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Report on S Summer Internship(2011) (2011)

(Bridge de ridge design and analysis)

Submitted by: Shalini Mayanka th 4 Yr. UG, IIT Bhubaneswar

Summer Internship Report

Index 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) Introduction and understandings Assignments Observations and conclusion Reference Page no. 3-5 6 7 8


Summer Internship Report

The internship program started on 9th May, 2011. After introduction to Gammon, bridge design and its analysis were assigned as the topic for internship. Learnings during the period of internship can be summarized as: Meanings of various terms used: Bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. Superstructure of a bridge permits uninterrupted smooth passage of traffic over it and to transmit the loads and forces to the substructure safely through the bearings. Substructure of a bridge refers to that part of it which supports the superstructure. It includes piers and abutment bodies together with their foundations and also the bearings. Length of bridge is taken as the overall length measured along the centre line of bridge between inner faces of dirtwalls. The total length of a bridge is above 6 meters between the inner faces of dirt wall. (A cross-drainage structure having total length less than 6 meters is termed as culvert.) Width of carriageway is the minimum clear width measured at right angles to the centre line of bridge between the inside faces of roadway kerbs or wheel guards. Formation level refers to the level (height) from which the road starts. Founding level refers to the level of the base of the foundation. Highest Flood Level is the level of the highest flood ever recorded or calculated level for the design discharge. Low water level is the level of the water surface obtained generally in the dry season and shall be specified in case of each bridge. Scour depth level is the level at which scour occurs. The founding level should be greater than this level. Span of a bridge refers to the section between two intermediate supports of a bridge. The approach slab provides a transition between roadway pavement and the bridge. It is provided in order to reduce slippage or such problems when the soil below the bridge end slips away say during rainy season. A girder is a support beam used in construction of superstructure of bridges. Girders may have a box shape, or an I-beam cross section or other forms. Diaphragms are transverse beams spanning between main beams or box girders, or within box girders to stiffen the cross section. Tendon refers to the stretched element used in concrete member to impart prestress to the concrete. Anchorage enables tendons to impart and maintain prestress in the concrete. Bearings transfer the load from superstructure to substructure. Pylon refers to the vertical structural element from which stays radiate in a cable-stayed bridge. Pier refers to the intermediate supports to the superstructure. An abutment supports the ends of a bridge superstructure. It retains the earth underneath and adjacent to the approach roadway, and if necessary support part of the approach slab.


Summer Internship Report

A dirt wall shall be provided to prevent the earth from approaches spilling on the bearings. The wing walls are adjacent to the abutments and act as retaining walls. The wing walls can either be attached to the abutment or be independent of it. The soil and fill supporting the roadway and approach embankment are retained by the wing walls, which can be at a right angle to the abutment or splayed at different angles. Foundations transfer the load from piers to the ground safely. Open foundation are provided where the foundation can be laid in a stratum which is unerodible or where the extent of scour is relatively known. Well foundations are quite appropriate foundations for alluvial soils in rivers and creeks where maximum depth of scour can be quite large. And also when the substratum contains large boulders which obstruct penetration of piles and also when there are large lateral forces. Pile foundation is generally provided when the soil bearing capacity of soil is low. The loads in such cases are taken by piles to hard strata where it can be safely transmitted to the ground. Cofferdam refers to the structure temporary built for the purpose of excluding water or soil sufficiently to permit construction or proceed without excessive pumping and to support the surrounding ground. Prestressed concrete is basically concrete in which internal stresses of a suitable magnitude and distribution are introduced so that the stresses from resulting load are counteracted to the desired degree. Scour is the removal of sediment such as sand and rocks from around bridge abutments or piers. Scour is caused by swiftly moving water compromising the integrity of a structure. Afflux refers to the rise in the flood level of the river immediately on the upstream of a bridge as a result of obstruction to natural flow caused by the construction of the bridge and its approaches. Freeboard refers to the difference between Highest Flood Level after allowing for afflux and the formation level of road. Clearance refers to the shortest distance between the boundaries at a specified position of a bridge structure. Weep holes are small openings provided to let the water out and evaporate. Suspender holes are provided in pre-cast segments for the purpose of carrying them to site.

Selection of bridge: Following factors need to be kept in mind while designing a bridge: 1. Safety 2. Serviceability 3. Economy 4. Appearance

Various forms of bridges: Due to above mentioned considerations, various forms of bridges are used nowadays owing to various requirements: 4|Page

Summer Internship Report

1.) Simply-supported beam or slab 2.) Series of simply-supported beams/slabs 3.) Continuous beams/slabs with full propping during construction 4.) Partially continuous beams/slabs 5.) Continuous beams/slabs span by- span construction 6.) Continuous beam/slab balanced cantilever construction 7.) Arch-bridges 8.) Frame bridges: 9.) Cable-stayed bridges 10.) Suspension bridges The following materials are used for construction of bridges: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reinforced concrete Prestressed concrete. Steel Masonry Composite construction using above mentioned materials.

Designing a bridge: For designing of bridge Indian Road Congress (IRC) has provided standard specifications and code of practice for Road Bridges. The following codes should be referred for designing of a bridge: a. IRC 5 - 1998 (General Features of design) b. IRC 6 - 2000 (Loads and stresses) c. IRC 21 - 2000 (Cement concrete (Plain and reinforced)) d. IRC 22 - 1996 (Composite construction) e. IRC 78 - 2000 (Foundations and substructure) f. IRC 83 - 2002 (Bearings)

Also, IS 2911, IS 2131, IS 6403 should be referred (for soil property calculations and foundation design.


Summer Internship Report

Assignments: A. Calculation of losses in prestress was done for the project of Major Bridge across River Godavari in state of Andhra Pradesh (considering losses due to friction and wobbling, anchorage slip and successive tensioning of cables). Also, the final stress conditions were checked and evaluated. All the required details were provided. B. A bridge of span 20m and carriageway width of 7.5m with four precast I-section girders and end and intermediate diaphragms was designed (longitudinal, transverse analysis of bridge decks, design of girders) on River Pacha in state of Arunachal Pradesh.

C. A bridge of span 20m and carriageway width of 7.5m with four precast I-section girders and end and intermediate diaphragms was designed (longitudinal, transverse analysis of bridge decks, design of girders) on River Pacha in state of Arunachal Pradesh.


Summer Internship Report

Observations and Conclusion: 1. Required design requirements (geometrical, navigational), and general data including maps, plans and topographical features are provided by the client. 2. Depending on the site accessibility, construction procedure is decided. 3. The suggested construction sequence and joint treatment procedure should only be used real-time construction. 4. In case of prestressed concrete, dummy cables should be provided so that the structure remains safe during sudden failure of any of the cables. 5. Cable profile: in general, cable profile in a prestressed member corresponds to the bending moment diagram resulting from the external loads. This is because straight portions of cable do not induce any reactions except at the ends. 6. Post-tensioning is preferred for medium to high span in situ work where it is more economical to use a few cables with large forces in each than a large number of small ones. 7. The retaining structures in the bridge should be stable for the earth pressure calculated by any rational theory. 8. Sub-surface exploration should be done in a very precise way and should be done in preliminary stage as well as during the construction and the necessary alterations should be done in the design if required.


Summer Internship Report

1.) Reference Drawings for Bridges (Set 2 of 2) (Sidhapura Bridge , Darjeeling Bridge and Bagchhal Bridge) 2.) Reference drawings for Major Bridge over Godavari in the state of Andhra Pradesh 3.) Reference drawings for bridge over River Pacha in state of Arunachal Pradesh 4.) Essentials of bridge engineering (by Victor Johnson) 5.) IRC 5 6.) IRC 6 7.) IRC 21 8.) IRC 22 9.) IRC 78 10.) IRC 83 11.) IS 2911 12.) IS 6403 13.) IS 2131 14.) Concrete Bridge Practice Analysis, Design and economics (by V K Raina) 15.) Prestressed Concrete by N Krishna Raju 16.) 17.) Bridge Deck Analysis (By Eugene J OBrien & Damien L Keogh) 18.) Foundation Analysis and Design by Joseph E. Bowles