0f / k|ltefnfO{ kmNg k'mNg .b:oaf6 kfPsf dfof.fyL. .} tf/f e6[/fO{ lbbL b]lv . kl/jf/df k|rlnt ljs[ltnfO{ .Demg'. tkfO{ ljjfx u/L >Ldfg\sf] 3/ hf+bf >Ldfg\. k|. zf]if0f. bf]iff/f]k0faf6 cl3 a9\b}g . ctM sf7df8f}+sf] Uofn]S. -lxGbL / c+u|]hL_ df ukm ub}{ afnfh'sf] dfOqmf]a. hLpwgsf] .+u xft]dfnf]Æ -kmfu'g !_ df 8fS6/ .Gbe{df t tL s'/fx? cjZo nfu" x'Ggg\ xf]nf .d]t ag]sf 5g\ eg]/ gf/Lju{sf] xf}.nfnfO{ .Gb]x /d]zrGb|hL .lsg“ .L :s"naf6 k|j]lzsf lbg tof/L ul//xg' ePsL ljwftf alxgL. blIf0fsfnL 3'Dg uP klg x'G5 .dfh."Id ljZn]if0f u/L lbbLx?nfO{ /fd|/L .fdflhs sf/0fx? k|:t't ug'{ePsf] 5 . -x]g'{xf]. gf/L–k'?ifdf /x]sf g}.\ .Demfpg' ePsf] 5 .

sf/fTds . xf]. k'?ifnfO{ xb}.Ddsf tNnf >]0fLsf cfIf]k cToGt c.Dd :d/0f 5.fGgfgL v8\sf / alxgL ljwftf l. ufos .+/Ifs lktf.dfhdf :yflkt x'g 8f=.Sg' ePsf] 5 . 205 /fh >]i7sf n]v . of] dg a'emfpg d~h'/ 5 . ljrf/ / efjgfn] el/k"0f{ gf/Lsf c. cfk\mgf .'lznf vgfn lbbLsf] ægf/Lsf] kIfdfÆ -kmfu'g #_ df 8f= s[i0faxfb'/ /fgfdu/ k|lt lgs} cfqmf]z JoQm ug'{ ePsf] /x]5 .'zLnf vgfn lbbL .xof]u ub}{g eGg] d]/f] 7DofO{ 5 .'zLnf lbbL h:tL lzlIft.Gt'i6Lsf nx/n] k'?ifsf] hLjgdf eo+s/ .'gfdL g} hfG5g\ eGg] sNkgf ubf{ klg kL8f x'G5 .fx]asf u'l0fnf s'/fx? / tf/f e§/fO{ lbbL b]lv .Ddfg / :jfledfgsf s'/f ubf{ gf/L jf k'?if Psn] csf{sf efjgfdf 7]. clwsf/ dfg . 8f=. Tof] klg pxf+n].fljt x'g]5g\ ./f.fdfGo ?kdf a'e\mbf gf/Lsf] yf]/} k|ltzt n]v. ljrf/x? k'?if lj?4 s]lGb|t /x]sf] kfOG5 .fyLx?nfO{. cfk\mgf . bfh'efO{sf dfg db{g ug'{nfO{ gf/Ldf r]tgf hfu]sf] eGg' t .Ddsf . klt.x\o eP/ æ. cfjZostf. r]tgzLn gf/LnfO{ .DemL. o.'b]z/fh zdf{sf uLtn] eg] e}m+ æefUosf] /]vf cdL6 .fdflhs pTyfgsf ljifodf /x]sf 5g\ eg] ax'dt n]lvsfx?sf n]v.fx]asf] gLlh hLGbuLaf/] l6sf l6Kk0fL u/]/ pxf+sf] dg b'vfpg d cjZo rfxGg . d}n] . gk'¥ofP dfq cfk"mn] klg p:t} Jojxf/ kfOG5 . /rgfx? gf/L pTyfg jf . ljifodf snd rnfpg'x'g] . efjgf l. c:t' . 8f= /fgfdu/ Ps hgfdfq k'?if k|ltof]uL x'g'x'G5.fx]asf æk'?if. g gf/L k'?ifsf]Æ k|ltlqmof lbg'ePsf] lyof] . dnfO{ hxf+ .+u xft]dfn]dfÆ pNn]lvt /f]8Dofksf] h?/t gknf{ t/ ev{/ pRr lzIffdf kfOnf 6]Sb} u/]sL ljwftf alxgLsf nflu eg] a/bfg g} . OR5f.ª\ufnf] . 8f= .+x / . dlxnf–k'?ifsf] of] h'jf/Ldf y'k|} dlxnf lbbL alxgLn] efu lnO.Æ eg]/ dg a'emfpg s/ nfU5 .xof]uL .xsdL{ k'?if .lxi0f' tj/af6 n]lvg] n]vaf6 gf/L pTyfgdf .ft ug{ of]Uo b]lvG5g\ .k'gZr @M ./ cfk}mnfO{ wf]sf lbg' xf] . .sf/fTds s'/fx? cfTd.To af]Ng' kbf{ g k'?if gf/Lsf] zq' x'g.njfn lbbLsf] ædlxnfsf] zq' k'?if g} xf]Æ eGg] ls6fg ug'{ePkl5 dfq c.

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